The Ecology of Humans (46-2-4) Vitamin B5


Vitamin B5 (C9H17NO5; pantothenic acid) is necessary to metabolize carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and to synthesize ATP, the universal cellular energy molecule.

Small quantities of B5 are found in nearly every food. Broccoli and avocado offer B5 in abundance, as does meat and whole grains. As B5 is largely found on the outer layers of grains, refining removes over half of the vitamin.