The Echoes of the Mind (158-2) India & Pakistan

 India & Pakistan

The institutions introduced by the British in India survived their occupation, which began in the 1820s and ended in 1947. Indian independence also spelled its division, with the partition of Pakistan.

The India-Pakistan division represented a violent cultural divide between Hindus and Muslims. It was accompanied by panicky flight and riots between peoples of the 2 religiously based cultures. In a bloodbath of spontaneous retributive genocide by residents, ~600,000 were massacred in the province of Punjab, which straddled India and Pakistan.