Mitocellular Communication

A mitochondrion is the power plant for eukaryotic cells, as well as performing many other functions. It is the only organelle that retains its own genome and the machinery for self-maintenance. To meet cellular needs, a mitochondrion has an extensive communication network, both within itself and with the rest of the cell.


The mind is a pattern processor. The mental ability to discriminate is based upon contrast. As such, a reference pattern affords finer acuity.

Vulturine Guineafowl

A native of northeast Africa, the vulturine guineafowl is the largest bird in its genus. Taxonomically, this bird is more dinosaur than guineafowl. But its sociality is post-modern.

Sessile & Sensitive

Plants are sensitive to touch and respond according to what is touching them. The feel of a neighboring plant receives a distinct reaction from that of an herbivore or falling rain.


The slimy, hydrated gel called mucus lines all wet epithelia in our bodies – over 200 square meters, including the eyes, lungs, and gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts. Healthy individuals produce several liters of mucus daily. Mucus was long thought merely a lubricant and physical barrier against pathogens. Mucus also acts as a communication filtering device to potentially nefarious microbes.

Molecules of Sight

While looking out, the human mind creates a visual image corresponding to 1,600 megapixels (million pixels) each millisecond (1/1000th of a second). This is 274 times more detailed than high-definition TV images. The astonishing process of sight cannot be explained physiologically. Further confirmation of this has recently been provided by researchers who identified the receptors responsible for catching the photons which supposedly compose a visual image.


Evidence only supports the idea of nerve cells as physiological signal transducers. Yet so-called scientists religiously cling to the concept of neurons as the locus of mentation and even consciousness. Why is that?

Cold Sense

Researchers recently found the protein responsible for sensing cold in animals, from primitive worms to late-evolved bipeds who read blogs. The protein has a close association with nerve cells. What the researchers did not discover were the obvious implications of what they did discover.

Wily E. coli

Autotrophs have it relatively easy. They can produce their own food. For most organisms, there is no such thing as a free lunch. Foraging, hunting, and parasitism are an easier lifestyle than pathogens, which must first find a host and then successfully invade. Getting past host defenses and evading the immune system are just part of the difficulties when infection is your chosen lifestyle.


How does a protein function? How does a virus infect? How does a cell know what it’s supposed to do? How do seeds start their journey into vegetation? How does a tardigrade spring back to life after being a dried husk? How did life on Earth begin? The answer is selfsame.

Brain-Dead Religion

It is extremely common to read textbooks or magazine articles which state that the brain is responsible for consciousness and cognition. This is nothing more than religious rubbish posing as science. Neurobiology is to psychology what astrology is to astronomy.

Cell Tails

Almost all cells – whether prokaryote or eukaryote – have tails. Eukaryotes evolved from a tail-bearing prokaryote. Only seed-producing plants have cells without tails, though their genomes retain the knowledge.

Bad Case of Nerves

In multicellular organisms, somatic cell replication is essential to replacing worn-out cells with fresh copies. While, to some degree, plants can grow themselves past genetic defects, animals must have good working replacements for proper functioning.

Beneficial Viruses

The germ theory of disease originated in 1546, when Italian physician Girolamo Fracastoro (1476 – 1553) hypothesized epidemic diseases were caused by infectious seeds of some sort. Since that time, bacteria and viruses came to be microbial evil incarnate. Only in recent years have bacteria redeemed themselves a bit by discovery that they define digestion, regulate physiology, and that humans are mostly made up of them. Now it is viruses turn.