The Echoes of the Mind – People


Aardema, Frederick: Dutch psychologist, interested in out-of-body experiences.

Abelson, Robert P. (1928–2005): American psychologist and political scientist.

Achenwall, Gottfried (1719–1772): German philosopher, historian, economist, jurist, and statistician; a pioneer in statistics.

Acton, John Dalberg (aka Lord Acton) (1834–1902): English historian and politician.

Adams, Douglas (1952–2001): English writer, humorist, and dramatist.

Adams, Henry (1838–1918): American historian.

Adams, James Truslow (1878–1949): American historian who coined “the American Dream” in his 1931 book The Epic of America.

Adams, Katherine L.: American communication scholar.

Adler, Alfred W. (1870–1937): Austrian psychotherapist and physician.

Adler, Franz: German American sociologist.

Adler, Mortimer J. (1902–2001): American philosopher and educator.

Aesop (620–564 bce): Ancient Greek fabulist to which a collection of fables is credited, though his existence is uncertain. Many of Aesop’s Fables are of animals and inanimate objects with human attributes of reasoning and speech.

Ahern, Laurie: American human rights advocate, especially interested in welfare for disabled persons, and bettering the deplorable conditions of orphanages worldwide.

Ailes, Roger (1940–): American media consultant and television business executive. Founder and head of Fox News until he resigned in July 2016 when his chronic sexual harassment of female employees became public.

Airy, George (1801–1892): English mathematician and astronomer who, by dint of his being Astronomer Royal at the right time, established Greenwich as the prime meridian.

Akerlof, George A. (1940–): American economist.

Albers, Josef (1888–1976): German-born American artist and educator.

Allain, Rhett: American physics professor.

Allport, Gordon W. (1897–1967): American psychologist.

Ambady, Nalini (1959–2013): Indian social psychologist.

Ames, Daniel R.: American social psychologist.

Amiel, Henri Frédéric (1821–1881): Swiss philosopher and poet.

Ammann, Jakob (1644 to between 1712–1730): Swiss Anabaptist leader and namesake of the Amish religious movement.

Amphlett, Chrissy (1959–2013): Australian singer and dancer, best known as the singer in the musical group Divinyls (1980–1996).

Amrhein, Valentin: Swiss zoologist, interested in statistics.

Anaximander of Miletus (610–547 bce): Turkish Greek philosopher, astronomer, geographer, mathematician, and proponent of science.

Anderson, Adam K.: American cognitive scientist and psychologist.

Anderson, Craig D.: American psychologist.

Anderson, Margaret L.: American sociologist.

Andersen, Peter A.: American communication scholar.

Andrew, Megan: American sociologist.

Andronikos II Palaiologos (1259–1332): Byzantine emperor (1282–1328) who faced persistent economic problems. Andronikos II was forced to abdicate in 1328 after losing a civil war.

Anglicus, Bartholomeus (aka Bartholomew the Englishman, Berthelet) (~1203–1272): French Franciscan friar.

Anselm of Canterbury (~1033–1109): French Benedictine monk, abbot, theologian, and philosopher who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. Anselm made an ontological argument for the existence of God in his book Proslogion (1077–1078).

God is something which nothing greater can be conceived. ~ Anselm of Canterbury

Anthony, Robert: American psychologist.

Antipater II (4–46 bce): Herod’s 1st-born son; Herod’s only child by his 1st wife Doris.

Aquinas, Thomas (1225–1274): Italian Dominican priest, theologian, and philosopher.

Archer, John: English psychologist.

Archie, Elizabeth A.: American ethologist.

Archimedes (of Syracuse) (287–212 bce): Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer; considered one of the leading scientists in antiquity, and one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.

Archimedes was killed during the Siege of Syracuse by an impatient Roman soldier, despite explicit orders that Archimedes was not to be harmed. The solder got ticked off because Archimedes told him to wait until he finished a problem he was working on. The soldier was executed for his indiscretion.

Arciuli, Joanne: Australian psycholinguist.

Arendt, Johanna (Hannah) (1906–1975): German-born Jewish American philosopher who philosophically rejected the label philosopher as being concerned with “man in the singular,” preferring instead “political theorist.”

Arfer, Kodi B.: American psychologist and statistician, interested in social psychology, decision-making, health, and sexuality.

Ariely, Dan (1967–): American psychologist and behavioral economist.

Aristotle (384–322 bce): Greek philosopher and polymath.

Arnheim, Rudolf (1904–2007): German perceptual psychologist, author, and art theorist.

Arnsten, Amy F.T.: American cognitive scientist.

Asch, Solomon E. (1907–1996): American Gestalt psychologist and social psychologist, best known for his study of conformity.

Asclepiades (c. 124–40 bce): Bithynian-born Greek physician who promoted a theory of disease based on the flow of atoms through pores in the body. His treatments aimed at restoring harmony through diet, exercise, and bathing.

Ashear, Janet Bare: American psychologist.

Astington, Janet Wilde: Canadian developmental psychologist.

Athanasius of Alexandria (aka Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor) (297–373): Egyptian Christian theologian.

Atisa (980–1054): Buddhist teacher.

Atkinson, Richard C. (1929–): American psychologist.

Atran, Scott (1952–): French American anthropologist, interested in violence and religion.

Atwood, Margaret (1939–): Canadian novelist, poet, essayist, and environmental activist.

Augustine of Hippo (354–430): Algerian Latin theologian and prolific author. Augustine influenced the evolution of European Christian thought.

Aurobindo, Sri (born Aurobindo Ghose) (1872–1950): Indian guru, poet, and nationalist.

Austen, Jane (1775–1817): English novelist.

Avicenna (980–1037): Persian polymath; one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, and philosophers of the Islamic Golden Age.

Bacon, Francis (1561–1626): English philosopher, scientist, and statesman. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism.

Bacon, Roger (1214–1294): English philosopher and Franciscan friar who advised studying Nature via empirical methods.

Baer, Markus: German sociologist, interested in innovation in organizations.

Baillargeon, Renée (1954–): French Canadian psychologist, interested in infant cognition.

Bain, Alexander (1818–1903): Scottish philosopher who founded the 1st journal of psychology and analytical philosophy: Mind. Bain was an empiricist.

Baldwin, James (1924–1987): American novelist, essayist, poet, playwright, and social critic.

Baldwin, James Mark (1861–1934): American psychologist and philosopher, interested in psychology’s import on evolution.

Ball, George W. (1909–1994): American diplomat and banker.

Bandura, Albert (1925–): Canadian American psychologist who was influential in the transition between behaviorism and cognitive psychology.

Barclay, Pat: American evolutionary psychologist, interested in cooperation.

Bargh, John A. (1955–): American social psychologist.

Barkow, Jerome H.: Canadian anthropologist, interested in evolutionary psychology.

Barnes, Julian (1946–): English writer.

Baron, Robert A.: American psychologist.

Barrett, Justin L. (1971–): American psychologist.

Barthes, Roland Gérard (1915–1980): French philosopher and linguist.

Barton, Robert A.: English anthropologist.

Barus-Michel, Jacqueline (1955–): French sociologist.

Bastian, Brock: Australian psychologist.

Bateson, Gregory (1904–1980): English anthropologist.

Bateson, Melissa: English ethologist, interested in decision-making.

Batty, G. David: English epidemiologist.

Bauer, Michal: Czech economist, interested in sociology.

Baum, L. Frank (1856–1919): American author, chiefly famous for his children’s books, especially The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) and its 13 sequels. Baum penned 55 novels, 83 short stories, over 200 poems, and more than 42 scripts. In his works Baum anticipated later technologies and social movements, including television, wireless telephones, laptop computers, virtual reality, the ubiquity of advertising for clothing, and liberated women.

Baumard, Nicolas: French anthropologist.

Baumeister, Roy F. (1953–): American social psychologist.

Bayes, Thomas (1701–1761): English statistician, philosopher, and Presbyterian minister, remembered for the theorem of inverse probability that bears his name.

Bear, Adam: American psychologist.

Beattie, Geoffrey: English psychologist.

Beck, Aaron T. (1921–): American psychiatrist who is regarded as the father of cognitive therapy.

Behe, Michael (1952–): American biochemist who proposed irreducible complexity.

Belk, Russell W.: Canadian business academic.

Benard, Stephen: American sociologist.

Benedict, Ruth (1887–1948): American anthropologist and folklorist.

Benjamin, Walter (1892–1940): German philosopher.

Bennett, Arnold (1867–1931): English writer.

Bennett, Bo (1972–): American businessman.

Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832): English philosopher, economist, and theoretical jurist who founded utilitarianism.

Berdahl, Jennifer: American sociologist.

Berezovsky, Jesse: American physicist, interested in matter.

Berg, Yehuda: American rabbi who promotes Kabbalah.

Berger, Christopher C.: American psychologist.

Berger, Peter L. (1929–): Austrian-born American sociologist.

Bergman, Mindy E.: American psychologist.

Berkeley, George (1685–1753): Irish philosopher and Anglican bishop. Berkeley hypothesized immaterialism (later called subjective idealism): that materiality is only in the minds of perceivers. As Berkeley put it: “to be is to be perceived.”

Berkowitz, Leonard (1926–2016): American social psychologist, interested in altruism and human aggression.

Berman, Lea: American diplomat.

Bernard, Jeremy: American diplomat.

Bernieri, Frank: American psychologist.

Berra, Yogi (1925–2015): American baseball player, coach, and manager, remembered for his dry wit, pithy paradoxical statements, and malapropisms.

Bigoni, Maria: Italian economist.

Bilalić, Merim: Bosnian psychologist.

bin Laden, Osama (1957–2011): Saudi Arabian who founded the terrorist organization al-Qaeda.

Binet, Alfred (1857–1911): French psychologist who, in collaboration with Théodore Simon, developed the first intelligence tests which met widespread acceptance.

Bion, Wilfred R. (1897–1979): English psychoanalyst, interested in groups. Bion was influenced by Melanie Klein.

Birdwhistell, Ray L. (1918–1994): American anthropologist who founded kinesics as a discipline.

Birren, Faber (1900–1988): American color maven.

Blake, Peter R.: American psychologist.

Blanchfield, Anthony W.: English psychologist.

Blasi, Damián E.: Swiss psycholinguist.

Bloch, Maurice (1939–): English anthropologist.

Blok, Sergey: Russian American psychologist.

Bloom, Nathan: American psychologist.

Boeckx, Cedrick: Spanish linguist.

Boethius (Ancius Manlius Severinus Boëthius) (480–524): Roman philosopher and politician; his Consolation of Philosophy became one of the most popular and influential works during the Middle Ages.

Bolton, Robert (1572–1631): English clergyman and academic.

Bolyai, János (1802–1860): Hungarian mathematician who published work on hyperbolic (non-Euclidian) geometry ~1830 – contemporaneously, but independently, of Nikolai Ivanovich.

Bonaparte, Napoléon (1769–1821): French military and political leader who made an indelible mark on European history in early 19th century.

Bongiorno, Renata: Australian social psychologist.

Boorstin, Daniel J. (1914–2004): American historian.

Borjigin, Jimo: Mongolian cognitive scientist.

Boroditsky, Lera (1976–): Belarusian cognitive scientist.

Boseley, Sarah: English health writer and editor.

Boutroux, Pierre (1880–1922): French mathematician and historian of science, best known for his accounts of the history and philosophy of mathematics.

Boyce, Chris: English psychologist.

Bradbury, Ray (1920–2012): American fantasy, horror, mystery, and science-fiction novelist.

Bradshaw, John (1602–1659): English judge.

Bradshaw, John (1933–2016): American author and educator.

Branch, Curtis W.: American psychologist.

Braverman, Harry (1920–1976): American political economist; an industrial worker who became a leftist radical in the wake of the Great Depression.

Bresnahan, Mary I.: American communication scholar.

Bridge, Donna Jo: American cognitive scientist, interested in memory.

Briggs, Katharine Cook (1875–1968): American academic who promoted education for women, known for the Myers-Briggs personality type test.

Brillat-Savarin, Jean Anthelme (1755–1826): French lawyer and politician, who gained fame as an epicure; often considered the father of the low-carbohydrate diet.

Britain, Kristen: American novelist.

Broca, Paul (1824–1880): French physician and surgeon.

Brouwer, L.E.J. (1881–1966): Dutch mathematician and philosopher, interested in topology, set theory, and complex analyses.

Brown, Jonathon D.: American psychologist.

Browne, Jackson (1948–): American musician and songwriter.

Bruce, Vicki (1953–): English psychologist, interested in visual perception.

Bruner, Jerome S. (1915–2016): American psychologist, interested in cognitive psychology and learning.

Buchsbaum, Bradley R.: American psychologist.

Buddha, Gautama (6th–5th century bce): Indian guru whose teachings became oral traditions and were finally written down 4 centuries after he lived, becoming the foundation of Buddhism.

Buffett, Warren E. (1930–): American billionaire investor.

Buffon, Comte de (born Georges-Louis Leclerc) (1707–1788): French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopedist. Buffon’s work influenced the next 2 generations of naturalists, including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Georges Cuvier.

Burgoon, Judee K.: American communication scholar.

Burke, Edmund (1729–1797): Irish politician.

Burton, Robert (1577–1640): English scholar and vicar.

Bush, George W. (1946–): American politician (Republican); 43rd US President (2001–2009).

Bushman, Brad J.: American psychologist and communication scholar, interested in human aggression and violence.

Buss, David M.: American psychologist.

Butler, Judith (1956–): American philosopher and gender theorist.

Butler, Samuel (1835–1902): English author, best known for the utopian satire Erewhon and the semi-autobiographical novel The Way Of All Flesh. Butler made English prose translations of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey that continue to be used to this day.

Byrne, David (1952–): Scottish musician.

Byrne, Robert (1930–): American author.

Byrne, Ruth M.J.: Irish cognitive scientist, interested in imagination.

Cabeza, Roberto: Argentinian psychologist.

Cai, Deborah H.: American communication scholar.

Cajori, Florian (1859–1930): American mathematics historian.

Callahan, Shannon P.: American social psychologist.

Calne, Donald (1936–): Canadian neurologist.

Camera, Gabriele: Italian economist.

Cameron, C. Daryl: American psychologist, interested in empathy and moral decision-making.

Cameron, Kim S. (1946–): American organization scholar.

Campbell, Margaret C.: American marketing academic.

Campbell, Troy H.: American business scholar.

Cantlon, Jessica F.: American cognitive scientist.

Cantor, Eddie (1892–1964): American comedian, actor, dancer, singer, and songwriter. Among his famous songs are “Makin’ Whoopee” and “Yes! We Have No Bananas.”

Cantor, Georg (1845–1918): German mathematician who invented set theory.

Cantor, Joanne: American psychologist.

Capote, Truman (1924–1984): American author.

Capra, Fritjof (1939–): Austrian-born American physicist and systems theorist.

Cardano, Gerolamo (1501–1576): Italian mathematician, physician, astrologer, philosopher, and gambler who wrote over 200 works on various subjects. His gambling led him to formulate elementary rules of probability.

Carlin, George (1937–2008): American comedian.

Carlson, Linda E.: American physician.

Carnegie, Dale (1888–1955): American writer and lecturer.

Carr, Deborah: American sociologist.

Carroll, Jason S.: American sociologist, interested in marriage.

Carroll, Lewis (pseudonym of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) (1832–1898): English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer; best known for the 1865 novel Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (commonly known as Alice in Wonderland) and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass (1871).

Carter, Brandon (1942–): Australian theoretical physicist, interested black holes; best known for developing the anthropic principle in its modern form.

Cartwright, Rosalind: American psychologist.

Caruso, Charlie: Australian media entrepreneur.

Carver, George Washington (1864–1943): American botanist, scientist, inventor, and educator who promoted alternative crops to cotton in the Reconstruction-era South, especially going inventively nuts over peanuts. In 1941, Time magazine dubbed Carver a “Black Leonardo.”

Casari, Marco: Italian economist.

Caspar, Emilie A.: Belgian psychologist, interested in coercion and agency.

Cassirer, Ernst (1874–1945): German philosopher.

Castel, Alan D.: American psychologist.

Cavanaugh, John C.: American psychologist, interested in adult psychological development and aging.

Celsus, Aulus Cornelius (~25 bce–50): Roman physician, best known for De Medicina, an encyclopedia largely drawn from Greek sources that covered diseases, medicine, surgery, diet, and exercise.

Chabris, Christopher F.: American psychologist.

Chan, Jason C.K.: American psychologist.

Charpentier, Augustin (1852–1916): French physician who discovered that people innately correlate size with expected weight.

Chater, Nick: English psychologist, interested in cognition, language, and decision-making.

Cheng, Patricia W. (1952–): Hong Kong-born American cognitive psychologist, interested in reasoning.

Cheshin, Arik: Israeli social psychologist.

Chesler, Phyllis: American psychologist.

Chevallier, Coralie: French social psychologist, interested in evolutionary and environmental aspects of social cognition.

Childe, V. (Vere) Gordon (1892–1957): Australian archeologist and philologist, interested in European prehistory.

Chin-Shan Wu: Taiwanese information analyst.

Chisholm, Shirley (1924–2005): American politician (Democrat), educator, and author.

Chittka, Lars: English sensory and ethologist.

Chomsky, Noam (1928–): American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic, and leftist political activist.

Christakis, Nicholas A. (1962–): American sociologist and physician.

Churchill, Winston (1874–1965): English politician (Conservative); UK Prime Minister (1940–1945, 1951–1955).

Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero) (106–43 bce): Roman philosopher, political theorist, poet, orator, lawyer, politician, consul, and constitutionalist.

Almost no one dances sober unless he is insane. ~ Cicero

Clark, Christopher: American zoologist.

Clark, Kenneth B. (1914–2005) & Mamie P. (1917–1985): married American psychologists who were active in the US civil-rights movement.

Clement of Alexandria (150–215): Greek Christian theologian, well-versed in Hellenistic philosophy, particularly Plato and Stoicism. Clement was also familiar with Gnosticism and pre-Christian Jewish esotericism.

Clifford, Margaret M.: American sociologist.

Clinton, Hillary Rodham (1947–): American politician (Democrat), married to Bill Clinton (1946–), former President (1993-2001).

Cohen, Carl (1931–): American philosopher.

Cohen, John: English psychologist.

Cohen, Lisa J.: American psychologist.

Cohn, Alain: Swiss economist.

Cohn, Jeffrey F: American psychologist.

Coke, Edward (1552–1634): English jurist and colonial entrepreneur who wrote definitive legal texts which held sway for 300 years.

Comte, Auguste (1798–1857): French science philosopher who founded sociology.

Confucius (born Kong Qui; posthumous title Kong Fuzi, which was Latinized to Confucius) (551–479 bce): Chinese moral and political philosopher.

Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself. ~ Confucius

Conrad, Klaus (1905–1961): German psychiatrist and neurologist, interested in neuropsychology and psychopathology.

Cooke, Deryck (1919–1976): English musicologist and musician.

Cooley, Charles H. (1864–1929): American sociologist.

Copernicus, Nicolaus (1473–1543): Prussian astronomer who developed a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology, displacing the Earth from the center of the universe. Copernicus’s work was published posthumously, as he worried about the scorn that his crazy idea would provoke.

Copi, Irving M. (1917–2002): American logician.

Corrigan, Roberta: American developmental psychologist.

Corriveau, Kathleen H.: American psychologist.

Cosmides, Leda (1957–): American evolutionary psychologist.

Costello, Elvis (1954–): stage name of Irish English singer, musician, and songwriter Declan Patrick MacManus.

Courant, Richard (1888–1972): German mathematician.

Cowper, William (1731–1800): English poet.

Crockett, Molly J.: American psychologist and cognitive scientist.

Crutchfield, Richard S. (1912–1977): American psychologist.

Cuddy, Amy J.C. (1972–): American social psychologist.

Cushman, Fiery: American psychologist.

Cyrus, Miley (1992–): American singer, songwriter, and actress.

da Vinci, Leonardo (1452–1519): Italian painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, musician, inventor, scientist, mathematician, engineer, geologist, cartographer, anatomist, botanist, and writer; best known for a small portrait of a drab woman with a half-smile (Mona Lisa).

Dalai Lama (1935–):14th in a line of head monks of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.

Damisch, Lysann: German psychologist.

Dantzig, Tobias (1884–1956): Latvian mathematician.

Darley, John M. (1938–): American social psychologist.

Dart, Thomas: American sheriff.

Darwin, Charles (1809–1882): English naturalist, famous for his hollow hypothesis of evolution by “natural selection.”

Daudet, Alphonse (1840–1897): French novelist.

Davies, Robertson (1913–1995): Canadian novelist.

Dawkins, Richard (1941–): English evolutionary biologist.

de Botton, Alain (1969–): Swiss-English writer.

de Clapiers, Luc (1715–1747): French writer following the moralist tradition of describing the moral character of humanity, along with prescriptive maxims.

de Gaulle, Charles (1890–1970): French military and political leader.

de Gournay, Jacques Claude Marie Vincent (1712–1759): French economist who coined the phrase laissez faire and the term bureaucracy.

de la Fontaine, Jean (1621–1695): French fabulist.

de La Rochefoucauld, François (1613 –1680): French author.

De Martino, Benedetto: English cognitive scientist.

de Montaigne, Michel (1533–1592): French writer.

de Saint-Simon, Henri (1760–1825): French socialist theorist whose writings influenced the development of positivism and socialism.

de Tocqueville, Alex (1805–1859): French political scientist, historian, and politician.

de Waal, Frans (1948 –): Dutch primatologist and ethologist.

Decety, Jean: French psychologist.

Dembski, William A. (1960–): American theologian, philosopher, and mathematician who advanced the notion of specified complexity in arguing for intelligent design.

Democritus (~460–370 bce): Greek rationalist philosopher who formulated an atomic theory for the cosmos and believed in predeterminism.

Denson, Thomas F.: American social psychologist, interested in anger and aggression.

Denton, Peggy: American developmental psychologist.

Descartes, René (1596–1650): French rationalist philosopher and mathematician. Considering the senses unreliable, Descartes considered the only indubitable knowledge a product of the mind.

And so something which I thought I was seeing with my eyes is in fact grasped solely by the faculty of judgment which is in my mind. ~ René Descartes

DeVoe, Sanford E.: American psychologist.

DeVito, Joseph A.: American psychologist.

Devi, Shakuntala (1929–2013): Indian child prodigy who became a writer and mental calculator, popularly known as the “human computer” for her numeric acumen.

Diamond, Adele: American psychologist and cognitive scientist.

Dichter, Ernest (1907–1991): American psychologist and marketing maven.

Dicke, Robert H. (1916–1997): American physicist, interested in astrophysics, gravity, and atomic physics.

Dickens, Charles (1812–1870): English writer and social critic; regarded as a literary giant of his age; well-known works include Oliver Twist (1837–1839), A Christmas Carol (1843), A Tale of Two Cities (1859), and Great Expectations (1861).

Dienstag, Joshua Foa: American philosophical pessimist, lawyer, and author.

Dingemanse, Mark: Dutch linguist.

Diophantus (~210–~290): Alexandrian Greek mathematician who made advances in algebra.

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804–1881): English politician (Conservative); UK Prime Minister (1868, 1874–1880).

Ditto, Peter H.: American social psychologist.

Dix, Dorothea (1802 – 1887): American activist for the mentally ill.

Dolev, Yinnon: New Zealander zoologist.

Dostoyevsky, Fyodor (1821–1881): Russian novelist.

Douglis, Avron: American mathematician and economist.

Drass, Kriss A.: American psychologist.

Dreary, Ian J.: English psychologist.

Dreyfus, Tommy: Israeli science educator.

Drucker, Peter (1909–2005): Austrian-born American management consultant and author.

Du Bois, W.E.B. (1868–1963): American sociologist.

Duncan, Katherine: American psychologist.

Durant, Ariel (1898–1981): Ukrainian-born American historian.

Durant, William J. (Will) (1885–1981): American historian and philosopher.

Durkheim, Émile (1858–1917): French sociologist, social psychologist, and philosopher.

Dyson, Freeman (1923–): English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician.

Eagly, Alice: American social psychologist.

Edelson, Micah: Israeli cognitive scientist.

Edward, Margaret J.: American psychologist, interested in cognitive development.

Efferson, Charles: German evolutionary ecologist.

Eichmann, Otto Adolf (1906–1962): German soldier (lieutenant colonel) during the 2nd World War.

Einhorn, Hillel J. (1947–1987): American psychologist, interested in decision-making.

Eisenberg, Theodore: Israeli mathematician.

Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1890–1969): American army general; Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe during World War 2; 34th US President (Republican) (1953–1961).

Einstein, Albert (1879–1955): German theoretical physicist, known for his theories of relativity.

Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122–1204): French queen consort of France and England; one of the most powerful and wealthiest women in western Europe at the height of the Middle Ages.

Eliot, Mary Ann (1819–1880): English novelist who wrote under the pseudonym George Eliot, so as to have her works taken seriously, and to shield her private life.

Eliot, T.S. (1888–1965): American poet, essayist, playwright, and social critic.

Elwell, Frank W.: American sociologist.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–1882): American essayist, lecturer, and poet. Emerson championed individualism.

Empedocles (490–430 bce): eclectic Greek philosopher who originated the cosmogenic theory of the 4 classical elements: earth, water, wind, and fire. Empedocles considered chemical changes similar to emotional relations.

Empiricus, Sextus (160–210): Roman physician and philosopher.

Enfield, Nick J.: Dutch linguist.

Epictetus (55–135): Phrygia-born (now Turkey) Hellenistic Stoic philosopher. Epictetus taught that negative emotions were the product of errors in judgment, and an enlightened person would not suffer such emotions.

Epley, Nicholas: American psychologist.

Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs: American sociologist.

Euclid of Alexandria (~300 bce): Greek mathematician, the father of geometry. Euclid wrote the most influential mathematics book of all time: Elements, the primary textbook for math, especially geometry, for over 2,000 years, into the early 20th century. Euclidean geometry was extended into higher dimensions via independent work by János Bolyai and Nikolai Lobachevsky.

Eudoxus of Cnidus (408–355 bce): Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Plato.

Euler, Leonhard (1707–1783): Swiss mathematician, logician, engineer, and physicist who introduced much modern mathematical terminology and notation; also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, and music theory; considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.

Euripides (~480–406 bce): Greek (Athenian) playwright (tragedian) who wrote over 90 plays.

Everett, Jim A.C.: English social psychologist and philosopher.

Exiguus, Dionysius (470–544): Christian monk and scholar.

Eyesenck, Hans J. (1916–1997): German-born psychologist who spent his career in England; best remembered for his work on personality and intelligence.

Faber, Louise: Australian cognitive scientist.

Fanon, Frantz (1925–1961): Martinique psychiatrist, philosopher, and revolutionary.

Farrell, Kirby: American physician.

Farroni, Teresa: Italian psychologist.

Faulkner, William (1897–1962): American writer.

Fazio, Lisa: American psychologist.

FDR: see Roosevelt, Franklin D.

Feldman, Julie: American psychology.

Felson, Marcus: American criminologist and sociologist.

Feltz, Adam: American philosopher.

Fenichel, Otto (1897–1946): Freudian 2nd-generation psychoanalyst.

Ferrante, Joan: American sociologist.

Festinger, Leon (1919–1989): American social psychologist, best known for his theories on cognitive dissonance and social comparison.

Feuillet, Lionel: French neurologist.

Feynman, Richard (1918–1988): American theoretical physicist.

Fibonacci (aka Leonardo Bonacci) (1175–1250): Italian mathematician who popularized the Hindu-Arabic numeral system with his 1202 book Liber Abaci (Book of Abacus). Fibonacci traveled extensively in Mediterranean lands.

Fielding, Henry (1707–1754): English novelist, dramatist, and magistrate, known for his earthy humor and satirical prowess. Fielding co-founded London’s first police force: the Bow Street Runners.

Fields, William Claude (W.C.) (1880–1946): American comedian, actor, juggler, and writer. Fields was known for his sardonic persona yet remained a sympathetic character despite his snarling contempt.

Firestein, Stuart: American biologist.

Fischer, B. Aubrey: American communication scholar.

Fischer, Bobby (1943–2008): American chess player.

Fischer, Julia: German cognitive ethologist.

Fisher, Jeffrey D.: American psychologist.

Fisher, Ronald A. (1890–1962): English statistician and biologist who crafted, via statistics, the central paradigm of modern biology: evolution.

Fischhoff, Baruch (1946–): American psychologist, interested in decision-making and risk assessment.

Fiske, Susan T.: American social psychologist, interested in stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination.

Fleming, Stephen M.: English cognitive scientist.

Fleming, William: Scottish philosopher.

Flom, Ross: American developmental psychologist, interested in the cognitive development of children in the 1st 3 years.

Flourens, Pierre (1794–1867): French physician who pioneered experimental brain science via animal ablations.

Folks, J. Leroy: American statistician.

Forbes, Malcolm S. (1919–1990): American magazine publisher and staunch proponent of capitalism.

Forrester, Jay Wright (1918–): American systems analyst.

Fossum, Merle A.: American psychologist.

Foster, Thomas: German physiologist.

Fowler, James A. (1970–): American social scientist.

Fox, Jesse: American sociologist and communications scholar, interested in social media.

Frances, Allen (1942–): American psychiatrist.

Franklin, Benjamin (1706–1790): American author, publisher, politician, scientist, and inventor.

Freeman, Elliot D.: English cognitive scientist.

Frege, Gottlog (1848–1925): German logician, philosopher, and mathematician; widely considered to be the father of analytic philosophy, albeit largely ignored during his lifetime.

Freud, Anna (1895–1982): Austrian psychoanalyst.

Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939): Austrian neurologist who created psychoanalysis.

Freund, Julien (1921–1993): French sociologist and philosopher.

Friedman, Jared P.: American psychologist.

Frost, Ram (1954–): Israeli psychologist.

Fry, Stephen (1957–): English comedian, actor, and writer.

Fukuyama, Francis (1952–): American political scientist and political economist.

Furnham, Adrian: English psychologist.

Gächter, Simon (1965–): Austrian economist, interested in economic decision-making.

Galen (Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, better known as Galen of Pergamon) (130–200): Greek physician, surgeon, and philosopher who lived in Rome; the most prolific author in antiquity. Galen subscribed to Hippocrates’ theory of bodily humors and applied it to psychological temperaments. Galen wrote over 500 books on medicine. He was an avid dissector, ripping through innumerable animals to study anatomy. But dissection did not enlighten the insensible Galen, who inscrutably insisted that the bodies of pigs and monkeys were identical to those of humans. Nonetheless, Galen’s theories influenced Western medicine for nearly 1,500 years.

Galileo Galilei (1564–1642): Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher. Galileo was a seminal figure in the 17th-century Scientific Revolution, and a scourge to the Catholic Church for buying into Copernicus’ notion of heliocentricity.

Gall, Franz Joseph (1758–1828): German physiologist who founded the pseudoscience of phrenology.

Gallese, Vittorio: Italian cognitive scientist.

Galton, Francis (1822 – 1911): English polymath who believed that Nature trumped nurture. Galton’s innate biases, love of statistics, and sloppy methodology proved him right to his own satisfaction.

Gamow, George (1904–1968): Russian theoretical physicist and cosmologist.

Gandhi, Mahatma (1869–1948): Indian political leader.

Gans, Herbert J. (1927–): German-born American sociologist.

Gardner, Howard (1943–): American developmental psychologist.

Gasset, José Ortega y (1883–1955): Spanish philosopher and essayist who felt that philosophy has a critical duty to question beliefs so as to better explain reality.

Tell me to what you pay attention and I will tell you who you are. ~ José Ortega y Gasset

Gauss, Johann Carl Friedrich (1777–1855): German mathematician who contributed significantly in many math fields, astronomy, and optics.

Gavanski, Igor (1958–2011): Canadian psychologist.

Gaye, Marvin (1939–1984): American singer-songwriter and musician.

Gerould, Katharine E.F. (1879–1944): American writer.

Gervais, Sarah J.: American psychologist, interested in prejudice and violence.

Ghiselin, Michael T.: American biologist, biology historian, and philosopher.

Ghonim, Wael (1980–): Egyptian Internet activist and software engineer.

Gibson, Edward: American cognitive scientist, interested in linguistics.

Gigerenzer, Gerd: German psychologist.

Gilbert, Daniel (1957–): American social psychologist.

Giles, Herbert A. (1845–1935): English diplomat and sinologist.

Gillibrand, Kirsten E. (1966–): American politician.

Gilligan, Carol (1936–): American psychologist, ethicist, and feminist. Gilligan was Lawrence Kohlberg’s research assistant during his work related of moral development. She later criticized his exclusion of the female perspective, whereupon Gilligan developed her own theory of moral development based upon the idea of distinct masculine and feminine moral voices. The masculine voice is “logical and individualistic,” where moral decisions are oriented toward rights and justice. The feminine voice is a “care perspective,” which focuses on individual needs, with compassion in mind. Gilligan contends that mature morality integrates both voices.

Gilovich, Thomas D.: American psychologist, interested in decision-making and behavioral economics.

Ginges, Jeremy: American psychologist, interested in cooperation.

Girotto, Vittorio: Italian psychologist.

Gislén, Anna: Swedish zoologist, interested in vision processing.

Glick, Peter: American social psychologist.

Gödel, Kurt (1906–1978): Austrian logician mathematician, and philosopher; considered one of the most significant logicians in history, along with Aristotle and Gottlob Frege. Best known for his 2 incompleteness theorems, which proved that certain axiomatic systems cannot be proved or disproved. Yes, there is an inherent irony to proving that proof is impossible in a self-contained symbolic system.

Godin, Seth: American author and business executive.

Goffman, Erving: Canadian American sociologist.

Goldbach, Christian (1690–1764): German mathematician who also studied law. Best known for an incidental assertion in a letter: Goldbach’s conjecture.

Goleman, Daniel (1946–): American psychologist.

Gonzalez, Alexander (1946–): American psychologist.

Gonzalez, Esteban: American jailer.

Goodman, Paul (1911–1972): American writer and psychotherapist who co-developed Gestalt therapy with Fritz and Laura Perls.

Goodman, Steven N.: American epidemiologist.

Goodwin, Geoffrey P.: American psychologist, interested in morality.

Goodwin, Stephanie A.: American psychologist.

Gopnik, Alison: American psychologist and philosopher.

Gore, Al (1948–): American politician (Democrat).

Gosling, Samuel D.: American social psychologist.

Gottschalk, Simon: American sociologist.

Goyanes, Manuel: Spanish journalism academic.

Gracian, Baltasar (1601–1658): Spanish philosopher.

Graham, Billy (1918–): American Christian evangelist.

Graham, Jesse: American psychologist.

Graham, Martha (1901–1991): American dancer and choreographer who was the mother of modern dance.

Graunt, John (1620–1674): English haberdasher and one of the first demographers.

Gray, Janice D.: Canadian social psychologist.

Gray, John N. (1948–): English philosopher.

Gray, Kurt: American social psychologist, interested in mind perception.

Green, John (1977–): American author of young-adult fiction.

Greenaway, Katharine H.: Australian psychologist.

Greenberg, David M.: English psychologist and musician, interested in the relation between personality and musical taste.

Greene, Anthony J.: American psychologist.

Greenspan, Stanley I. (1941–2010): American psychiatrist.

Greif, Esther Blank: American psychologist.

Gribbin, John R. (1946–): English astrophysicist and science-fiction writer.

Grijalva, Emily: American psychologist.

Grubbs, Joshua B.: American psychologist.

Gualtieri, Samantha: Canadian psychologist.

Guéguen, Nicolas: French psychologist.

Guerrero, Laura K.: American communication scholar.

Gumplowicz, Ludwig (1838–1909): German sociologist, jurist, and political scientist who coined the term ethnocentrism in 1879.

Gurumaa, Anandmurti (1966–): Indian guru.

Gutenberg, Johannes (1398–1468): German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced movable type printing to Europe in 1450. The printing press was key to the evolution of the Renaissance, Reformation, and Age of Enlightenment.

Guterres, António (1949–): Portuguese diplomat and politician (Socialist); 9th Secretary General of the United Nations (2017–).

Hacker, Jacob S.: American social policy and political analyst, interested in health care and economic insecurity.

Hagel, Chuck (1946–): American politician (Republican); US Defense Secretary (2013–2015).

Haggard, Patrick: English psychologist, interested in volition, sensation, and self-representation.

Haidt, Jonathan: American social psychologist.

Hall, Edward T. (1914–2009): American anthropologist.

Hall, Judith A.: American social psychologist.

Halley, Edmund (1656–1742): English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist; best remembered for his namesake comet.

Hamilin, J. Kiley: American psychologist.

Hamilton, William (1788–1856): Scottish metaphysician.

Hammond, Claudia (1971–): English psychologist, author, and media presenter.

Hand, David J.: English statistician.

Hạnh, Thích Nhất (1926–): Vietnamese Zen Buddhist monk.

Hanley, Lynsey: journalist, sociologist, and political analyst.

Hansen, Katherine: American psychologist.

Harari, Yuval Noah (1976–): Israeli historian.

Hardy, Thomas (1840–1928): English novelist and poet.

Harkness, Deborah (1955–): American scholar and novelist.

Harrington, Kelsey: American psychologist.

Harris, Paul L.: American psychologist.

Harris, Sam: American philosopher and cognitive scientist.

Haskins, Henry S. (1875–1957): American stockbroker.

Haslam, Nick: Australian psychologist.

Hassin, Ran R.: Israeli psychologist.

Hastie, Reid: American behaviorist.

Haun, Daniel B.M.: German social psychologist, interested in developmental and comparative psychology.

Hawking, Stephen (1942–2018): English theoretical physicist and cosmologist, interested in general relativity, especially black holes. Foolishly emboldened by his confidence in empirical science, Hawking asserted that “philosophy is dead.”

Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1804–1864): American novelist.

Hazlitt, William (1778–1830): English writer, literary and drama critic, painter, social commentator, and philosopher.

Hebb, Donald O. (1904–1985): Canadian neuropsychologist.

Hecht, Michael L.: American communication scholar.

Hehman, Eric: American psychologist.

Heller, Joseph (1923–1999): American author.

Hemmings, Sally (1773–1835): sex slave owned by Thomas Jefferson.

Henderson, Lawrence Joseph (1878–1942): American biochemist, physiologist, biologist, sociologist, and philosopher; best known for contributing to the equation used to calculate pH as a measure of acidity.

Hendricks, Vincent F. (1970–): Danish philosopher and logician.

Hendrikz, Derek: South African group consultant.

Henry VII (1457–1509): King of England and Lord of Ireland after seizing the crown in 1485. Though fiscally prudent, Henry VII was capricious, and instituted ruthless taxation.

Henrich, Joseph: American anthropologist.

Henslin, James (1937–): American sociologist and historian.

Hepburn, Audrey (1929–1993): English actress.

Heraclitus (535–475 bce): Turkish Greek energyist philosopher who believed in an ever-changing universe and a force of coherence creating a unity of existence.

Herbart, Johann Friedrich (1776–1841): German philosopher, psychologist, and founder of pedagogy: the theory of academic instruction.

Hergenhahn, B.R.: American psychologist.

Hernandez, Rosalba: American public health scholar.

Hero of Alexandria (aka Heron of Alexandria) (10–70 ce): Greek mathematician and engineer; considered the greatest experimenter of antiquity.

Herod (aka Herod the Great) (74/73–4 bce): Roman client king of Judea, Galilee, and Samaria.

Herodotus (~484–425 bce): Greek historian.

Hess, Ursula: Canadian psychologist.

Heywood, Wendy: Australian sociologist.

Hiatt, John (1952–): crafty and influential American songwriter, singer, and musician.

Higgins, Edmund S.: American psychiatrist.

Hilbert, David (1862–1943): German mathematician; one of the most influential mathematicians of his time.

Hill, Russell A.: English anthropologist.

Hillman, James (1926–2011): American psychologist who developed archetypal psychology.

Hills, Thomas T.: American psychologist.

Hippasus (5th century bce): Greek Pythagorean philosopher who is sometimes credited with the discovery of irrational numbers.

Hippocrates (~460–377 bce): Greek physician, considered the father of Western medicine.

Hirsh, Jacob B.: Canadian psychologist.

Hirst, William: American psychologist.

Hitchcock, Alfred (1899–1980): English film director, known for suspense movies and psychological thrillers.

Hitler, Adolf (1889–1945): Austrian-born German politician who founded and led the Nazi party, and his country, into the disastrous madness known as World War 2.

Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679): English philosopher, sociologist, and empiricist.

Hofmann, Hans (1880–1966): German-born American abstract expressionist painter.

Hoffmann, Stefan: German marketing academic.

Hofstede, Geert (1928–): Dutch social psychologist who developed cultural dimensions theory.

Hokusai, Katsushika (1760–1849): Japanese artist, ukioy-e painter, and printmaker, influenced by the 15th-century Japanese ink-and-wash painter Sesshū Tōyō.

Holmberg, Diane: American psychologist, interested in relationships.

Holmes, John G.: American psychologist, interested in interpersonal relations.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell Sr., (1809–1894): American physician and poet.

Holyoak, Keith J. (1950–): American cognitive psychologist, interested in human reasoning, learning, decision-making, and problem-solving.

Homer (~850 bce): legendary Greek poet and author, best known for the epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, both about the Mycenaean civilization.

Hood, Bruce: English developmental psychologist.

Horace (65–8 bce): Roman lyric poet.

Horden, William D.: American author, artist, and spiritualist.

Horney, Karen (1885–1952): German psychoanalyst.

Hoyle, Fred (1915–2001): English astronomer, mathematician, and science-fiction writer. One of Hoyle’s science-fiction beliefs was in a steady-state universe.

Hsu, Dennis Y.: Chinese American sociologist.

Hubbard, Elbert (1856–1915): American writer, artist and philosopher.

Hubbard, Ruth (1924–): Austrian American biologist.

Huesmann, L. Rowell: American psychologist and communication scholar.

Hulbert, Anya C.: American physicist, physiologist, cognitive scientist, and psychologist, interested in vision processing.

Hume, David (1711–1776): Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist; a logician known for empiricism and skepticism. In stark contrast to rationalists, such as Descartes, Hume believed that desire, not reason, drove human behavior.

Humphrey, Hubert H. (1911–1978): American politician (Democrat).

Hussain, Imran (1978–): English politician (Labour).

Hutcheson, Francis (1694–1746): Scottish philosopher.

Huxley, Aldous (1894–1963): English writer and philosopher.

Huygens, Christiaan (1629–1695): Dutch mathematician, astronomer, physicist, and horologist.

Ignatius of Loyola (1491–1556): Spanish priest and theologian who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).

Ingham, Harrington: American psychologist who co-developed the Johari window with Joseph Luft.

Ioannidis, John P.A. (1965–): American epidemiologist, interested in the misuse of statistics by scientists.

Irenaeus (late 2nd century–202 ce): Gallic Christian bishop, known for his 180 book Against Heresies, which attacked Gnostic Christian theology.

Irvine, William B.: American philosopher.

Isiah (8th century bce): Jewish prophet.

Itard, Jean-Marc-Gaspard (1774–1838): French physician who helped educate the deaf, and tried to socialize Victor of Aveyron.

Jack, Anthony I.: American psychologist, philosopher, and cognitive scientist.

Jackson, Andrew (1767–1845): American soldier, politician (founder of the Democratic Party), and statesman; 7th US President (1829–1837).

Jackson, Joshua: American psychologist, interested in personality changes.

Jacobs, A.J.: American writer.

Jaeggi, Adrian V.: Swiss anthropologist, interested in primate and human behavioral ecology.

Jahme, Carole: English psychologist.

Jakubowski, Kelly: American music psychologist.

James, William (1842–1910): American physician, psychologist, and philosopher.

Jaspers, Karl T. (1883–1969): German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher, often viewed as an exponent of existentialism, though he spurned the label.

Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826): American farmer, slave owner, and politician (Democratic-Republican); principal author of the of the Declaration of Independence (1776); outspoken proponent of democracy; 3rd US President (1801–1809); consistently considered as one of the greatest US Presidents.

Jenkins, Philip (1952–): American historian and religion scholar.

Jenness, Arthur: American social psychologist.

Jennings, David: English quantum physicist.

Jerome (347–420): Latin Christian priest, theologian, and historian.

Jervis, Robert (1940–): American political scientist, interested in misperceptions in foreign-policy decision-making.

Jesus (of Nazareth) (aka Jesus Christ) (7–2 bce–30–33 ce): Israeli Jewish carpenter and preacher who is regarded by Christians to have been the awaited Messiah (or Christ) referred to in the Old Testament. Jesus was crucified by Roman authorities for challenging societal order. (Crucifixion was reserved for crimes against the state by the lower classes, or for slaves who attacked their masters.) Though presumed literate, Jesus left no writings.

Jesus ben Ananias: Jewish farmer who went around Jerusalem correctly prophesying the city’s destruction 4 years before the First Jewish-Roman War began in 66 ce. Jesus himself was killed during the city’s siege.

Jetten, Jolanda: Australian social psychologist.

Jeyaloganathan, Vithu: Sri Lankan-born Canadian writer.

John the Baptist (late 1st century bce–~33 ce): Jewish itinerant preacher who taught of an imminent apocalypse, fond of baptism as a ritual.

John the Evangelist (1st century): according to legend, the youngest apostle of Jesus and Christian evangelist, traditionally ascribed as one of the authors of the canonical New Testament gospels.

Johnson, Amanda H.: American psychologist.

Johnson, Craig E.: American communication scholar.

Johnson, Dominic D.P.: English evolutionary biologist and political scientist.

Johnson, Dwayne (1972–): American football player, professional wrestler, and actor.

Johnson, Lyndon B. (aka LBJ) (1908–1973): American politician (Democrat); 36th US President (1963–1969).

Johnson, Robert: American psychologist.

Johnson, Samuel (1709–1784): English writer; a distinguished man of letters. Johnson’s English dictionary (1755) was a splendid work of scholarship with far-reaching effect.

Johnson-Laird, Philip N. (1936–): American psychologist.

Johnston, Lynn (1947–): Canadian cartoonist.

Johoda, Marie (1907–2001): Austrian British social psychologist.

Jones, Jason B.: American sociologist.

Jonson, Ben (1572–1637): English playwright and poet.

Josiah (aka Yoshiyahu) (657–609): Hebrew king (649–609) who took the throne at age 8, after his father, King Amon, was assassinated. The Bible describes Josiah as a very religious king.

Jost, John T.: American psychologist.

Joyce, James (1882–1941): Irish novelist and poet.

Jung, Carl (1875–1961): Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist.

Kahn, Herman (1922–1983): American systems theorist, military strategist, and futurist.

Kahneman, Daniel (1934–): Israeli American psychologist, interested in decision-making and judgment.

Kail, Robert V.: American psychologist, interested in human psychological development.

Kalish, Charles W.: American psychologist.

Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804): influential German philosopher.

Kappes, Andreas: German psychologist.

Karim, Reef: American psychiatrist.

Kaufman, James C. (1974–): American educational psychologist.

Kaufman, James H.: American psychologist.

Kaufman, Lloyd: American psychologist.

Kazi, Faraaz (1987–): Indian author.

Kaznatcheev, Artem: Canadian psychologist and computer scientist.

Keefe, Richard C.: American psychologist.

Kees, Weldon (1914–1955): American poet, painter, novelist, playwright, jazz pianist, and filmmaker.

Keller, Helen (1880–1968): American author who was blind and deaf through illness at 19 months old.

Kelman, Herbert C. (1927–): American social psychologist and ethicist.

Keltner, Dacher: American social psychologist.

Kelvin, Lord (William Thomson) (1837–1907): English mathematical physicist and engineer, best known for suggesting that there is an absolute lower limit to temperature: whence the Kelvin temperature scale.

Kenrick, Douglas T.: American psychologist.

Kepler, Johannes (1571–1630): German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer; best known for his law of planetary motion.

Keynes, John Maynard (1883–1946): English economist.

Keys, Ancel B. (1904–2004): American physiologist who successfully perpetrated the myth that heart disease was a matter of saturated-fat consumption.

Khaldun, Ibn (1332–1406): Tunisian historian who was a founding father of sociology and economics.

Khan, Tahira Shahid: Pakistani sociologist.

Kidd, Celeste: American psychologist, interested in developmental psychology.

Kierkegaard, Søren (1813–1855): Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, and social critic.

King, Martin Luther Jr. (1929–1968): American Baptist minister, humanitarian, and civil rights leader.

Kirnberger, Johann (1721–1783): German composer.

Kissinger, Henry (1923–): American diplomat.

Klein, Melanie (1882–1960): Austrian British psychoanalyst, interested in child psychology.

Knapp, Mark L. (1938–): American communication scholar.

Knobe, Joshua: American ethicist and experimental philosopher.

Knowles, Eric: American social psychologist.

Koch, Christof (1956–): American cognitive scientist, known for his work on the neural bases of consciousness.

Koelsch, Stefan: German psychologist.

Koester, Jolene: American communication scholar.

Koffka, Kurt (1886–1941): German Gestalt psychologist.

Kohlberg, Lawrence (1927–1987): American psychologist, interested in moral development.

Köhler, Wolfgang (1887–1967): Estonian Gestalt psychologist.

Kohn, Marek: English science scholar on evolution, biology, and society.

Köllner, Martin G.: German psychologist.

Koontz, Dean (1945–): American author.

Kornblum, William: American sociologist, interested in urban sociology and human ecology.

Kornell, Nate: American psychologist, interested in learning.

Kramer, Adam D.I.: American data scientist and statistician.

Krasnow, Max M.: American evolutionary psychologist.

Krauss, Stefan: German mathematician.

Kray, Laura J.: American psychologist.

Krech, David (1909–1977): American psychologist.

Kronecker, Leopold (1823–1891): German mathematician.

Krueger, Joachim I.: American social psychologist.

Kvavilashvili, Lia: Georgian psychologist.

Kwon, Diana: Korean-born Canadian cognitive scientist and science writer, interested in psychology.

Lakoff, Robin T. (1942–): American linguist.

Lama, Dalai (1935–): Tibetan Buddhist leader.

Lambert, Alan J.: American psychologist.

Landman, Janet: American psychologist.

Landsberger, Henry A. (1927–2017): German-born American sociologist, interested in social problems.

Langer, Ellen J.: American psychologist, interested in illusion of control, decision-making, aging, and mindfulness.

Lany, Jill: American psychologist.

Lao Tzu (aka Laozi, Lao-Tsu, Lao-Tze) (6th or 5th century bce): legendary Chinese scholar and philosopher. Inadvertent founder of Daoism, which teaches reverence of Nature, the value of patience, and a path to judicious existence. It is not known when, or even whether, Lao Tzu lived. The consensus opinion among 20th century scholars is that Lao Tzu’s most famous work – Tao Te Ching (Daodejing) – was a compilation of many authors. Ursula Le Guin noted that the work has a stylistic consistency which suggests a single primary author, with a few subsequent additions.

Latané, Bib (1937–): American social psychologist.

Laurent, Yves Saint (1936–2008): French fashion designer.

Lavater, Johann Kaspar (1741–1801): Swiss poet.

LBJ: see Johnson, Lyndon B.

Le Guin, Ursula K. (1929–): American author, best known for her fantasy and science-fiction novels.

L’Engle, Madeleine (1918–2007): American writer, best known for young-adult fiction, particularly A Wrinkle in Time (1963).

Leavitt, Keith: American management academic.

Ledgerwood, Alison: American social psychologist, interested in groups.

Lee, Daniel H.: American psychologist.

Leiber, Fritz (1910–1992): American fantasy, science-fiction, and horror novelist; credited with being one of the originators of sword-and-sorcery fantasy, as well as coining the term.

Leibniz, Gottfried (1646–1716): German mathematician who discovered calculus and philosopher and who believed in reincarnation.

Leibowitz, Kenneth: American communication scholar.

Lenin, Vladimir (Vladimir Ulyanov) (1870–1924): Russian political theorist, communist revolutionary, and ruler of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union (1917–1924).

Lennon, John (1940–1980): English musician who co-founded the popular music group The Beatles (1960–1970).

Lennox, Annie (1954–): Scottish singer-songwriter.

Lenoir, Brandon W.: American political scientist.

LeRoux, Kelly: American public administration academic.

Leslie, Ian (1972–): English writer.

Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1908–2009): French anthropologist and ethologist.

Levine, Timothy R.: American communications scholar.

Levy, Benjamin J.: American psychologist.

Lewin, Kurt (1890–1947): German American psychologist who answered the hoary question of “Nature versus nurture” by suggesting that both interact to shape each person.

Lewis, David M.G.: American psychologist.

Liberman, Nira: Israeli psychologist, interested in cognition and motivation.

Libeskind, Daniel (1946–): Polish American architect and artist.

Libet, Benjamin: American physiologist.

Lin Bian: Chinese American developmental psychologist.

Lincoln, Abraham (1809–1865): American politician (Republican); 16th US President (1860–1865).

Linde-Domingo, Juan: Spanish psychologist, interested in memory.

Lindner, Isabel: German psychologist.

Linnaeus, Carl (1707–1778): Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who is widely considered the father of taxonomy, despite numerous wrong guesses, including lumping amphibians and reptiles together as a single class.

Liu Bang (256–195 bce): Chinese warlord who founded the Han dynasty, reigning as 1st emperor (Emperor Gaozu of Han) (202–195 bce).

Livio, Mario (1945–): Israeli astrophysicist and author.

Lobachevsky, Nikolai I. (1802–1860): Russian mathematician, early developer of non-Euclidean geometry, known primarily for his work in hyperbolic geometry.

Locke, John (1632–1704): English philosopher and physician.

Loeb, Abraham (Avi): Israeli American astrophysicist.

Loewenstein, George (1955–): American educator and economist, interested in behavioral economics.

Loftus, Elizabeth F.: American psychologist.

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth (1807–1882): American poet and educator.

Longworth, Alice Roosevelt (1884–1980): American writer and socialite.

Lord, Charles G.: American psychologist.

Lorenz, Konrad (1903–1989): Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist who studied instinctive behavior in animals, especially birds.

Lovecraft, H.P. (1890–1937): American author.

Luckmann, Thomas (1927–2016): Austrian American sociologist.

Lucretius (99–55 bce): Roman philosopher and poet.

Luft, Joseph (1916–2014): American psychologist who co-developed the Johari window with Harrington Ingram.

Luisi, Pier Luigi (1938–): Italian chemist.

Luke the Evangelist (1st century): Greek physician and Christian evangelist, traditionally ascribed as one of the authors of the canonical New Testament gospels. The compositional quality of the gospel of Luke indicates the author as erudite.

Lupyan, Gary: American psychologist, interested in linguistics.

Luria, Alexander R. (1902–1977): Russian psychologist

Lustig, Myron W.: American communication scholar.

Luther, Martin (1483–1546): German friar and Catholic priest who founded Protestantism after being excommunicated from the Catholic Church.

Lytle, Sarah Roseberry: American psychologist, interested in early childhood learning.

MacDonald, Angus III: American psychologist.

MacDonald, Pat (1952–): American musician.

Mach, Ernest (1838–1916): Austrian physicist and philosopher.

Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469–1527): Italian historian, politician, diplomat, and philosopher; one of the founders of modern political science.

Of mankind we may say in general they are fickle, hypocritical, and greedy of gain. ~ Niccolò Machiavelli

Macionis, John J.: American sociologist.

Maffetone, Philip B.: American health enthusiast.

Madders, Tom: English mental health social worker.

Maharaj, Nisargadatta (1897–1981): Indian guru.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (born Mahesh Prasad Varma) (1917–2008): Indian guru who taught meditation.

Maharshi, Ramana (1879–1950) (born Venkataraman Iyer): Indian guru.

Mahavira: 9th-century Hindu mathematician.

Mai, Robert: German marketing academic.

Malamuth, Neil M.: American psychologist.

Malkiel, Burton G. (1932–): American economist.

Malle, Bertram F.: Austrian American psychologist, philosopher, and linguist, interested in social cognition.

Malinowski, Bronisław (1884–1942): Polish anthropologist.

Malloch, Douglas (1877–1938): American poet and writer.

Malthus, Thomas (1766–1834): English cleric and scholar; the first to worry that mass prosperity would beget a population explosion.

Maltz, Maxwell (1889–1975): American cosmetic surgeon.

Mandela, Nelson (1918–2013): South African politician.

Mandelbrot, Benoît B. (1924–2010): Polish-born French American mathematician, best known for his work on fractals.

Manis, Jean D.: American psychologist.

Mankowski, Guy (1983–): English writer.

Mann, Leon: Australian psychologist.

Mansuy, Isabelle M.: Swiss behavioral zoologist.

Mao Zedong (aka Mao Tse-tung) (1893–1976): Chinese revolutionary.

Mark the Evangelist (1st century): Christian evangelist, traditionally ascribed as one of the authors of the canonical New Testament gospels.

Markman, Keith D.: American psychologist, interested in counterfactual thinking, regret, and mental simulation.

Markov, Andrey (1856–1922): Russian mathematician who studied stochastic process and developed the Markov chain.

Marlowe, Christopher (1564–1593): English playwright, poet, and translator who greatly influenced Shakespeare, who was born in the same year.

Marno, Hanna: Hungarian psychologist.

Marsh, Peter (1946–2014): English social psychologist.

Martin, Rod A.: Canadian psychologist.

Martineau, Harriet (1802–1876): English sociologist, commonly credited as the first woman in the occupation.

Marulić, Marko (1450–1524): Croatian humanist and poet who coined the term psychology in 1506.

Marx, Groucho (born Julian Henry Marx) (1890–1977): American comedian.

Marx, Karl (1818–1883): Prussian German historian, sociologist, and economist, best known as a proponent of (scientific) socialism: social ownership and cooperative economic management.

Maslow, Abraham (1908–1970): American psychologist, best known for his proposed human hierarchy of needs.

Mason, Malia: American psychologist.

Mason, Marilyn J.: American psychologist.

Matthew the Apostle (aka Levi) (1st century): apostle of Jesus and Christian evangelist, traditionally ascribed as one of the authors of the canonical New Testament gospels.

Mayo, George Elton (1880–1949): Australian psychologist, industrial researcher, and organizational theorist.

McCann, Vivian: American psychologist.

McCartney, Paul (1942–): English musician who co-founded the popular music group The Beatles (1960–1970).

McClelland, David C. (1917–1998): American psychologist, interested in motivation.

McDonald, Michael (1952–): American singer, songwriter, keyboardist, and music producer.

McDougall, William (1871–1938): English psychologist, interested in instinct and social psychology; an opponent of behaviorism, and so outside the mainstream of thought at the time.

McFarland, Cathy: Canadian psychologist.

McGaugh, James L.: American neurobiologist.

McKenzie, Craig R.M.: American psychologist.

McSally, Martha (1966–): American politician (Republican).

Mead, George H. (1863–1931): American social psychologist and philosopher.

Mehta, Vinita: American psychologist.

Melcher, David: American psychologist.

Meltzoff, Andrew N. (1950–): American developmental psychologist.

Melucci, Nancy J.: American psychologist.

Menander (341–290 bce): Greek dramatist.

Mencken, H.L. (1880–1956): American journalist, satirist, cultural critic, and American English scholar; an influential American writer in the 1st half of the 20th century.

Menzies, Allan (1845–1916): English religion scholar.

Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike: American mathematician.

Metts, Sandra: American psychologist.

Meyer, Leonard B. (1918–2007): American composer and musicologist.

Milgram, Stanley (1933–1984): influential American social psychologist.

Mill, John Stuart (1806–1873): English philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

Millar, Margaret (1915–1994): American Canadian novelist.

Miller, Dale T.: American social psychologist.

Miller, George A. (1920–2012): American psychologist; one of the founders of cognitive psychology.

Mills, Charles Wright (1916–1962): American sociologist.

Milton, John (1608–1674): English polemicist, man of letters, civil servant, and poet.

Minai, Utako: Japanese linguist.

Minsky, Marvin (1927–2016): American cognitive scientist, interested in artificial intelligence.

Mishra, Arul: Indian psychologist, interested in marketing and decision-making.

Mishra, Himanshu: Indian psychologist, interested in marketing and decision-making.

Mitchell, David (1969–): English novelist.

Mithen, Steven: English archeologist.

Miyata, Yo: Japanese psychologist.

Molm, Linda D.: American sociologist.

Mondrian, Piet (1872–1944): Dutch abstract painter, famous for his linear but asymmetrical abstract works employing only primary colors.

Moneti, Francesca: Italian humanitarian.

Montagu, Ashley (born Israel Ehrenberg) (1905–1999): English American anthropologist, interested in race and gender.

Montesquieu (aka Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu) (1689–1755): French lawyer and political philosopher.

Moon, Christine M.: American psychologist, interested in development of sound and voice perception in humans.

More, Henry (1614–1687): English Platonist philosopher and rationalist theologian. Rejecting Cartesian dualism while accepting Descartes’ mechanistic view of Nature, More embraced monism and argued that souls and an extradimensional spirit plane existed.

Morewedge, Carey K.: American social psychologist.

Morgan, John Pierpont, Sr. (1837–1913): American financier.

Morgenstern, Oskar (1902–1977): German economist who developed mathematical game theory.

Morris, Desmond (1928–): English zoologist and ethologist.

Morrison, Jim (1943–1971): American singer/songwriter in the musical group The Doors (1965–1973).

Mosca, Gaetano (1858–1941): Italian jurist and political theorist.

Moser, Petra: American economist, interested in innovation.

Moss-Racusin, Corrine A.: American psychologist.

Moya, Horacio Castellanos (1957–): Salvadoran novelist.

Muchnik, Lev: Israeli social statistician.

Mugford, Simon T.: English biologist.

Muhammad (570–632): Arabian religious and political leader who founded the Islamic religion; believed by Muslims to be the prophet of Allāh.

Müller-Lyer, Franz Carl (1857–1916): German psychologist and sociologist.

Murdoch, Rupert (1931–): Australian media mogul.

Murray, Henry A. (1893–1988): American psychologist, interested in personality. While at Harvard University, 1959–1962, Murray was responsible for unethical experiments on unwitting subjects as part of the US government’s research in mind control.

Murray, Sandra L.: American social psychologist.

Mussweiler, Thomas: German psychologist.

Myers, David G.: American psychologist.

Myers, Isabel Briggs (1897–1980): American author and co-creator of the Myers-Briggs personality type test.

Naiqi (Gabriel) Xio: Chinese psychologist.

Naylor, Rebecca: American marketing professor.

Neave, Nick: English psychologist.

Neisser, Ulric (1928–2012): German-born American psychologist who coined and popularized the term cognitive psychology.

Nelson, Dean E.: American journalist.

Nelson, Ximena: New Zealander zoologist and physiologist, interested in animal behavior.

Newby-Clark, Ian R.: Canadian psychologist.

Newcombe, Nora: American psychologist.

Newman, James R. (1907–1966): American mathematician and mathematics historian.

Newton, Isaac (1642–1727): English physicist, astronomer, alchemist, mathematician, natural philosopher, and theologian; widely considered to be one of the greatest and most influential scientists. Classical mechanics are typically termed Newtonian physics.

Neyman, Jerzy (1894–1981): Polish mathematician and statistician who introduced the confidence interval into statistics in 1937.

Nichols, Shaun: American philosopher.

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900): German philosopher, philogist, composer, and poet that embraced existentialism and nihilism. Existentialism embraces individual experience as the proper path to understanding. Nihilism posits that life is subjectively valuated.

Nin, Anaïs (1903–1977): American author.

Nisbett, Richard E. (1941–): American social psychologist.

Nixon, Richard (1913–1994): American politician (Republican); 37th US President (1969–1974).

Norenzayan, Ara: Lebanese Canadian psychologist.

North, Adrian: English music psychologist.

Obama, Barak (1961–): American politician (Democrat); 44th US President (2009–2016).

Olivarius, Ann: American attorney and solicitor of England Wales.

Oller, D. Kimbrough: American psycholinguist, interested in infant vocalization.

Olson, Kristina R.: American psychologist.

Omori, Yasuko: Japanese psychologist.

Orwell, George (pseudonym of Eric Arthur Blair) (1903–1950): English novelist, best known for the allegorical novella Animal Farm (1945) and the dystopian political novel 1984 (1949). Orwell was keenly aware of social injustice, committed to democratic socialism, and opposed to totalitarianism.

Ossendrijver, Mathieu: German astroarchaeologist.

Ouspensky, P.D. (1878–1947): Russian esotericist.

Ovid (43 bce–17 ce): Roman poet who greatly influenced Western art and literature.

Packel, Edward W.: American mathematician.

Packer, Dominic J.: American psychologist.

Paine, Thomas (1737–1809): English American revolutionary, writer, and corset-maker.

Palihapitiya, Chamath: Indian American social media maven and former Facebook executive.

Parker, Gordon: Australian psychiatrist.

Parkinson, Brian: English psychologist.

Parsons, Talcott (1902–1979): American sociologist.

Pascal, Blaise (1623–1662): French Christian philosopher, physicist, mathematician, inventor, writer; a child prodigy.

Patel, Vikram (1964–): Indian psychologist.

Patterson, Richard: American social psychologist.

Patzelt, Annika: German cognitive ethologist.

Paul of Tarsus (aka Paul the Apostle, Saul of Tarsus) (5–67): Roman Christian evangelist (not one of the original apostles).

Paul, Pope John II (born Karol Józef Wojtyla) (1920–2005): head of the Catholic Church (1978–2005).

Pavlov, Ivan (1849–1936): Russian physiologist known for his work in classical conditioning.

Paz-Alonso, Pedro M.: Spanish cognitive scientist.

Pearson, Joel: Australian psychologist and neurobiologist.

Perls, Fritz: German psychiatrist who co-developed Gestalt therapy with Laura Perls and Paul Goodman.

Perls, Laura (1905–1990): German psychiatrist who co-developed Gestalt therapy with Fritz Perls and Paul Goodman.

Pert, Candace (1946–2013): American pharmacologist and cognitive scientist.

Peter, Laurence J. (1919–1990): Canadian educator, known for the Peter principle.

Peterson, Jordan B.: Canadian psychologist.

Petrarch (Petrarca), Francesco (1304–1374): Italian poet and scholar who coined the term Dark Ages; one of the earliest humanists.

Pettigrew, Thomas F.: American sociologist.

Phelps, Elizabeth A.: American psychologist, interested in memory, learning, and emotion.

Philipp, Sebastian T.: German neurobiologist.

Piaget, Jean (1896–1980): Swiss developmental psychologist.

Pierce, Franklin (1804–1869): American politician (Democrat); 14th US President (1853–1857). Pierce was a doughface: a Northerner with Southern sympathy toward slavery. Pierce, widely considered one of the worst Presidents, was abandoned by his own party, and not renominated to run in the 1856 election. Pierce declared his support for the Confederacy during the Civil War.

Pierson, Paul (1959–): American political scientist.

Pieters, Rik: Dutch marketing academic.

Pilon, Juliana Geran: sociologist.

Pinker, Steven (1954–): Canadian experimental cognitive psychologist; considered by some to be one of the world’s most influential 21st-century intellectuals, which is a sad statement of how momentous misinformation can be.

Pirnot, Thomas L.: American mathematician.

Pizarro, David A.: American psychologist, interested in moral judgment and the impact of emotions on cognition.

Planck, Max (1858–1947): German physicist who founded quantum field theory, then rejected it out of philosophic revulsion, owing to the indeterminate nature of wave/particle duality. Planck philosophically preferred determinism.

Plato (424–348 bce): Greek philosopher and mathematician. Among other things, Plato espoused knowledge as received wisdom, and of a dichotomy between the appearance of reality and reality itself.

Plutarch (of Chaeronea) (46–120): Greek historian, essayist, and biographer.

Poincaré, Henri (1854–1912): French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and science philosopher.

Pollick, Frank: English psychologist.

Ponzo, Mario (1882–1960): Italian psychologist who discovered the Ponzo illusion.

Poon, Connie S.K.: Canadian psychologist.

Pope, Alexander (1688–1744): English poet, best known for his satirical verse, and for his translation of Homer.

Popkin, Barry (1944–): American nutritionist.

Portman, Natalie (1981–): Israeli American actress and movie maker.

Poti, Jennifer M.: American nutritionist, interested in public nutrition policy.

Pratto, Felicia: American social psychologist.

Presley, Elvis (1935–1977): American singer.

Preston, Jesse: American social psychologist, interested in the conflict between science and religion.

Priestley, Joseph (1733–1804): English political theorist, Unitarian minister, and theologian.

Proffitt, Dennis R.: American psychologist.

Progoff, Ira (1921–1998): American psychotherapist, interested in Jungian psychology. Progoff was particularly interested in depth psychology, which supposedly takes the unconscious into account.

Pronin, Emily: American psychologist.

Propper, Carol: English economist.

Proulx, Travis: American psychologist, interested in mental anomalies.

Proust, Marcel (1871–1922): French writer. Proust is best remembered for the 7-volume novel In Search of Lost Time (aka Remembrance of Things Past), thematically concerned with involuntary memory. Proust paid for publication of the 1st volume after it was turned down by publishers of the day. Influential to 20th-century literature, the work ran to 1.5 million words: one of the longest novels in history.

Putin, Vladimir V. (1952–): Russian spy and politician; Russian President (2000–2008, 2012–).

Pythagoras (570–495 bce): Ionian Greek mathematician and philosopher, best known for the Pythagorean theorem, which was previously known by the Babylonians and Indians. Pythagoras believed in transmigration of the soul: reincarnation into various life forms. Pythagoras reputedly recalled 4 previous lives and heard the cry of a deceased friend in the bark of a dog.

Qin Shi Huang (259–210 bce): founder of the Qin dynasty and 1st emperor of a unified China, taking the name Zheng, the King of Qin.

Quinon, Paula: Swedish philosopher, interested in natural numbers, social media, and the effects on computerization on people.

Raisman, Aly (1994–): American gymnast.

Rajneesh (born Chandra Mohan Jain; aka Osho, Shree Rajneesh, Acharya Rajneesh) (1931–1990): Indian guru.

Ramachandran, Vilayanur S. (1951–): Indian cognitive scientist, interested in behavioral neurology and visual psychophysics.

Ramsey, James B. (1937–): Canadian econometrician.

Rand, Ayn (1905–1982): Russian American novelist and philosopher; adamant proponent of laissez-faire capitalism.

Rand, David G.: American psychologist.

Rapp, David N.: American psychologist.

Ray, John (1627–1705): English naturalist, botanist, and Anglican parson.

Raymond, Jennifer: American neurobiologist and academic.

Raymond, Paula: American social psychologist.

Rees, Martin (1942–): British astrophysicist and cosmologist.

Regan, Pamela C: American psychologist.

Reid, Thomas (1710–1796): Scottish philosopher who played an integral role in the Scottish Enlightenment.

Remland, Martin S.: American communication scholar.

Rich, Adrienne (1929–2012): American feminist, poet, and essayist.

Richardson, Deborah R.: American psychologist.

Richeson, Jennifer: American social psychologist.

Rickers-Ovsiankina, Maria (1898–1993): Russian psychologist.

Riemann, Bernhard (1826–1866): German mathematician who contributed to number theory, differential geometry, and analysis. Riemann’s pioneering contributions to differential geometry laid the foundations for the mathematical treatment of general relativity.

Rilke, Rainer Maria (1875–1926): Bohemian Austrian poet and novelist.

Rindfleisch, Aric (1965–): American marketing professor.

Ritts, Vicki: American psychologist.

Ritzer, George (1940–): American sociologist.

Robbins, Tony (1960–): American life coach.

Robinson, Daniel N.: American psychologist.

Robinson, Ken (1950–): English consultant on arts education.

Robinson, Robert J.: American psychologist.

Roddenberry, Gene (1921–1991): American television screenwriter.

Roese, Neal J.: American psychologist.

Roethke, Theodore (1908–1963): American poet.

Rogers, Todd: American behavioral scientist, interested in public policy.

Rogers, Will (1879–1935): American cowboy, actor, and humorist.

Roll, Barbara Honeyman Heath (1910–1998): American physical anthropologist, interested in somatyping.

Romano, Angelo: Italian psychologist, interested in cooperation.

Römer, Thomas: French Bible scholar.

Roosevelt, Franklin D. (aka FDR) (1882–1945): American politician (Democrat); 32nd US President (1932–1945).

Roosevelt, Theodore Jr. (Teddy) (1858–1919): American politician (Republican), adventurer, and killer of wild animals (“naturalist” would be too kind an attribution, as Roosevelt enjoyed slaughter much more than study); 26th US President (1901–1909).

Rosenthal, Robert (1933–): American psychologist, interested in self-fulfilling prophecies.

Ross, Michael: Canadian psychologist.

Roux, Joseph (1834–1905): French Catholic parish priest, poet, and philologist.

Rowling, J.K. (1965–): pen name of Joanne “Jo” Rowling; best known for her Harry Potter young-adult fantasy novels.

Rubin, Edgar (1886–1951): Danish psychologist. Though Rubin’s theories were influential to Gestalt psychology, he is not typically considered a cornerstone of Gestalt; nor did he consider himself a Gestalt psychologist, as he was “skeptical of their attempts to construct wide-ranging theories.” Nonetheless, Kurt Koffka retained Rubin’s terminology in his book: Principles of Gestalt Psychology (1935).

Rubin, Marty (1930–1994): American novelist.

Rudman, Laurie A.: American psychologist.

Ruesch, Jurgen (1910–1995): American psychiatrist.

Rui Fan: Chinese sociologist.

Russell, Bertrand (1872–1970): English philosopher, logician, mathematician, and historian.

Russell, Eric M.: American psychologist.

Saffran, Jenny R.: American psychologist.

Sagan, Carl E. (1934–1996): American astronomer and science writer, interested in extraterrestrial life.

Salk, Jonas (1914–1995): American medical researcher and virologist, known for developing one of the first successful polio vaccines.

Salovey, Peter (1958–): American social psychologist.

Saltz, Julia: American evolutionary biologist.

Sanchez, Diana T.: American social psychologist.

Santayana, George (1863–1952): Spanish American philosopher.

Sapir, Edward (1884–1939): American anthropologist-linguist.

Sarabian, Cecile: French Iranian primatologist.

Sarno, John E. (1923–): American physician, interested in psychosomatic illness.

Sarnoff, David (1891–1971): Russian-born American radio and television pioneer, leading Radio Corporation of America (RCA) from shortly after its 1919 founding until his retirement in 1970. Sarnoff turned RCA into a telecommunications and media empire that included RCA and NBC, becoming one of the largest companies in the world.

Saroglou, Vassilis: Walloon psychologist, interested in religiosity.

Sartre, Jean-Paul (1905–1980): French philosopher.

Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue: American primatologist and psychologist.

Saxe, Rebecca: American psychologist.

Schacter, Daniel L.: American psychologist.

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von (1775–1854): German philosopher who coined the term unconscious in 1800.

Schiller, Daniela: American cognitive scientist and psychiatrist.

Schkade, David A.: American psychologist.

Schmidt, Karen L.: American psychologist.

Schooler, Jonathan W.: American psychologist.

Schopenhauer, Arthur (1788–1860): German philosopher who believed that humans were driven through life by a continually dissatisfied will.

Schroder, Hans S.: American psychologist.

Schultheiss, Oliver C.: German psychologist.

Schulz, Jonathan F.: American economist, interested in cultural norms.

Schulz, Laura: American cognitive scientist, interested in early childhood learning.

Schwarzenegger, Arnold (1947–): Austrian-born American bodybuilder, movie actor, and American politician (Republican).

Schweighofer, Nicolas: French cognitive scientist.

Schweitzer, Albert (1875–1965): French German theologian, philosopher, and physician.

Scoboria, Alan: Canadian psychologist.

Scott, Walter (1771–1832): Scottish historical novelist, playwright, and poet, many of whose works remain literary classics. Though remembered as a writer, Scott worked as a lawyer and jurist.

Searle, John R. (1932–): American philosopher.

Seattle (an anglicization of Si’ahl) (1786–1866): Native American chief of the Suquamish and Duwamish tribes in present-day US Washington state. Seattle pursued a path of accommodation with white settlers. The city of Seattle is named after the chief.

Segal, Mady W.: American sociologist.

Segal, Sabrina: American psychologist, interested in stress management.

Seife, Charles: American author and journalist, interested in science and mathematics.

Seneca (Lucius Annaeus Seneca, aka Seneca the Younger) (4 bce–65): Roman philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and humorist.

Seurat, Georges-Pierre (1859–1891): French painter and draftsman.

Shadmehr, Reza: Iranian cognitive scientist.

Shah, James: American psychologist.

Shakespeare, William (1564–1616): English playwright and poet; widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language. Shakespeare wrote 38 plays, 2 long narrative poems, and 154 sonnets.

Shaku, Soyen (1860 –1919): Japanese Zen monk; the first Zen Buddhist master to teach in the United States.

Shalvi, Shaul: Dutch social psychologist.

Shannon, Claude E. (1916–2001): American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer, interested in implementing symbolic logic via machinery. Shannon founded circuit design theory (1937) and information theory (1948).

Shariff, Azim F.: Canadian psychologist.

Shaw, George Bernard (1856–1950): Irish playwright, angered by the exploitation of the working class; an ardent socialist.

Sheldon, William H. (1898–1977): American psychologist who hypothesized a correlation between body type (somatotype) and personality.

Shelling, Thomas C. (1921–): American economist.

Sher, Shlomi: American psychologist.

Shereshevsky, Solomon (1886–1958): Russian journalist and mnemonist.

Sherif, Muzafer (1906–1988): Turkish American social psychologist; a seminal founder of modern social psychology.

Sherman, Jeremy E.: American psychologist, interested in public policy.

Shiffrin, Richard M.: American cognitive scientist.

Shiller, Robert J. (1946–): American economist.

Shirazi, Saadi (1184–1291): Persian poet.

Shovelton, Heather: English psychologist.

Shtulman, Andrew: American psychologist.

Sidanius, Jim: English psychologist.

Siegel, Bertram: American psychologist.

Signac, Paul (1863–1935): French painter and art theorist.

Silesius, Angelus (1624–1677): German Catholic priest, physician, and poet.

Silver, Roxane Cohen: American social psychologist.

Simmel, Georg (1858–1918): German sociologist.

Simon, Herbert A. (1916–2001): American political scientist, sociologist, psychologist, economist, and computer scientist. Simon was one of the most influential sociologists of the 20th century.

Simon, Paul (1941–): American musician.

Simon, Théodore (1872–1961): French psychologist who, in collaboration with Théodore Simon, developed the first intelligence tests which met widespread acceptance.

Simons, Daniel J.: American psychologist.

Simpson, George Gaylord (1902–1984): American paleontologist, influential in evolutionary theory.

Simpson, Homer: a character in the American cartoon TV series (1989–) about the Simpson family, entitled The Simpsons.

1Skelton, Alice E.: English psychologist.

Skinner, B.F. (1904–1990): American behaviorist psychologist.

Sloterdijk, Peter: German philosopher.

Sloutsky, Vladimir: Russian psychologist.

Slovic, Paul (1938–): American psychologist.

Small, Albion W. (1854–1926): American sociologist.

Smith, Adam (1723–1790): Scottish moral philosopher who advocated laissez-faire capitalism.

Smith, David Livingstone: English philosopher.

Smith, Edward J. (1850–1912): English naval reserve officer who captained the ship Titanic.

Smith, Joseph (1805–1844): American religious leader, founder of the Mormon church (Mormonism) (aka Latter-Day Saints).

Smith, Tiffany Watt: English philosopher.

Snow, Jacqueline: American psychologist.

Socrates (469–399 bce): Athenian Greek philosopher.

He is richest who is content with the least, for contentment is the wealth of Nature. ~ Socrates

Solomon, Andrew (1963–): American writer on psychology, politics, and culture.

Solzhenitsyn, Alexander (1918–2008): Russian novelist and historian.

Sommerfeld, Ralf D.: German evolutionary ecologist.

Sophocles (~497–406 bce): Greek playwright (tragedian) who wrote over 120 plays.

Sorel, Georges (1847–1922): French political philosopher.

Soros, George (1930–): Hungarian American business magnate and political activist.

Spalding, Douglas (1841–1877): English biologist who discovered imprinting and the Baldwin effect in the early 1870s.

Spearman, Charles (1863–1945): English psychologist, known for his work in statistics as a pioneer in factor analysis. Spearman did seminal work on measuring human intelligence, notably his theory of general intelligence, which may be gleaned through disparate cognitive test scores.

Spelke, Elizabeth S.: American psychologist.

Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903): English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and liberal political theorist.

Sperry, Roger W. (1913–1994): American neuropsychologist.

Spinoza, Baruch (born Benedito de Espinosa, aka Benedict de Spinoza) (1632–1677): Dutch philosopher who laid the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment. Spinoza believed that personal well-being was the primary driver of behavior, an idea that anticipated evolutionary psychology. In viewing pain, pleasure, and desire as indicators of well-being, Spinoza anticipated Freud’s pleasure principle. Spinoza thought that appraisal of a situation determines emotional response and that we change our emotions by changing our thoughts, which is the basic principle of cognitive therapy.

Sprecher, Susan: American psychologist.

Spruzheim, Johann Gaspar (1766–1832): German physician who popularized phrenology.

Standing, Guy: English social economist.

Stanovich, Keith E.: Canadian psychologist, interested in the psychologies of reasoning and reading.

Steinbeck, John (1902–1968): American novelist.

Steiner, Rudolf (1861–1925): Austrian philosopher, social reformer, esotericist, and architect.

Stephens, James (1800–1950): Irish novelist and poet.

Stern, William (1871–1938): German psychologist and philosopher, interested in personality and intelligence. Stern coined the term intelligence quotient (IQ).

Sternberg, Robert J. (1949–): American psychologist.

Stier, Haya: Israeli sociologist.

Stinnett, Suzanna Beth: American author and feminist.

Storr, Anthony (1920–2001): English psychoanalyst and psychiatrist.

Stout, Martha: American psychologist.

Strack, Fritz: German psychologist.

Strauss-Kahn, Dominique (1949–): French politician and diplomat.

Streep, Meryl (1949–): American actress.

Strohminger, Nina: American psychologist.

Strong, Barrett (1941–): American singer and songwriter.

Strong, Josiah (1847–1916): American Protestant clergyman who called for social justice.

Sullivan, J.W.N. (1886–1937): English science writer and literary journalist.

Sumner, William G. (1840–1910): American sociologist, historian, political theorist, and anthropologist. A classical liberal, Sumner supported laissez-faire economics. An opponent of imperialism, Sumner employed the term ethnocentrism to explain its roots. Sumner had a lasting influence on conservative thought in the United States.

Sunday, Billy (1862–1935): American athlete and evangelical Christian preacher.

Sunstein, Cass R. (1954–): American behavioral economist and legal scholar.

Swaab, Dick F. (1944–): Dutch neurobiologist and physician.

Swaab, Roderick I.: Dutch communication scientist.

Swami, Viren: Malaysian psychologist.

Swartz, Luke: American software analyst.

Sylvester, James Joseph (1814–1897): English mathematician.

Symons, Donald (1942–): American anthropologist; one of the founders of evolutionary psychology.

Synder, Charles R. (1944–2006): American psychologist.

Tajfel, Henri (1919–1982): Polish social psychologist, interested in social judgment.

Tantaros, Andrea (1978–): American political analyst and commentator.

Tarr, Bronwyn: English psychologist and dancer.

Tart, Charles T.: American psychologist.

Taylor, Frederick Winslow (1856–1915): American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial productivity. Taylor was one of the first management consultants.

Taylor, Howard F.: American sociologist.

Taylor, Shelley E. (1946–): American psychologist.

Teresa, Mother (1910–1997): Albanian Catholic sister. Though widely admired for devoting her life to helping others, Mother Teresa was criticized for her opposition to contraception, and for the substandard conditions of the hospices which she was responsible for.

Terman, Lewis (1877–1956): American psychologist, interested in intelligence tests.

Thaler, Richard H. (1945–): American economist.

Tharp, Twyla (1941–): American dancer, choreographer, and author.

Thatcher, Margaret (1925–2013): English politician (Conservative); British Prime Minister (1975–1990).

Thaxton, Charles B. (1939–): American physical chemist and creationism advocate.

Theophrastus (371–287 bce): Greek philosopher.

Thisted, Ronald A.: American statistician.

Thomas, Dorothy Swaine (1899–1977): American sociologist and economist.

Thomas, William Isaac (1863–1947): American sociologist, interested in migration.

Thompson, Dorothy (1893–1961): American journalist and radio broadcaster.

Thompson, Suzanne C.: American psychologist.

Thoreau, Henry David (1817–1862): American author, poet, philosopher, and historian.

Thorndike, Edward (1874–1949): American psychologist, interested in learning.

Thurber, James (1894–1961): American author, cartoonist, playwright, and journalist.

Tieu, Lyn: Canadian Chinese linguist.

Tinbergen, Nikolaas (1907–1988): Dutch ethologist and ornithologist.

Titchener, Edward B. (1867–1927): English psychologist, best known for describing the structure of the mind like a chemist describes a chemical compound. Titchener was an autocrat, and thoroughly sexist, as demonstrated by his ironclad ban on women from the psychologists’ association he founded (The Experimentalists). Titchener’s school of structuralism, experimentally discerned via introspection, and held together by his own force of will, died with him. But he was influential, by those who expanded on some of his lines of thought, and by opponents to his notions, who founded functionalism.

Toch, Hans: American social psychologist who studied violent people.

Todd, Rebecca M.: American psychologist, interested in memory.

Tolle, Eckhart (1948–): German guru.

Tolstoy, Leo (1828–1910): Russian writer, philosopher, and political thinker.

Tomasello, Michael (1950–): American developmental and comparative psychologist.

Tompkins, Matt: American psychologist and magician.

Tönnies, Ferdinand (1855–1936): German sociologist and philosopher who studied societal adhesion.

Tooby, John: American anthropologist, interested in evolutionary psychology.

Townshend, Pete (1945–): English musician who founded the musical group The Who (1964–1983, 1989, 1996–).

Trevanian (pseudonym of Rodney William Whitaker) (1931–2005): American novelist and film scholar.

Trigger, Bruce G. (1937–2006): Canadian anthropologist and archeologist.

Trivers, Robert L. (1943–): American evolutionary biologist and sociobiologist.

Trope, Yaacov: Israeli psychologist, interested in judgment and decision-making.

Trump, Donald (1946–): American real estate magnate, con artist, and plutocrat who disguised himself as a populist politician (Republican) to barely become the 45th US President (2017–), thanks to Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election and a corrupt electoral system.

Turchin, Peter (1957–): Russian American scientist, interested in societal evolution.

Turquet, Pierre (1913–1975): English psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, interested in group relations.

Tversky, Amos (1937–1996): Israeli American psychologist.

Twain, Mark (pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens) (1835–1910): talented American author, prized for his satire and wit. Best known for the novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885).

Twenge, Jean M. (1971–): American psychologist, interested in the psychological differences between generations of Americans.

Vaillant, George E. (1934–): American psychiatrist.

Valéry, Paul (1871–1945): French poet and philosopher.

Vallacher, Robin R.: American psychologist.

Van Bavel, Jay J.: American social psychologist, interested in ethics and values.

van Dyke, Henry Jackson (1852–1933): American clergyman, diplomat, educator, and author.

Van Gogh, Vincent (1853–1890): exceptional and influential Dutch post-impressionist painter.

van Kleef, Gerben A.: Dutch social psychologist.

Veblen, Thorstein (1857–1929): American economist and sociologist.

Venn, John (1834–1923): English logician and philosopher who invented Venn (set) diagrams.

Ventura, Jesse (1951–): American professional wrestler, actor, and politician.

Verduyn, Philippe: Dutch psychologist.

Victor of Aveyron: a feral French boy taken in human custody at the age of 12 years, in 1800, and eventually adopted by Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard.

Viète, François (1540–1603): French mathematician who introduced the use of letters as symbols for variables in algebraic equations.

Vogel, Steven (1940–2015): American biomechanist and zoologist.

Vohs, Kathleen D.: American psychologist.

Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) (1694–1778): French writer, historian, and philosopher, famous for his wit, for his attacks on Christianity, and for his advocacy of separation of church and state.

von Bezold, Wilhelm J.F. (1837–1907): German physicist and meteorologist, interested in the physics of the atmosphere, especially atmospheric thermodynamics, and electrical storms.

von Bismarck, Otto (1815–1898): Prussian politician.

von Brücke, Ernst Wilhelm (1819–1892): German physician and physiologist.

von Frisch, Karl (1886 –1982): Austrian ethologist who was interested in honeybee perception.

von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang (1749–1832): German writer and statesman.

von Humboldt, Wilhelm (1767–1835): Prussian philologist, linguist, and diplomat.

von Neumann, John (1903–1957): Hungarian American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

von Rueden, Christopher R.: American anthropologist, interested in leadership.

Vorauer, Jacquie D.: Canadian psychologist.

Voss, Joel L.: American cognitive scientist.

Vouloumanos, Athena: American psychologist, interested in the childhood acquisition of spoken language.

Vygotsky, Lev S. (1896–1934): Russian psychologist, interested in how culture impacts childhood psychological development. See sociocultural theory.

Wade, Kimberley: English cognitive psychologist, interested in memory, especially false memories.

Wade, Lizzie: American science writer, interested in anthropology, archeology, “and all things Latin America.”

Waits, Tom (1949–): American musician.

Walby, Sylvia (1953–): English sociologist.

Wallis, John (1616–1703): English mathematician.

Walpole, Horace (1717–1797): English historian.

Walsh, Debbie: American political scientist and activist.

Walster, Elaine: American sociologist.

Walton, Stuart: English cultural historian.

Ward, William Arthur (1921–1994): American writer, best known for his inspirational maxims.

Warren, Caleb: American marketing academic.

Warren, Elizabeth A. (1949–): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Massachusetts (2013–).

Washington, George (1732–1799): American farmer, soldier, politician; 1st US President (1789–1797).

Wasserman, David: American philosopher.

Wasserman, Ryan: American philosopher.

Waters, Roger (1943–): English musician who co-founded the progressive popular music group Pink Floyd (1965–1995, 2005, 2012–2014). Waters left Pink Floyd in 1985.

Watson, Laurel: American psychologist, interested in gender and ethnic discrimination.

Watson, Mark: English tourism official.

Waytz, Adam: American psychologist.

Weber, Elke U.: American psychologist, interested in risk-taking.

Weber, Max (1864–1920): German sociologist, political economist, jurist, and philosopher who influenced sociology theories.

Wechsler, David (1896–1981): American psychologist, interested in intelligence tests.

Weeks, Jeffrey (1945–): Welsh sociologist and history, interested in sexuality.

Wegner, Daniel M. (1948–2013): American social psychologist.

Weierstrass, Karl (1815–1897): German mathematician.

Weil, Simone (1909–1943): French philosopher, political activist, and mystic.

Weiler, Edward J.: American astrophysicist and NASA space program administrator.

Weisbuch, Max: American social psychologist.

Weiss, Alexander: English psychologist.

Welles, Orson (1915–1985): American actor, writer, director, and producer who worked in theater, radio, and movies.

Wells, Gary L.: American psychologist.

Wells, Robert (1922–1998): American songwriter, composer, and scriptwriter.

Wells, William D.: American psychologist.

Wert, Sarah R.: American social psychologist.

Wertheimer, Max (1880–1943): Prague-born (Austro-Hungarian) Gestalt psychologist.

Wessel, Caspar (1745–1818): Norwegian surveyor who first represented complex numbers geometrically.

West, Mae (1893–1980): American actress and sex symbol.

I used to be Snow White, but I drifted. ~ Mae West

Wheatley, Margaret J. (Meg) (1941–): American writer and management consultant.

Wheelan, Charles: American economist.

Whitehead, Alfred North (1861–1947): English mathematician and philosopher.

Whitfield, Norman J. (1940–2008): American songwriter and producer who helped create the Motown Sound in the 1960s.

Whorf, Benjamin L. (1897–1941): American linguist.

Wiesmann, Charlotte Grosse: German cognitive scientist, interested in cognitive development, neuropsychology, particle physics, epistemology, and philosophy of science.

Wigner, Eugene P. (1902–1995): Hungarian American theoretical physicist and mathematician.

Wilcox, Rand: American psychologist and statistician.

Wilde, Oscar (1854–1900): Irish writer and poet.

William of Ockham (1287–1347): English Franciscan friar, theologian, and scholastic philosopher; best known for Occam’s razor, which is a problem-solving heuristic of preferring the simplest explanation for something, relying upon the fewest reasonable assumptions.

Willis, Thomas (1621–1675): English physician who pioneered the neurological school of psychology.

Wilson, Anne E.: Canadian psychologist.

Wilson, Barbara J.: American communication scholar.

Wilson, David Sloan (1949–): American evolutionary biologist.

Wilson, Earl (1907–1987): American journalist.

Wilson, Edward O. (1929–): American zoologist, interested in ants (myrmecology), who developed sociobiology.

Wilson, John Paul: American social psychologist.

Wilson, Robert Anton (1932–2007): American psychologist, playwright, and poet. Anton was an adherent of discordianism.

Wilson, Timothy D.: American social psychologist.

Wineburg, Sam: American educator.

Winkler, Henry (1945–): American actor.

Wirthlin, Joseph B. (1917–2008): American businessman and Mormon religious leader.

Witham, Larry: American author and journalist.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1889–1951): Austrian English philosopher, interested in the mind, language, and mathematics.

Wittman, Marc: German psychologist.

Wolman, Benjamin B.: American psychologist.

Wonder, Stevie (born Stevland Hardaway Judkins) (1950–): American musical maven; a musical child prodigy who has been blind since shortly after birth.

Wonder Woman (1941–): fictional superheroine appearing in American comic books.

Woodsworth, William (1770–1850): English Romantic poet.

Worthen, Molly: American historian, interested in North American religious and intellectual history, particularly the ideas and culture of conservative Christianity.

Wright, Steven (1955–): American comedian.

Wundt, Wilhelm (1832–1920): German physician, generally credited as one of the founders of modern psychology.

Xi Jinping (1953–): Chinese politician who became China’s supreme political leader in 2013.

Yaish, Meir: Israeli sociologist.

Yalom, Marilyn (1932–): American historian and feminist.

Yau, Joanna: American psychologist.

Ying-xiu Zhang: Chinese physician.

Yorburg, Betty: American sociologist.

Zacks, Jeffrey M.: American psychologist.

Zajonc, Robert B. (1923–2008): Polish American social psychologist.

Zaki, Jamil: American psychologist.

Zeidner, Moshe: Israeli psychologist, interested in human emotions, personality, and individual differences.

Zeigarnik, Bluma (1901–1988): Lithuanian psychologist who discovered the Zeigarnik effect.

Zeno of Elea (490–430 bce): Greek philosopher, best known for his paradoxes.

Zhu, Pearl: Chinese American technologist.

Zimbardo, Philip G. (1933–): American psychologist.

Zola, Émile (1840–1902): French novelist, playwright, and journalist, best known for practicing literary naturalism: clinical observation in the fictional portrayal of reality.

Zoroaster (aka Zarathustra): ancient Iranian prophet who may have lived as early as the 2nd millennium bce, but who teachings did not jell into a religion until the 7th–6th century bce.

Zuckerberg, Mark (1984–): American social media entrepreneur who co-founded Facebook.