The Elements of Evolution (38-1) Deep Homology

Deep Homology

Dissimilar organs, such as the distinctive eyes of mollusks, insects, and vertebrates, were long thought to have evolved independently. Instead, the genotypes which shape disparate bodies and regulate development are ancient and highly conserved.

Structural genes vary little among species. Such long-held genic bases are termed toolkit genes. Those which control embryonic development comprise the evo-devo gene toolkit. Deep homology is the appreciation that growth and differentiation processes are governed by mechanisms that are selfsame (homologous) and deeply conserved across much of life.

Cell-cycle oscillation, while remarkably uniform in the end, does not come by that harmony on its own. ~ American molecular biologist Ned Wingreen

Energy waves define and synchronize living systems. Such vital energetic harmony (lengyre) is the only way that life sustains itself. These waves take matterist form via calcium ion channels, which are universally employed by all life forms for a vast array of functions, from embryonic development to all sorts of cell signaling, include brain activity.

Cell divisions across an embryo occur in rapid synchrony – like clockwork – starting within minutes of fertilization.  ~ American molecular biologist Scott McIsaac et al

During germination embryonic cells skirt chaotic breakdown only through perfectly timed energy wave induced synchronization.

Genetic similarity is both structural and functional. The same DNA from vastly different organisms can be exchanged, such as between bacteria and mice, and still work.

Humans and baker’s yeast last shared an ancestor a billion years ago. Despite this evolutionary gulf, 47% of the genes in these 2 species are interchangeable.

The core features of life are conserved. A working mechanism may be selectively adapted but is seldom overhauled.

That is not to say that the basic wheels of life from the earliest forms have not gained new hubcaps from time to time. New biological traits, expressed from novel genes and proteins, have repeatedly later evolved independently in distinct species (convergent evolution).

Evolution is in many ways a conservative process. ~ English anthropologists Roger Lewin & Robert Foley

The basic biochemistry that first evolved for genetics and cellular organization have changed by tweak at most. The fundamentals are conserved. This clearly indicates an intelligent design force behind Nature.

Old forms may take new functioning, or old functions new form, but all-in-all adaptation is incremental. Major morphology changes can transpire via modest genic alteration: the mechanism is often selective genetic expression.

Having spent untold effort making maps, geneticists were chagrined to learn that mapping genes was just like learning the alphabet. Biological development and adaptation are intricate processes physically displayed in DNA and their expression, but genetics does not explain motive forces or mechanics.

Genetics is not the language of evolution. The complexes surrounding DNA are only physical evidence: artifacts, not agency. As an ongoing process the architect of evolution is the natural force of a localized coherence which is entangled with a universal field.