In the latter half of the 20th century behaviorism was eclipsed by cognitive psychology, which was an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the mind from behavioral artifacts, such as linguistics. (By this time, psychologists disregarded the philosophical failure to resolve the mind-body problem, generally accepting the nonsensical notion that the brain mystically generates the mind.) In arguing that language cannot be explained as a stimulus-response process, American linguist Noam Chomsky rejected behaviorism. By this attack Chomsky spurred the development of cognitive psychology in the late 1950s.
German American psychologist Ulric Neisser’s influential book Cognitive Psychology (1967) coined the term and put more nails in the coffin of behaviorism.
While steeped in mechanistic empiricism, cognitive psychologists somewhat begrudgingly accepted the existence of the mind and internal mental states.
The mind is a system of organs of computation designed by natural selection to solve the problems faced by our evolutionary ancestors in their foraging way of life. ~ Canadian cognitive psychologist Steven Pinker
Cognitive psychology proceeded partly through reverse engineering: by gleaning data from artificial intelligence computer science research. Paradigmatically, cognitive psychology views the mind as an organic computer. It is a sophistic conception, showing more ignorance than understanding.
The mental world can be grounded in the physical world by the concepts of information, computation, and feedback. ~ Steven Pinker