The Pathos of Politics – People


Aaron, Henry J.: American economist and public policy analyst.

Abby, Edward (1927–1989): American author.

Abrams, Stacey Y. (1973–): American politician (Democrat).

Acemoglu, Daron: Turkish American economist.

Acheson, Dean G. (1893–1971): American lawyer and diplomat. Acheson persuaded President Harry Truman to intervene in the Korean War in June 1950, and also persuaded Truman to dispatch assistance to French forces fighting in Indochina. Truman’s acquiescence to Acheson’s militarism would cost the US dearly in the decades that followed.

Adams, Ansel (1902–1984): American photographer and environmentalist.

Adams, John (1735–1826): American politician (Federalist); 1st US Vice President (1789–1797); 2nd US President (1797–1801).

Adams, John Quincy (1767–1848): American politician and diplomat; 6th US President (1825–1829).

Adams, Samuel (1722–1803): American politician and political philosopher.

Adelin, William (1103–1120): English royalty; Henry I’s only legitimate heir, who drowned when the White Ship sank.

Agnew, Spiro T. (1918–1996): American politician (Republican); 39th US Vice President (1969–1973).

Ailes, Roger (1940–): American media consultant and television business executive. Founder and head of Fox News until he resigned in July 2016 when his chronic sexual harassment of female employees became public.

Albert I of Germany (Hapsburg) (1255–1308): King of Germany from 1298 until being assassinated by his nephew, Duke John, whom Albert had deprived of his inheritance.

Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedonia) (356–323 BCE): King of Macedonia (Macedon) (336–323 BCE); wildly enthusiastic military adventurist. Born in Pella in northern Greece, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until he was 16 years old. He succeeded his father, Philip II, to the throne of the Macedon kingdom after Philip’s assassination. Inheriting a strong kingdom and army, Alexander began a series of military campaigns that within a decade created one of the largest empires of the ancient world. Alexander was undefeated in battle and is regarded as one of history’s greatest warlords.

Alfred the Great (849–899): King of Wessex (871–899). Alfred successfully defended his kingdom against an attempted Viking conquest, and by his death had become the dominant ruler in England. The only other English monarch to be awarded the epithet “the Great” was the Scandinavian Cnut the Great (995–1035), who was King of Denmark, England, and Norway, which was called the North Sea Empire.

Ali (601–661): a Muslim, born in Mecca, who was the 4th caliph (656–661) of Islam. Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad.

Ali, Zine El Abidine Ben (1936–): Tunisian military leader (1987–2011) who reneged on his early promises of democratic reform and was eventually overthrown.

Alighieri, Dante (known simply as Dante) (1265–1321): Italian poet. Dante’s Divine Comedy is the most important poem of the Middle Ages.

Alito, Samuel A. (1950–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (2006–).

Allbaugh, Todd: American Republican political operative.

Allende, Salvador (1908–1973): Chilean physician and politician; the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections (1970). Deposed by a CIA-sponsored coup in 1973.

Amar, Akhil Reed (1958–): American legal scholar and constitutional law expert.

Amash, Justin (1980–): American politician (libertarian Republican).

Anacharsis (6th century bce): Scythian philosopher who traveled to Athens and made quite an impression as an outspoken “barbarian”; a forerunner of the Cynics.

Anastasius I (431–518): Byzantine Emperor (491–518).

Anderson, Benedict (1936–2015): Anglo Irish American historian and political scientist, best known for his book Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (1983).

Anderson, Carol (1959–): American political scientist, interested in race, justice, and social equality.

Anderson, Darrell: American political essayist.

Anderson, Gerard F.: American health policy maven and professor of medicine.

Anderson, Margaret L.: American sociologist.

Anderson, Perry (1938–): English historian.

Annan, Kofi A. (1938–): Ghanaian diplomat who was Secretary-General of the UN (1997–2006).

Anne, Queen of Great Britain (1665–1714): Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1702, with the union of England and Scotland into a single sovereign state in 1707. Anne was plagued by ill health throughout her life. She became lame and increasingly obese from her 30s on. Despite 17 pregnancies by her husband, Prince George Denmark, Anne died with no surviving children, and so was the last monarch of the House of Stuart, which had ruled England from 1603, after the death of Queen Elizabeth I.

Anthony, Susan B. (1815–1902): American social reformer and egalitarian who played a seminal role in promoting women’s civil rights.

Antony, Mark (aka Marcus Antonius) (83–30 BCE): Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.

Aquinas, Thomas (1225–1274): Italian theologian and philosopher.

Arendt, Johanna (Hannah) (1906–1975): German-born Jewish American philosopher.

Aristotle (384–322 BCE): Greek philosopher, logician, and scientist.

Aron, Raymond (1905–1983): French political scientist, sociologist, journalist, and philosopher. Aron is best known for his book The Opium of the Intellectuals (1955). The title inverted Karl Marx’s claim that religion was the opium of the masses. Aron argued that in post-war France, Marxism was the opium of the intellectuals. Aron chastised French intellectuals for their harsh criticism of capitalism and democracy while defending Marxist intolerance, oppression, and atrocities. Basically, Aron got it all wrong.

Artaxerxes II: King of Persia (404–358 BCE) until his death. A randy ruler, Artaxerxes II reputedly had 350 wives, who bore him over 115 sons – daughters did not count.

Ascham, Roger (1515–1568): English scholar and educator.

Astell, Mary (1666–1731): English writer.

Athelstan (aka Æthelstan) (894–939): King of the Anglo-Saxons (924–927) and King of the English (927–939).

Atlee, Clement (1883–1967): English politician (Labour).

Attenborough, David (1926–): English naturalist and broadcaster; famous for his BBC TV Nature programs.

Augustine of Hippo (354–430): Algerian Latin theologian and prolific author. Augustine influenced the evolution of European Christian thought.

Augustulus, Romulus (460–507?): emperor who ruled the Western Roman Empire October 475–September 476. Augustulus was a usurper not recognized as a legitimate ruler by the Eastern emperor. Augustulus was deposed by the Germanic King Odoacer. Though he adopted the name Augustus upon his accession, he is remembered by the derisive nickname Augustulus, which means “little Augustus.” To men, size matters.

Augustus (born Gaius Octavius) (63 BCE–14 ce): founder of the Roman Empire and its 1st emperor (27 BCE–14 CE).

Aurelius, Marcus (151–180): Roman Emperor (161–180) and Stoic philosopher; last of the so-called Five Good Emperors.

Axelrod, Robert (1943–): American political scientist.

Aziz, Abdul (aka Ibn Saud) (1875–1953): founder and king of Saudi Arabia (1932–1953). Aziz sired almost 100 children.

Bacon, Francis (1561–1626): English philosopher, scientist, and statesman.

Baird, Katherine: American economist.

Bakr, Abu (aka The Truthful) (573–634): father-in-law and senior companion to Muhammad, who ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate (632–634) following Muhammad’s death.

Baldwin, Stanley (1867–1947): English Conservative politician; UK Prime Minister (1923–1924, 1924–1929, 1935–1937).

Ball, Alan R.: English political scientist.

Bamford, V. James (1946–): American author and journalist, interested in US national security.

Baradat, Leon P.: American political scientist.

Barker, Ernest (1874–1960): English political scientist.

Batista, Fulgencio (1901–1973): Cuban military leader and politician; ruled Cuba 1933–1944 and 1952–1958.

Baudrillard, Jean (1929–2007): French political commentator, sociologist, and philosopher.

Baum, Philip: English security consultant.

Baylor, Christopher (Chris): American political scientist.

Beccaria, Cesare (1738–1794): Italian criminologist, jurist, politician, and philosopher.

Bell, Daniel (1919–2011): American sociologist.

Bellinger, John B. III: American lawyer who was legal advisor to the President George W. Bush.

Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832): English philosopher, economist, and theoretical jurist who founded utilitarianism.

Berger, Joel (1944–): American civil rights lawyer; former NYC government lawyer (1988–1996).

Berger, Peter L. (1929–): Austrian-born American sociologist.

Berkeley, George (1685–1753): Irish philosopher and Anglican bishop.

Berle, Adolf (1895–1971): American lawyer, educator, diplomat, and author.

Berlin, Isaiah (1909–1197): Russian British Jewish sociopolitical theorist, philosopher, and historian.

Bernstein, Carl (1944–): American journalist, known for his role in helping to uncover the Watergate scandal.

Bernstein, Jared (1955–): American political economist.

Besant, Annie (1847–1933): English women’s rights activist, socialist, and advocate of Indian and Irish self-rule.

Bevel, James (1936–2008): American civil rights leader.

Beveridge, William Henry (1879–1963): English economist and social reformer, best known for his proposal which served as the basis for the post-World War 2 British welfare state, enacted in 1945.

Bhutto, Benazir (1953–2007): Pakistani politician; a scion of a politically powerful family, Benazir was the 1st woman to lead an Islamic state.

Bidwell, Anya: American civil rights attorney.

Biffen, John (1930–2007): English politician (Conservative).

bin Laden, Osama (1957–2011): Saudi Arabian who founded the terrorist organization al-Qaeda.

bin Salman, Mohammad (1985–): Saudi Arabian royalty.

Bitler, Marianne P.: American economist, interested in labor.

Blackmun, Harry A. (1906–1997): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1970–1994).

Blackstone, William (1723–1780): English jurist whose 4-volume Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765–1969) became a foundation of legal education in England and North America.

Blair, Tony (1953–): Scottish politician (Labour); UK Prime Minister (1997–2007).

Blanc, Louis Jean Joseph Charles (1811–1882): French politician (socialist) and historian.

Bloomfield, Maxwell: American law historian and law professor.

Bodin, Jean (1530–1596): French jurist and political philosopher.

Boleyn, Anne (1501–1536): 2nd wife of King Henry VIII, mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Beheaded at the behest of the king upon conviction of false charges of adultery and incest.

Boleyn, Mary (1500–1543): sister to Anne Boleyn.

Bonaparte, Jérôme (1784–1860): French politician; youngest brother of Napoléon I; King of Westphalia (1807–1813).

Bonaparte, Napoléon (1769–1821): French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars. Napoléon engineered a coup in 1799 that led to him becoming Emperor (1804–1815). Napoléon dominated Europe and retarded its political development until his defeat and exile on the island of Saint Helena, off the west coast of Africa, in 1815.

Borden, Lisa W.: American lawyer, interested in civil rights and ending abusive practices in the American justice system.

Bosco, David L.: American international relations journalist and academic.

Bradlaugh, Charles (1833–1891): English political activist; one of the most famous English atheists of the 19th century.

Brailsford, Philip: American police officer.

Brandeis, Louis D. (1856–1941): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1916–1939).

Brandt, Willy (1913–1992): German politician (Social Democrat); German Chancellor (1969–1974) (the 1st Social Democrat chancellor since 1930). Brandt won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 for his efforts to strengthen European cooperation.

Braun, Jack: American software developer, interested in software security.

Brennan, William J. (1856–1941): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1956–1990).

Breyer, Stephen G. (1938–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1994–).

Brin, Sergey (1973–): Russian American computer scientist and Internet entrepreneur who co-founded Google.

Brown, Henry Billings (1836–1913): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1891–1906).

Brunelleschi, Filippo (1377–1446): Italian engineer; one of the founding fathers of the Renaissance.

Bucci, Steve: American military officer, national defense and security specialist.

Bullock, Scott: American attorney, interested in social justice.

Burke, Edmund (1729–1797): Irish politician.

Burman, Leonard E. (Len) (1953–): American economist and tax policy maven.

Burns, George (born Nathan Birnbaum) (1896–1996): American comedian, actor, singer, and writer.

Burr, Richard (1955–): American politician (Republican).

Bush, George H. W. (1924–): American politician (Republican); 41rd US President (1981–1989).

Bush, George W. (1946–): American politician (Republican) and businessman; 43rd US President (2001–2009); son of George H.W. Bush. Criticized for deceiving the American people into war with Iraq, and his inept handling of the aftermath of the devastating Hurricane Katrina, among other failures. Bush was the 1st President elected by the supreme court (in 2000) in the face of losing the popular vote.

Bush, John E. (Jeb) Sr. (1953–): American politician (Republican) and businessman; younger brother of George W. Bush.

Butler, Paul: American law professor.

Cahn, Edgar S.: American law professor and political scientist.

Cameron, David (1966–): British politician (Conservative); UK Prime Minister (2010–2016).

Campbell, Chad: American politician (Democrat).

Campbell, Troy H.: American business scholar.

Campbell, William J. (1905–1988): American jurist.

Carl, John D.: American criminologist.

Carson, Rachel (1907–1964): American marine biologist, famous for Silent Spring (1962), which chronicled the environmental devastation caused by synthetic pesticides, especially DDT. American chemical companies were incensed by the book.

Carter, Ashton B. (Ash) (1954–): American physicist, historian, and bureaucrat; US Secretary of Defense (2015–2018).

Carter, Jimmy (1924–): 39th US President (1977–1981). As President, Carter had all kinds of bad luck which obscured his decency.

Carvin, Michael A.: American attorney.

Castro, Fidel (1926–): Cuban communist revolutionary and dictator (1959–2008).

Catherine of Aragon (1485–1536): Spanish royalty; 1st wife of English King Henry VIII.

Cates, Brad: American attorney.

Chait, Jonathan (1972–): American journalist.

Chamberlain, Neville (1869–1940): English politician (Conservative); UK Prime Minister (1937–1940).

Chanakya (350–275 BCE): Indian political scientist, economist, jurist, and royal advisor.

Chang, Ha-Joon: South Korean institutional economist.

Chang Wanquan (1949–): Chinese soldier; Minister of Defense (2013–).

Charlemagne (aka Charles the Great, Charles I) (742–814): King of the Franks who united most of Western Europe and became the 1st Holy Roman Emperor in 800.

Charles I of England (1600–1649): monarch of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1625 until his execution in 1649, following his defeat in the English Civil War in 1645.

Charles II of England (1630–1685): son of Charles I; King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1660 until his death.

Charles V (1500–1558): ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary abdication in in 1556, in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I for Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain.

Charles X (1757–1836): (Bourbon) King of France (1824–1830).

Charlier, Joseph (1816–1896): Belgian writer, jurist, accountant, and merchant.

Cheney, Dick (1941–): American politician (Republican) and businessman; 46th US Vice President (2001–2009).

Chirac, Jacques (1932–): French politician; President (1995–2007).

Chomsky, Noam (1928–): American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic, and leftist political activist.

Churchill, Clementine (née Hozier) (1885–1977): English noblewomen; wife of Winston Churchill. Her paternity is unsettled, as her mother, Lady Blanche Hozier, was well known for infidelity. (Her legal father, Henry Hozier, was also fond of playing the field.)

Churchill, Winston (1874–1965): English politician (Labour); UK Prime Minister (1940–1945, 1951–1955).

Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero) (106–43 BCE): Roman philosopher, political theorist, poet, orator, lawyer, politician, consul, and constitutionalist.

Cimpian, Andrei: American psychologist.

Clark, Ramsey (1927–): American lawyer and federal justice department official.

Clarke, Richard A. (1950–): American counter-terrorism expert.

Clarridge, Duane (Dewey) (1932–2016): American spy.

Clay, Henry (1777–1852): American politician, lawyer, planter, and statesman, known as “The Great Compromiser.”

Clear, Todd R.: American criminologist.

Cleveland, Grover (1837–1908): American politician (Democrat); 22nd & 24th US President (1885–1889; 1893–1897).

Cleopatra VII Philopator (69–30 BCE): queen of Egypt, diplomat, naval commander, linguist, and medical author.

Clinton, Bill (1946–): American politician (Democrat); 42nd US President (1993–2001):

Clinton, DeWitt (1769–1828): American politician (Federalist and Democratic-Republican) and naturalist. Clinton was largely responsible for the construction of the Erie Canal during his term as governor of New York (1817–1828).

Clinton, Hillary (1947–): American politician (Democrat); US senator for New York (2001–2009); spouse of former US president Bill Clinton.

Clovis I (~466–511): 1st King of the Franks, uniting all the Frankish tribes in Francia.

Cobbett, William (1763–1835): English political radical anti-authoritarian, pamphleteer, farmer, and journalist.

Cohen, Morris Raphael (1880–1947): American political philosopher, lawyer, and legal scholar.

Cole, George D.H. (1889–1959): English political theorist, economist and historian who was a libertarian socialist; a pacifist until 1938, whereupon “Hitler cured me of pacifism.”

Collodi, Carlo (1826–1890): pen name of Italian author Carlo Lorenzini, best known for his fairy-tale novel The Adventures of Pinocchio (1881).

Columbus, Christopher (1451–1506): Genoese explorer, known for his attempt to reach the East Indies by sailing westward and unintentionally landing in the Bahamas; a supposed shortcut to sailing around the cape of Africa. Sponsored by the Spanish crown, his goal was to gain the upper hand over rival powers in the lucrative spice trade based in Asia. Instead of reaching Japan as intended, Columbus wound up in the Bahamas. Unwilling to admit his mistake, Columbus called the indigenes he found indios (Spanish for Indians).

Comey, James B. (1960–): American lawyer; FBI Director (2013–2017).

Comstock, Anthony (1844–1915): American postal inspector and politician, dedicated to Victorian morality.

Confucius (born Kong Qui; posthumous title Kong Fuzi (which was Latinized to Confucius)) (551–479 BCE): Chinese moral and political philosopher.

Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself. ~ Confucius

Connelly, Harry S.: American attorney.

Connelly, William F., Jr.: American political scientist.

Constantine I (aka Constantine the Great) (272–337): Roman Emperor (306–337) who won a series of civil wars to become sole ruler of both the eastern and western Roman empire. Constantine enacted many reforms that strengthened the empire. To combat inflation, he introduced a new gold coin, the solidus. It became the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for over a millennium. Constantine was the 1st Roman emperor to embrace Christianity, and so furthered its adoption.

Coolidge, Calvin (1872–1933): American politician (Republican); 30th US President (1923–1929).

Corbett, Julia B.: American journalist.

Curie, Janet: Canadian economist, interested in public health and poverty policy in the US.

Curtis, Benjamin R. (1809–1874): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1851–1857). Curtis was the 1st justice to have a formal law degree, and the only justice to resign from the court as a matter of principle. One of the 2 dissenters in Dred Scott v. Standford (1857), Curtis rightly noted that since the majority ruled that Standford lacked standing, the Court had no power to rule on the merits of the case as it had. Disgusted with his bench colleagues, leading to mutual distrust, Curtis was also temperamentally estranged by his disinclination to work with others (not a team player), and tired of riding the circuit (extensive travel) for low pay, as required of justices at the time. Curtis went into private practice in Boston after his resignation and made out quite well. Curtis successfully served as chief counsel for President Andrew Johnson during Johnson’s impeachment trial, which was a political ploy with no constitutional basis.

Cyrus (King Cyrus II of Persia, aka Cyrus the Great, Cyrus the Elder) (576–530 bce): the founder of the 1st Persian (Achaemenid) Empire.

da Verranzano, Giovanni (also spelled Verranzzano): Italian explorer of North America; the first to explore the Atlantic coast (in 1524).

Dal Lago, Alessandro: Italian anthropologist.

Damond, Justine (Justine Maia Ruszcyk) (1977–2017): Australian meditation instructor and spiritual healer.

Daniels, Anthony (1949–): English writer and psychiatrist.

Dante (Dante Alighieri) (1265–1321): Italian poet.

Davies, William: English sociologist and political economist.

de Blasio, Bill (1961–): American politician (Democrat); mayor of New York City (2014–).

de Condorcet, Nicolas (aka Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet) (1743–1794): French philosopher, mathematician, and political scientist.

de Gaulle, Charles (1890–1970): French army officer and politician; France’s President (1958–1969); a nationalist who set back European integration.

de Gournay, Jacques Claude Marie Vincent (1712–1759): French economist who coined laissez-faire and bureaucracy.

de las Casas, Bartolomé (1484–1566): Spanish colonist, historian, social reformer, and Dominican friar. Casas was one of the first Spanish (and European) settlers in the New World. de las Casas participated in and then turned against the atrocities committed against Native Americans by Spanish colonists. His humanity evolved from advocating African slaves instead of local labor to opposing slavery altogether. Las Casas became one of the first advocates for universal human rights.

de Montbrial, Thierry: French economist and international relations researcher.

de Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés (1494–1573): Spanish Renaissance humanist, Catholic theologian, philosopher, and proponent of colonial slavery.

de Tocqueville, Alex (1805–1859): French political scientist, historian, and politician.

de Tracy, Antoine Destutt (1754–1836): French aristocrat and philosopher who coined ideology in 1806.

de Vattel, Emer (1714–1767): Swiss philosopher and legal theorist.

de Vitoria, Francisco (aka Francisco de Victoria) (1483–1546): Spanish Catholic theologian, philosopher, and jurist.

Deaton, Angus (1945–): Scottish American economist.

Democritus (~460–370 BCE): Greek rationalist philosopher who formulated an atomic theory for the cosmos and believed in predeterminism.

Demosthenes (384–322 BCE): Athenian statesman and orator who worked as a professional speechwriter (logographer) and lawyer, writing arguments for use in civil suits.

Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997): Chinese revolutionary who ruled China (1978–1992).

Dewey, John (1869–1948): American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and progressive social reformer.

Diamond, Jared (1937–): American anthropologist, ecologist, geographer, and biologist.

Diamond, Shari S.: American lawyer, psychologist, and jury maven.

Dickens, Charles (1812–1870): English writer and social critic.

We forge the chains we wear in life. ~ Charles Dickens

Diderot, Denis (1713–1784): French philosopher.

Dillard, Irving: American legal scholar.

Dirksen, Everett (1896–1969): American politician (Republican); US Senator from Illinois (1951–1969).

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804–1881): English politician (Conservative) and writer.

Dornford, Josiah (1764–1797): English lawyer and civic activist.

Douglas-Home, Alec (1903–1995): English politician (Conservative); UK Prime Minister (1963–1964).

Draco (7th century): Greek legislator who wrote the first Western laws.

Dresher, Melvin (1911–1992): Polish-born American mathematician, interested in game theory.

Drucker, Ernest: American penologist.

Dryden, John (1631–1700): English poet and playwright.

DuCane, Edmund F. (1830–1903): English soldier and prison administrator who advocated hard labor.

Dudley, Robert (1532–1588): English nobleman; close friend of Elizabeth I.

Duffy, Kevin T. (1933–): American lawyer and jurist.

Dunant, Henri (born Jean-Henri, aka Henry) (1828–1910): Swiss businessman and social activist who inspired the International Red Cross and the 1st (1864) Geneva Convention.

Duterte, Rodrigo (aka Digong, Rody) (1945–): Filipino lawyer and politician; 16th Philippine president (2016–).

Dwight, Theodore: American lawyer and educator.

Dynarski, Susan: American public policy, education, and economics scholar.

Earnest, Josh R.H. (1975–): American political journalist.

Ebenstein, Alan O. (1959–): American political scientist.

Ebenstein, William (1910–1976): Austrian political scientist.

Edsall, Thomas B. (1941–): American political journalist.

Edward I (aka Edward Longshanks (owing to his commanding height), Hammer of the Scots (owing to his brutality toward rebellious Scots)) (1239–1307): King of England (1272–1307). Edward spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law. In 1290, Edward expelled the Jews from England; an edict that remained in effect for the rest of the Middle Ages; overturned by Oliver Cromwell in 1656.

Edward VI (1537–1553): King of England from age 10 to 15 (1547–1553).

Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1890–1969): American army general; Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe during World War 2; politician (Republican) whose entry-level position was 34th US President (1953–1961).

Eisenhower, Milton S. (1899–1985): American educational administrator; younger brother of Dwight Eisenhower.

El-Agraa, Ali M. (1941–): Sudanese-British economist.

el-Sisi, Abdel Fattah (1954–): Egyptian military commander who took power in a 2013 military coup.

Elagabalus (aka Heliogabalus) (203–222): Roman Emperor (218–222), taking the name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, and called Elagabalus only after his death. Elagabalus’ eccentricity, debauchery, and unorthodox zealotry led to his assassination at the ripe old age of 18. Elagabalus is remembered as one of the worst Roman emperors.

Elias, Norbert (1897–1990): German sociologist, known for his theory of civilizing (and decivilizing) processes.

Eliason, Randall D.: American criminal law professor & journalist.

Elizabeth I (1533–1603): Queen of England (1558–1603).

Elizabeth II (1926–): Queen of England (1952–).

Elkind, Sarah S.: American historian.

Elwell, Frank W.: American sociologist.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–1882): American essayist, lecturer, and poet. Emerson championed individualism.

Epictetus (55–135): Turkish Hellenistic Stoic philosopher.

Epicurus (341–270 BCE): Greek philosopher who held that pleasure and pain are the metrics of good and evil.

Erdogan, Recep T. (1954–): Turkish politician; Turkey’s President (2014–), with a decided autocratic bent.

Eronen, Jussi: Finnish environmental ecologist.

Etzioni, Amitai (1929–): Israeli American sociologist.

Exiguus, Dionysius (470–544): Christian monk and scholar.

Falk, Richard A. (1930–): American law professor and author.

Fanon, Franz (1925–1961): Martinique-born Afro-Caribbean psychiatrist, political philosopher, and revolutionary.

Farmer, Brian R. (1959–): American humanities scholar and educator.

Farmer, John Jr. (1957–): American lawyer, politician, and jurist. Farmer acted as senior counsel to the 9/11 commission and disbelieved what it produced.

Federico, Christopher M.: American political psychologist.

Feinstein, Dianne (1933–): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from California (1992–).

Ferdinand II of Aragón (1453–1516): King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragón from 1479 until his death. Ferdinand and Isabella I are best known for instigating the Spanish Inquisition, and for sponsoring Christopher Columbus to find a way to India without going south, around Africa. Columbus headed west across the Atlantic Ocean and discovered a New World.

Ferdinand, Franz (1863–1914): Austrian royalty. Ferdinand was an avid trophy hunter, to considerable excess: he killed ~300,000 specimens, including 5,000 deer. Ferdinand himself became a trophy: shot dead on 28 June 2014 by an assassin in the Black Hand, a Serbian secret military society that aimed at uniting all Slavic territories.

Ferenczi, Thomas: French author and journalist.

Field, Stephen J. (1816–1899): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1863–1897).

Fisher, Max: American political analyst and journalist.

Fleischer, Victor: American tax law professor.

Fleming, Ian (1908–1964): English author, known for his James Bond spy novels.

Flood, Merrill M. (1908–1991): American mathematician, interested in game theory.

Florence, J. Antonio: American defense attorney.

Ford, Gerald (1913–2006): American politician (Republican); 38th US President (1974–1977).

Ford, Henry (1863–1947): American industrialist who founded the Ford Motor Company and developed the technique of mass production via the assembly line.

Fosdick, Harry Emerson (1878–1969): American clergyman.

Fourier, Charles (1772–1837): French philosopher and utopian socialist.

Francis II (1768–1835): last Holy Roman Emperor (1792–1806), who dissolved the empire after suffering a decisive defeat from Napoléon. He founded the Austrian Empire in 1804, which he ruled until his death.

The alliance that defeated Napoléon – Austria, Prussia, Russia, and the United Kingdom – formed the Concert of Europe. France later became a member. This congress represented the balance of power that prevailed from the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) to the outbreak of World War 1 (1914). As the Concert largely resisted the nascent liberal and nationalist movements of the time, Francis II became viewed as a reactionary toward the end of his reign.

Francis, Pope (born Jorge Mario Bergoglio) (1936–): Argentinian Catholic priest; 266th Pope of the Catholic Church.

Franklin, Benjamin (1706–1790): American author, publisher, politician, scientist, and inventor.

Frederick the Great (Frederick II) (1712–1786): King of Prussia (1740–1786), proponent of enlightened absolutism, and military aggressor against neighboring countries. Frederick modernized his bureaucracy and reform the judicial system. Long glorified by German historians, and by the Nazis, which rubbed the shine off his reputation post-war.

Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939): Austrian neurologist who created psychoanalysis.

Friedman, Lawrence M. (1930–): law professor and historian.

Friedman, Milton (1912–2006): American statistician and economist who advocated laissez-faire capitalism and monetarism to guide economic policy.

Frost, Natasha A.: American criminologist.

Fukuyama, Francis (1952–): American political scientist and political economist.

Funiciello, Theresa: American social worker.

Futterman, Craig B.: American civil rights lawyer, sociologist, and economist.

Gaddafi, Muammar (1942–2011): Libyan political theorist, revolutionary, and dictator (1969–2011).

Gage, Matilda Joslyn (1826–1898): American civil rights activist.

Gaines, Larry K.: American criminal justice scholar.

Galbraith, John Kenneth (1908–2006): Canadian American political economist and public servant.

Gallan, Patricia: English police chief.

Gandhi, Mahatma (1869–1948): Indian political leader who led India to independence from British colonialism through nonviolent demonstration.

Gardner, Matthew: American tax analyst.

Garfield, James A. (1831–1881): American politician (Republican); 20th US President (1881). Garfield was gunned down by a disgruntled office-seeker. Lincoln’s assassination less than 2 decades earlier was deemed a fluke. Garfield, like most people at the time, saw no reason why the President should be guarded. His plans and movements were often printed in the newspapers.

Gasset, José Ortega y (1883–1955): Spanish philosopher and essayist. Gasset felt that philosophy has a critical duty to question beliefs so as to better explain reality.

Gates, William H. III (Bill) (1955–): American programmer who co-founded Microsoft.

Gelasius I (?–496): North African bishop who became Pope (492–496).

Gençsü, Ipek: English political theorist, economist, and environmentalist.

George, Henry (1839–1897): American political economist, journalist, and philosopher.

George, Ronald M.: American jurist.

Gervers, Victor: Dutch software security expert.

Gibson, Sloan B. (1951–): American public service bureaucrat.

Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (1933–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1993–).

Gladstone, William E. (1809–1898): English Liberal politician; UK Prime Minister 4 times (1868–1874, 1880–1885, February–July 1886 & 1892– 1994); widely regarded as one of Britain’s greatest Prime Ministers.

Glied, Sherry A.: American economist.

Godwin, William (1756–1836): English social philosopher, novelist, and religious dissenter. Godwin was the father of Mary Shelley (1797–1851), the author of Frankenstein (1818).

Goldin, Ian: English political economist.

Gorbachev, Mikhail (1931–): Ukrainian-Russian Soviet politician; last leader of the Soviet Union (1985–1991).

Gore, Al (1948–): American politician (Democrat); 45th US Vice President (1993–2001).

Göring, Hermann (1893–1946): German political and military leader; one of the top Nazis.

Gorsuch, Neil M. (1967–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (2017–).

Grachev, Andrei: Russian politician; last head of intelligence in the Soviet Union.

Grandpre, Lawrence: American public policy scholar.

Gregory VII (born Hildebrand of Sovana) (~1015–1085): Italian clergyman who became Pope (1073–1085).

Gregory XI (born Pierre Roger de Beaufort) (1329–1378): French clergyman, nephew of Pope Clement VI, and Pope (1370–1378). Gregory confiscated the property and burned at the stake those who criticized the Catholic Church. (The Lollardy was the English pre-Protestant reform movement extant during Gregory’s papacy.)

Grey, Lady Jane (aka Lady Jane Dudley) (1536–1554): English noblewoman and 9-day queen of England (10 July 1553–19 July 1553).

Grinter, Alison: American criminal defense attorney.

Grotius, Hugo (1583–1645): Dutch jurist.

Gupta, Vanita: American civil rights attorney.

Hadrian (born Publius Aelius Hadrianus) (76–138): Roman Emperor (117–138).

Hagan, John L.: American sociologist, interested in criminology.

Hajnal, Zoltan L.: American political scientist.

Haley, Nikki (1972–): American politician (Republican) and diplomat.

Halifax, Lord (aka Edward Frederick Lindley Wood) (1881–1959): English Conservative politician who served as Viceroy of India (1925–1929), leader of the House of Lords (1935–1938), Foreign Secretary (1938–1940), and British ambassador to the United States (1941–1946). Wood inherited the title of Viscount Halifax from his father.

Hall, Samuel Read (1795–1877): American educator.

Hames, Tim: English philosopher, political scientist, writer, and venture capitalist.

Hamilton, Alexander (1755–1804): American politician (Federalist) and lawyer.

Hammurabi (1810–1750 BCE): 6th king of the 1st Babylonian Dynasty (1792–1750 BCE), known for his laws: the Code of Hammurabi.

Han Fei Zi (280–233 BCE): Chinese political philosopher.

Hanfstaengl, Ernst (nickname: Putzi) (1887–1985): German businessman who was a close associate of Adolf Hitler from the early 1920s before falling out and defecting in 1937.

Hankel, Wilhelm (1929–2014): German political economist.

Hanks, Angela: American political activist, interested in employment.

Hansel, Cary J.: American attorney.

Hardin, Garrett J. (1915–2003): American ecologist and philosopher who coined tragedy of the commons in 1968.

Harding, Warren G. (1865–1923): American politician (Republican); 29th US President (1921–1923). Harding was one of the most popular Presidents while in office, but scandals that took place under him, which came to light only after his death, thereby marking him (by historians) as among the worst Presidents.

Harlan, John Marshall (1899–1971): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1955–1971).

Harman, Jane (1945–): American politician (Democrat) and security analyst.

Harrington, James (1511–1592): English public servant.

The law is but words and paper without the hands of swords of men. ~ James Harrington

Harris, Marvin (1927–2001): American anthropologist, influential in the development of cultural materialism.

Harrison, Benjamin (1833–1901): American politician (Republican) and lawyer; 23rd US President (1889–1893); grandson of William Henry Harrison.

Harrison, William Henry (1773–1841): American soldier and politician (Whig); 9th US President (1841). Harrison was 68 years old when elected; the 1st to die in office, from pneumonia complications, after 32 days in office. Harrison first gained national fame for fighting American Indians, specifically in the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe.

Hart, B.H. Liddell (1895–1970): English military historian.

Havel, Vaclav (1936–2011): Czech writer, playwright, political philosopher, and politician; last President of Czechoslovakia (1989–1992), before its dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Hayek, Friedrich August von (1899–1992): influential Austrian-born British economist who had religious faith in the goodness of capitalism.

Hayes, Rutherford B. (1822–1893): American politician (Republican); 19th US President (1877–1881). Hayes lost the popular vote for President to his opponent but won an intensely disputed electoral college vote after a Congressional commission awarded him 20 contested electoral votes. There had been voter fraud by both parties, making the outcome in the contested states uncertain. Hayes took office only via a quid pro quo with Democrats to essentially end post-civil war Reconstruction in the south.

Heath, Edward (aka Ted Heath) (1916–2005): English Conservative politician; UK Prime Minister (1970–1974).

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770–1831): German philosopher.

Heinlein, Robert A. (1907–1988): American science fiction writer.

Henry I (1068–1135): King of England (1100–1135); the 4th son of William the Conqueror.

Henry II (1133–1189): King of England (1154–1189); founder of the short-lived Angevin Empire, comprising the British Isles and parts of western France.

Henry III (aka Henry of Winchester) (1207–1272): King of England (1216–1272); a pious man who assumed the throne when he as 9 years old. Henry’s attempt to reclaim his family’s lands in France was an expensive debacle that led to his unpopularity.

Henry IV (1050–1106): King of the Germans from age 7 (1057); Holy Roman Emperor (1084–1105).

Henry V (1086–1125): King of Germany (1099–1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (1111–1125).

Henry VIII (1491–1547): King of England (1509–1547), best known for having 6 wives. Henry made radical changes to the constitution, and greatly expanded royal prerogative. Attractive and charismatic as a young man, Henry indulged himself into obesity, ill health, and ill temper. Historians characterize Henry in later life as lustful, insecure, egotistical, and harsh.

Henry of Bracton (aka Henry de Bracton) (1210–1268): English cleric and jurist; famous for his writings on law, particularly criminal intent. Bracton brought motive to the fore in helping determine the perpetrator of a criminal act.

Henry, Jessica S.: American public defender and criminologist.

Henry, Patrick (1736–1799): American attorney, planter, and politician.

Herodotus (484–425 BCE): Greek historian.

Herzen, Alexander Ivanovich (1812–1870): Russian revolutionary theorist, known as the “father of Russian socialism.”

Herzog, Roman (1934–): German politician (Christian Democratic Union); President (1994–1999).

Hesiod (~700 BCE): Greek poet.

Hetherington, Marc J. (1968–): American political scientist.

Heywood, Andrew: English political scientist.

Hirohito (1901–1989): Japanese Emperor (1926–1989).

Hitler, Adolf (1889–1945): Austrian-born German politician who led the Nazi party, and his country, into the disastrous madness known as World War 2.

Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679): English sociologist and political philosopher who established social contract theory and advocated despotism.

Hobson, John A. (aka J.A. Hobson) (1858–1940): English economist and social scientist who criticized imperialism.

Holder, Eric H. (1951–): American lawyer; US Attorney General (2009–2015).

Holloway, Kali: American social activist and journalist.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr. (1841–1935): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1902–1932).

Holt, Ronald: American sociologist.

Homer (~850 BCE): legendary Greek poet and author, best known for the epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, both about the Mycenaean civilization.

Hooper, Ibrahim: Canadian American Islamic convert, spokesman for the Council on American-Islamic Relations, a Washington DC-based Muslim civil rights organization.

Hoover, Herbert (1874–1964): American politician (Republican), businessman, and mining engineer who became President with no elected office experience; 31st President of the United States (1929–1933). When the Wall Street crash of 1929 struck, Hoover attempted ineffective corrective measures that would be mimicked by his successor, Franklin Roosevelt, to the same result. Besides his failure to prevent or correct the Great Depression, Hoover became unpopular for supporting prohibition. Most folk figured that if the world was going to hell, you might as well have a drink.

Howard, John (1726–1790): English sheriff who became a prison reformer.

Howe, Geoffrey (1926–2015): Welsh Conservative politician.

Howe, William (1729–1814): British army officer who became commander-in-chief of British forces during the American Revolutionary War.

Hoynes, Hilary: American economist, interested in welfare programs.

Hsu, Stephen S.: American investigative journalist.

Huddy, Leonie: American political psychologist.

Hughes, Charles Evans Sr. (1862–1948): American politician (progressive Republican) and jurist.

Hugo, Victor (1802–1885): French poet, novelist, and dramatist.

Humphrey, Hubert H. (1911–1978): American politician (Democrat); US Vice President (1965–1969); US Senator from Minnesota (1949–1964, 1971–1978).

Hussak, Larisa J.: American psychologist.

Hussein, Saddam (1937–2006): Iraqi revolutionary; dictator of Iraq (1979–2003). Executed for crimes against humanity.

Hutter, Jacob (1500–1536): Austrian Anabaptist religious leader who founded the Hutterites.

Hyde-Smith, Cindy (1959–): American politician (Republican); US Senator from Mississippi (2018–).

Icke, David V. (1952–): English writer.

Ijeoma, Justus: Nigerian human rights activist.

Inge, William Ralph (aka Dean Inge) (1860–1954): English Anglican priest and author.

Innocent IV, Pope (1195–1554): the Pope (1243–1254) who initially followed predecessor Pope Gregory IX’s order to burn all copies of the Talmud throughout European Christendom, but in 1247 relented and simply censored the Talmud, having bought the argument that the previous policy negated the Church’s traditional tolerance of Judaism. Innocent IV’s posture was continued by subsequent popes. Innocent IV is also remembered for issuing the papal bull Ad extirpanda (15 May 1252), which authorized torture by the Inquisition to elicit confessions from heretics, and property confiscation, a portion of which was conceded to the state, which assumed the burden of executing the bull in persecuting accused heretics.

Ioanitou, Angeliki: Greek home keeper.

Irdell, James (1751–1799): American jurist.

Isabella I of Castile (1451–1504): queen of Castile who married Ferdinand II, her 2nd cousin, in 1469, thus providing the basis for political unification of Spain under Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

Isocrates (436–338 BCE): Greek rhetorician.

Ivanov, Yevgeny (1926–1994): Soviet naval attaché and spy at the Soviet Embassy in London in the early 1960s. Caught up in the Profumo affair, Ivanov was ordered back to the Soviet Union. His wife Maya left him because of his affair with Christine Keeler. Ivanov found what solace he could in vodka. He was found dead in his Moscow flat at age 68.

Jackson, Andrew (1767–1845): American soldier, politician (founder of the Democratic Party), and statesman; 7th US President (1829–1837). Jackson won the most popular and electoral votes of the 3 major candidates in the 1824 presidential contest but lost to John Quincy Adams in the House of Representatives vote that decided the election. Jackson survived the 1st assassination attempt on a sitting president. As president, Jackson succored the “common man” against the “corrupt aristocracy.”

James II (1633–1701): King of England (1685–1688), best known for his struggles with parliament, and his attempts to create religious liberty against the will of the Anglican establishment.

Järvensivu, Paavo: Finnish economist.

Jay, John (1745–1829): American politician (Federalist) and jurist.

Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826): American farmer, slave owner, and politician (Democratic-Republican); principal author of the of the Declaration of Independence (1776); outspoken proponent of democracy; 3rd US President (1801–1809); consistently considered as one of the greatest US Presidents.

Jesus (of Nazareth) (aka Jesus Christ) (7–2 BCE–30–33 ce): Israeli Jewish carpenter and preacher who is regarded by Christians to have been the awaited Messiah (or Christ) referred to in the Old Testament. Jesus was crucified by Roman authorities for challenging societal order. (Crucifixion was reserved for crimes against the state by the lower classes, or for slaves who attacked their masters.) Though presumed literate, Jesus left no writings.

Jewell, John (1522–1571): English bishop who helped establish the legitimacy of the Anglican Church.

Joan of Arc (1412–1431): French visionary who supported Charles VII in his attempt to recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years’ War. Captured by a faction allied with the English, she was found guilty of false charges and burned at the stake on 30 May 1431.

Jobs, Steve (1955–2011): American computer marketeer.

John I (1166–1216): King of England (1199–1216). John I’s 1215 charter with England’s barony – the Magna Carta – became a seminal document in the history of civil rights, and an early step in the evolution of constitutions.

John XXII, Pope (born Jacques Duèze) (1244–1334): an activist Pope (1316–1334) that involved himself in the politics of many European countries in order to advance the interests of the Church. John centralized power and income in the papacy and lived a princely lifestyle. His opposition to the policies of Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV prompted Louis to invade Italy and set up an antipope (Nicholas V). John opposed the Franciscan understanding that Jesus and his apostles lived in poverty, owning nothing. To accept the proposition would condemn the Church’s right to property (as it would be righteous to follow Christ’s example).

John of Salisbury (1120–1180): English author, clergyman, and diplomat.

Johnson, Andrew (1808–1875): American politician (Democrat) who ran with Abraham Lincoln in 1864 on a national union ticket and became President upon Lincoln’s assassination; 17th US President (1865–1869), and the 1st to face an impeachment trial on unmerited political charges, for which he was acquitted.

Johnson, Lyndon B. (LBJ) (1908–1973): American politician (Democrat); 36th US President (1963–1969).

Johnson, Robert Everett: American civil rights attorney.

Johnson, Samuel (1709–1784): English writer.

Johnston, Christopher: American political scientist.

Jones, Alex S.: American news media maven.

Judt, Tony (1948–2010): English historian.

Jung, Carl (1875–1961): Swiss psychiatrist.

Juppé, Alain (1945–): French politician (Republican); French Prime Minister (1995–1997). While prime minister, Juppé faced labor strikes which paralyzed the country, costing Juppé his job.

Justinian I (Flavius Justinianus, born Petrus Sabbatius) (482–565): Byzantine emperor (527–565), best remembered for his codification of civil laws (Corpus Juris Civilis).

Kagan, Elena (1960–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (2010–).

Kamras, Jason: American public education administrator.

Kangxi, Emperor (born Xuanye) (1654–1722): Chinese emperor; one of the longest-reigning rulers in history (61 years) and considered one of China’s greatest emperors.

Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804): German philosopher.

Kappeler, Victor E.: American criminal justice scholar.

Kateb, George: American political scientist.

Katz, Michael B. (1939–2014): American historian and social theorist.

Kavanaugh, Brett M. (1965–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (2018–). Kavanaugh was part of the legal team that worked to stop the ballot recount in Florida in the 2000 presidential election, in which SCOTUS unconstitutionally selected George W. Bush as president.

Keeler, Christine (1942–): English model and showgirl whose claim to fame was being the femme fatale in the Profumo affair.

Keller, Helen (1880–1968): American author who was blind and deaf through illness at 19 months old.

Kennedy, John F. (JFK) (1917–1963): American politician (Democrat); 35th US President (1961–1963). Kennedy was killed by sniper fire while riding at 11 mph in a motorcade in downtown Dallas, Texas. In 1979, a US House committee concluded that Kennedy was assassinated from of a conspiracy.

Kennedy, Paul M. (1945–): English historian, interested in international relations and economic power.

Keynes, John Maynard (1883–1946): English macroeconomist who opposed Britain’s return to the gold standard after World War 1 (in 1925), and who proposed that governments spend their way out of the Great Depression by printing money to stimulate demand.

Khomeini, Ruhollah Moosavi (1902–1989): Iranian revolutionary and politician who ruled Iran as Ayatollah after the 1979 revolution until his death.

Khrushchev, Nikita (1984–1971): erratic Russian-born Soviet politician; leader of the Soviet Union (1958–1964).

Kipling, Rudyard (1865–1936): British poet and writer.

Kirkpatrick, Jeane J. (1926–2006): American diplomat and ardent anti-communist.

Kissinger, Henry (1923–): American diplomat.

Kitzhaber, John (1947–): American physician and politician (Democrat); Governor of Oregon (1995–2003, 2011–2015).

Kiyomori, Taira (1118–1181): 1st Japanese samurai dictator (1160–1181).

Klein, Linda: American lawyer.

Kliff, Sarah: American journalist, interested in public health care.

Knowles, Eric: American social psychologist.

Knowlton, Charles (1800–1850): American physician and writer.

Koga, Mineichi (1885–1944): Japanese naval commander.

Kotz, David M.: American economist.

Kozinski, Alex (1950–): American jurist.

Kraska, Peter B.: American criminologist.

Kraus, Michael W.: American sociologist.

Kubic, Micah W.: American civil rights activist.

La Follette Jr., Robert M. (1895–1953): American politician (Republican); US Senator from Wisconsin (1925–1947).

Lafayette, Marquis de (Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier de Lafayette) (1757–1834): liberal French aristocrat and military officer.

Lähde, Ville: Finnish environmentalist.

Lajevardi, Nazita: American political scientist and lawyer.

Lakoff, George (1941–): American linguist and philosopher, interested in how metaphors affect worldview.

Landes, David S. (1924–2013): American historian and economist.

Lange, Halvard M.: Norwegian diplomat and politician.

Laustsen, Lasse: Danish political scientist.

Law, (Andrew) Bonar (1858–1923): Scottish politician (Conservative); Prime Minister just 211 days (November 1922–May 1923); the only prime minister to have been born outside the British Isles.

Lawrence, David (1888–1973): American newspaperman.

Le Guin, Ursula K. (1929–): American author.

Lebow, Richard Ned: American psychologist.

Lee, Robert E. (1807–1870): American Confederate general during the Civil War.

Leetaru, Kalev H.: American internet entrepreneur and academic.

Lenin, Vladimir (Vladimir Ulyanov) (1870–1924): Russian political theorist, communist revolutionary, and ruler of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union (1917–1924).

Levin, Carl (1934–): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Michigan (1979–2015).

Lewis, Sinclair (aka Harry Sinclair Lewis) (1885–1951): American novelist, writer, and playwright.

Li, Jennifer: American environmentalist.

Lincoln, Abraham (1809–1865): American politician (Republican); 16th US President (1860–1865). Lincoln’s election as president prompted the secession movement in the Old South that led to the Civil War. Just after the war ended, on 14 April 1865, Lincoln was shot in the head at point-black range by John Wilkes Boothe, a well-known actor from the south who had been a Confederate spy during the war. Lincoln was attending the theater for a play. Lincoln’s bodyguard left him during intermission to go drink at the saloon next door, whereupon Boothe did his dirty deed. Lincoln has consistently been considered one of the 3 greatest US presidents, by scholars and the public alike.

Lippmann, Walter (1889–1974): American journalist and political commentator.

Little, Kim: American, history professor.

Locke, John (1632–1704): English philosopher and physician.

Long, Russell B. (1918–2003): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Louisiana (1948–1987).

Looman Mary D.: American criminologist.

Louis IV (aka the Bavarian) (1282–1347): German-born royalty; Holy Roman Emperor (1328–1347).

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné, aka Louis the Great, Sun King) (1638–1715): King of France (1643–1715). An inveterate warmonger, Louis was an adherent of the divine right of kings.

Louis XVI (born Louis-Auguste) (1754–1793): King of France (1774–1791) until being overthrown by the French Revolution.

Luther, Martin (1483–1546): German friar and Catholic priest who initiated the Protestant Reformation.

Lynch, Loretta E. (1959–): American attorney; US Attorney General (1999–2001; 2010–2017).

MacArthur, Douglas (1880–1964): American military leader.

MacGregor, Neil: English art historian.

Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469–1527): Italian historian, politician, diplomat, and philosopher; one of the founders of modern political science.

Macleod, Iain (1913–1970): English politician (Conservative).

Madison, James Jr. (1751–1836): American political theorist; 4th US President (1809–1817).

Maduro, Nicolás M. (1962–): Venezuelan politician; President (2013–).

Maharaj, Nisargadatta (born Maruti Shivrampant Kambli) (1897–1981): insightful Indian guru.

Majava, Antti: Finnish environmentalist.

Major, John (1943–): English politician (Conservative); Prime Minister (1990–1997).

Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766–1834): English parson who fretted that human population growth would eventually be checked by famine, disease and “vice.”

Mann, Thomas (1875–1955): German writer and social critic.

Mao Zedong (aka Mao Tse-tung) (1893–1976): Chinese revolutionary and dictator (1949–1976).

Marbury, William (1762–1835): American businessman and one of the “Midnight Judges” appointed by outgoing President John Adams; the plaintiff in Marbury v. Madison.

Marcum, Anthony: American attorney and political scientist.

Marlowe, Christopher (1564–1593): English playwright.

Marsh, George Perkins (1801–1882): American diplomat, philologist, and conservationist.

Marshall, Alfred (1842–1924): English economist.

Marshall, John (1755–1835): American jurist; 4th SCOTUS Chief Justice (1801–1835).

Marshall, Thurgood (1908–1993): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1967–1991).

Marsilio of Padua (aka Marsiglio de Padova, Marsilius of Padua, born Marsilio Mainardini) (1275–1342): Italian scholar who promoted unlimited monarchial power.

Martel, Charles (688–741): Frankish military leader and ruler of Francia (718–741).

Marti, Mollie Weighner: American psychologist.

Martineau, Harriet (1802–1876): English sociologist.

Marx, Karl (1818–1883): Prussian German historian, sociologist, and economist, known as a proponent of scientific socialism: social ownership and cooperative economic management.

Marz, Robert E.: American physician.

Mason, George (1725–1792): American delegate to the Constitutional Convention who suggested that the constitution should have a bill of rights and refused to sign the document when it did not.

Mason, Lilliana: American political scientist.

Mather, Cotton (1663–1728): New England Puritan minister and prolific author (over 450 books and pamphlets), best known for his involvement in the Salem witch trials.

Mauer, Marc: American criminal justice advocate.

Maurya, Chandragupta (340–298 BCE): founder of the Mauryan Empire.

May, Theresa (1956–): English politician (Conservative); UK Prime Minister (2016–2019).

Mayer, Matt A.: American government bureaucrat.

McCain, John (1936–2018): American politician (Republican); US Senator from Arizona (1987–2018).

McCarthy, Cormac (1933–): American writer.

McClellan, George (1826–1885): American soldier, civil engineer, railroad executive and politician (Democrat). McClellan’s poor performance as a battlefield general set back the North’s effort during the 1st phase of the Civil War. McClellan unsuccessfully ran for President against Abraham Lincoln in 1864.

McConville, Seán: English penologist.

McDonnell, Robert F. (Bob) (1954–): American politician (Republican), let off the hook for bribery by SCOTUS in 2016.

McGovern, James P. (Jim) (1959–): American politician (Democrat).

McKinley, William (1843–1901): American politician (Republican); 25th US President (1987–1901). McKinley was shot twice in the gut by an anarchist. He rallied for a few days, but the attending doctor was unable to find and remove the 2nd bullet. Gangrene in the stomach did McKinley in.

Meade, James (1907–1995): English economist, interested in international trade.

Means, Gardiner (1896–1988): American economist.

Meiji (1852–1912): Japanese Emperor (1867–1912).

Mekouar, Merouan: Canadian sociologist, interested in authoritarianism and democratization.

Menarndt, Aubrey: American international elections monitor.

Mencken, H.L. (1880–1956): American satirist and scholar.

Merkel, Angela (1954–): German politician (Christian Democratic Union) with a disciplined and patient leadership style; the longest-serving Chancellor (2005–2020) and de facto leader of the European Union.

Mica, John L. (1943–): American businessman and politician (Republican).

Miles, Rosalind (1943–): English author.

Mill, John Stuart (1806–1873): English philosopher, politician, and political economist.

Milton, John (1608–1674): English polemicist, man of letters, civil servant, and poet.

No man who knows aught, can be so stupid to deny that all men naturally were born free. ~ John Milton

Miranda, Ernesto A. (1941–1976): American manual laborer and chronic criminal.

Mohammed VI (1952–): King of Morocco (1999–).

Monnet, Jean (1888–1979): French political economist and diplomat who was an influential supporter of European unity; considered one of the founding fathers of the European Union.

Montesquieu (aka Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu) (1689–1755): French lawyer and political philosopher who advocated a separation of powers in government.

No kingdom has shed more blood than the kingdom of Christ. ~ Montesquieu

More, Thomas (1478–1535): English humanist, lawyer, politician, social philosopher, and author.

Morris, Ian (1960–): English historian.

Morris, Norval (1923–2004): New Zealander criminologist and law professor.

Morris, William (1834–1896): English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator (Greek, Icelandic, Danish, French), and socialist activist, interested in environmentalism.

Mosman, Michael W. (1956–): American jurist.

Moyo, Dambisa (1969–): Zambian-born American economist.

MuBarack, Hosni (1928–): Egyptian military and political leader who ruled Egypt (1981–2011).

Mueller, Robert (1944–): American lawyer; FBI director (2001–2013).

Mugabe, Robert (1924–): Zimbabwean politician; Prime Minister (1980–1987), President (1987–2017).

Muhammad (570–632): Arabian religious and political leader who founded the Islamic religion; believed by Muslims to be the prophet of Allāh.

Muir, John (1838–1914): Scottish American naturalist who wanted to nature preserves.

Murdoch, Rupert (1931–): Australian media mogul.

Murrow, Edward R. (1908 – 1965): American broadcast journalist and war correspondent.

Murphy, Mike: American Republican political strategist.

Murphy, William Francis (Frank) (1890–1949): American politician and jurist.

Muscat, Joseph (1974–): Maltese politician; Prime Minister of Malta (2013–).

Mussolini, Benito (1883–1945): Italian politician and journalist; prime minister from 1922 to 1943, when ousted. Mussolini ruled constitutionally until 1925, when he established his dictatorship. Known as Il Duce (the leader), Mussolini was a leading practitioner of fascism.

Mutch, Robert E.: American political election researcher.

Myrdal, K. Gunnar (1898–1987): Swedish economist, sociologist, and politician.

Nader, Ralph (1934–): American lawyer and political activist; best known for his work in the 1950s–1960s exposing the unsafe cars built by American manufacturers.

Nagpaul, Chaand: English physician.

Nanavati, Kawas Manekshaw (1916–2003): Indian naval commander.

Nehru, Jawaharlal (1889–1964): Indian politician; India’s 1st prime minister (1947–1964).

Nero (37–68): Roman Emperor from 54 to 68. Not in line for ascension, Nero climbed to his position, and maintained his grip on power, by repeated assassinations, including his own mother. Nero was a murderous megalomaniacal sociopath. He had Christians captured and burned in his garden for illumination.

Newman, Katherine S.: American sociologist and educator.

Nicholas II of Russia (Nikolai Alexandrovich Romanov) (1868–1918): last Emperor of Russia (Tsar), Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland. Nicknamed Nicholas the Bloody because of his ruthless elimination of political opponents and pursuit of military campaigns on an unprecedented scale.

Nicholas V (1397–1455): Italian clergyman and Pope (1447–1455). Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks during the pontificate of Nicholas, as well as the end of the Hundred Years War. Nicholas issued decrees which effectively sanctioned slavery.

Nielson, Lindsay: American political scientist.

Nietz, Kerry: American author.

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900): German philosopher and scholar.

Nixon, Richard (1913–1994): American politician (Republican); 37th US President (1969–1974); the only President to resign from office, over a scandal involving illicit surveillance of political opponents (the Watergate scandal).

Nolan, Tom: American criminologist.

Nordhaus, Ted: American political consultant.

Noriega, Manuel (1934–): Panamanian politician and soldier; military dictator of Panama (1983–1989).

Nozick, Robert (1938–2002): American philosopher.

O’Brien, Rourke L.: American sociologist.

O’Donnell, Eugene: American policing scholar; former policeman.

Obama, Barack H. (1961–): American politician (Democrat); 44th US President (2009–2016).

Octavian (aka Augustus) (63 BCE–14 CE): Roman military leader and 1st Roman Emperor.

Odoacer, Flavius (433–493) (aka Odovacar): a soldier who became the 1st King of Italy (476–793). His reign marked the end of the Western Roman Empire.

Odom, Gary (1955–): American economist, technologist, software developer, inventor, polymath, painter, and graphic artist.

Ogletree, Charles (1952–): American law professor and legal scholar.

Olson, Nina E.: American tax maven.

Orbán, Viktor (1963–): Hungarian politician (Fidesz); Hungary Prime Minister (2010–).

Orwell, George (pseudonym of Eric Arthur Blair) (1903–1950): English novelist, best known for the allegorical novella Animal Farm (1945) and the dystopian political novel 1984 (1949). Orwell was keenly aware of social injustice, committed to democratic socialism, and opposed to totalitarianism.

Oxenstierna, Axel Gustafsson (1583–1654): Swedish statesman; widely considered one of the most influential men in Swedish history.

Padover, Saul K. (1905–1981): American historian.

Paine, Thomas (1737–1809): English American political theorist and activist; called by American historian Saul Padover “a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, and a propagandist by inclination.”

Palidda, Salvatore: Italian anthropologist.

Papandreou, George (1952–): Greek politician; Prime Minister of Greece (2009–2011).

Parker, Julie: American police apologist.

Parr, Catherine (1512–1548): English noblewoman; 6th and last wife of King Henry VIII.

Pascal, Blaise (1623–1662): French mathematician, physicist, inventor, and Christian philosopher.

Paul, Rand (1963–): American politician (Republican) and ophthalmologist; US Senator from Kentucky (2011–).

Paxton, Robert (1932–): American political scientist and historian, especially interested in Europe during the 2nd World War.

Perry, Matthew (1794 –1858): American naval commander who led an expedition to Japan (1852–1854) to force open Japanese ports to American trade.

Peter, Laurence J. (1919–1990): Canadian educator.

Peter, Simon (aka Saint Peter, Simōn) (30–64/68 ce): Galilean fisherman; one of Jesus’ 12 apostles. According to Christian legend, Peter was crucified upside-down in Rome under the aegis of Emperor Nero. Peter requested that he be crucified upside-down, as he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus.

Peters, B. Guy: American political scientist.

Petrarch (Petrarca), Francesco (1304–1374): Italian poet and scholar who coined the term Dark Ages; one of the earliest humanists.

Petrie, Cameron A.: English archeologist.

Pettus-Davis, Carrie: American criminal justice professor.

Philip II (Philip Augustus) (1165–1223): King of France (1180–1223). Philip’s predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks; but from 1190 onward, Philip styled himself King of France.

Piccareta, Michael: American criminal defense attorney.

Pickering, Charles W. (1937–): American jurist.

Pierson, Victoria: American educator.

Pinchot, Gifford (1865–1946): American forester and politician. Pinchot wanted Nature conservation to serve the needs of human exploitation.

Pinker, Steven (1954–): Canadian psychologist.

Pinkerton, Allen (1819–1884): Scottish American detective and spy, best known for creating a namesake detective agency which became notorious after Pinkerton’s death for thuggery against the nascent labor union movement in the US and Canada.

Pinochet, Augusto (1915–2006): Chilean military leader who took political power in a 1973 coup; dictator of Chile (1973–1990). Pinochet is remembered for torturing and killing tens of thousands of perceived political opponents.

Pinter, Harold (1930–2008): English dramatist, movie director, and actor.

Pius, Antoninus (86–151): Roman Emperor (138–151); 4th of 5 good emperors who guided the empire through an 84-year period of peace and prosperity.

Plato (427–347 BCE): Greek philosopher and mathematician.

Polybius (200–118 BCE): Greek historian who studied the institutional dynamics of Roman polity.

Powers, Francis Gary (1929–1977): American pilot whose U-2 spy plane was shot down while overflying the Soviet Union on 1 May 1960.

Pratto, Felicia: American social psychologist.

Price, David E. (1940–): American politician (Democrat) and political scientist.

Prigozhin, Yevgeniy Viktorovich: Russian propagandist.

Profumo, John (1915–2006): English politician (Conservative).

Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1809–1865): French philosopher who was politically a libertarian socialist.

Ptahhotep (2414–2375): Egyptian vizier, remembered for authoring the Maxims of Ptahhotep, which was moral and practical advice on human relations, ostensibly directed to Ptahhotep’s son.

Pucheu, Pierre (1899–1944): French industrialist, fascist, and member of the Vichy government.

Puleston, William D. (1881–1968): American naval officer and author.

Pulitzer, Joseph (1847–1911): American Hungarian newspaper publisher who introduced yellow journalism to the newspapers he acquired.

Putin, Vladimir V. (1952–): Russian spy and politician; Russian President (2000–2008, 2012–).

Pythagoras (570–495 BCE): Greek mathematician and philosopher.

Quayle, Dan (1944–): American politician (Republican); 44th Vice President (1989–1993); US Senator from Indiana (1981–1989).

Rader, Randall R. (1949–): disgraced American jurist; chief judge of the CAFC who resigned over a scandal involving bias.

Ramadan, Tariq (1962–): Swiss academic and philosopher.

Rand, Ayn (1905–1982): Russian-born American novelist and philosopher.

Rawls, John (1921–2002): American moral and political philosopher.

Reagan, Ronald (1911–2004): American actor and politician (Republican); 40th US President (1981–1989).

Rehnquist, William H. (1924–2005): American jurist; SCOTUS Chief Justice (1994–2005).

Reinhardt, Stephen R. (1931–2018): American jurist.

Relman, Arnold S. (1923–2014): American internist and professor of medicine.

Ren Xianliang: Chinese bureaucrat.

Ribicoff, Abraham (1910–1998): British-born American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Connecticut (1963–1981).

Roberts, John G., Jr. (1955–): American jurist; SCOTUS Chief Justice (2005–).

Roberts, John M. (1928–2003): English historian.

Robertson, William (1721–1793): Scottish historian, minister, and educator.

Robespierre, Maximilien (1758–1794): French lawyer and politician.

Robinson, James A.: English political scientist and economist.

Rockström, Johan: Swedish environmentalist.

Roediger, Brendan: American civil rights lawyer.

Rogers, Mike (1963–): American politician (Republican).

Rogers, Will (1879–1935): American entertainer.

Rohn, Jennifer L. (Jenny): American British scientist, interested in cytology and infectious diseases.

Romulus (?–753 BCE): the mythical founder of Rome. According to legend, twin brothers, Romulus and Remus, were borne by Rhea Silvia, daughter of Numitor, King of Alba Longa.

Before the brothers’ conception, Numitor’s brother Amulius seized power. Amulius slaughtered Numitor’s male heirs and forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, sworn to chastity.

Mars (the god) fathered the twins which Rhea Silvia conceived. Once born, Amulius had them tossed into the Tiber river to die. The twins survived through a series of miraculous interventions: the river portered them to safety; a she-wolf discovered and suckled them; and a woodpecker fed them.

A shepherd and his wife found the twins and fostered them to manhood. Ignorant of their origin, they became simple shepherds. But they were natural leaders, acquiring many followers.

Upon discovering their birthright, the brothers killed Amulius and restored Numitor to the throne. Rather than wait to inherit Alba Longa, they chose to found a new city.

The brothers agreed to determine the city’s site through augury. They quarreled about the outcome, and Romulus killed Remus; whereupon Romulus founded the new city, naming it Rome after himself.

Rome grew rapidly, swelling with landless refugees. As most of these were male and unmarried, Romulus arranged the abduction of women from the neighboring Sabines tribe.

The ensuing war ended with the Sabines joining the Romans as one people. Rome became a dominant regional force while Romulus grew increasingly autocratic. The circumstances of Romulus’ death remain a mystery.

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (FDR) (1882–1945): American politician (Democrat); 32nd US President (1932–1945), winning a record 4 elections for the office; a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the US during the Great Depression and World War 2.

Roosevelt, Theodore (1858–1919): American politician (Republican); 26th US President (1901–1909).

Roscher, Wilhelm (1817–1894): German historian.

Rotberg, Robert I. (1935–): American historian and political scientist.

Rothman, David J.: American social historian, interested in health care.

Rotman, Edgardo: Argentinian criminologist and lawyer.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–1778): Genevan philosopher and composer.

Rush, Benjamin (1746–1813): American physician, politician, social reformer, educator, civic leader, and humanitarian; a signer of the Declaration of Independence.

Ruskin, John (1819–1900): leading English art critic of the Victorian era, also interested in environmentalism.

Russell, Bertrand (1872–1970): English philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, social critic, and political activist.

Rutledge, John (1739–1800): American politician and jurist.

Ryan, Alan (1940–): English political theorist and historian of political thought.

Ryan, Paul D. (1970–): American politician (Republican).

Sahgal, Gita (1956–): Indian journalist.

Saks, Michael J.: American lawyer and psychologist.

Samson (aka Sampson, Shamshoun): legendary Biblical figure, given supernatural strength by God to combat his enemies, and incidentally perform heroic feats. Samson had 2 weaknesses: attraction to untrustworthy women, and his hair, without which he was powerless. These vulnerabilities ultimately proved fatal.

Sanders, Joseph: American lawyer and legal scholar.

Sanger, Margaret (1879–1966): American social reformer and birth control activist.

Sapatakis, Stefanos: Greek environmentalist.

Sata, Michael (1937–2014): Zambian politician (Patriotic Front); Zambia President (2011–2014).

Saxe, John Godfrey (1816–1887): mercurial American poet.

Scahill, Jeremy (1974–): American national security scholar and journalist.

Scalia, Antonin (1936–2016): conservative American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1986–2016).

Scarman, Leslie (1911–2004): English judge and barrister.

Scheindlin, Shira A.: American jurist.

Schiavo, Mary F.: American attorney, interested in airline flight safety; Inspector General of the US Department of Transportation (1990–1997).

Schmaderer, Todd: American police chief of Omaha, Nebraska.

Schneier, Bruce (1963–): American cryptographer, privacy and security analyst.

Schudson, Michael (1946–): American sociologist and journalism scholar.

Schumacher, E.F. (Ernst Friedrich, Fritz) (1911–1977): German-born British economist, statistician, and humanist.

Schuman, Robert (1866–1963): Luxembourg-born French politician (Christian Democrat); Prime Minister of France (November 1947–July 1948 and August–September 1948), as well as other ministerial roles in the French government.

Schumpeter, Joseph (1883–1950): Austrian American economist.

Scrope, Poulet (1797–1876): English geologist, political economist, and jurist.

Seife, Charles: American journalist and author.

Severus Alexander (208–235): Roman Emperor (222–235).

Seymour, Jane (1508–1537): 3rd wife of English King Henry VIII. Jane was not as highly educated as Henry’s 1st 2 wives but was more adept at household management and needlework – both skills that Henry prized.

Seymour, Thomas (1508–1549): English country gentry; brother of Jane Seymour, 3rd wife of Henry VIII, and husband of Catherine Parr, Henry VIII’s 6th and last wife.

Shah of Iran (Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi) (1919–1980): Shah (king) of Iran (1941–1979). The Shah was overthrown after losing the support of the Shia clergy and the working class, due to his policy of secular modernization, conflicts with the traditional merchant class, corruption, and civil suppression.

Shakespeare, William (1564–1616): English playwright and poet.

Shamsi, Hina: American lawyer, interested in national security.

Sharpe, George H. (1828–1900): American lawyer, soldier, spy, diplomat, and civil servant.

Shattuck, Lemuel (1793–1859): American politician, historian, bookseller, and publisher.

Shaver, Daniel: American pest controller.

Shaw, George Bernard (1856–1950): Irish playwright and polemicist, angered by the exploitation of the working class; an ardent socialist.

Shellenberger, Michael: American political consultant.

Shelley, Mary (1797–1851): English writer.

Sherman, Lawrence W.: American criminologist.

Sherman, William Tecumseh (1820–1891): American soldier (in the North’s Union Army), businessman, educator, and author, remembered for his total-war tactics during the Civil War. English military historian Liddell Hart declared Sherman “the first modern general.”

Shindell, Drew: American climatologist.

Shivley, Phillips: American political scientist.

Sidanius, Jim: English psychologist.

Sidney, Algernon (1623–1683): English politician.

Liberty cannot be preserved if the manners of the people are corrupted. ~ Algernon Sidney

Simpson, O.J. (nicknamed the Juice) (1947–): retired American football player, broadcaster, actor, and convicted felon. Simpson managed to escape criminal, but not civil, prosecution for killing his wife in 1994. Owing to his sociopathy and arrogant stupidity, Simpson’s luck did not hold. Simpson was convicted in 2008 for several felonies – including armed robbery and kidnapping – and sentenced to 33 years in prison.

Smith, Adam (1723–1790): Scottish moral philosopher who advocated laissez-faire capitalism.

Smith, David: American attorney.

Smith, Rick: American CEO of Axon (formerly Taser International), taser manufacturer.

Snow, John (1913–1858): English physician; advocate of anesthesia and medical hygiene; considered one of the fathers of modern epidemiology.

Socrates (469–399 BCE): Ancient Greek philosopher who got himself killed by insistently antagonizing the Athenian political authorities.

Solnit, Rebecca (1961–): American writer.

Sorel, Georges (1847–1922): French political philosopher who advocated revolutionary syndicalism.

Soros, George (born György Schwartz) (1930–): Hungarian-American financial speculator and political activist.

Sotomayor, Sonia (1954–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (2009–).

Souter, David H. (1939–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1990–2009).

Sowell, Thomas (1930–): American economist, social theorist, and political philosopher.

Speer, Albert (1905–1981): Adolf Hitler’s chief architect who accepted moral responsibility for the Nazi regime at the post-war Nuremberg war crimes trials, though incredibly insisted that he was ignorant of the Holocaust.

Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903): English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and liberal political theorist.

Spinoza, Baruch (1632–1677): Dutch philosopher who laid the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment.

Stalin, Joseph (1878–1953): Georgian-born Soviet politician; leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death. Stalin replaced Lenin’s capitalist-oriented economic policy with a highly centralized command economy, geared to industrialization, with forced collectivism on the farm. By ruthless policies that created mass starvation, along with outright massacres, Stalin killed 20 million of his own people, and imprisoned millions more in labor camps. Yet, in the post-Soviet era, Russian public opinion polls rank him as one of the greatest leaders in history. Russians don’t know their country’s history any better than Americans do.

Steinsaltz, Adin (1937–): Talmudic scholar.

Stenner, Karen: American political psychologist and behavioral economist.

Stern, Fritz (1926–2016): German-born American historian.

Steuart, James (1713–1780): Scottish mercantilist economist.

Stevens, Anthony (1933–): English psychologist and psychiatrist.

Stevens, John Paul (1920–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1975–2010).

Stevenson, Adlai (II) (1900–1965): thoughtful and eloquent American liberal politician (Democrat); 31st Governor of Illinois (1949–1953). Twice defeated (1952 & 1956) in his quest for the US presidency by the popular war hero: Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Stewart, Mark: Australian civil engineer and security analyst.

Stewart, Martha (1941–): American businesswoman, writer, and TV personality.

Stewart, Potter (1915–1985): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1959–1981).

Stinson, Philip: American criminologist and policing expert.

Stirner, Max (aka Johann Kaspar Schmidt) (1806–1856): German antistatist philosopher. Stirner is known for his book The Ego and Its Own (1844).

Stopes, Marie (1880–1958): English author, palaeobotanist, eugenicist, and women’s rights advocate, most notably as a pioneer in birth control.

Stotsky, Sandra: American educator.

Strong, Barrett (1941–): American songwriter and singer.

Sun Tzu (5th century BCE): legendary Chinese general, military strategist, and philosopher.

Superbus, Lucius Tarquinius (aka Tarquin the Proud) (?–495 BCE): 7th and last King of Rome (535–509 BCE); a usurper and tyrant, overthrown by popular revolt.

Superman (1938–): fictional superhero appearing in American comic books.

Synder, Timothy: American historian.

Tacitus (Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus) (56–117): Roman senator and historian; by his sharp insight, considered one of the greatest Roman historians.

Taney, Roger B. (177–1864): American jurist; 5th SCOTUS Chief Justice (1836–1864).

Taub, Amanda: American attorney and journalist, interested in human rights, foreign policy, and Shetland ponies.

Tawney, Richard Henry (R.H.) (1880–1962): English economic historian and social critic.

Taylor, Frederick Winslow (1856–1915): American mechanical engineer, interested in improving industrial efficiency.

Taylor, Howard F.: American sociologist.

Taylor, Zachary (1784–1850): American military leader; 12th US President (1849–1850). Taylor became a national hero from his victories in the Mexican American War (1846–1848), allowing him to win the Presidency despite his vague political beliefs. Taylor died of an intestinal ailment, possibly food poisoning, after 17 months in office.

Teixeira, Ruy: American political and demographic analyst.

Temple, William (1881–1944): English Anglican clergyman and theologist who favored socialism.

Tetlock, Philip E.: American psychologist.

Tetzel, Johann (1465–1519): German Catholic friar.

Thatcher, Margaret (1925–2013): English politician (Conservative); UK Prime Minister (1975–1990).

Theodosius I (aka Theodosius the Great) (347–395): Roman Emperor (379–395); the last emperor to rule over an undivided the Roman Empire. Theodosius made Christianity the official state religion.

Theoharis, Liz: American urbanologist.

Thomas, Clarence (1948–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1991–).

Thomas, Helen (1920–2013): American political reporter; famed White House correspondent. Thomas was the only member of the White House press corps to have her own seat in the White House briefing room. All other seats were assigned to media companies.

Thomas, Pierre: American news correspondent.

Thompson, Kenneth P.: American lawyer and district attorney.

Thorne, Deborah: American sociologist, interested in economic inequality.

Three Stooges, The (1928–1975): American vaudeville and comedy act. Beginning as a raucous foursome vaudeville act Ted Healy and His Stooges in 1928, Larry, Curly and Moe officially adopted the moniker The Three Stooges in 1934.

Thurber, James (1894–1961): American humorist.

Tietmeyer, Hans (1931–): German economist.

Tilden, Samuel J. (1814–1886): American politician (Democrat); governor of New York (1875–1876).

Tinbergen, Jan (1903–1994): Dutch economist.

Tito, Josip Broz (aka Tito) (1892–1980): Yugoslav communist revolutionary and well-regarded dictator of Yugoslavia (1944–1980).

Tobin, James (1918–2002): American economist who advocated government intervention to stabilize the economy, and so avoid recessions.

Toivanen, Tero: Finnish political economist.

Tōjō, Hideki (1884–1948): Japanese army leader, simultaneously serving as military commander-in-chief and prime minister during the war with the US (1941–1944).

Tolstoy, Leo (1828–1910): Russian author.

Toynbee, Arnold (1852–1883): English economic historian.

Travers, Russell E.: American spy.

Trigger, Bruce G. (1937–2006): Canadian anthropologist and archeologist.

Trost, Michael J.: American attorney.

Trotsky, Leon (1879–1940): Ukrainian revolutionary and politician.

Truman, Harry S. (1884–1972): American jurist and politician (Democrat); 33rd US President (1945–1953). Truman allowing atomic bombs to be dropped on Japan ranks as one of history’s most horrific war crimes, alongside Hitler’s attempted extermination of Jews. (The Japanese were already defeated by the time the US dropped the 1st atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Instead of a nuclear holocaust, the Americans could have provided evidence to the Japanese of their atomic weaponry. Further, the US atomically bombed Nagasaki just 3 days after Hiroshima, before the Japanese had a chance to appreciate the magnitude of destruction they were facing and surrender. Truman allowed the 2nd bomb to satisfy scientists who wanted to see the improved design and firepower they had come up with for the Nagasaki bomb, not for any military reason.)

Trump, Donald (1946–): American real estate magnate, con artist, and plutocrat who disguised himself as a populist politician (Republican) to barely become the 45th US President (2017–), thanks to Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election and a corrupt electoral system.

Tsakalotos, Euclid (1960–): Greek politician and economist.

Tsalikoglou, Fotini: Greek psychologist.

Tullius, Servius: legendary, popular 6th King of Rome (575–535 BCE).

Turberville, Sarah: American attorney and political activist.

Turner, Jennifer: American human rights scholar.

Tusk, Donald (1957–): Polish diplomat, politician, and historian.

Twain, Mark (1835–1910): pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens; American author, prized for his satire and wit.

Tyler, George R.: American economist.

Ulpian (170–223): Roman jurist who became chief advisor to Emperor Severus Alexander. Ulpian’s curtailment of the privileges granted to the Praetorian Guard by the previous emperor, Elagabalus, provoked their enmity. As vengeance, Ulpian was murdered in the palace by officers in his command.

Ur-Nammu: founder of the 3rd Sumerian dynasty (aka the Sumerian Renaissance), which he ruled 2047–2030 BCE.

Vadén, Tere: Finnish energy scholar and philosopher.

Van Vleet, Russ: American political scientist, interested in prison public policy.

Vaughan, William E. (Bill) (1917–1977): American columnist.

Veblen, Thorstein (1857–1929): American economist and sociologist.

Velasco, Rodrigo Guerrero: Columbian politician.

Verhofstadt, Guy (1953–): Belgian politician and EU parliamentarian.

Victoria, Queen (1819–1901): Queen of the United Kingdom (1837–1901). From 1876, Victoria also held the title of Empress of India. Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert, in 1840, by whom she bore 9 children. The offspring married into royal houses and noble families across the continent, earning her the sobriquet “the grandmother of Europe.”

Vidal, Gore (1925–2012): American writer. As a novelist, Gore explored the nature of corruption, both public and private.

Vine, David: American anthropologist.

Vitale, Alex S.: American sociologist, expert on US policing practices.

Vives, Juan Luis (aka Johannes Ludovicus Vives) (1493–1540): Valencian (eastern Spain) scholar and humanist.

Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) (1694–1778): French writer, historian, and philosopher.

Warner, Mark (1949–): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Virginia (2009–).

Warren, Elizabeth A. (1949–): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Massachusetts (2013–).

Washington, George (1931–1799): American commander-in-chief during the American Revolutionary War, one of the founding fathers of the United States, and its 1st President (1789–1797).

Watts, Danièle: American actress, best known for her roles in the movie Django Unchained (2012) and the TV series Weeds (2005–2014).

Webb, Jim: American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Virginia (2007–2013).

Weber, Max (1864–1920): German sociologist, political economist, jurist, and philosopher who influenced sociology theories.

Wehner, Peter: American Republican political strategist.

Weiler, Jonathan: American political scientist.

Weinstein, Jack B. (1921–): American jurist.

Weissman, Joel S.: American surgeon.

Wexler, Chuck: American criminologist and policing expert; executive director of the Police Executive Research Forum.

Whalen, Grover A. (1886–1962): American politician and businessman.

Whitehead, Alfred North (1861–1947): English mathematician and philosopher.

Whitehead, John W.: American attorney, interested in constitutional law and human rights.

Whitman, Christine Todd (1946–): American politician (Republican) and grossly incompetent head of the EPA (2001–2003).

Wieseltier, Leon (1952–): American writer and philosopher.

Wilde, Oscar (1854–1900): Irish writer and poet.

Wilkes, Donald E. (1944–): American law professor.

Willard, Frances (1839–1898): American educator, temperance reformer, and women’s suffragist.

William I (aka William the Conqueror, William the Bastard) (1028–1087): the 1st Norman King of England (1066–1087); a descendant of Viking raiders; the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy, and his mistress Herleva.

William of Orange (aka William III of England) (1650–1702): Dutch-born King of England (1689–1702).

Wilson, James (1742–1798): American founding father, politician, and jurist; SCOTUS justice (1789–1798).

Wilson, James (1805–1860): Scottish businessman, economist, and Liberal politician.

Wilson, Woodrow (1856–1924): American politician (Democrat) and academic; 28th US President (1913–1921).

Wines, Enoch C.: American penologist.

Winkler, Adam (1967–): American constitutional law professor.

Winner, Reality (1991–): American intelligence specialist who leaked a secret US government intelligence report about Russian interference in the 2016 US elections. Arrested on 3 June 2017, Winner was held until she pled guilty a year later, and then sentenced to an additional 5.25 years in prison.

Wohlstetter, Roberta (1912–2007): American military intelligence historian.

Wolf, Sarah (1960–): American lawyer; former deputy district attorney, now practicing inheritance law.

Wolfe, Scott: American criminologist.

Wollstonecraft, Mary (1759–1797): English political philosopher and writer.

Wood, Edward Frederick Lindley (aka Lord Halifax) (1881–1959): English politician (Conservative) who served as Viceroy of India (1925–1929), leader of the House of Lords (1935–1938), Foreign Secretary (1938–1940), and British ambassador to the United States (1941–1946). Wood inherited the title of Viscount Halifax from his father.

Wright, Rita P.: American anthropologist.

Wyatt, Thomas: English rebel who one of the 4 leaders of a 1554 attempt to dethrone Queen Mary I, out of concern that she would marry Catholic King Phillip of Spain.

Wyden, Ron (1949–): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Oregon (1996–).

Xi Jinping (1953–): Chinese politician who became China’s supreme political leader in 2013.

Yamamoto, Isoroku (1884–1943): Japanese naval military commander.

Yang Zili: Chinese civics scholar.

Yates, John Van Ness (1779–1839): American politician (Democratic-Republican); New York Secretary of State (1818–1826).

Yates, Sally (1960–): American lawyer.

Yick Wo: Chinese laundry owner who instigated the SCOTUS anti-discrimination case Yick Wo v. Hopkins.

Yokum, David: American sociologist.

Younger, Irving (1932–1988): American jurist and law professor.

Yousef, Ramzi (1968–): Kuwaiti electrical engineer and Islamic terrorist.

Zalman, Marvin: American professor of criminal justice.

Zanni, Marco (1986–): Italian politician.

Zeno of Citium (334–262 BCE): Hellenist philosopher who founded stoicism.

Zhang Lifan: Chinese historian and political analyst.

Zhu Huaxin: Chinese bureaucrat.

Zuma, Jacob G. (1942–): South African politician; President (2009–2018).