Statistics is a mathematical characterization with probabilistic implications. It is the math most misused by scientists because its inherent limitations are not understood or respected.
To fanfare in the mainstream press, Zeke Hausfather and 3 other climate ‘experts’ recently reported on how well early climate models performed. They found “that models are accurately projecting global warming.” Instead, their own survey showed otherwise.
Mathematical modeling of physical dynamics is the nebulous craft of creating equations which capture complex, often entangled, gyres. Climate models face difficulties in both modeling technique and data acquisition.
Solitons are standing waves which may appear in many media, including liquids and light. Their earliest known recording was in 1834, when Scottish engineer John Scott Russell watched a solitary wave in a canal travel over 8 miles without changing shape or amplitude.
No one reasonably doubts that inheritance plays a significant role in offspring traits. Does this extend to academic achievement? One would certainly think so.