There are no standards for authentication of herbal products. The industry suffers from unethical activities by manufacturers, which includes false advertising, product substitution, contamination, and use of fillers. This is not only food fraud. 55% of manufacturers illegally claim to treat, prevent, diagnose, or cure specific diseases. ~ Canadian botanist Steven Newmaster et al
The North American herbal supplement industry is swamped with swindling. A study of 44 products produced by 12 companies found that only 2 companies offered 100% authentic ingredients; contrarily, 2 companies pedaled fully fake pills. All told, 83% of herbal product makers sold diddled supplements.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) are responsible for ensuring the safety of edible products in their countries. The FDA and CFIA do nothing about fraud in herbal supplements.
Corporations keep their costs low by polluting the air, land, and water around their facilities, rather than paying to lessen wastes and emissions.
Economic organizations attempt, at every turn, to “externalize” the costs of doing business, to shift to the wider society the burden of dealing with the social and environmental problems they create. ~ American sociologist Frank Elwell