Anyons exceed the standard model of quantum physics, illustrating how little physicists have grasped about the emergence of existence.

The lynchpin of quantum mechanics has been the bifurcation of particles into fermions – bits of matter – and bosons, which are the force fields which light the world (photons) and police the behaviors of fermions.

Quasiparticles are emergent phenomena that behave as quantum particles but are not considered legitimate in the sense of being a fermion or boson. Quasiparticles are costumers of material world quantum actors.

There are many such pseudo-particles. One of them are anyons, which behaviorally split the difference between being fermions and bosons.

“Elementary particles in 3 dimensions are either bosons or fermions, depending on their spin. In 3-dimensional space, elementary excitations fall into 2 categories depending on the phase ϕ accumulated by the many-body wave function while exchanging 2 particles. This phase governs the statistics of an ensemble of particles: Bosonic particles, for which ϕ = 0, tend to bunch together, whereas fermions (ϕ = π) antibunch and follow Pauli’s exclusion principle,” explains H. Bartolomei, part of the team which discovered anyons in 3 dimensions. (Anyons had been hypothesized to be possible only in 2 dimensions.)

Experiments of colliding particles showed anomalous bunching/antibunching behaviors. “Elementary excitations of the fractional quantum Hall effect at filling factor ν = ⅓ obey fractional statistics with ϕ = π/3.” The experiments were “quite conclusive,” said German theoretical physicist Bernd Rosenow.

Quantum theory is ipso facto construal, as no direct observations can be made, only statistical inferences. Repetitive experimental consistency yields phenomenal confidence.

Existence emerges from the quantum level up. Its intricate construction is ultimately symbolic but perceived by us to be of objects and bodies in motion. This is the primordial mirage of materiality. Our otherwise dreamlike lives are rendered tangible via consistency in sensations, and emphatically emphasized from occasional poignant pain.


Bartolomei et al, “Fractional statistics in anyon collisions,” Science (10 April 2020).

Emily Conover, “Collisions reveal new evidence of ‘anyon’ quasiparticles’ existence,” Science News (9 April 2020).

Bob Yirka, “Anyon evidence observed using tiny anyon collider,” (10 April 2020).

D.E. Feldman, “The smallest particle collider,” Science (10 April 2020).

Ishi Nobu, “Quasiparticles,” (29 December 2019).

Ishi Nobu, “The mechanics of existence,” (10 December 2019).