Hermit Crabs

Hermit crabs are so called because they tuck themselves into sea shells for protection. The crabs themselves are quite social when the occasion arises, such when new real estate becomes available.

Roughing It

Roughness – the presence of irregularities on the surface of a material – is commonly thought to be a source of stickiness and slower motion. Molecules feel differently about such a situation.

America’s Republican Courts

Historically, US courts have vacillated between relative political balance and extreme partisanship. In the 21st century, despite the interlude of Democratic President Obama, the federal appeals courts are thoroughly Republican.

Quantum Entanglement

The seeming coordination between entangled quanta lurks as a mystery of physics, much as accounting for the teleology of adaptation has bedeviled evolutionary biologists. The two conundrums have the same answer.

Staying Fit

For our muscles to stay in shape, we must exercise them. Rodents face a similar situation. But the need for physical exercise to stay fit is not the norm among animals.

Asset Seizure

American police are little more than uniformed gangs of thieving savages. Every year they illicitly steal well over a billion dollars of innocent peoples’ property. Because they are law enforcement, they get to keep the loot.

Programming Languages

Despite impressive advances in artificial intelligence (AI), software remains in a primitive state. The quality and capability of software is directly dependent upon the language used to create it. Popular programming languages are crude; hence the glitches so often seen in software.

Produce Nutritional Quality

Studies in the UK and US found declines in the nutritional quality of commercial produce since the mid-20th century, when agriculture became more industrialized in the wake of the so-called Green Revolution.


Homo erectus discovering how to control fire would not have happened, and been for naught, had it not been for wood. Historians claim no Wood Age only because no such archaic artifacts remained to show wood’s importance; hence, prehistory begins with the Stone Age.


Sexism is a problem irrespective of culture. A distinction between the genders emerges as a natural consequence of early cognitive development and upbringing.