The Elements of Evolution (34) The Science of Evolution

The Science of Evolution

The universe required 10 billion years of evolution before life was even possible; the evolution of the stars and the evolving of new chemical elements in the nuclear furnaces of the stars were indispensable prerequisites for the generation of life. ~ English theoretical physicist John Polkinghorne (The 10-billion-year estimate relies upon a dubious conventional model of cosmic evolution. Over 50 billion years is more likely.)

The emergence of life from inanimate complexes of compounds and subsequent evolution into a vast diversity came as a continuum of the unfolding of the cosmos. Biology introduced a new Matryoshka of intertwined relationships to those already extant in physics and chemistry.

Organisms are well designed for living in their natural environments and respond to changes by altering their design, either morphologically or behaviorally, to better suit the new circumstances. ~ American biologist Catherine Forster

The history of evolution and biodiversity is fundamentally a history of the evolution of species interactions. ~ John Thompson