Solitons are standing waves which may appear in many media, including liquids and light. Their earliest known recording was in 1834, when Scottish engineer John Scott Russell watched a solitary wave in a canal travel over 8 miles without changing shape or amplitude.

Energy & The Theory of Anything

All that exists is made of matter, but existence is not made of matter. Instead, Nature is defined by the motion of matter, not matter per se. It is the energy that moves and transforms matter that renders the phenomenal exhibition we call Nature. Without energy, matter would not exist. Indeed, matter is made of energy. Though there are several proofs, atomic bombs most poignantly make that point.

Small Matter

At the heart of every atom stirs at least one proton, created by three hyperactive quarks. Far away bustles a bunch of electrons, orbiting with a complex layering that affords combination with other atoms. From this the stuff of matter is built. Physicists have been recently startled to discover that the proton has gotten punier. The confounder comes with not knowing why.

Order From Chaos

Plasmas are turbulent ionized gases. Being chock-full of charge carriers makes plasma electrically conductive, and so responsive to electromagnetic fields. Within the turbulence can be found stable electromagnetic field structures.

The Rigged Boson

The Higgs boson was predicted in 1964 by a group of theoretical physicists, as a way to explain how mass could arise for gauge bosons. The nascent Standard Model predicted them to be massless. But the W & Z bosons were found to be bulky. The Standard Model was wrong. So an awkward mathematical patch was applied: spontaneous symmetry breaking. This necessitated another boson, one that gave the W & Z their mass. Hence the Rigged Boson.

Holistic Dimensionality

Physicists have long produced models that required extra dimensions. Yet studious denial has been the norm. The irony of physics is that the theories most likely to resemble reality are those for which existence proof is lacking.