Plant Incentive

Acacia trees are famous for their symbiotic relationship with ants. Managing different ant species with distinct work ethics presents a challenge to these trees, which is met with sweetness.

Crying Wolf, Squawking Chicken

For a half century, doomsters have predicted the end of the world. On the opposite pole, climate change deniers increasingly seem psychotic. But optimists still hold sway: that human ingenuity can solve what selfsame ingenuity created. When does a cliffhanger become a tragic fall – or a last-minute miracle salvation?

Slippery Bonds

Atoms merge into molecules by sharing electrons. Chemists have categorized the ways these relationships are managed. The reality of chemistry is not so neat.

Fractional Charges

An electron is an elementary particle with a negative elementary charge. That supposed integral negativity is positively compensated by protons, thereby providing the balancing incentive for atomic matter. This fundamental physical charge constant is now known to be violated in everyday matter. Fractional charges have been found.

Hot Gas

Gas comprises over 75% of the detectable matter in the universe. As the universe supposedly expands, conventional astrophysics theory figures the gas ought to cool down. Instead, it’s getting hotter, according to the latest guesstimate.