Hot Gas

Gas comprises over 75% of the detectable matter in the universe. As the universe supposedly expands, conventional astrophysics theory figures the gas ought to cool down. Instead, it’s getting hotter, according to the latest guesstimate.

The Software Problem

The root of all problems in software, including obstacles to stronger AI, stem from the language used. The solution, invented over 30 years ago, has been an inadvertent secret.


Sound is the mechanical propagation of vibrational waves from the jostle of atoms. From a physiological and psychological standpoint, sound is the sensation of such waves in an audible frequency range.

Toll Roads

Filamentous fungi grow by hyphal branching and extension, creating networks which serve as highways for motile soil bacteria on the go. But the bacteria must pay a toll for traveling fungal roads.

Viral Editing

Viruses selectively edit host genetic instructions to produce the bioproducts they want as part of viral reproduction. Viruses can do this because they understand life at the molecular level.