Viral Editing

Viruses selectively edit host genetic instructions to produce the bioproducts they want as part of viral reproduction. Viruses can do this because they understand life at the molecular level.

Cell Vitality

Communications between a cell’s energizer – mitochondria – and its recycler – lysosomes – regulate cell senescence.

Amorphous Relations

The onset of organelles by eukaryotes seemed such an innovation over the apparent pandemonium in prokaryotes lacking organizational membranes. Look closer and cells run tidy businesses whether inside or outside protein fortresses.


Cyanobacteria originated photosynthesis and were innovators in using cellular greenhouses to do so. They also evolved the ability to flexibly capture whatever light was available to them – an adaptive optimality that changed the world.

T Cell Down Time

For many animals, sleep is essential for healthy functioning; so too for T cells, warriors of the adaptive immune system.


Sentient macromolecules – proteins – comprise the labor force of cells. The mercurial among them are enzymes, which catalyze chemical reactions to accelerate manufacture of bioproducts.

Mom Knows Best

In deciding the timing of dividing, mother cells smartly sense their environment and direct their daughters on the right move.

Immune Decisions

Immune system cells flock to the site of an infection once residents there cry out for relief. The herding causes inflammation: swelling, redness, and pain. Then the immunizers collectively decide what to do.


Endosomes are the containers cells use to transport materials for use within a cell or disposal. Endosomes exemplify the tidiness and intelligence which cells have.