Epithelial wound healing is a multistage process. Cells must detect the presence of a wound, migrate and proliferate in a coordinated fashion to close the defect, and then successfully reestablish tissue-wide epithelial architecture. ~ American cytologist Erica Shannon et al
One way that damaged and dying animal cells communicate their distress is by releasing specific proteins into the extracellular fluid. Another way is through specialized intercellular tactile connections. These junctions allow neighbors to directly exchange electrical impulses, ions, and molecules.
Other cells pick up on these signals and boost their internal calcium levels, triggering a transformation from static to mobile form, allowing undamaged cells to initiate wound repair.