The Hub of Being (20-10) Molecules

 Molecules

Ordinary matter is made of molecules. Molecules are subject to thermodynamic phase transitions between solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Exactly how matter manages transitions – between fermions, atoms, and molecules – remains a mystery.

Thermodynamics is fiendishly complex, as incisively illustrated by the mathematics which characterize it. There is an entanglement of interactions, and a sharing of information to coherent action that is inexplicable. 4d interactions are only part of the story.

Atoms bond together in numerous ways to form molecules. Bonding may be fluid or robust. There are a tremendous variety of molecular affinities.

Though the electrons of the atoms in a molecule are the primary actors, atomic nuclei, at relatively great remove from the atomic electron cloud, influence bonding interactions. Albeit neatly classified by chemists, molecular bonding behavior has enigmatic oddities and intricacies.

Colossal clouds of alcohol float in the frigid vastness of space, defying the cardinal rule of chemistry: that reactions rates slow as temperature drops. The proffered explanation for cosmic booze is quantum tunneling. Somehow the everyday chemistry that seems so predictable in the lab is shunted aside by extra-dimensional forces, which create vast stills in space. Quantum tunneling is shorthand for activity dimensionally beyond examination: the interaction cannot be explained empirically.

Similarly, our understanding of the makings of matter is incomplete. Atoms are made up of parts which do not neatly fit within the constructs which physicists have devised for them. The Standard Model (SM), which characterizes quantum phenomena, is just a sketch. Its math is suspect, with workarounds to ward off infinities and break the symmetries which insistently appear. SM is an approximation at best, just as classical physics was apt only for a curtailed scale.