The Ecology of Humans – People


Adolphs, Ralph: American psychologist and neurobiologist.

Alaric I: King of the Visigoths (395–410). The Visigoths were Germanic nomadic tribes, collectively known as the Goths.

Alcock, Joe: American evolutionary biologist and physician.

Apkarian, Ara: Indian American physical chemist.

Appel, Lawrence J.: American epidemiologist.

Aristotle (384–322 bce): Greek philosopher and polymath. Prolific Aristotle had views on a wide range of subjects, and was considered authoritative for centuries, sometimes stymying further investigation that might have gone against cardinal belief.

Artis, David: American microbiologist.

Asperger, Hans (1906–1980): Austrian pediatrician, medical theorist, and professor who identified Asperger’s syndrome.

Attila the Hun (?–453): ruler of the Huns 434–453, an empire that stretched from the Ural River to the Rhine River, and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea. Attila invaded Europe but was unable to take either Constantinople or Rome.

Baba, Meher (born Merwan Sheriar Irani) (1894–1969): Indian guru.

Bach-y-Rita, Paul (1934–2006): American neurobiologist.

Ballentine, Rudolph: American physician, interested in holistic health practices.

Bartels, Andreas: German vision zoologist.

Bartholow, Bruce: American psychologist.

Bastian, Brock: Australian psychologist.

Beck, Lloyd H.: American physiologist.

Benbrook, Charles M.: American agricultural economist.

Bentov, Itzhak (1923–1979): Czech-born Israeli American scientist and inventor.

Berg, Gabriele (1963–): German biologist.

Bernard, Claude (1813–1878): French physiologist; one of the first to suggest using blind experiments to ensure objectivity in scientific investigations.

Bidelman, Gavin M.: American speech researcher.

Black, Lewis (1948–): American comedian.

Blair, Steven N.: American epidemiologist.

Bonaparte, Napoleon (1769–1821): French military and political leader, generally regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time.

Booth, Alan: American sociologist.

Bordet, Jules (1870–1961): Belgian immunologist and microbiologist.

Boring, Edwin G. (1886–1968): American psychologist.

Boulanger, Lisa: American molecular biologist.

Bouts, Paul (1900–1999): Belgium Catholic priest.

Brancaccio, Marco: neurobiologist, interested in circadian rhythms.

Brett, Regina: American writer.

Brillat-Savarin, Jean Anthelme (1755–1826): French lawyer and politician, who gained fame as an epicure; often considered the father of the low-carbohydrate diet.

Britt, Jonathan: Canadian behavioral neurobiologist.

Broca, Paul (1824–1880): French anatomist and surgeon.

Buddha (563–483 bce): Indian guru whose teachings were the foundation of Buddhism.

Burckhardt, Gottlieb (1836–1907): Swiss psychiatrist.

Cabrera, Derek (1970–): American cognitive scientist and systems theorist, interested in human development and learning.

Caesar, Gaius Julius (100–44 bce): Roman general, statesman, and author who founded the Roman Empire.

Cajal, Santiago Ramón y (1852–1934): Spanish neurologist.

Campbell, T. Colin: American biochemist.

Cannon, Walter B. (1871–1945): American physiologist who coined the terms homeostasis and fight-or-flight response.

Capone, Al (1899–1947): American gangster who attained fame as a bootlegger during the Prohibition era.

Carré, Justin M.: Canadian psychologist.

Carroll, Aaron E.: American physician and pediatrician.

Carver, George Washington (1864–1943): American botanist, scientist, inventor, and educator who promoted alternative crops to cotton in the Reconstruction-era South, especially going inventively nuts over peanuts. In 1941, Time magazine dubbed Carver a “Black Leonardo.”

Cascio, Carissa: American neurobiologist, interested in autism.

Chia-Wei Cheng: Chinese American gerontologist.

Chandel, Navdeep S.: Indian American biochemist.

Chilton, Floyd: American biologist.

Classen, Constance: American psychologist and author, interested in cultural influences on the senses.

Colosi, Laura: American cognitive scientist.

Columbus, Christopher (1451–1506): Genoese explorer, known for his attempt to reach the East Indies by sailing westward and unintentionally landing in the Bahamas.

Colwin, Laurie (1944–1992): American author who wrote novels and cooking books.

Cornell-Bell, Ann H.: American neurobiologist.

Cortés, Hernán (1485–1547): Spanish conquistador who caused the fall of the Mexica Empire through treachery and mass murder and brought Mexico under Spanish rule. The Mexica are commonly, but wrongly, called Azteca.

Costello, Elizabeth K.: American microbiologist and immunologist.

Cousens, Gabriel (1943–): American holistic physician and homeopath who advocates live food.

Coyte, Katharine Z.: English biologist.

Crick, Francis (1916–2004): English molecular biologist, known as the co-discoverer of the structure of DNA in 1953, with James Watson.

Crowell, Henry Parsons (1855–1943): American businessman who successfully branded quick-cooking rolled oats as “Quaker Oats,” and in doing so popularized in America a previously ignored food. Crowell’s family wealth meant that he was born with a silver spoon in his mouth, but he took it out and dug himself a successful career based upon hard work and uncompromising conviction. Crowell was a devout evangelist Christian who donated over 70% his fortune to helping others. Crowell was one of the most respected businessmen in the US in the early 20th century, at a time when robber barons were the standard model of capitalist enterprise.

Cunningham, William A.: American psychologist and neurobiologist.

Dabbs, James M. Jr.: American sociologist.

Darwin, Charles (1809–1882): English naturalist, famous for his hollow hypothesis of evolution by “natural selection.”

Dawkins, Richard (1941–): English evolutionary biologist; a staunch matterist, Dawkins is known for his atomistic, gene-centric view of evolution, advocacy of random mutation as the sole evolutionary vehicle, and condemnation of spirituality in any form; wrong on all accounts.

De Filippo, Carlotta: Italian nutritionist and microbiologist.

de Gama, Vasco (~1460–1524): Portuguese explorer; the first European to reach India by a sea route, sailing around south Africa.

de las Casas, Bartolomé (1484–1566): Spanish historian, social reformer, and Dominican friar. One of the earliest European settlers in the Americas, he participated in and then turned against the atrocities committed against Native Americans by Spanish colonists. His humanity evolved from advocating African slaves instead of local labor to opposing slavery altogether. Las Casas became one of the first advocates for universal human rights.

de la Tourette, George A.E.B.G. (1857–1904): French physician and neurologist who chronicled Tourette’s syndrome in 9 patients in 1885.

De Pittà, Maurizio: Italian neurobiologist.

Debas, Karen: Canadian neuropsychologist.

Deeks, Steven: American clinician.

Degas, Edgar (1834–1917): French impressionist painter, draftsman, and graphic artist.

Deiters, Otto (1834–1874): German neuroanatomist who studied the anatomy of nerve cells and astrocytes.

Diat, Louis (1885–1957): French chef and culinary writer.

Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys: Swedish neurobiologist.

Diekelmann, Susanne: German psychologist and neurobiologist, interested in sleep.

Douglas, Stephen (1813–1861): American politician.

Dossey, Larry (1940–): American physician.

Durant, William J. (Will) (1885–1981): American historian and philosopher.

Dutilh, Bas E.: Dutch virologist.

Ehrlich, Paul (1854–1915): German Jewish physician who popularized the notion of a medical “magic bullet.”

Eichner, Amy: American physician and special advisor on drugs and supplements at the US Anti-Doping Agency, the anti-doping association for American Olympic athletes.

Einstein, Albert (1879–1955): German theoretical physicist, best known for his theories of relativity.

Eliot, Lise: American neurobiologist, interested in the gender differences in the human brain.

Eustachi, Bartolomeo (aka Eustachius) (1514–1574): Italian anatomist; a founder of the science of human anatomy.

Evans, Iwan Robert: English immunologist.

Evans, Ronald M.: American geneticist, interested in hormones.

Exiguus, Dionysius (470–544): Christian monk and scholar.

Fang, Sungsoon: Korean geneticist and cytologist.

Fanselow, Michael: American psychologist.

Faraday, Michael (1791–1867): English scientist who made contributions to understanding electromagnetism and electrochemistry, including principles of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and electrolysis.

Fechner, Gustav (1801–1887): German experimental psychologist.

Fetissov, Sergueï O.: Russian physiologist and nutritionist.

Field, Tiffany M.: American touch researcher.

Fields, R. Douglas: American neurobiologist.

Fields, William Claude (W.C.) (1880–1946): American comedian, juggler, and writer. Fields was known for his sardonic persona yet remained a sympathetic character despite his snarling contempt.

Filbey, Francesca M.: American psychologist.

Filingeri, Davide: English physiologist.

Finlay, B. Brett: Canadian molecular biologist, interested in immunology.

Fischer, Martin H. (1879–1962): German American physician.

Fitzgerald, F. Scott (1896–1940): American author.

Flourens, Pierre (1794–1867): French physician who pioneered experimental brain science via animal ablations.

Ford, Jennifer S.: Canadian zoologist.

Forouhi, Nita Gandhi: Indian-British epidemiologist.

Foster, Kevin R.: English biologist.

Franklin, Benjamin (1706–1790): American journalist and diplomat.

Franz, Shepherd Ivory (1874–1933): American psychologist, interested in brain functioning.

Freeman, Tom: English psychologist, interested in the psychological effects of marijuana.

Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939): Austrian neurologist who created psychoanalysis.

Fritz, Sandy: American massage therapist.

Galen (Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, better known as Galen of Pergamon) (130–200): Greek physician, surgeon, and philosopher who lived in Rome; the most prolific author in antiquity. Galen subscribed to Hippocrates’ theory of bodily humors and applied it to psychological temperaments. Galen wrote over 500 books on medicine. He was an avid dissector, ripping through innumerable animals to study anatomy. But dissection did not enlighten the insensible Galen, who inscrutably insisted that the bodies of pigs and monkeys were identical to those of humans. Nonetheless, Galen’s theories influenced Western medicine for nearly 1,500 years.

Gall, Franz Joseph (1758–1828): German physiologist who founded the pseudoscience of phrenology.

Galton, Francis (1822 –1911): English polymath who believed that Nature trumped nurture. His innate biases, love of statistics, and sloppy methodology proved him right, at least to his own satisfaction.

Gaudet, Andrew D.: American neurobiologist.

Gentsch, Antje: German psychologist.

Gislén, Anna: Swedish zoologist, interested in vision processing.

Glantz, Stanton (1946–): American educator and tobacco control activist.

Gläscher, Jan: German neurobiologist.

Goggins, Aidan: English nutritionist.

Golgi, Camillo (1843–1926): Italian physician and pathologist, known for his work on the human central nervous system.

Graham, Martha (1901–1991): American dancer and choreographer who was the mother of modern dance.

Guallar, Eliseo: American epidemiologist.

Guilak, Farshid: cytologist and orthopedic researcher.

Gutfreund, Yorum: Israeli neurobiologist, interested in sensation.

Hahn, Gerald: French neurobiologist.

Hamilton, Jacqueline: English chemist.

Hang, Bo: Korean cytologist, interested in tobacco.

Harris, Thomas Anthony (1910–1995): American psychiatrist and author of the 1969 self-help book I’m OK, You’re OK.

Hass, Rudolph: American postal worker who cultivated the Hass avocado.

Haydon, Philip G.: American neurobiologist.

Heffernan, Tom M.: English psychologist.

Henry the Navigator (Infante Henry, Duke of Viseu) (1394–1460): Portuguese prince that engendered early European exploration and intercontinental maritime trade.

Heraclitus (535–475 bce): Turkish Greek energyist philosopher who posited an ever-changing universe and a force of coherence creating a unity of existence.

Herodotus (484–425 bce): Greek historian.

Hertz, Heinrich (1857–1894): German physicist who demonstrated the existence of electromagnetic waves.

Hippocrates (~460–377 bce): Greek physician, considered the father of Western medicine.

Hirth, Frank: English neurobiologist.

Hoenig, Melanie: American physician.

Hofmann, Albert (1906–2008): Swiss chemist fascinated with psychotropic substances; first to synthesize and enjoy LSD.

Hoffman, Donald (1955–): American cognitive psychologist.

Hoover, Herbert (1874–1964): 31st President of the United States (1929–1933) (Republican); a mining engineer who became President with no elected office experience. When the Wall Street crash of 1929 struck, Hoover attempted ineffective corrective measures that would be mimicked by his successor, Franklin Roosevelt, to the same result. Besides his failure to prevent or correct the Great Depression, Hoover became unpopular for supporting prohibition. Most folk figured that if the world was going to hell, you might as well have a drink.

Horvath, Tamas L.: Hungarian neurobiologist, interested in cell signaling.

Hugo, Victor (1802–1885): French poet, novelist, and dramatist.

Huneker, James (1857–1921): American art, book, music, and theater critic.

Hurt, Richard D.: American physician, interested in tobacco.

Itzkovitz, Shalev: Israeli systems biologist, interested in the design of mammalian tissues.

Jakob, Elizabeth M.: American arachnologist.

James, William (1842–1910): American physician, psychologist, and philosopher.

Johnson, Richard: American nephrologist.

Jorandby, Elisabeth: American psychologist and neurobiologist.

Judd, Naomi (1946–): American country music musician.

Judith, Anodea (1952–): American psychologist, somatic therapist, and yoga teacher.

Kawamoto, Shimpei: Japanese immunologist.

Keestra, A. Marijke: Dutch immunologist.

Keller, Helen (1880–1968): American author who was blind and deaf through illness at 19 months old.

Kelly, Edward F.: American cognitive scientist.

Kish, Daniel (1966–): American psychologist who is expert in human echolocation.

Koch, Christof (1956–): American neurobiologist, known for his ridiculous work on the neural bases of consciousness.

Krkošek, Martin: Canadian ecologist.

Kruspe, Nicole: Swedish linguist.

Kushmaro, Ariel: Israeli microbiologist.

Kuzawa, Christopher W. (Chris): American anthropologist and evolutionary zoologist.

Lanier, Lewis L.: American immunologist.

Lanou, Dr. Amy Joy: American nutritionist.

Lashley. Karl S. (1890–1958): American psychologist and behaviorist.

Lavater, Johann Kaspar (1741–1801): Swiss poet who popularized physiognomy.

Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle: French geneticist.

Lenhossek, Mihály (1863–1937): Hungarian anatomist who coined the term astrocyte.

Levin, Petra A.: American microbiologist.

Lewis, Gilbert N. (1875–1946): American physical chemist, known for his discovery of the covalent bond, and his concept of electron pairs.

Lincoln, Abraham (1809–1865): American politician (Republican); 16th US President (1860–1865).

Liqun Luo: Chinese developmental neurobiologist.

Liszt, Franz (1811–1886): Hungarian composer, conductor, and considered by some the greatest pianist of all time.

Littlefield, Andrew: American psychologist.

Littman, Dan R.: American pathologist.

Lombroso, Cesare (1835–1909): Italian criminologist and physician who believed in physiognomy.

Lorenz, Konrad (1903–1989): Austrian zoologist and ethologist.

Ludwig, Carl F.W. (1816–1895): German physiologist and surgeon.

Luther, Martin (1483 – 1546): German friar and Catholic priest who founded Protestantism after being excommunicated from the Catholic Church.

Lyell, Charles (1979–1875): Scottish lawyer and geologist. Lyell coined the term Neolithic, and popularized James Hutton’s notions of uniformitarianism. Based upon geological anomalies, Lyell was one of the first to believe the Earth older than 300 million years.

MacArthur, Douglas (1880–1964): American military man.

MacLean, Paul D. (1913–2007): American physician and neurobiologist who invented the limbic system and the triune brain hypothesis.

Maharaj, Nisargadatta (born Maruti Shivrampant Kambli) (1897–1981): Indian guru.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (1917–2008): Indian guru.

Majid, Asifa: Dutch psycholinguist.

Malraux, André (1901–1976): French novelist.

Malthus, Thomas (1766–1834): English cleric and scholar; the first to worry that mass prosperity would beget a population explosion.

Mander, Bryce: American neurobiologist interested in sleep.

Manzarek, Ray (1939–2013): American musician, best known as keyboardist of the musical group The Doors.

Marais, Eugène (1871–1936): South African lawyer, naturalist, and writer who investigated extra-dimensional termite communication in the 1920s.

Matten, Glen: English nutritionist.

Mattson, Mark P.: American neurobiologist.

Maxwell, James Clerk (1831–1879): Scottish physicist, most famous for formulating classical electromagnetic theory in 1865.

Mayne, Susan: American epidemiologist.

McCormick, Cheryl M.: Canadian psychologist.

Mead, Margaret (1901–1978): American cultural anthropologist.

Merzenich, Michael M. (1942–): American neurobiologist.

Miles, Walter R. (1885–1978): American experimental psychologist, interested in physiology.

Miller, Edgar R.: American medical researcher.

Miller, Henry (1891–1980): American writer.

Miller, Phillip (1691–1771): English botanist of Scottish descent, best known for his gardening books.

Mitchell, David (1969–): English novelist.

Molofsky, Anna V.: American cytologist and psychiatrist.

Moncrieff, R.W.: English physiologist interested in olfaction.

Morgan, Hugh (1530–1613): English apothecary, serving Queen Elizabeth from 1583. Morgan introduced vanilla as a desirable flavoring in of itself; previously, vanilla was, in Europe, always combined with chocolate or coffee.

Morrison, Sara E.: American neurobiologist.

Mountcastle, Vernon (1915–2015): American neurobiologist.

Muhammad (570–632): Arabian religious and political leader, believed by Muslims to be the prophet of Allāh.

Müller, Henrich (1820–1864): German anatomist who discovered retinal glia cells.

Müller, Ralph-Axel: neurobiologist.

Mulrow, Cynthia (1953–): American physician.

Murray, Christopher J.L.: American physician and health economist, interested in obesity.

Myers, Ransom A.: Canadian zoologist.

Nagata, Takashi: Japanese biologist.

Naik, Shruti: Indian immunologist.

Naylor, Rosamond L.: American ecologist and economist.

Nedergaard, Maiken: Danish neurobiologist who discovered the glymphatic system.

Nestle, Marion: American molecular biologist and nutritionist.

Newton, Isaac (1642–1727): English physicist, astronomer, alchemist, mathematician, natural philosopher, and theologian.

Nicholson, Jeremy K.: English molecular biologist.

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900): German philosopher and philologist.

Nisbett, Richard E. (1941–): American social psychologist.

Niven, Jeremy E.: English zoologist and evolutionary biologist, interested in animal behavior.

Nixon, Richard (1913–1994): American politician (Republican); 37th President of the United States (1969–1974).

Noble, Charles C.: American soldier.

Norris, Vic: French molecular biologist and biochemist.

Oberheim, Nancy Ann: American neurobiologist.

Ödeen, Anders: Swedish zoological ecologist.

Oka, Yuki: Japanese biologist.

Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.: Italian psychologist, interested in how humans form first impressions of others.

Panda, Satchindananda: Indian biologist.

Paolicelli, Rosa C.: Italian molecular biologist.

Parker, Dorothy (1893–1967): American poet.

Parmer, Candace (1960–): American massage therapist.

Pascual-Leone, Alvaro (1961–): German neurologist.

Pauling, Linus (1901–1994): American chemist, peace activist, and admirer of vitamin C.

Peale, Norman Vincent (1898–1993): wildly optimistic American Christian preacher.

Pekny, Milos: Swedish neurobiologist.

Penfield, Wilder Graves (1891–1976): Canadian neurosurgeon who drafted brain maps.

Perl, Craig D.: English biologist.

Perrett, David Ian: Scottish psychologist.

Petkova, Valeria: Swedish neurobiologist.

Pliny the Elder (23–79): Roman author and natural philosopher.

Presti, David: American cognitive scientist and cytologist.

Proctor, Lita M.: American microbial ecologist and geneticist.

Purkynĕ, Jan Evangelista (1787–1869): Czech anatomist and physiologist who coined the term protoplasm in 1839 for the fluid inside a cell. Purkyně became so famous that mail was delivered to him from anywhere if simply addressed “Purkyně, Europe.”

Quetelet, Adolphe (1796–1874): Belgian mathematician, statistician, astronomer, and sociologist.

Rameses II (aka Rameses the Great) (1303–2013 bce): Egyptian pharaoh who ruled 1279–1213 bce; regarded as the most powerful pharaoh of ancient Egyptian civilization.

Ranvier, Louis-Antoine (1835–1922): French physician, pathologist, anatomist, and histologist who discovered the nodes of Ranvier.

Reisert, Johannes: English physiologist, interested in olfaction.

Relman, David A.: American microbiologist and immunologist.

Reston, James (1909–1995): American journalist, associated with the New York Times for decades.

Ringer, Sydney (1836–1910): English clinician and pharmacologist.

Rivers, Johnny (1942–): American singer and songwriter.

Robbins, Tom (1932–): American novelist with a poetic bent.

Robinson, Jo: American nutritionist.

Robinson, Richard: American science writer, interested in neurobiology.

Rogers, Lesley J.: Australian zoologist and neurobiologist.

Romero, Teresa: American zoologist.

Rosen, Evan: American biologist.

Rosenblum, Lawrence D.: American psychologist.

Russell, Bertrand (1872–1970): English philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, social critic, and political activist.

Sabina, María (1894–1985): Mazatec curandero.

Salas, Rachel E.: American neurobiologist, interested in sleep disorders.

Salzman, C. Daniel: American neurobiologist.

Sanders, Laura: American microbiologist.

Schleich, Carl Ludwig (1859–1922): German surgeon, interested in local anesthesia and hysteria.

Schluter, Jonas: English biologist.

Schoenemann, Brigitte: German zoologist.

Schor, Nina: American biochemist, neurologist, and pediatrician.

Schumacher, Ferdinand (1822–1908): German American entrepreneur who developed quick-cooking rolled oats.

Schwann, Theodore (1810–1882): German physiologist who discovered Schwann glia cells.

Schwartz, Gary E.: American psychologist.

Shakespeare, William (1564–1616): English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer plying the English language. Most of his known works were produced 1589–1613.

Shams, Ladan: American psychologist, interested in multisensory perception.

Sheldrake, Rupert: English biologist.

Shénnóng: fabled Chinese emperor who supposedly lived circa 2,800 bce (attributed life dates vary by source). Known as the Emperor of the Five Grains, Shénnóng reputedly taught the Chinese basic agriculture and the use of medicinal plants.

Shibutani, Shusaku T.: Japanese cytologist.

Simpson, Bartholomew JoJo (Bart): son of Homer Simpson in the American cartoon TV series The Simpsons.

Simpson, Homer: a character in the American cartoon TV series about the Simpson family, entitled The Simpsons.

Skinner, B.F. (1904–1990): American behaviorist psychologist.

Sobel, Noam: Israeli neurobiologist.

Sperry, Roger (1913–1994): American neurobiologist who won a Nobel prize for brain butchery on epileptics and concocting overstated rubbish about how the brain mentates.

Each brain hemisphere is indeed a conscious system in its own right, and both the left and the right hemisphere may be conscious simultaneously in different, even in mutually conflicting, mental experiences that run along in parallel. ~ Roger Sperry in 1974

Spillane, Katelyn M.: English immunologist.

Stampfer, Meir: American epidemiologist.

Stern, Peter: American science writer.

Stoll, Arthur (1887–1971): Swiss biochemist.

Stranges, Saverio: American epidemiologist.

Suez, Jotham: Israeli nutritionist.

Sugita, Yoichi: Japanese psychologist, interested in sensation.

Sun, Joseph C.: American immunologist.

Sweeney, Lora B.: American developmental neurobiologist.

Tagliazucchi, Enzo: Argentinean neurobiologist.

Taylor, Elizabeth (1932–2011): English American actress.

Thagard, Paul: Canadian cognition philosopher.

Thaler, Lore: Canadian psychologist.

Thorndike, Edward (1879–1955): American psychologist, interested in learning.

Thrasher, James F.: American public health researcher.

Todorov, Alexander: Russian psychologist, interested in how humans form first impressions of others.

Tourette, George: see de la Tourette, George.

Tracy, Brian (1944–): Canadian entrepreneur.

Turin, Luca (1953–): Lebanese biophysicist.

Tuveson, David A.: American oncologist.

Twain, Mark (1835–1910): pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, talented American author.

van Leeuwenhoek, Antonie (1632–1723): Dutch lens-grinder, microscopist, and the first microbiologist.

Vecera, Shaun P.: American psychologist, interested in visual cognition.

Veech, Richard L.: American physician.

Virchow, Rudolf (1821–1902): German doctor and biologist; generally acknowledged as the father of modern pathology, known for his advocating public health.

Volta, Alessandro (1745–1827): Italian physicist who invented the battery.

Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) (1694–1778): French writer, historian, and philosopher.

von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang (1749–1832): German author, scientist, lawyer, human trafficker, and diplomat.

von Haller, Albrecht (1708–1777): Swiss physiologist, anatomist, naturalist, and poet. Haller was the inspirational father of homeopathy, with his observation that a tiny dose to a healthy person is the place to begin in determining the effects of a potential remedy, before trials on a sick body.

von Helmholtz, Herman (1821–1894): German physician and physicist who made contributions in understanding vision, audition, and thermodynamics. von Helmholtz was a confirmed empiricist.

von Neuman, John (1903–1957): Hungarian American physicist, mathematician, and polymath.

Vono, Maria: Italian medical biologist.

Walker, Matthew P.: American psychologist, interested in sleep.

Warner, Charles Dudley (1829–1900): American writer.

Watkins, Bruce: American biochemist and nutritionist.

Watson, James D. (1928–): American molecular biologist, known as the 1953 co-discoverer of the structure of DNA, with Francis Crick.

Weaver, Connie: American nutritionist.

Weigert, Carl (1845–1904): German pathologist.

Weitz, Charles: American neurobiologist, interested in circadian clocks.

Wenbin Deng: Chinese molecular biochemist.

Westfall, Corey: American microbiologist.

Wigmore, Ann (1909–1994): Lithuanian holistic health practitioner.

Wilber, Ken (1949–): American author interested in mysticism, philosophy, ecology, and developmental psychology. One of Wilber’s key promotions is the holon: that every entity or concept has a dualism of autonomy and ecological integration. The idea is vacuous conceptualization.

Wilde, Oscar (1854–1900): Irish writer and poet.

Wilson, A.N. (1950–): English writer.

Winstock, Adam: English psychiatrist.

Wright, Robert H. (1906–1985): Canadian chemist.

Xia Zhang: Chinese neurobiologist.

Yoshimori, Tamotsu: Japanese cytologist and geneticist.

Yudkin, John (1910–1995): English physiologist who found sugar as a source of coronary heart disease and type-2 diabetes.

Zumin Shi: Chinese physician and nutritionist.