The Web of Life – People


Aanen, Duur K.: Dutch evolutionary biologist, interested in cooperation and conflicts of interest.

Abbott, Charles C.: American physician.

Adamec, Lubomír: Czech plant physiologist.

Adami, Christoph (1962–): Flemish microbiologist, molecular geneticist, physicist, and astronomer.

Adamo, Shelley Anne: Canadian invertebrate behavioral physiologist.

Adams, Douglas (1952–2001): English writer and wry humorist, best known for The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy.

Adelson, David: Australian geneticist.

Adkins, Joshua N.: American molecular biologist and biochemist.

Adole, Tracy: Nigerian terrestrial ecologist, interested in vegetation dynamics.

Aesop (620–564 bce): Greek fabulist, famous for his fables (Aesop’s Fables). His existence is uncertain. No writings by him survive. His legend sustained via the oral storytelling tradition. Numerous tales are credited to him, in many of which animals speak and have human traits.

Albiach-Serrano, Anna: German zoologist.

Anderson, Don L. (1933–): American geophysicist.

Angelou, Maya (1928–): American author.

Aplin, Lucy M.: English zoologist.

Appel, Heidi M.: Canadian botanist, interested in plant behavior.

Aristotle (384–322 bce): Greek philosopher and polymath. Prolific Aristotle had views on a wide range of subjects, and was considered authoritative for centuries, sometimes stymying further investigation that might have gone against cardinal belief.

Armbrust, E. Virginia: American marine biologist, interested in phytoplankton.

Arnould, John P.Y.: Australian zoologist.

Attenborough, David (1926–): English naturalist and broadcaster; famous for his BBC TV Nature programs.

Aurelius, Marcus (151–180): Roman Emperor (161–180); a Stoic, and the last of the so-called Five Good Emperors.

Avanzo, Laura: English zoologist.

Avargues-Weber, Aurore: French zoologist.

Avicenna (aka Pūr Siná) (980–1037): Persian polymath who wrote 450 books on a wide range of subjects. His most famous books were medical. Avicenna was the most influential scholar of the Islamic Golden Age (950–1258).

Avilés, Leticia: Ecuadoran evolutionary biologist and ecologist, interested in social spiders.

Aylward, Frank: American marine microbiologist.

Bais, Harsh: American botanist.

Balcombe, Jonathan: English ethologist and animal behaviorist.

Ballenger, Joe: American entomologist.

Baluška, František: German botanist.

Banfield, Jill: American planetary scientist, interested in mineralogy, geochemistry, geomicrobiology (the influence of geology on microbes), and microbial evolution.

Banks, Joseph (1743–1820): English naturalist who went with Captain James Cook in his 1st around-the-world voyage (1768–1771).

Banta, Josh: American biologist.

Banwart, Steve: American environmental engineer.

Bard, Kim A.: American cognitive psychologist, interested in primate intelligence.

Barnes, Ethne: American paleopathologist.

Barrell, Joseph (1869–1919): American geologist who developed the concept of the lithosphere. Barrell proposed that sedimentary rocks were produced by marine deposits (sedimentation) and shaped by actions of winds, rivers, and glaciers. Barrell also understood stoping: the ascent of magma from the mantle or lower crust to the surface as a means for delivering igneous material (igneous intrusion).

Barron, Andrew B.: Australian zoologist.

Bassler, Bonnie L.: American microbial biologist, interested in bacterial intercellular communication.

Bates, Henry Walter (1825–1892): English entomologist, interested in animal mimicry.

Bateson, Patrick (1938–): English biologist.

Batista, Rafael Alves: Brazilian physicist and astrobiologist.

Bauer, Ulrike: German botanist, interested in the mechanical ecology of plants related to insects, especially carnivorous plants.

Baum, L. Frank (1856–1919): American author, chiefly famous for his children’s books, especially The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) and its 13 sequels. Baum penned 55 novels, 83 short stories, over 200 poems, and more than 42 scripts. In his works Baum anticipated later technologies and social movements, including television, wireless telephones, laptop computers, virtual reality, the ubiquity of advertising for clothing, and liberated women.

Beale, Kristin M.: American cytologist.

Beck, Benjamin B.: American zoologist.

Beck, Jeffrey L.: American ecologist.

Beckage, Nancy E.: American entomologist.

Bekoff, Marc (1945–): American ethologist and evolutionary biologist.

Beijerinck, Martinus (1851–1931): Dutch microbiologist and botanist who discovered viruses in 1898. Beijerinck also discovered nitrogen fixation. Beijerinck invented the enrichment culture: a fundamental method of studying microbes taken from the environment. An enrichment culture is a prepared medium with known, specific qualities that favor the growth of a certain microorganism.

Bekoff, Marc (1945–): American ethologist and evolutionary biologist.

Bell, Matthew: English zoologist.

Ben-Jacob, Eshel (1952–2015): Israeli physicist, interested in self-organization, espeically among bacteria.

Bengston, Sarah E.: American ethologist, interested in arthropods.

Bernheim, Aude: Israeli molecular geneticist.

Benson-Amram, Sarah: American zoologist.

Berg, Karl: American ornithologist.

Berlincourt, Maud: Australian zoologist.

Berry, Richard: Australian molecular biologist.

Bertness, Mark D.: American ecologist.

Berzelius, Jöns Jacob (1779–1848): Swedish chemist who worked out the modern technique of chemical formula notation.

Bichat, Marie François Xavier (1771–1802): French anatomist and physiologist; the father of modern histology and pathology. Bichat introduced the concept of organ tissues, and that diseases attacked tissues, not entire organs.

Bignell, David: English entomologist.

Bischofs, Ilka: German bacteriologist.

Bisseling, Ton: Dutch botanist.

Blake, William (1757–1827): English poet, painter, and printmaker. Considered insane by contemporaries for his idiosyncratic views, Blake was posthumously considered a seminal figure for the poetry and visual arts that characterized Romanticism (~1800–1850), which was a revolt against the Age of Enlightenment which cherished the scientific rationalization of Nature.

Boetius, Antje (1967–): German marine biologist.

Bohach, Carolyn Hovde: American microbiologist, interested in foodborne pathogens, especially E. coli O157:H7.

Bohn, Kirsten: American ethologist.

Bonaparte, Napoléon (1769–1821): French military and political leader, generally regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time.

Boysen, Sarah T. (Sally) (1949–): American psychologist, interested in chimpanzee intelligence.

Bozler, Julianna (Lita): American geneticist.

Borg, Michael: English botanist.

Boscaro, Vittorio: Italian evolutionary biologist and zoologist.

Brannon, Elizabeth: American cognitive psychologist.

Braun, David M.: American botanist.

Brent, Lauren: English zoologist, interested in the evolution of sociality.

Briefer, Elodie F.: English zoologist.

Broecker, Wallace S.: American climatologist.

Broly, Pierre: French ecological zoologist.

Brongniart, Alexandre (1770–1847): French chemist, mineralogist, and zoologist who collaborated with Georges Cuvier.

Brontë, Charlotte (1816–1855): English novelist.

Brooker, Rohan: Australian marine biologist, interested in the behavioral and chemical ecology of coral reef fishes.

Brown, Michael: English geologist, interested in tectonics.

Brunfels, Otto (1464–1534): German Protestant theologian and botanist.

Burger, Joanna: American ethologist, interested in animal behavior and the ecology of communities.

Burghardt, Gordon M.: English zoologist, interested in evolutionary psychology.

Burkett, James P.: American ethologist.

Burki, Fabien: Canadian biologist.

Butcher, Michael T.: American zoologist, interested in muscle biomechanics.

Caesar, Gaius Julius (100–44 bce): Roman general, statesman, and author who founded the Roman Empire.

Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo: Argentinian biochemist and geneticist, interested in evolutionary and comparative genomics.

Campbell, Howard W.: American neurobiologist.

Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa: conservation ecologist, interested in elephants and seed dispersal.

Cannon, Walter B. (1871–1945): American physiologist who coined the term fight-or-flight response.

Cardinale, Bradley J.: American ecologist, interested in how human activities impact biological diversity.

Carey, Samuel Warren (1911–2002): Australian geologist who was an early advocate of continental drift. Carey’s study of plate tectonics led him to propose the unproven Expanding Earth hypothesis: that continental drift is partly driven by the volume of Earth expanding.

Carlin, George (1937–2008): sardonic American comedian.

Carter, Dennis: American biomechanist.

Carouso-Peck, Samantha: American psychologist.

Cawood, Peter: Australian geologist.

Chamovitz, Daniel: American botanist.

Chang-Jun Liu: Chinese molecular biologist.

Chatton, Édouard (1883–1947): French biologist who first distinguished between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, interested in biological taxonomy.

Cheney, Dorothy L.: American zoologist.

Christidis, Les (1959–): Australian ornithologist.

Chung, Seung Ho: Korean American entomologist.

Cioran, Emile M. (1911–1995): Romanian philosopher and essayist. Cioran dismissed abstract speculation in his early youth, instead favoring introspection as his muse and passionate lyricism as his expression. Pessimism pervades his works.

Claverie, Jean-Michel: French virologist.

Clay, Zanna: American primatologist, interested in bonobos, particularly communication, emotion, and development.

Cliffe, Rebecca (Becky): English zoologist, interested in sloths.

Coen, Enrico S. (1957–): English botanist, interested in the biomechanics of flowers.

Cohen, Adam E.: American biochemist.

Colman, Andrew: English psychologist.

Condie, Kent: American geochemist.

Connolly, Sean R.: Australian ecologist.

Conrad, Taina: German zoologist, interested in animal communication, especially chemical and vibrational.

Cook, James (1728–1779): English naval captain, explorer, and cartographer. In 3 voyages around the world, Cook sailed across areas of the globe previously unknown to Europeans. After his first foray, Cook’s journals were published upon his return, and he became something of a hero to the scientific community.

Copeland, Herbert F. (1902–1968): American biologist, interested in biological taxonomy.

Cosgrove, Daniel: American biologist.

Courtney, Robert: Australian zoologist.

Covington, Michael F.: American biologist, interested in circadian rhythms.

Cox, Cymon J.: English evolutionary biologist.

Creel, Scott: American ethologist.

Crisp, Peter A.: Australian botanist.

Crockett, Julie: American mechanical engineer.

Cromwell, Townsend (1922–1958): American oceanographer who discovered the Cromwell current.

Cullen, Paul J.: American biologist.

Cuthill, Innes C. (1961–): English biologist and ethologist.

Cuvier, Georges (1769–1832): French naturalist who studied fossils. Cuvier ironically denied evolution while establishing extinction as a fact.

Cyrus (King Cyrus II of Persia, aka Cyrus the Great, Cyrus the Elder) (576–530 bce): the founder of the 1st Persian (Achaemenid) Empire.

Dabiao Liu: Chinese physicist.

Dacke, Marie: Swedish zoologist, interested in dung beetles.

Dangl, Jeffery L. (1957–): American biologist.

Danielson, Jonas Å.H.: Swedish botanist.

Darch, Sophie E.: English molecular biologist.

Darwin, Charles (1809–1882): English naturalist, famous for his hollow hypothesis of evolution by “natural selection.”

Davies, Nicholas B.: English zoologist.

Dawkins, Marian Stamp (1945–): English ethologist.

de Bekker, Charissa: American entomologist.

de Chazal, Malcolm (1902–1981): Mauritian writer and painter, best known for his aphorisms.

de Knijff, Peter: Dutch geneticist.

de Sales, Francis (1567–1622): French priest, now honored as a saint by the Catholic church for his deep faith and gentle handling of the turmoil within the church arising from the Protestant reformation.

de Swart, Rik: Dutch virologist.

de Tournefort, Joseph Pitton (1656–1708): French botanist who coined the first clear definition of genus for plants.

de Waal, Frans (1948–): astute Dutch primatologist and ethologist.

de Wit, Mieke: Dutch botanist.

Del-Claro, Kleber: Brazilian ecologist.

della Porta, Giambattista (1535–1605): Italian scholar, playwright, and polymath in areas both scientific and technical.

Democritus (~460–370 bce): Greek rationalist philosopher who formulated an atomic theory for the cosmos and believed in predeterminism.

Deneubourg, Jean-Louis: Belgian ecological zoologist.

Denny, Frank E.: USDA botanist who discovered in 1924 that citrus detect ethylene in the air.

Descartes, René (1596–1650): French rationalist philosopher and mathematician.

Dewenter, Jana: German animal physiologist.

Dicke, Marcel: Dutch entomologist.

Dinets, Vladimir: Russian zoologist.

Dingle, Hugh: American zoologist.

DiSalvo, Susanne: American bacteriologist.

Doyle, Arthur Conan (1859–1930): Irish-Scottish writer and physician, best known for the crime fiction tales of detective Sherlock Holmes.

Dornhaus, Anne: German evolutionary and behavioral biologist, interested in entomology.

Dorsey, George (1868–1931): American ethnographer.

Doyle, Thomas K.: Irish marine biologist.

Dudley, Susan: Canadian evolutionary plant ecologist.

Dunn, Rob: American biologist.

Durham, William M.: English aquatic microbial ecologist, interested in the fluid dynamics of microbial ecology.

Durrell, Gerald (1925–1995): Indian zookeeper.

Dussutour, Audrey: French biologist, interested in animal behavior.

Dutilh, Bas E.: Dutch virologist.

Eberhard, William G.: American ethologist.

Ecker, Joseph R.: American botanist.

Eddie, Bill: English biologist.

Edwards, David P.: English biologist.

Einstein, Albert (1879–1955): German theoretical physicist, known for his theories of relativity.

Elbroch, L. Mark: American zoologist, interested in the ecology of pumas.

Elemans, Coen P.H.: Danish zoologist, interested in vertebrate vocalization.

Elowitz, Michael B.: American biologist.

Elton, Charles (1900 –1991): English zoologist and ecologist; instrumental in establishing the foundation for modern population and community ecology, including invasive organisms.

Emery, Carlo (1848–1925): Italian entomologist, best known for Emery’s rule: that interspecific insect parasites chose closely-related animal species as their victims.

Engelhardt, Tim: German microbiologist.

Ennos, A. Roland: English biomechanist.

Erez, Zohar: Israeli molecular geneticist.

Estes, James A.: American ecologist and evolutionary biologist.

Euripides (480–406 bce): Greek playwright, considered one of the great tragedians of classical Athens.

Evans, Rob L.: American geologist.

Everett, Daniel: American linguist.

Ewald, Paul: American evolutionary biologist.

Exiguus, Dionysius (470–544): Christian monk and scholar.

Ezenwa, Vanessa O.: American ethologist, interested in infectious diseases.

Ezzat, Kariem: Swedish molecular biologist.

Feinerman, Ofer: Israeli myrmecologist.

Feldblum, Joseph T.: American evolutionary anthropologist.

Fennessy, Julian: Australian zoologist.

Fermat, Pierre de (1607–1665): French lawyer and mathematician who contributed discoveries in calculus, analytic geometry, probability, and optics; best known for Fermat’s principle for light propagation via least time and Fermat’s last theorem, a number theory.

Ferrel, William (1817–1891): American meteorologist who explained in 1856 mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. The Ferrel cell is named after him.

Finlay, B. Brett: American microbiologist, immunologist, molecular biologist, and biochemist.

Fischer, Matthias G.: Canadian microbiologist.

Flannery, Tim (1956–): Australian environmentalist, mammologist, and paleontologist.

Fleming, Alexander (1881–1955): Scottish scientist who discovered penicillin.

Flinkman, Debbie: American elephant keeper.

Ford, Brian J. (1939–): English biologist.

Forsberg, Kevin J.: American microbiologist.

Forterre, Patrick: French molecular biologist.

Forterre, Yoël: French biophysicist, interested in plant movements.

Fraenkel-Conrat, Heinz (1910–1999): German biochemist, best known for his study of viruses.

Franklin, Benjamin (1705–1790): American polymath who was one of the founding fathers of the United States.

Freed, Eric O.: American virologist.

Friedländer, Carl (1850–1938): German pathologist who worked with Hans Christian Gram to devise Gram staining.

Frommer, Wolf B.: German botanist.

Frost, Robert (1874–1963): American poet.

Furuta, Kaori Miyashima: Japanese botanist.

Gagliano, Monica: Australian biologist, interested in ecology and marine biology.

Galen (Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, better known as Galen of Pergamon) (130–200): Greek physician, surgeon, and philosopher; the most accomplished medical researcher in antiquity, producing theories that influenced Western medicine for nearly 1,500 years.

Gallup, Gordon G., Jr. (1941–): American psychologist, known for developing the mirror test.

Garnett, Stephen T.: Australian zoologist and ecologist.

Gassmann, Walter: American botanist and biochemist.

Geldner, Niko: Swiss botanist.

Gemmell, Brad J.: American marine biologist.

Gerlach, Nicole M.: English ornithologist.

Gibbs, Karine A.: American microbiologist.

Giehl, Ricardo F.H.: German botanist.

Gilbert, Walter (1932–): American physicist, biochemist, and molecular biologist.

Gilroy, Simon: American botanist, interested in plant senses and ecology.

Giurfa, Martin: French zoologist.

Glass, N. Louise: American plant pathologist.

Gluckman, Thanh-Lan: ornithologist and evolutionary zoologist.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832): German writer, artist, and politician.

Goodale, Christine: American ecologist and evolutionary biologist.

Goodall, Jane (1934–): English primatologist, best known for her 45-year study of the social life of chimpanzees.

Gosling, Samuel D.: American social psychologist.

Gotelli, Nicholas J.: American biologist, interested in the organization of animal and plant communities.

Gotti, John (1940–2002): American mobster who became the boss of the Gambino crime family, based in New York City. Unlike his peers, reticent to be in the public eye, Gotti was flamboyant.

Gould, Carol G.: American ethologist and evolutionary biologist.

Gould, James L.: American ethologist and evolutionary biologist.

Grainger, Jonathan: French psychologist.

Gram, Hans Christian (1850–1938): Danish scientist who devised Gram staining, along with Carl Friedländer.

Gray, Asa (1810–1888): American botanist.

Greenberg, Joel: American naturalist and ornithologist.

Griffin, Donald R. (1915–2003): American zoologist; insightful author of several excellent books, including Animal Minds (2001).

Gruntman, Michal: German botanist.

Guillod, Benoit P.: Swiss climatologist.

Güntürkün, Onur: Turkish psychologist.

Haag, Karen L.: Swiss zoologist.

Hadany, Lilach: Israeli botanist.

Hadley, George (1685 –1768): English lawyer and amateur meteorologist who explained the gyre of the trade winds in 1735. The Hadley cell is named after him.

Haeckel, Ernst (1834–1919): German zoologist and natural philosopher who conceptualized biological diversity as an evolutionary tree of life.

Hall, Brian K. (1941–): Canadian biologist.

Haller, George: American mathematician, interested in nonlinear dynamics.

Hallgrímsson, Benedikt: Icelandic biologist.

Hamann, Emmo: German marine microbiologist.

Hamilton, William Rowan (1805–1865): Irish mathematician.

Hammurabi (1810–1750 bce): 6th king of the 1st Babylonian Dynasty (1792–1750 bce).

Han, Sarah I.: American zoologist.

Hankison, Shala J.: American zoologist, interested in animal behavior.

Hanlon, Roger: American marine biologist, interested in camouflage.

Harding, Emma J.: English zoologist.

Hare, Brian: American evolutionary anthropologist.

Hartline, Peter H.: American neurobiologist.

Haskins, Caryl (1908–2001): ambitious American entomologist who established his own research laboratory, with studies in microbiology, radiation physics, genetics, and nutrition.

Haslam, Michael: English archeologist.

Haun, Daniel (1977–): German psychologist, interested in ape and human child cognition.

Hawkesworth, Chris J.: English geologist, interested in tectonics.

Hawksworth, David (1946–): English mycologist and lichenologist.

Haun, Daniel (1977–): German psychologist, interested in ape and human child cognition.

Hayashi, Morito: Japanese invertebrate zoologist.

Hays, Graeme C.: Australian marine biologist.

Head, Megen: English evolutionary biologist.

Hedin, Lars O.: American evolutionary biologist and biogeochemist, interested in ecosystems.

Heldwein, Ekaterina E.: microbiologist and biochemist.

Hendrix, Jimi (1942–1970): American musician, renowned guitar player.

Henneberg, Maciej: Australian biologist, interested in comparative anatomy and human evolution.

Henning, Tilo: German botanist.

Herring, Matthew: Australian ecologist.

Hetzer, Martin W.: American cytologist.

Hillyard, Paul: English arachnologist.

Hines, Pamela J.: American biologist and science writer.

Hippocrates (460–370 bce): ancient Greek physician; considered the father of western medicine.

Hittinger, Chris Todd: American geneticist.

Hoare, Ben: English zoologist.

Hodge, Angela: English botanist.

Hodos, William: American biologist.

Hofmann, Albert (1906–2008): Swiss chemist fascinated with psychotropic substances; first to synthesize and enjoy LSD.

Hojo, Masaru: Japanese ecologist.

Holdridge, Leslie R. (1907–1999): American botanist and climatologist who developed a biome classification using life zones which were based upon soil type and dominant plants.

Holland, Jennifer S.: American author.

Hölldobler, Bert (1936–): American entomologist who studies ants.

Holtmann, Benedikt: German zoologist, interested in animal behavior, especially responses to environmental change.

Holtzman, David A.: American neurobiologist.

Hooke, Robert (1635–1703): English natural philosopher, architect, and polymath.

Hopkins, William D.: American psychologist.

Houghton, Jonathan D.R.: Irish marine biologist.

Houldcroft, Charlotte J.: English virologist.

Howard, Scarlett R.: Australian zoologist, interested in the numeric capabilities of honeybees.

Huang, Casey (aka KC): Chinese American bioengineer.

Huchon, Dorothée: Israeli molecular phylogeneticist.

Hug, Laura A.: Canadian microbiologist.

Hughes, Brent B.: American ecologist and evolutionary biologist.

Hughes, David P.: American entomologist.

Hutchison, Bruce (1901–1992): Canadian author.

Hutton, James (1726–1797): Scottish geologist who concocted uniformitarianism.

Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–1895): English biologist and anatomist, known as “Darwin’s Bulldog” for his staunch advocacy of Darwinian evolution.

Hwa, Terence: American physicist and microbiologist.

Igoshin, Oleg: Russian biologist interested in bacteria sociality.

Ingrouille, Martin J.: English botanist.

Ingwell, Laura L.: American biologist interested in plant viruses.

Ioannou, Christos C.: English zoologist, interested in animal sociality.

Jaeggi, Adrian V.: Swiss anthropologist, interested in primate and human behavioral ecology.

Jansen, David: Swiss zoologist.

Ji Lian Li: Chinese entomologist.

Jintao Liu: Chinese microbiologist.

Jobs, Steve (1955–2011): American computer marketeer.

Johnsen, Sönke: American zoologist, interested in sensory ecology.

Johnson, Mark A.: American cytologist.

Joule, James Prescott (1818–1889): English physicist, mathematician, and brewer who studied the nature of heat, and discovered it as a form of energy (i.e., mechanical work), which led to the conservation of energy law.

Joy, Jeffrey B.: Canadian evolutionary biologist.

Kaiser, Dale: American developmental biologist.

Kalan, Ammie: Canadian primatologist.

Kallmeyer, Jens: German oceanographer, geomicrobiologist, and geochemist.

Kamoun, Sophien (1965–): Tunisian botanist, interested in plant pathogens.

Kaspar, Rachael E.: American entomologist, interested in honeybees.

Kausche, Gustav: German biologist, interested in viruses.

Keeling, Patrick J.: Canadian microbiologist and botanist.

Kelley, Lee Charles: American novelist and dog trainer.

Kennedy, Patrick: English evolutionary biologist.

Kerr, Richard A.: American science writer.

Keyes, Frances Parkinson (1885–1970): American novelist.

Kilner, Rebecca: English zoologist.

King, Scott D.: American geophysicist.

Kirkman, Thomas P. (1806–1895): English mathematician and Anglican minister.

Kirschvink, Joseph L. (Joe): American geobiologist, interested in magnetism.

Klein, Tamir: Swiss botanist.

Kleinhappel, Tanja K.: Austrian ethologist.

Kokko, Hanna: Australian mathematical ecologist.

Komdeur, Jan: Dutch ornithologist.

Körner, Christian: Swiss botanist.

Kovalevsky, Alexander O. (1840–1901): Russian biologist who discovered primary cilium.

Kret, Mariska E.: Dutch cognitive psychologist.

Krutch, Joseph Wood (1893–1970): American naturalist.

Krützen, Michael: zoologist studying the social evolution of primates and cetaceans.

Künzler, Markus: Swiss microbiologist.

Kuroda, Kumi O.: Japanese social behaviorist.

Kurths, Jürgen (1953–): German physicist and mathematician.

Kuwada, Nathan: American microbiologist and physicist.

Labrie, Simon J.: Canadian microbiologist.

Laidre, Mark E.: American biologist, interested in behavior, ecology, and evolution.

Lake, James A. (1941–): American evolutionary biologist.

Lakshmi, K.V.: Indian molecular biologist.

Laliberté, Etienne: Canadian plant ecologist.

Landy, Arthur: American molecular biologist, cytologist, and biochemist.

Lao Tzu (6th century bce): Chinese philosopher; inadvertent founder of Daoism, which teaches reverence of Nature, the value of patience, and a path to judicious living.

Latreille, Pierre André (1762–1833): French zoologist, specializing in arthropods. Latreille was considered the foremost entomologist of his day.

Lau, Jennifer A.: American botanist.

Leal, Manuel: American zoologist.

Leavens, David A.: English psychologist.

Lederberg, Josua (1925–2008): American molecular biologist who discovered bacterial conjugation with Edward Tatum.

Lee, Ann (1736–1784) (aka Mother Ann Lee): the leader of a group of Shakers which emigrated from England to New York in 1774.

Lenton, Timothy M. (1973–): English Earth scientist, interested in climate change.

Levey, Douglas J.: American evolutionary ecologist.

Lewejohann, Lars: German behavioral zoologist.

Li, Rong: American molecular biologist.

Liebig, Justus von (1803–1873): German chemist, considered the founder of organic chemistry. Liebig was especially interested in agricultural and biological chemistry and has been credited as the “father of the fertilizer industry.”

Liker, András: Hungarian ornithologist.

Lim, Wendell A.: cytologist.

Linden, Eugene (1947–): American writer.

Linnaeus, Carl (1707–1778): Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who is widely considered the father of taxonomy, despite numerous wrong guesses, including lumping amphibians and reptiles together as a single class.

Lis, Halina: Israeli biochemist.

Lloyd, Karen G.: American microbiologist.

Lord, Kathryn: American zoologist, interested in dogs.

Lorenz, Konrad (1903–1989): Austrian zoologist.

Losick, Richard: American molecular and cytologist.

Lovell, P. George: English zoologist.

Lovelock, James (1919–): English naturalist and inventor, known for his Gaia theory.

Lowe, Christopher D.: English ecologist.

Lukas, Dieter: English ethologist.

Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.: Russian zoologist.

Lyell, Charles (1979–1875): Scottish lawyer and geologist. Lyell popularized James Hutton’s notions of uniformitarianism.

MacLean, Paul (1913–2007): American physician and neurobiologist who proposed triune brain tripe.

Magnol, Pierre (1638–1715): French botanist.

Maharaj, Nisargadatta (1897–1981): Indian guru.

Malraux, André (1901–1976): French novelist, art theorist, and nihilist.

The greatest mystery is not that we have been flung at random between this profusion of matter and the stars, but that within this prison we can draw from ourselves images powerful enough to deny our nothingness. ~ André Malraux

Manning, Aubrey (1930–): English zoologist and broadcaster.

Marcy, William Learned (1786–1857): American politician.

Margulis, Lynn (born Lynn Petra Alexander) (1938–2011): American evolutionary theorist, science writer, and educator who emphasized the importance of symbiosis in biological evolution.

Martin, Patrick: American biochemist.

Martin, Paul: American biologist.

Marx, Karl (1818–1883): Prussian German historian, sociologist, and economist, best known as a proponent of (scientific) socialism: social ownership and cooperative economic management.

Massen, Jorg J.M.: Dutch zoologist.

Mather, Jennifer: Canadian zoologist and psychologist, interested in the behavior of octopuses and squid.

Marzluff, John: American ornithologist and ethologist.

Maturana, Humberto: Chilean biologist.

McAlpin, Steve: Australian zoologist.

McFarland, David: English zoologist.

McInnes, Julie: Australian marine biologist.

McKenna, Terence (1946–2000): American ethnobotanist.

McPhaden, Michael J.: American physical oceanographer.

Mead, Margaret (1901–1978): American cultural anthropologist. Mead championed broader sexual mores than those accepted in her society at the time. Mead was a lesbian and an Anglican Christian.

Mee, Michael T.: American microbiologist.

Meehan, Christopher J.: American biologist.

Melis, Alicia P.: English psychologist, sociologist, and primatologist.

Miescher, Friedrich (1844–1895): Swiss physician and biologist who first identified nucleic acid.

Meissner, Carl F.W. (1800–1874): Swiss chemist.

Mendl, Michael: English zoologist.

Michener, Charles D. (1918–2015): American entomologist, expert about bees. Michener influenced Edward O. Wilson on his sociobiology theories.

Miescher, Friedrich (1844–1895): Swiss physician and biologist who first identified nucleic acid.

Milanković, Milutin (1879–1958): Serbian geophysicist who suggested long-term climatic changes based upon Earth’s cosmological movements, known as Milankovitch cycles. Milanković was also a mathematician, astronomer, climatologist, civil engineer, and popularizer of science.

Milius, Susan: American life sciences writer.

Miller, Nathan G.: American biologist.

Miller, Roger (1936–1992): American musician, best known for the mid-1960s country/pop hits “King of the Road,” “Dang Me,” and “England Swings.”

Mirwan, Hamida B.: Canadian zoologist.

Miyagi, Lowell: Japanese American geologist.

Mohorovičić Andrija (1857–1936): Croatian seismologist and meteorologist who discovered the Moho discontinuity. Mohorovičić was a founder of modern seismology.

Moineau, Sylvain: French virologist.

Montoya, José M.: Spanish biologist.

Moore, Janice: American biologist.

Moran, Mary Ann: American marine biologist.

Morris, Desmond (1928–): English zoologist and ethologist.

Mortimer, Beth: English zoologist.

Morton, A. Jennifer: English zoologist.

Moss, Cynthia: American neuroethologist.

Muijres, Florian: Dutch biomechanist.

Müller, Johannes Peter (1801–1858): German physiologist, most impressively known for his ability to synthesize knowledge. Müller’s book Elements of Physiology initiated a new phase in the study of physiology, drawing from several previously distinct disciplines.

Müller, Rolf: German biologist.

Munshi-South, Jason: American zoologist, interested in the environmental impact of humans.

Murthy, Mala: American molecular biologist.

Nakayama, Shinnosuke: Japanese biologist, interested in behavioral and evolutionary ecology, especially how social environments affect behavior.

Nasir, Arshan: Pakistani virologist.

Nelson, David C.: American botanist.

Nieder, Andreas: German zoologist and neurobiologist.

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900): German philosopher that embraced existentialism and nihilism. Existentialism expounds individual experience as the proper path to understanding. Nihilism posits that life is subjectively valuated.

Niklas, Karl J. (1948–): American botanist.

Nishimura, Marc T.: American biologist.

Nobel, Alfred (1833–1896): Swedish inventor (dynamite and other explosives), arms dealer, and major polluter through oil exploration. Fondly remembered for his philanthropy in establishing annual international prize competitions.

Norris, Ryan: Canadian ecologist.

Northen Trent R.: American microbiologist.

Nyffeler, Martin: Swiss zoologist.

Oh, Kevin P.: American evolutionary biologist, studying sexual selection.

Onuchic, José: biological physicist.

Orrock, John L.: American biologist.

Ottesen, Elizabeth A.: American microbiologist.

Owen, Richard (1804–1892): English naturalist, comparative anatomist, and paleontologist who first identified dinosaurs, coining the term Dinosauria (meaning “terrible reptile”). Owen criticized contemporary Charles Darwin for his simplistic hypotheses of evolution. Owen’s approach anticipated modern evolutionary developmental biology.

Paige, Ken N.: American biologist.

Palagi, Elisabetta: Italian primatologist.

Palahniuk, Chuck (1962–): American writer, best known for his novels Fight Club and Choke.

Palumbi, Stephen R.: American marine ecologist.

Papazian, Stefano: Swedish botanist, interested in plant physiology.

Paracelsus (1493–1541): Swiss German physician, botanist, alchemist, and occultist.

Parfrey, Laura Wegener: Canadian bioscientist.

Paris, Matthew (~1200–1259): English Benedictine monk and chronicler of his times. Paris was also an illustrator and cartographer.

Park, Soyoung Q.: Korean cognitive psychologist.

Parr, Catherine L. (“Kate”): English ecologist, entomologist, and zoologist.

Pasteur, Louis (1822–1895): French chemist and microbiologist, renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, fermentation, and pasteurization. Pasteur is credited with breakthroughs in understanding the causes and prevention of infectious diseases. Pasteur’s experiments supported the germ theory of disease: that pathogenic microorganisms cause many diseases. Pasteur created the first vaccines for anthrax and rabies. Pasteur is famous for inventing pasteurization: heating liquid food to retard spoilage. Unlike sterilization, which adversely affects food quality by killing all microbes, pasteurization aims to reduce the pathogen population, not eliminate it.

Patterson, Francine (1947–): American psychologist who taught Koko sign language.

Paul, Elizabeth S.: English zoologist.

Pedanius Dioscorides (40–90): ancient Greek pharmacologist who authored De Materia Medica, a 5-volume pharmacopeia featuring 600 medicinal plants. This encyclopedia was widely read for 1,500 years.

Peleg, Oren: American mechanical engineer.

Perry, Clint J.: Australian zoologist.

Perry, Susan: American primatologist.

Peters, J.M.: American evolutionary biologist.

Pfankuch, Edgar: German biologist, interested in viruses.

Pfennig, David W.: American biologist, interested in ecology, ethology, and evolution.

Phillips, Helen: English science writer.

Piatt, John F.: American wildlife biologist.

Plato (~427–347 bce): influential Greek philosopher and mathematician, including through influence on his student Aristotle. Plato espoused knowledge as received wisdom, and of a dichotomy between the appearance of reality (actuality) and reality itself.

Pocock, Michael J.O.: English ecologist.

Poelman, Erik H.: Dutch entomologist.

Pohnert, Georg: German biologist and biochemist, interested in plankton.

Postgate, John: English microbiologist.

Powell, Brian J.: American zoologist.

Prasad, Alka: American immunologist and physician.

Prather, Kimberly: American biochemist.

Pratt, Stephen: American biologist.

Pringle, Robert: American ecologist and evolutionary biologist.

Prospero, Joseph M.: American meteorologist.

Proust, Marcel (1871–1922): French novelist.

Psaltis, Demetri: Greek American electrical engineer.

Ptacek, Margaret B.: American biologist, interested in behavioral ecology, population genetics, and speciation.

Qiang He: Chinese botanist.

Qimron, Udi: Israeli microbiologist.

Radford, Andrew: English ethologist, interested in the vocalizations of social animals, and in the impact of human noise.

Raffles, Stamford (1781–1826): British imperialist.

Raihani, Nichola J.: English zoologist.

Ratnieks, Francis: English entomologist, interested in honeybee behavior.

Rawlinson, Nicholas: Australian geophysicist.

Rawls, John: American molecular geneticist.

Ray, John (1627–1705): English naturalist and Anglican parson.

Raymond, Ben: English microbiologist, interested in microbial evolution, cooperation, and microbe-host interactions.

Rekdal, Ole Bjørn: Norwegian sociologist, interested in education.

Relman, David A.: American microbiologist and immunologist.

Rivinus, Augustus Quirinus (1652–1723): German physician and botanist who evolved botanical classification.

Robert, Théo: English zoologist.

Roberts, William: Canadian psychologist.

Robinson, Douglas: American cytologist.

Robinson, Gene E.: American entomologist and geneticist.

Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.: American ecological zoologist.

Roger, Andrew J.: English evolutionary biologist.

Rohwer, Forest: American virologist.

Romanes, George (1848–1894): Canadian Scot evolutionary biologist and physiologist who coined the term neo-Darwinism to apply to hypotheses which updated Darwinism.

Römling, Ute: Swedish microbiologist.

Roots, Clive: English zoologist and science writer.

Rosati, Alexandra G.: American psychologist.

Rosenthal, Joshua: American neurobiologist, interested in cephalopod self-genic editing.

Ross, Stephen: American primatologist.

Rossini, Gioachino (1792–1868): Italian composer of 39 operas, as well as a variety of other music.

Rout, Marnie E.: American botanist.

Rowley, David B.: American geophysicist.

Røy, Hans: Danish aquatic microbiologist.

Rubi, Tricia: American ethologist, interested in ecological epigenetics.

Rubner, Max (1854–1932): German physiologist and hygienist who studied the relative rate of metabolism and its relation to life-history variables in animals.

Ruggiero, Michael A.: American taxonomist.

Ruska, Helmut (1908–1973): German physician and biologist, interested in viruses. Ruska invented the electron microscope.

Sadanandom, Ari: Indian-British botanist.

Sagan, Carl E. (1934–1996): American astronomer and science writer, interested in extraterrestrial life.

Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar: Mexican ornithologist.

Sanderson, Ivan T. (1911–1973): Scottish biologist.

Sandys, Edwin (1519–1588): English Anglican bishop.

Sato, Takuya: Japanese zoologist.

Schaik, Carel P. van (1953–): Dutch primatologist.

Scanlan, David: English marine microbiologist.

Scheres, Ben: Dutch biologist.

Schiestl, Florian P.: Swiss botanist.

Schoggins, John W.: American virologist.

Schulze-Lefert, Paul: German botanist.

Schmidt, Matthew: American geological oceanographer.

Schmitz, Ingo: German microbiologist.

Scott, Catherine: Canadian zoologist.

Schönrogge, Karsten: English entomologist.

Schürch, Roger: Swiss ethologist.

Schuster, Stefan: German marine biologist.

Sentenská, Lenka: Czech arachnologist.

Sertürner, Friedrich (1783–1841): German pharmacist who discovered morphine.

Seyfarth, Robert M.: American psychologist.

Shakespeare, William (1564–1616): English playwright and poet, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language. Shakespeare wrote 38 plays, 2 long narrative poems, and 154 sonnets.

Shannon, Erica K.: American cytologist.

Shapiro, James A.: American molecular biologist and bacterial genetics maven.

Sharon, Nathan (1925–2011): Israeli biochemist.

Shaw, George Bernard (1856–1950): Irish playwright.

Sheng Yang He: Chinese botanist.

Shénnóng: fabled Chinese emperor who supposedly lived ~2,800 bce (attributed life dates vary by source). Known as the Emperor of the Five Grains, Shénnóng reputedly taught the Chinese basic agriculture and the use of medicinal plants.

Sherman, Paul W.: American biologist, interested in the social and reproductive behaviors of animals.

Shillington, Donna J.: American Earth scientist, interested in tectonics.

Short, Lester L. (1933–): American ornithologist.

Sifré, David: French geophysicist.

Silk, Wendy Kuhn: American botanist.

Simpson, Alastair G.B.: English evolutionary biologist.

Simpson, Homer: a lead character in the American cartoon TV series about the Simpson family, entitled The Simpsons.

Skupin, Alexander: Luxembourger biologist.

Smith, Ashley (1978–): American author.

Smith, Alison M.: English botanist.

Smith, David J.: American biologist.

Smith, Gregory A.: American immunologist and microbiologist.

Smith, Stevie (born Florence Margaret Smith) (1902–1971): English poet and novelist.

Socrates (469–399 bce): Athenian Greek philosopher, interested in ethics.

Sokołowska, Katarzyna: Polish botanist.

Somvanshi, Vishal S.: Indian bacteriologist and geneticist.

Sorek, Rotem: Israeli molecular geneticist, interested in bacteriophage strategies and epigenetic regulation in microbes.

Soulsbury, Carl D.: English zoologist.

Southworth, Darlene: American botanist.

Spottiswoode, Claire N.: English ethologist.

Stankowich, Ted: American ethologist.

Stanley, Wendell (1904–1971): American biochemist and virologist.

Stark, Alyssa Y.: American zoologist, interested in the functional morphology of animals.

Stark, John M.: American biologist and ecologist.

Stegemann, Sandra: Belgian biochemist.

Stenhammar, Joakim: Swedish physical chemist.

Stevens, Martin: English zoologist, interested in sensory ecology and evolution, especially vision and adaptive coloration.

Stocker, Roman: American microbial ecologist.

Stoddard, Mary Caswell: American evolutionary biologist and ethologist, interested in birds.

Stoeckle, Mark: American ethologist.

Stow, Adam: Australian zoologist.

Striker, Gustavo Gabriel: Argentinian botanist.

Strona, Giovanni: Italian ecologist and biogeographer.

Strycker, Noah: American ornithologist.

Süel, Gürol M.: American biologist, interested in biofilms.

Suess, Eduard (1831–1914): English geologist who was a pioneer in appreciating ecology.

Sun Tzu (6th century bce): Chinese military general, strategist and philosopher, famous for the war strategy book The Art of War, though the book was completed well after his time. Sun Tzu probably provided the core strategic concepts.

Suttle, Curtis A.: American biochemist.

Szent-Gyorgyi, Albert (1893–1986): Hungarian physiologist who discovered vitamin C.

Taga, Michiko E.: American botanist and microbiologist.

Tarpy, David R.: American entomologist.

Tatum, Edward L. (1909–1975): American geneticist who discovered bacterial conjugation with Josua Lederberg.

Taylor, Alex H.: English corvid researcher.

Taylor, John R.: English physicist.

Theis, Kevin R.: American behavioral, microbial, community, and evolutionary ecologist.

Theophrastus (371–287 bce): Greek botanist.

Thomas, Roger K.: American psychologist.

Thompson, Faye: English zoologist.

Thorogood, Rose: English zoologist, interested in behavioral ecology.

Thurber, Rebecca Vega: American virologist.

Tilman, G. David (1949–): American ecologist.

Timmermans, Marja: German plant geneticist.

Tizo-Pedroso, Everton: Brazilian ecologist.

Tolman, Edward C. (1886–1959): American psychologist; a behaviorist who studied how rats learn to navigate mazes.

Tongda Xu: Chinese botanist.

Toyooka, Kiminori: Japanese botanist.

Toyota, Masatsugu: Japanese molecular biologist.

Traynor, Kirsten S.: American entomologist.

Trewavas, Anthony J. (1939–): English botanist and molecular biologist, interested in plant behavior and intelligence.

Trivers, Robert L. (1943–): American evolutionary biologist and sociobiologist.

Trull, Sam: American zoologist, interested in sloths.

Turner, J. Scott: American zoologist.

Twombly, Saran: American environmental biologist.

Tylor, Edward (1832–1917): English anthropologist who believed that there was a biologic functional basis for human society and religion.

Tyutchev, Fyodor (1803–1873): Russian poet.

Vail, Alexander L.: English zoologist.

Van Aken, Olivier: Australian botanist, molecular biologist, and geneticist.

van Dam, Nicole: Dutch botanist.

van der Heijden, Marcel G.A. (1931–): Swiss evolutionary biologist.

van der Putten, Wim H.: Dutch terrestrial ecologist.

van der Waals, Johannes Diderik (1837–1923): Dutch theoretical physicist and thermodynamicist, known for his work on the states of gases and liquids.

van Leeuwen, Edwin J.C.: Dutch primatologist, interested in the social relationships and behavioral flexibility of non-human primates.

van Leeuwenhoek, Antonie Philips (1632–1723): Dutch tradesman and microscope maker; discoverer of microbes.

van Schaik, Carel P. (1953–): Dutch primatologist.

Varela, Francisco: Chilean biologist.

Vaudo, Anthony: American entomologist, interested in bumblebees.

Veit, Lena: German neurobiologist.

Veits, Marine: Israeli botanist.

Venkataraman, Vivek V.: Indian primatologist.

Vivanco, Jorge M.: biologist, interested in the rhizosphere.

Voelkl, Bernhard: Austrian zoologist.

Vogel, David: American biologist.

Vogel, Steven (1940–2015): American zoologist and biomechanist.

Vermeij, Geerat J. (1946–): Dutch evolutionary biologist and paleontologist.

Villion, Manuela: French virologist.

Voliotis, Margaritis: English computational biologist.

von Bayern, Auguste M.P.: German zoologist.

von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang (1749–1832): German writer, artist, and politician.

von Liebig, Justus: German chemist.

von Wirén, Nicolaus: German botanist.

Vyas, Ajai: Singaporean biologist.

Wagner, Doris: American microbiologist, interested in floral development regimes.

Walker, Gilbert T. (1868–1958): English physicist and statistician who discovered the meteorological gyre called the Walker circulation.

Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913): English naturalist and explorer who contemplated evolution contemporaneously with Darwin.

Walsh, Carolyn: Canadian psychologist and ethologist.

Walter, Heinrich (1898–1989): German ecologist who developed a terrestrial biome scheme in 1976.

Ward, Peter: American marine biologist and paleontologist.

Wasserman, Ed: American psychologist.

Waterton, Charles (1782–1865): English naturalist.

Watson, David M.: Australian ecologist, interested in biodiversity.

Watt, James (1736–1819): Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who advanced steam engine technology and developed the concept of horsepower as a measure of mechanical power.

Watzlawick, Paul: American communication scholar.

Webster, Joanne P.: English parasite epidemiologist.

Webster, John (1580–1634): English dramatist.

Weiditz, Hans (1495–1537): German woodcut artist, best known for his lively portrayals of ordinary people.

West, Stuart A.: English microbiologist.

Westwood, James H.: American plant pathologist.

Whitaker, Rachel: American microbiologist.

White, James F. Jr.: American botanist.

Whitehead, Hal: Canadian zoologist, enthusiastic about marine biology.

Whitham, Thomas G.: American biologist.

Whittaker, Robert H. (1920–1980): American plant ecologist who developed a terrestrial biome scheme in the late 1950s.

Wick, Lukas Y.: Swiss environmental microbiologist.

Wilkins, John S.: Australian historian and science philosopher.

William of Ockham (or Occam) (~1287–1347): English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher; one of the major figures in medieval scholarship.

Williams, George C. (1926–2010): American evolutionary biologist who posited the grandmother hypothesis for menopause in 1957.

Williams, Robley C. (1908–1995): American virologist and biophysicist.

Willis, Charles G.: American evolutionary ecologist.

Wilson, Edward O. (1929–): American biologist and ethologist; known as the father of sociobiology.

Winston, Mark L.: Canadian entomologist, interested in honeybees.

Wisenden, Brian: American ichthyologist.

Withrow, James M.: American entomologist.

Woese, Carl (1928–2012): American microbiologist and physicist who declared archaea a new domain of life (distinct from bacteria) in 1977.

Wöhler, Friedrich (1800–1882): German chemist who initiated modern organic chemistry with his synthesis of urea. Wöhler was also the first to isolate several chemical elements, including aluminum, beryllium, silicon, titanium, and yttrium.

Woodgate, Joseph: English ethologist, interested in cognition.

Woodroffe, Rosie: English zoologist.

Wrangham, Richard (1948–): English primatologist.

Wright Colin M.: American ethologist.

Wyatt, Sarah E.: American botanist.

Xianfeng Morgan Xu: Chinese molecular biologist.

Xiao-yu Zheng: Chinese botanist.

Yanoviak, Steven P.: American biologist.

Yau, Sheree: microbiologist.

Yeates, David: Australian entomologist.

Yosef, Ido: Israeli microbiologist.

Yoshida, Saiko: Japanese botanist.

Youk, Hyun: Korean cytologist.

Young, Bruce: American biologist, physical therapist, and biomedical engineer, interested in snakes.

Young, Nevin: American plant pathologist.

Zahn, Laura M.: American botanist.

Zentall, Thomas: American zoologist and psychologist.

Zeqing Ma: Chinese botanist.

Zerkle, Aubrey L.: Scottish biogeochemist.

Zhao-Qing Luo: Chinese biologist.

Zheng-Hui He: Chinese botanist.

Zielinski, Sarah: American biologist, interested in marine biology.

Zink, Andrew G.: American ethologist.

Zipfel, Cyril: French botanist.

Zöttl, Markus: Austrian zoologist.

Zwaka, Hanna: German entomologist, interested in honeybees.