Plant Incentive

Acacia trees are famous for their symbiotic relationship with ants. Managing different ant species with distinct work ethics presents a challenge to these trees, which is met with sweetness.

Toll Roads

Filamentous fungi grow by hyphal branching and extension, creating networks which serve as highways for motile soil bacteria on the go. But the bacteria must pay a toll for traveling fungal roads.


The process of living boils down to data processing. To render the mirage of physicality, symbolic processing fabricates physical correlates. Genetics is just the beginning.