Coronavirus Pandemic

This report is as of 19:00 GMT on Friday, 10 July 2020.

A “cold” is a viral disease primarily affecting the upper respiratory tract. Covid-19 is the cold caused by a descendant (V2) of the virus responsible for SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) (V1), of which China had an outbreak in 2002-2003.

V2 is over 10 times more infectious than V1 was. Conversely, covid-19 is over 10 times less lethal than SARS was.

V2 is at least 5 times as infectious as flu viruses. Peak infectiousness is typically just before symptoms show (if they ever do). Epidemiological models guess that 30-60% of V2’s spread has been via asymptomatic carriers.

Because V2 is so infectious, especially via silent transmission (asymptomatic infection), a covid-19 pandemic was inevitable. V2 was spreading around the world months before it was discovered.

The peak of V2 contagion (statistically termed R0, called “R-naught”) is that an infected person transmits the virus to 5-6 other people. R0 is a statistical average. R0 declines as the virus spreads through a population, until the virus has infected just about everyone it’s going to (so-called “herd immunity”), and R0 = 0.

At least 40% of those contagiously carrying V2 never develop symptoms. That figure may be much higher. “Among more than 3,000 prison inmates in 4 (US) states who tested positive for the coronavirus, the figure was astronomical: 96% asymptomatic,” reported behavioral scientist Daniel Oran. Children especially may be asymptomatic but infectious. Asymptomatic infectiousness can last for weeks (more than 2 weeks).

Most who have develop symptoms suffer only slightly: coughing, perhaps a slight fever. Only a small percent of those infected get seriously sick.

Though deaths from Covid-19 are sensationally publicized, this cold is killing people at less than half the rate of seasonal flu. Covid-19 has an estimated mortality rate of only ~0.6% – though the running death rate has varied wildly in different countries owing to incomplete statistics, demographics, and the healthiness of populations. Mortality figures for infectious diseases are all statistical guesses subject to biases.

That said, more people are dying of covid-19 than typical seasonal flu because V2 is much more infectious. More people are catching covid-19, and covid-19 is more virulent to the infirm. V2 is a Darwinist “survival of the fittest” virus.

Those in off-color health – including obesity, diabetes, cancer, and other chronic health conditions – are most at risk. 90% of the fatalities from covid-19 are people 60 or older, with 80% of the deaths in that age segment being people with underlying health conditions. At least half of all coronavirus deaths in Europe and the US have been in nursing homes.

A study found that covid-19 death rates in Italy largely followed economic strata, with the poor dying off disproportionately. This doubtlessly runs true throughout the world. (3 July)

The severity of covid-19 is complex. The virulence of covid-19 varies widely, as the virus can affect lung, heart, and kidney function, and may provoke blood clotting. V2 adapted to attach to proteins on various cell types, thus increasing its versatility as well as its hazard to its host. About 5% of covid-19 infections cause long-term on-off symptoms.

V2 may not be entirely flushed from the system after symptom recovery and continue to shed infectious bits post-recovery for over 2 weeks. The virus has evaded testing via dormancy: a wily virus which evolved to maximize its contagion.

Rest and drinking plenty of fluids is all that can be done for covid-19 – which sensibly means staying at home and lying in bed. If you have trouble breathing, lie prone rather than sitting up. Being given oxygen can help labored breathing.

Covid-19 is likely to become endemic: a permanent member of the viral diseases to plague humanity. A preliminary study in China suggests that humans may never develop immunity against V2. The idea of herd immunity may be a chimera.

“Covid-19 is always going to be with us,” said New Zealand epidemiologist Simon James Thornley 24 June. “I don’t think we can eliminate the virus long term. We are going to need to learn to live with the virus.”

While immune system protection may remain, antibodies against covid-19 may last only 2-3 months, especially in people who never develop symptoms.

Misinformation about V2 and covid-19 abounds. The World Health Organization (WHO) decieved the public for months in understating the airborne infectiousness of V2. Medical journals are losing prestige, as they rushed to publish articles with fake data and fraudulent conclusions. Mainstream press reportage has been especially egregious in giving the impression that covid-19 is a dangerous disease (it is only for a tiny %), and that the spread of covid-19 is controllable (it isn’t).

WHO publicly announced 9 July what had been known to researchers (and reported here) for many months: that nanoparticle airborne transmission is how covid-19 is so infectious. Alas, WHO continues to deny that the primary transmission route is airborne. (10 July)  Even breathing sends the virus in the air, where it may linger for hours in an enclosed space.

The US center for disease control (CDC) changed its website 21 May to convey disinformation: “The virus spreads easily between people. The virus does not spread easily in other ways.” “A persistent problem in this pandemic has been lack of clear messaging from governmental leadership, and this is another unfortunate example of that trend,” said American virologist Angela Rasmussen.

Covid-19 may be the tip of a viral spear for Nature taking its revenge on humanity for its ravenous industrialized ways. G4 is a flu descended from the H1N1 strain that caused the 2009 pandemic. G4 has been found in pigs in China, and has become infectious to humans. Chinese researchers report that G4 has “all the essential hallmarks of a candidate pandemic virus.” (29 June)

Status:

The global pandemic continues unchecked. Epidemics in nations have individually followed their own complex flows which don’t necessarily correspond with lockdowns and social restrictions. No country has managed to limit or track the spread of covid-19 simply because that is impossible.

130,222 new cases have been reported worldwide since yesterday. 12,509,481 infections have been tallied globally since the onset of covid-19’s spread. These numbers are gross under-counts: at most, only 2-3% of those infected.

Not reporting from lack of testing is the benign cause of under-counts. Several countries fudge their numbers to make their epidemics politically less damaging – Russia and some states in the US among them.

“Many authoritarian governments are not transparent with their data,” said Michael Meyer-Resende, who monitors international data reporting. “In many of these countries, the legitimacy of the state depends on not going into crisis,” added transparency maven Roberto Kukutschka. “Countries who test less will be shown as less of a problem. Countries that test badly will seem as if they don’t have a problem,” elaborated Meyer-Resende. “Numbers are very powerful. They seem objective.”

To preclude lawsuits, the US is concealing causes of death in nursing homes, where many covid-19 deaths occur. Though figures are unreliable, at least half of US nursing homes have reported outbreaks and at least 43% of covid-19 deaths have been there. (29 June)

The timeline below – listed by per capita tallied cases – reflects only reportage, not actual infections.Countries reporting 2,000 or more new infections in the past day: USA 34,823 | India 26,651 | Brazil 9,867 | Mexico 7,280 | Russia 6,635 | Saudi Arabia 3,159 | Chile 3,058 | Bangladesh 2,949 | Iraq 2,848 | Pakistan 2,751 | Iran 2,262.

The table below is countries with over 500 reported active cases.

Country Active New Recovered Dead
USA 1,680,811 34,823 1,437,774 136,237
Brazil 513,968 9,867 1,185,596 69,406
India 283,143 26,651 516,206 22,144
Russia 213,851 6,635 489,068 11,017
South Africa 121,558 113,061 3,720
Peru 97,332 207,802 11,314
Bangladesh 89,762 2,949 86,406 2,275
Pakistan 89,449 2,751 149,092 5,058
Mexico 76,527 7,280 172,230 33,526
Colombia 72,987 56,272 4,714
France 62,578 658 78,170 30,004
Saudi Arabia 61,309 3,159 163,026 2,151
Egypt 52,884 22,753 3,617
Argentina 49,960 38,984 1,749
Philippines 38,324 1,160 13,230 1,360
Belgium 35,397 147 17,179 9,781
Indonesia 35,349 1,611 33,529 3,469
Ecuador 30,502 797 29,577 4,939
Bolivia 29,121 1,129 13,354 1,638
Iraq 28,120 2,848 41,380 2,960
Canada 27,450 216 70,812 8,759
Ukraine 25,898 819 24,800 1,345
Iran 25,258 2,262 215,015 12,447
Chile 24,440 3,058 278,053 6,781
Honduras 22,901 406 2,779 704
Guatemala 21,769 3,797 1,092
Panama 20,940 20,437 839
Dominican Republic 20,221 1,125 20,830 864
Kazakhstan 19,346 1,726 35,137 264
Oman 19,145 1,889 34,225 244
Nigeria 17,513 12,546 689
Israel 17,302 1,441 18,613 351
Turkey 13,759 1,003 191,883 5,323
Portugal 13,683 402 30,350 1,646
Italy 13,428 276 194,273 34,938
Afghanistan 12,341 286 20,882 971
Armenia 11,648 557 18,709 546
Kuwait 9,983 740 43,214 383
Belarus 9,896 193 54,254 454
UAE 9,751 473 43,969 330
Poland 9,606 265 26,048 1,562
Azerbaijan 8,605 526 14,093 292
Nepal 8,603 118 8,011 35
Romania 8,405 592 21,129 1,847
Kenya 6,534 473 2,733 181
Germany 6,207 137 184,000 9,128
Kyrgyzstan 6,102 511 3,134 122
Moldova 6,101 258 12,188 635
Ivory Coast 5,919 5,752 79
Venezuela 5,748 2,544 80
Palestine 4,988 331 536 27
Bahrain 4,905 26,520 103
Ghana 4,712 18,622 129
Ethiopia 4,566 147 2,430 124
Uzbekistan 4,469 293 7,335 53
Czechia 4,441 82 8,208 352
Costa Rica 4,436 2,023 26
Sudan 4,278 46 5,277 649
Qatar 4,251 520 98,233 146
DRC 4,203 59 3,513 189
Algeria 4,122 434 13,124 996
Haiti 3,993 96 2,459 130
Singapore 3,808 191 41,780 26
Serbia 3,707 386 13,651 370
El Salvador 3,465 298 5,428 249
North Macedonia 3,449 205 3,960 368
Morocco 3,258 249 11,827 243
Bulgaria 3,181 3,229 262
Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,149 316 3,037 216
Gabon 3,143 2,682 46
Cameroon 3,032 11,525 359
CAR 3,006 1,142 52
Mauritania 2,956 2,026 144
French Guiana 2,896 146 2,785 23
Senegal 2,426 98 5,311 145
Equatorial Guinea 2,178 842 51
Greece 2,165 60 1,374 193
Madagascar 1,926 361 2,183 34
Japan 1,924 17,466 981
Somalia 1,737 1,209 92
Australia 1,677 300 7,576 106
Malawi 1,659 127 379 31
South Sudan 1,650 333 38
Congo 1,392 207 589 47
Paraguay 1,389 1,229 20
Switzerland 1,324 104 29,400 1,966
Albania 1,318 90 1,875 85
Tajikistan 1,287 47 5,115 55
Austria 1,195 94 16,808 706
Guinea 1,173 4,672 36
Croatia 1,038 116 2,377 117
Guinea-Bissau 1,005 760 25
Libya 997 307 38
S. Korea 985 45 12,065 288
Benin 929 86 333 23
Cabo Verde 842 39 730 19
Nicaragua 762 1,993 91
Mozambique 758 19 344 9
Hungary 689 3 2,941 593
Montenegro 680 320 19
Lebanon 644 71 1,402 36
Namibia 641 52 25 1
Mali 633 34 1,650 121
Zimbabwe 608 306 12
Eswatini 606 44 633 18
Rwanda 584 623 3
Luxembourg 581 58 4,086 110
Norway 578 3 8,138 252
Liberia 516 6 400 47
Zambia 505 1,348 42

Reaction:

V2 has proved unstoppable because of its high infectiousness, especially contagion by people without symptoms (asymptomatic transmission). No country contained their epidemic. Lockdowns did not limit and only barely slowed viral spread at best.

Despite publicity suggesting the contrary, very few countries bothered with more than limited, selective testing. The US notably lacks testing capacity, and so its high numbers capture but a tiny fraction of covid-19 cases.

With no end to the pandemic in sight, most nations around the world are loosening the futile restrictions they imposed, including travel between countries – regardless of the state of their epidemic. The economic toll has simply proven too high.

As countries ease their lockdowns, people go back to enjoying their lives without practicing unnatural social distancing. The concept of exponential spread is hard to fathom.

The widespread lack of concern among most of the public over an unstoppable cold virus is in stark contrast to the hand-wringing of those who delusionally think V2 spread can be controlled.

Belgrade and 3 other cities in Serbia have been rocked by protests for the past 3 days. Protesters are angry over reimposed lockdown restrictions planned for this weekend. Capitulating to popular sentiment, authorities announced that instead of lockdown less restrictive measures will be taken, including social distancing and shorter working hours in indoor restaurants and cafes. (10 July)

From fear of contagion, Italy is banning entry of people from 13 countries: Armenia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chile, Kuwait, North Macedonia, Moldova, Oman, Panama, Peru and Dominican Republic. The ban affects anyone who has stayed in or traveled through those nations in the last 14 days. (10 July)

Australia, which has had a mild but ongoing epidemic, indefinitely extended its state of emergency in Victoria on 30 June. Victoria has had over 2 weeks of upsurge in new cases, mostly in and around Melbourne. Beginning 7 July, Melbourne, Australia’s 2nd-biggest city, is locked down for 6 weeks. Australia intends to keep its borders closed through the start of 2021. Repatriations have been slowed owing to the continuing epidemic. (10 July)

Greece’s economy is dependent on tourism. So the country resumed flights to its islands 1 July. With imported infections rising, Greek authorities, “determined to protect the majority from the frivolous few,” feel they have no choice but to reimpose restrictions. (9 July)

Israel and surrounding territories are having a severe epidemic. Facing a surge of cases, Israeli authorities have imposed location-selective restrictions while allowing much of the country to stay largely open. Bars, clubs, event halls, and gyms are closed. Prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu warned that Israel was “a step away from a full lockdown.” (6 July)

Japan is facing a rise in covid-19 cases but has no political will for economically punishing shutdowns. Japan has had a relatively mild epidemic. All covid-19 sufferers are taken care of, regardless of nationality. (9 July)

Brazil has had the worst epidemic in Latin America. Despite the epidemic still raging, Brazil let restaurants and bars reopen 3 July, along with other social gathering venues such as gyms. Ineffectual crowding restrictions apply. Brazil’s president Jair Bolsonaro has covid-19.

Facing a spike in new cases, Bogotá, the capital of Colombia, will go back under a strict lockdown on Monday 13 July, though this time only certain neighborhoods at a time will be expected to stay home. Colombia first underwent a strict nationwide lockdown in late March, with a gradual loosening of restrictions in the past month. (10 July)

China announced 9 July that is was canceling all international sports events for the year, apart from trials for the 2020 Winter Olympics.

China is easing into the new normal. Businesses are open. Social activities are restarting. Mask wearing is obligatory in most indoor spaces, and proof of health is required for entry to many venues. (9 July)

The Chinese government announced 9 July that it is seeking international cooperation to conduct research projects on all means to combat covid-19. The aim of the program is to test and develop new technologies to quickly detect and cure the disease. China has been extending assistance to countries struggling with covid-19.

Before the pandemic, China was already exporting more medical supplies and protective equipment than the rest of the world combined. China’s response to its epidemic has only added to that dominance. (5 July)

While a laggard in the global vaccine industry, China has focused its efforts to find a vaccine for V2. China is behind 8 of the 19 vaccine candidates in human trials. (7 July)

China said it was suspending imports from 3 shrimp producers in Ecuador after detecting V2 in recent shipments. (10 July)

Facing a surge in new cases, Hong Kong is imposing new social-distancing restrictions on public venues as of 9 July. Schools are closed from Monday 13 July.

Lacking national leadership, US states individually decided what to do about covid-19. Most belatedly imposed ineffectual, economy-wrenching restrictions during April. Fatigued of the shutdown after 2 months, US states eased restrictions. The states which loosened restrictions early, notably those in the south and west of the country, have seen the largest rise in new cases. (10 July)

US president Donald Trump and his head epidemiologist Anthony Fauci have their own Punch & Judy show going. Trump said the 99% of covid-19 cases are “harmless,” which Fauci pooh-poohed. Fauci wants to shut states down to prevent surges – a prospect which Trump is aghast at. Trump is up for reelection this fall. (10 July)

By moving and deporting infected detainees, US immigration authorities have done their best to spread covid-19 in the US and to other countries. No country has been as irresponsible about covid-19 as the US. (10 July)

Hospitals in some parts of the US are being overwhelmed: running out of intensive care unit (ICU) beds. (10 July)

The US runs a for-profit health care system that rations medical treatment based on ability to pay. Price-gouging is a norm which covid-19 has only further infected the system with. Since the US epidemic began, Americans have overpaid billions for outrageously expensive tests and treatment.

India has suffered a severe epidemic which its prolonged lockdown and more recent restrictions did not lessen – in fact, quite the opposite. Urban lockdowns sent migrant workers scurrying back to their home towns, thereby spreading the virus. Infections are now rising throughout the country. State-run hospitals are overflowing with sick patients. New local lockdowns are now being imposed in places where new cases surge. (10 July)

Kazakhstan reimposed a lockdown 5 July to counter a huge surge in cases. Kazakhstan imposed a strict lockdown in late March, crashing its economy. The country reopened in late May. China and WHO warned that Kazakhstan was having an outbreak of pneumonia that was much more hazardous than covid-19.

Britain announced 3 July that inbound passengers from the US will be subject to quarantine. The UK is ending quarantine for travelers from designated ‘low-risk’ countries, including France, Spain, Germany and Italy.

Leicester, a city of 340,000 in the heart of England, was shuttered late last month for a 2nd lockdown. Local residents are upset. With sweatshops employing mostly underpaid South Asian immigrant workers operating during lockdown, Leicester was a prime candidate for a 2nd outbreak. Its garment workers were packed together, not only in the factories but also at home. (10 July)

Madagascar reimposed a lockdown 5 July in its capital Antananarivo amid a surge in new cases. No traffic will be allowed out of the Analamanga region (where the capital is) until 20 July.

The Indonesian island of Bali, a popular tourist destination, reopened beaches and businesses on Thursday, despite a steady increase in the number of coronavirus cases.

The Maldives, economically dependent on tourism, is opening to all tourists 15 July. Only symptomatic travelers face mandatory testing at the airport.

Studies have found that the mass wearing of masks in public may help limit spread somewhat – but is no panacea. V2 is readily airborne in nanoparticles that most masks don’t stop. Wearing masks in public has become mandatory in several nations.

17 US states & DC have made public mask wearing mandatory: California, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas, and Washington. Monday 6 July the Trump administration rejected (again) a national mask-wearing mandate.

A bus driver in France died 10 July from an attack by passengers who refused to wear face masks after the driver requested they do so. Sporadic attacks on health care workers have occurred around the world during the pandemic. India has reported the most such attacks.

Asian stocks were down Friday 10 July. European and US stock were up slightly.

Hunger is on the rise worldwide. Over half of the world’s workers are unemployed. Most of these live in developing nations.

Covid-19 is battering what had been Africa’s growing middle class. More than 40,000 people across East Africa have been forcibly evicted from their homes since March for payment delinquency. “Evictions expose vulnerable people to greater risk of infection as they are forced into more crowded and unsanitary conditions,” said humanitarian Evelyn Aero 1 July.

Migrant workers have been especially impoverished. Some 40 million face extreme poverty. Child poverty is much worse than among adults.

The IMF estimated 24 June that the restrictive response to covid-19 has cost $12 trillion. “The covid-19 pandemic pushed economies into a Great Lockdown,” said IMF economist Gita Gopinath. The IMF predicts that the global economy will shrink 4.9% this year. The World Trade Organization reported 23 June that global trade in products and services fell nearly 20% in the 2nd quarter of 2020.

A survey of over 250 economists worldwide found extensive pessimism on recovery prospects. (1 July)

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) warned 25 June that the disconnect between global financial markets and the actual economy are a potential threat to economic recovery owing to investor caprice.

Economist David Mackie: “As the covid-19 crisis unfolded, talk of ‘helicopter money’ and ‘debt monetisation’ has been misconceived, because it is inconsistent with the way that the modern monetary system works.” While doing next to nothing for the working class, the US government has extensively practiced corporate debt monetization.

The EU and Japan have announced tremendous economic stimulus programs to restart their economies, with an eye to sustaining small businesses and the working class. China is also taking active measures to nurse its economy back to health.

Britain is suffering an economic depression. 8 July, the finance minister, Rishi Sunak, unveiled a sweeping $37.7 billion plan to reinvigorate the UK economy.

Vietnam announced 10 July that the economic fallout from the covid-19 pandemic had caused widespread unemployment: “the highest in 10 years.”

The US government, after a $2.4 trillion giveaway to the wealthy 2 months ago, seems determined to push the country into a prolonged economic depression. Roughly half of American workers are unemployed. Government figures hide the extent of joblessness. US unemployment compensation is piddling. Hunger, homelessness and poverty are rising, but the US does not track its poverty, and its unemployment figures underestimate by at least a factor of 4, so are grossly deceptive.

Despite fudged official figures and an often rising stock market which is divorced from reality, the US economy is in bad shape. Besides massive unemployment, American workers are increasingly facing pay cuts averaging 10% and fewer work hours – twice as likely now than during the Great Recession that began in 2008. Salary cuts are spreading most rapidly in white-collar industries, which suggests a deep recession and slow recovery since white-collar workers are usually the last to feel financial pain. Over 6 million workers have been forced to work part-time even though they want full-time work. “Businesses typically fire you before they cut your pay, so this is really atypical,” said American economist Mark Zandi. “There’s a real risk of actual nominal wage declines, which would be unprecedented.” (3 July)

US companies of all sizes are teetering on the brink of bankruptcy. The US central bank has been illicitly propping up failing companies by buying their debt. The retail sector has been especially hard hit. Over 100,000 US small business have closed since March. Over 10% of US restaurants have gone out of business since states banned restaurant dining. Reopening has proved problematic owing to the continuing epidemic and imposed restrictions. To cover its callousness, the US government is not reporting statistics.

US jails and prisons have been a spawning ground for outbreaks in nearby communities. The US did nothing to limit covid-19 spread among those incarcerated or workers in those sordid institutions.

The societal disruption of covid-19 has meant that immunization for other infectious diseases has not happened in at least 68 nations. Dengue is bedeviling Southeast Asian countries. Africa has had recent outbreaks of yellow fever, cholera, measles, and Ebola, among other diseases. On 6 July, the UN warned that progress against HIV/AIDS is threatened as people are not getting the treatment they need.

Background:

A coronavirus is a subfamily of viruses, so named because they have large bulbous projections from their envelope, which the virologist naming the virus thought resembled a monarchical crown.

“The term ‘protein corona’ refers to the layer of proteins that adhere to the surfaces of nanostructures when they encounter biological fluids,” noted Swedish virologist Kariem Ezzat. These proteins are strategically perched on the outside of a virus, acting as intelligence agents and first-contact specialists. “The importance of the corona layer is that it constitutes the actual surface of interaction with biological membranes or ‘what the cell sees’,” explained Ezzat.

Various coronaviruses are widespread among birds and mammals. There are 7 known strains of human coronaviruses. Like all other viruses, coronaviruses opportunistically speciate by adaptively acquiring (via infection) or problem-solving new proteins which provide better tools for infection.

Many mammalian coronaviruses originated with bats. Humans first encountered coronaviruses roughly 2 centuries ago from eating infected cattle. Modern outbreaks of new variants typically happen from eating infected animals.

Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and digestive tract of mammals and birds. In people, coronaviruses are responsible for an unhealthy percentage of common colds. Coronaviruses also cause pneumonia and bronchitis.

Coronaviruses are the viral family responsible for the “common cold.” By slight contrast, a distinct family of viruses cause influenza (the “flu”). Both viral families are enveloped RNA viruses. Symptoms of cold and flu are often selfsame.

The original SARS virus was called SARS-CoV-1 (V1). The virus responsible for covid-19 is an evolved variant of V1: SARS-CoV-2 (V2). Both of these SARS viruses have 29,891 nucleotides – twice as large as an influenza virus genome.

Coronavirus disease was first described in 1931, with the viruses themselves first seen in 1965, having been taken from the nasal cavities of people with the common cold and put under an electron microscope.

When and where V2 evolved is unknown. English medical researcher Tom Jefferson argues that the common attribution of China as the origin point is only speculative. There is evidence of V2 in Spain, Italy, and Brazil months before the publicized outbreak in China. V2 was found in Barcelona waste water collected in March 2019, 9 months before the covid-19 outbreak in China.

Viruses of all kinds take atmospheric transport to spread across the globe. V2 is likely to have been one of them.

The global covid-19 pandemic may have begun as early as August 2019 in Wuhan, China. (Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province.) It was months later that the virus was noticed. 8 doctors warned in December of an impending outbreak and were punished for “rumor-mongering.” “Doctors in Wuhan were afraid,” said Chinese political analyst Dali Yang. “It was truly intimidation of an entire profession.”

On January 14 in a teleconference, Ma Xiaowei, head of China’s National Health Commission told health officials in Hubei province that they were facing a major challenge with covid-19. Yet China president Xo Jinping did not warn the Chinese public of covid-19 until January 20: 6 days later. By that time, over 3,000 people had been infected.

Most coronaviruses are not dangerous. But those that cause Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), SARS, and now covid-19, can be deadly.

The typical entry point for V2 is inhalation though the nose. The virus finds a welcome home in the lining of the nose, because cells there are rich in a cell-surface protein (ACE2) that the virus recognizes. ACE2 normally helps regulate blood pressure. It marks tissues potentially vulnerable to infection, because the virus requires that receptor to enter a cell.

If the immune system doesn’t beat back the virus early, V2 marches down the windpipe to attack the lungs. The immune system causes much of the damage via inflammation and leaving a stew of fluid and dead cells that were infected. This is the underlying pathology of pneumonia and its symptoms: coughing; fever; and rapid, shallow respiration.

Ingesting V2 is another way for covid-19 to take root. V2 can attack enterocytes: the absorptive cells which line the inner surface of the small intestines.

The immune system may zealously overreact and create a “cytokine storm,” which other viral infections are known to trigger. Cytokines are signaling molecules that guide immune response. In a cytokine storm, levels of certain cytokines soar far beyond what’s needed. Immune cells start to attack healthy tissues. Blood vessels leak, blood pressure drops, clots form, and catastrophic organ failure can ensue. “The real morbidity and mortality of this disease is probably driven by this out-of-proportion inflammatory response to the virus,” says American pulmonologist Jamie Garfield.

V2 reaches peak infectiousness shortly before people start to feel symptoms, and spreads like the flu. “The highest viral load is at symptom onset. Infectiousness peaks on or before symptom onset,” reports Chinese epidemiologist Eric H.Y. Lau and colleagues.

Infectiousness – what epidemiologists call reproductive ratio (R0 (pronounced “R-naught”) – is a mathematical estimation of how easily a pathogen spreads. Measles, which is incredibly infectious, has an R0 of 12 to 18.

The SARS virus (V1) had an R0 of 0.5, meaning that every 2 cases of SARS resulted in only 1 additional infection. The seasonal flu virus has an R0 of 1.3.

V2 (the covid-19 virus) has an estimated peak R0 of 4.7-6.6: producing ~5-6 new cases for each initial infection. R0 is not a constant. For an epidemic to end, R0 has to drop below 1.

Infectious diseases spread in clusters. V2 is no exception, except that it, like its coronavirus cousins, seems especially prone to attacking groups of people in close proximity, especially indoors. Epidemiologists use the letter “k” to signify dispersion factor. The lower k is, the more contagion comes from a small number of people.

The flu virus responsible for the 1918 pandemic had a k of about 1 – clusters were not especially significant. SARS (V1), from which V2 descended, had a k of 0.16: quite cluster based. V2’s k is still speculative, though it’s likely near V1.

Epidemiologist Adam Kucharski thinks V2 very cluster oriented, with a k around 0.1. “Probably about 10% of cases lead to 80% of the spread,” Kucharski says.

That could explain some puzzling aspects of this pandemic, including why there was such a slow pace in V2 emerging worldwide despite the virus’ infectiousness. If k is really 0.1, then most infection chains die out. Kucharski estimates that V2 needs to be introduced at least 4 times to establish itself.

Why coronaviruses cluster so much more than other viruses is not known. Their main transmission mode – through lingering airborne mists – may be a factor.

Another likely factor in low coronavirus k seems personal. V2 k looks to be largely individual. Some people shed far more virus, and for a longer duration, than others, perhaps because of differences in their immune system or the distribution of virus receptors in their body.

One k factor increasingly appreciated is where clusters are most likely to form. “Clearly there is a much higher risk in enclosed spaces than outside,” says epidemiologist Christian Althaus. A Japanese study found that the risk of V2 infection is nearly 19 times higher indoors than outdoors. This explains why lockdowns seem to limit spread of this highly contagious virus.

A factor that figures against a low V2 k is its prolonged presence in those infected. V2 can shed infectious bits for weeks after symptom recovery. That’s the back-end aspect. The front end is a delayed onset of symptoms.

Those facts withstanding, typical covid-19 carriers are most infectious for only a week or so. Cluster formation therefore depends a mix of circumstances.

Besides the ability for human-to-human transmission, V2 is clever enough to delay symptoms from appearing for over 2 weeks, thereby making it easier for infected victims to spread the disease. This viral savvy is termed asymptomatic infection. Covid-19 asymptomatic covertness is how the virus has been able to be so successful in its propagation.

97.5% of people who develop symptoms from covid-19 do so within 12 days. The median incubation period for the virus is 5.1 days. There are statistical outliers. A man in Hubei China had a 38-day incubation period with no symptoms.

People are typically sick for a week from the seasonal flu. For those sickened by covid-19, it takes an average of 24 days to recover. “Reports suggest potential for clinical deterioration during the 2nd week of illness,” notes American Dr. Kathy Lofy.

Roughly 80% of those with covid-19 suffer only mild symptoms, with 15% severe and only 5% critical. Most infected may not realize it because their symptoms are so mild.

Children are only 2% of identified infections. One hypothesis is that children have lower levels of ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2), which V2 latches onto to enter the body. “ACE2 is known to be present in our airway, kidneys, heart, and gut. There are low levels of ACE2 expression in the nasal passages of younger children, and this ACE2 level increases with age into adulthood,” explained geneticist Supinda Bunyavanich.

Another hypothesis explaining why V2 doesn’t make children ill is the condition of their blood vessels. Many adults with serious covid-19 suffer blood clots. The clotting seems to be linked to malfunctioning endothelium, the smooth tissue that lines the inside of blood and lymphatic vessels and normally prevents clotting. V2 can infect endothelial cells, which are found throughout the body. Endothelium is typically in much better condition in children than adults.

If infected, covid-19 typically does not bother children much. 4% don’t show any symptoms. ~52% have mild symptoms typical of a cold. ~39% of children have moderate illness, mostly coughing. Severe cases are rare in children: only ~5% require critical care. Chinese researchers note that “young children, particularly infants, are vulnerable.” “Why most of the children’s covid-19 cases were less severe than adults’ case is puzzling,” said one the researchers, Yuanyuan Dong.

A small number of children in the US and Europe have fallen ill to Kawasaki disease or other, similar, autoimmune-provoked disease. Kawasaki disease is a rare vascular condition which is a main cause of acquired heart disease among young people. V2 can infect circulatory system cells and nervous system cells.The simplistic story is that covid-19 culls the infirm. But nothing is simple.

The risk factors for getting seriously sick from covid-19 is similar to those for other respiratory illnesses. Older people and those with underlying illnesses, especially diabetes or high blood pressure, are at increased risk. “Patients with cancer appear to be at increased risk of mortality and severe illness due to CoV2 infection, regardless of whether they have active cancer, are on anticancer treatment, or both,” reported a study published 28 May.

There is tremendous individual variation in how people respond – as with other diseases. Some people with known risk factors recover, and some in otherwise good health develop severe cases. The mind-body complex is an intricate gyre barely understood.

60% of all Americans have at least one chronic health condition, and 40% have more than 1. The US is a wealthy country where most people have not taken care of themselves as a lifestyle choice: through bad diet, overeating, lack of exercise, and substance abuse.

Via auto-immune response, young and middle-aged adults, barely sick with covid-19, are suffering strokes from blood clots. As an aspect of its versatility, V2 attaches to a protein common in cardiovascular cells. Immune system overreaction gums up blood flow.

Men are at greater risk and more likely to succumb to covid-19 than women. Though men and women are equally represented in infections, 64% of the reported deaths have been men.

People with type A blood are more vulnerable to covid-19, whereas those with type O are more resistant.

Men have higher levels of a key enzyme that V2 latches onto than women. Whether that makes men more vulnerable to covid-19 is uncertain.

Chinese epidemiologist Gabriel Leung reports that “those most at risk of infection includes older adults, the obese and people with underlying medical conditions.”

“With respiratory infections like this, we usually see a U-shaped curve on who gets hits hardest. Young children at one end of the U because their immune systems aren’t yet developed and old people at the other end because their immune systems grow weaker,” said American virologist Vineet Menachery. “With this virus, one side of the U is just completely missing.”

“The symptoms of covid vary quite a lot from person to person, and there are a lot of symptoms that we previously didn’t appreciate were related,” reported immunologist Andrew Chan on 2 April. “As a result, there are a lot of people walking around with covid not knowing it.”

Heart problems and diabetes are especially hazardous underlying health conditions. V2 latches on to a protein found in lung and heart cells, as well as hormones which regulate blood pressure, cardiovascular and kidney function. 14-30% of covid-19 intensive care patients lose kidney function. Blood clotting is another potential problem with covid-19 which has not been seen in other coronavirus diseases.

Early symptoms of covid-19 include losing sense of smell (88%), fever (83-98%) dry cough (76-82%), fatigue (11-44%), sore throat, shortness of breath, and gastrointestinal problems (10-50%), such as diarrhea (20%).

Anosmia (loss of smell) switches off like a light, and takes ~7 days for recovery. V2 attacks sustentacular cells, which are in the slender sheet of tissue which lines part of the nasal cavity. These cells are thought to help maintain precise concentrations of chemicals in the nose, hence facilitating smell. 25% of those with anosmia suffer only that symptom and are otherwise asymptomatic.

Because V2 attaches to cells found in the gut as well the respiratory system, covid-19 is “almost as much a gastrointestinal illness as a respiratory illness,” says American gastroenterologist Brennan Spiegel.

“The virus can attack a lot of different parts of the body, and we don’t understand why it causes some problems for some people, different problems for others – and no problems at all for a large proportion,” pondered American neurologist Mitchell Elkind.

Children and young adults may get rashes on their toes or fingers. Viruses sometimes cause rashes – called pernio or chilblains – which are reminiscent of frostbite. These rashes may burn. The inflammation usually disappears in 2-3 weeks.

Other, less common symptoms of covid-19 include pink eye (conjunctivitis), livedo (necrosis, localized death of body tissue from lack of blood – 6%), heachaches or dizziness (36%), and a tingling, fizzing, or even burning sensation.

Those with more severe symptoms may experience a distinct pernio on the arms, legs, or buttocks. “Many of these patients also have evidence of internal clotting, such as blood clots in the veins of their legs, or in their lungs, suggesting these skin findings are a manifestation of their internal clotting tendency,” explained American dermatologist Joanna Harp.

The worst symptom of Covid-19 is pneumonia. The most effective technique for breathing with pneumonia is to lie prone, and alternate between face down and face up. It is more difficult to breathe sitting up.

The only sensible mechanical treatment for covid-19 is providing oxygen. Being put on a ventilator is a highly invasive procedure which is seldom successful and causes numerous health complications if it is. ~88% of those put on a ventilator from covid-19 die. Those relative few who survive almost never fully recover, as the lungs are so severely damaged. “The lungs of people who have the disease for more than a month before dying is something completely different from normal pneumonia, influenza or the Sars virus. You see massive thrombosis. There is a complete disruption of the lung architecture,” reports physician Mauro Giacca.

Researchers discovered in mid-June that a low-cost steroid – dexamethasone – reduced deaths by 1/3rd in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, and by 1/5th in patients receiving only oxygen treatment. They found no benefit from the drug for those who did not need respiratory support.

“Human coronaviruses can persist on inanimate surfaces like metal, glass or plastic for up to 9 days, but can be efficiently inactivated by surface disinfection procedures with 62–71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide, or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Other biocidal agents such as 0.05–0.2% benzalkonium chloride or 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate are less effective,” explains German hygienist Guenter Kampf.

A study of the Diamond Princess cruise ship found that the Covid-19 virus survived up to 17 days on hard surfaces – far longer than previous research had indicated. The virus may remain viable – capable of infection – for up to 24 hours on cardboard.

Along with fomite (surface) contagion, covid-19 is transmissible through droplets from coughing, sneezing, and even speaking. Talking emits a small cloud of aerosols that lingers in the air for over 8 minutes.

Airborne is V2’s main transmission route: in virus-laden aerosols smaller than 5 micrometers in diameter. “There’s absolutely no doubt that the virus spreads in the air,” says Australian aerosol scientist Lidia Morawska.

Based on studies done in the 1930s, governmental guidelines for social distancing are commonly 2 meters. That is insufficient. A sneeze or cough outputs a cloud of droplets that may travel over 8.2 meters. Further, the virus can linger in an expelled cloud for 3 hours indoors. “The locally moist and warm atmosphere within the turbulent gas cloud allows the contained droplets to evade evaporation for much longer than occurs with isolated droplets,” explains epidemiologist Lydia Bourouiba.

To lessen the chance of catching covid-19, wash your hands after being in a public place. Do not touch your face when in a place of possible exposure. Keep your distance from others. Limit shopping to as few times a week as feasible.

“Gloves don’t really protect you because the virus sticks to the gloves the same way it sticks to your hands,” American microbiologist and infectious disease specialist Bettina Fries advises. “It’s not different.”

V2 likes the eye as an entry point – making masks a futile gesture for avoiding contagion. Masks result in touching the face more, thus increasing the odds of catching covid-19. If a viral load is on the mask, taking it off practically guarantees viral transfer.

The foregoing withstanding, masks reduce by 60% or more V2 aerial transmission via a cough cloud of aerosols. As a public-health policy, masks can only be effective if their use is widespread – thereby practically requiring them being mandatory.

Face shields have been recommended by some doctors, though their effectiveness in limiting contagion is unproven.

Mink-to-human V2 transmission has been documented in the Netherlands, where minks are bred for their fur.

The supposed key to slowing an outbreak is testing. But testing has proven uncertain.

Error occurs in all medical tests. For a testing program to be effective, tests must repeatedly be given. Covid-19 tests may fail to catch ~20% of infected people (a “false negative” result). Further, East Asian nations with the most extensive testing experience are all reporting patients after recovery testing positive for the virus – after they had tested negative.

The US is allowing all kinds of covid-19 tests which are inaccurate. The US national health safety administration has shown itself to be utterly indifferent to its responsibility.

A common test for covid-19 is sticking a swab up the nose as far as it’ll go – a distinctly uncomfortable to painful procedure. One victim aptly said that it “felt like I was being stabbed in the brain.”

The common, painful V2 nasal swab test.

Antibody tests are being used to test population exposure to V2. Such tests underestimate exposure because identifiable V2 antibodies may linger in the body for only 2-3 months, and people may have T-cell-mediated immunity without signature antibodies. “Public immunity to COVID-19 is probably significantly higher than antibody tests have suggested,” says microbiologist Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren. “Roughly twice as many people have developed t-cell immunity compared with those who we can detect antibodies in,” reports medical researcher Marcus Buggert.

SARS had a mortality rate of 9.6%; 774 people died. The 1918 “Spanish flu” killed only about 2.5% of its victims, but because it infected so many people and medical care was much cruder then, 20-50 million died.

A study by German virologists published 9 April indicates that the mortality rate of covid-19 is only 0.37% – far less than previously estimated.

Dividing deaths by reported cases in countries with insufficient testing is inaccurate, and anyway an inapt methodology for figuring death rate. In most of the world, the number of reported cases is a tiny fraction of the total number of people infected. In other words, the denominator (# of infections) is too small.

Methodologically, the proper calculation would be of outcomes: deaths/(recovered + dead), as active cases are unresolved. While an epidemic is raging, such a calculation shows a high death rate which declines as the epidemic concludes: in the instance of covid-19, on 8 July 2020 = 7% – down from over 20% 3 months earlier.

Cats and dogs can catch covid-19. Felines are more susceptible. Tigers and other big cats in zoos tested positive for covid-19. Minks on mink farms in Denmark and the Netherlands caught covid-19. Minks can spread the disease back to people.

Chinese and Western researchers link SARS-CoV-2 to the pangolin (pictured below): a mammal illegally trafficked in huge numbers for the reputed (but superstitious) healing qualities of its scales and meat. But pangolins may not be the source of SARS-CoV-2. The research published on the origin of the virus so far is inconclusive, other than to point to bats as the mammalian origin, with some intermediary mammal as the source of human infection.

British environmental scientist Thomas Lovejoy, who coined the term “biological diversity” in 1980, said of covid-19: “This pandemic is the consequence of our persistent and excessive intrusion in Nature and the vast illegal wildlife trade. It was just a matter of time before something like this was going to happen.”

The Chinese government belatedly cracked down on the wildlife trade believed to be behind the viral outbreak. On 17 February 2020, Chinese president Xi condemned the “major hidden danger” of eating wild animals. On 3 July China announced phasing out the sale and slaughter of live poultry at food markets.

The SARS coronavirus (V1) in 2002 probably originated in bats and spread to humans through the civet cat, which was sold in wildlife markets and eaten as a delicacy in southern China. Civets were slaughtered en masse after the SARS outbreak.

Indonesia still runs wildlife meat markets. Along with dogs, Tomoho in central Indonesia sells bats, rats, lizards and snakes. “The market is like a cafeteria for animal pathogens,” said Indonesian epidemiologist Wiku Adisasmito, who has urged the government to close the country’s wildlife markets. “Consuming wild animals is the same as playing with fire.”

Covid-19 opportunistically adapted much faster than SARS did. It took SARS 3 months to mutate to human-to-human transmission; a feat that took covid-19 only 1 month, according to Chinese epidemiologist George Fu.

Saltation is the attribution evolutionary biologists use for organisms which make seemingly sudden evolutionary leaps. Turtles are an example of saltation, in having suddenly appeared in the fossil record (bones being well preserved, proto-turtles would have been discovered). The striking varieties of orchids is another example of saltation.

In its rapid adaptations for asymptomatic infectiousness and prolonged virulence, SARS-CoV-2 looks to be a viral example of saltation. V2 has 4-5 times the number of spiky protein sensors that it uses to detect target cells. and these sensors are much more robust. V2 evolved greater sophistication in being able to flexibly attach to host cells and infect than has been seen with other coronaviruses. V2 confuses the host immune system, weakening its response.  V2 replicates 3 times faster than V1, thus enhancing its virulence by dint of spreading within before the immune system has the opportunity to respond.

V2 has not been slowed by warmer weather. Retaining vivacity despite warmer temperature is an impressive innovation in a viral family typically thermally sensitive in preferring being cool.

There are at least 3 types of V2, which were distinguished by amino acid changes. Type A mutated into B, from which C descended. The evolved variations were adaptations to better infect the specific hosts the virus encountered. The original – type A – that was identified in Wuhan is the one responsible for the US and Australian epidemics. China was mainly hit by B, which had evolved by late December. B is thought to mutate slowly in east Asia, but rapidly elsewhere. C is the major European type.

There have been at least 4-10 genetic developments since the original virus spread out of Wuhan. V2 seems to have largely achieved a self-satisfied state, but is continuing to tweak its toolkit, including improving its infectiousness.

A study led by American computational biologist Bette Korber, reported that viral strain C is becoming dominant worldwide, having what seems “a fitness advantage.” These researchers think V2 is working to become more contagious. American virologist Stanley Perlman, who was not involved in the study, wrote, “It certainly looks like it is more readily transmissible. Viruses mutate to become more transmissible, but not generally to become more virulent (unless this enhances transmissibility).”

More recent research indicates that V2 has many strains. V2 “differs not only on a country and regional basis but even among cities,” reports Turkish virologist Sadrettin Pençe. “The evolution and demography are complex,” added American biostatistician Marc Suchard. This variability potentially lessens the reliability of tests and the prospect of a vaccine.

“We don’t know that much about immunity to this virus,” remarked American viral immunologist Michael Diamond in early March. Immunity is short-lived for the coronaviruses that cause common colds; even people who have high levels of antibodies against these viruses can still become infected.

There are no vaccines or antivirals in routine clinical use for coronaviruses, nor for the covid-19 virus. “The reason why it has been so hard to develop antiviral drugs, because almost any drug that will stop viruses dead in their tracks will also stop our cells dead in their tracks,” said immunologist Shira Doron.

Over 140 vaccines for V2 are in development in several countries. A publicly-available vaccine is unlikely before mid-2021 at the earliest.

On 10 July Fujifilm of Japan announced that its Avigan drug was ineffective in treating covid-19. The drug has already been approved as a covid-19 treatment in Russia and India.

A small trial in Hong Kong found that people have milder symptoms when given a combination of 3 anti-viral drugs: the anti-HIV therapy lopinavir-ritonavir, the hepatitis drug ribavirin and the multiple sclerosis treatment interferon-beta. The researchers conceded that the trial lacked the protocols used to test effectiveness or side effects. (8 May) This experiment exemplifies the hastiness with which covid-19 is being attacked.

All vaccines work on the same basic principle. A certain part or all of a pathogen is presented to the human immune system, prompting it produce antibodies which fight against infection. Traditionally, vaccines used live, weakened forms of a virus – a technique with drawbacks which can backfire.

New genetic analysis techniques offer promise to accelerate vaccine development. But developing and testing candidates is expensive – and a risky gamble. “The reality is most vaccines will fail,” said vaccine maker Seth Berkley 4 June. And the covid-19 carrier is a novel coronavirus with considerable wiles, which means developing a vaccine for it will be tricky business.

Vaccines against viral respiratory diseases are, at best, modestly effective, and only work for a short time, as viruses quickly learn how to overcome the defensive gesture.

“Virus biology and vaccines technology could be the limiting factors, but politics and economics are far more likely to be the barrier to immunization,” explains American public health researcher Jonathan Quick. The final hurdle is getting the vaccine to all those who need it. This is a challenge beyond sheer logistics, as plutocratic mechanics are inherent in all political institutions. Mass vaccination is a costly proposition. During the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic, vaccine supplies were snapped up by rich nations, leaving poorer ones short.

References:

Zaheena Rasheed et al, “Hong Kong to suspend schools as coronavirus cases rise: Live,” Aljazeera (10 July 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: death tolls rise in some U.S. states, signaling a possible end to the national decline,” The New York Times (10 July 2020).

Martin Belam et al, “Coronavirus live news: Idlib schools close and hospitals axe non-urgent surgery after first case,” The Guardian (10 July 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Experts call for shutdowns as coronavirus infections and hospitalizations spike in some states,” The Washington Post (10 July 2020).

Coronavirus pandemic: Which politicians and celebs are affected?,” Aljazeera (10 July 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “Greece ready to reimpose coronavirus restrictions: Live updates,” Aljazeera (9 July 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: W.H.O., in reversal, affirms virus may be airborne indoors,” The New York Times (9 July 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: WHO says pandemic still accelerating as global review announced,” The Guardian (9 July 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Fauci says states with major outbreaks should ‘seriously look at shutting down’ again,” The Washington Post (9 July 2020).

Kate Mayberry, “Israel’s Gantz isolates after coronavirus exposure: Live updates,” Aljazeera (8 July 2020).

Haroon Siddique et al, “Coronavirus live news: Melbourne goes back into lockdown; Italy stops Bangladesh flights after new infections,” The Guardian (8 July 2020).

Simon Denyer, “Japan faces uptick in coronavirus cases but no political will for new shutdowns,” The Washington Post (8 July 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Dozens of Fla. hospitals run out of ICU beds as U.S. approaches 3 million coronavirus cases,” The Washington Post (8 July 2020).

Ian Sample, “Scientists join forces to investigate airborne risk of coronavirus,” The Guardian (8 July 2020).

Lorne Cook & Geir Moulson, “Germany’s Merkel: Pandemic highlights limits of populism,” The Washington Post (8 July 2020).

Sarah Knapton, “Exclusive: Covid-19 may not have originated in China, Oxford University expert believes,” The Telegraph (5 July 2020).

Laura Sanders, “How SARS-COV-2 messes with smell,” Science News (4 July 2020).

Ian Horswill, “Coronavirus may not have begun in China,” CEO Magazine (6 July 2020).

Isabel Reche et al, “Deposition rates of viruses and bacteria above the atmospheric boundary layer,” The ISME Journal (29 January 2018).

Study: viruses are circulating in Earth’s atmosphere – and falling from it,” Sci News (8 February 2018).

Coronavirus live updates: Brazil’s president tests positive after dismissing precautions,” The New York Times (7 July 2020).

Kate Mayberry & Ramy Allahoum, “Brazil’s Bolsonaro tests positive for coronavirus: Live updates,” Aljazeera (7 July 2020).

Helen Pidd et al, “Coronavirus live news: Israel health chief quits in protest at lockdown easing; Bolsonaro tests positive,” The Guardian (7 July 2020).

Sarah Mervosh & Manny Fernandez, “Months into virus crisis, U.S. cities still lack testing capacity,” The New York Times (7 July 2020).

Jonathan O’Connell et al, “Treasury, SBA data show small-business loans went to private-equity backed chains, members of Congress,” The Washington Post (7 July 2020).

Lucky Campbell et al, “Coronavirus live news: US death toll surpasses 130,000; India’s cases third-highest in world,” The Guardian (6 July 2020).

Virginia Pietromarchi & Shereena Qazi, “Israel locks down again after coronavirus spike: live updates,” Aljazeera  (6 July 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: new caseload records across the U.S.,” The New York Times (6 July 2020).

Live updates: Elected officials blame rush to reopen as coronavirus cases hit record for 27th day,” The Washington Post (6 July 2020).

Todd C. Frankel, “Companies are hiring their own epidemiologists to help deal with the pandemic,” The Washington Post (6 July 2020).

Martin Belam & Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Coronavirus live news: Spain puts part of Galicia back into lockdown; Melbourne outbreak has ‘explosive potential‘,” The Guardian (5 July 2020).

Apoorva Mandavilli, “239 experts with 1 big claim: the coronavirus is airborne,” The New York Times (5 July 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “Live: Coronavirus cases surge in Saudi, UAE after curfews lifted,” Aljazeera (5 July 2020).

Hannah Devlin, “WHO underplaying risk of airborne spread of Covid-19, say scientists,” The Guardian (5 July 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: assessing the real death rate,” The New York Times (5 July 2020).

Alison Rourke, “Global report: WHO reports record 200,000 cases in one day, amid surging outbreaks,” The Guardian (5 July 2020).

Takuya Sekine et al, “Robust T cell immunity in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19,” bioRxiv (29 June 2020).

Katarina Sternudd, “Immunity to COVID-19 is probably higher than tests have shown,” Medical Xpress (30 June 2020).

Mart M. Lamers et al, “SARS-CoV-2 productively infects human gut enterocytes,” Science (3 July 2020).

Arwa Ibrahim et al, “England to quarantine all US arrivals amid coronavirus: live,” Aljazeera (3 July 2020).

Damien Gayle, “Coronavirus live news: Belgrade declares state of emergency; South Africa cases surge after lockdown lifted,” The Guardian (3 July 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: leaders pivot as daily U.S. cases pass 50,000,” The New York Times (3 July 2020).

David J. Lynch, “Some jobs are coming back, but economy will need years to heal,” The Washington Post (3 July 2020).

Ted Regencia & Virginia Pietromarchi, “Brazil coronavirus death toll passes 60,000: Live updates,” Aljazeera (2 July 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: 30 days of new cases show the U.S. outbreak spiraling out of control,” The New York Times (2 July 2020).

Lucy Campbell et al, “Coronavirus live news: Sweden’s cases pass 70,000; Tokyo confirms highest new case tally in two months,” The Guardian (2 July 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Florida reports more than 10,000 new coronavirus cases in a day,” The Washington Post (2 July 2020).

B. Korber et al, “Tracking changes in SARS-CoV-2 Spike: evidence that D614G increases infectivity of the COVID-19 virus,” Cell (2 July 2020).

Erin Garcia de Jesus, “4 reasons not to worry about that ‘new’ swine flu in the news,” Science News (2 July 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “EU reopens its borders to 15 countries: Live coronavirus updates,” Aljazeera (1 July 2020).

Jessica Murray et al, “Coronavirus live news: more than 160,000 new cases reported every day in past week, says WHO,” The Guardian (1 July 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Americans are urged to limit July 4 plans,” The New York Times (1 July 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Fauci warns U.S. is ‘going in the wrong direction’ and could see 100,000 coronavirus cases a day,” The Washington Post (1 July 2020).

William Wan & Heather Long, “‘Cries for help’: Drug overdoses are soaring during the coronavirus pandemic,” The Washington Post (1 July 2020).

Heather Long & Andrew Van Dam, “Pay cuts are becoming a defining feature of the coronavirus recession,” The Washington Post (1 July 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “Modi says India’s coronavirus spread at critical juncture – live,” Aljazeera (30 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: E.U. will bar Americans as it reopens its borders,” The New York Times (30 June 2020).

Amy Walker et al, “Coronavirus live updates: Greece faces ‘huge difficulties’ when flights resume; Toronto makes masks mandatory,” The Guardian (30 June 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Fauci testifies to Senate committee on reopening schools; U.S. travelers barred from E.U. nations,” The Washington Post (30 June 2020).

Scientists warn new virus in pigs has potential pandemic risk,” Aljazeera (30 June 2020).

Honglei Sun et al, “Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes facilitating human infection,” PNAS (29 June 2020).

Kate Mayberry & Hamza Mohamed, “More than 500,000 dead worldwide from coronavirus: Live updates,” Aljazeera (29 June 2020).

Jessica Murray et al, “Coronavirus live news: pandemic is ‘not even close to being over’, warns WHO chief,” The Guardian (29 June 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Global death toll from coronavirus surpasses half a million,” The Washington Post (29 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: pence, in Texas, now more vocal about need for masks,” The New York Times (29 June 2020).

Anthony Faiola, “The virus that shut down the world,” The Washington Post (29 June 2020).

World Food Programme to assist largest number of hungry people ever, as coronavirus devastates poor nations,” World Food Programme (29 June 2020).

Lily Kuo, “China ‘seals off’ more than 400,000 in Anxin county to tackle small Covid-19 cluster,” The Guardian (29 June 2020).

Robyn Dixon, “Putin tells Russia coronavirus is in retreat. Critics face crackdowns for saying it’s far from over,” The Washington Post (29 June 2020).

Sarah Kaplan & Joel Achenbach, “This coronavirus mutation has taken over the world. Scientists are trying to understand why,” The Washington Post (29 June 2020).

Clea Skopeliti et al, “Coronavirus live news: confirmed Covid-19 cases exceed 10m globally,” The Guardian (28 June 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “China puts half a million in lockdown after COVID-19 spike: Live,” Aljazeera (28 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: tensions and risks grow at U.S. testing sites,” The New York Times (28 June 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: Texas, Arizona face record coronavirus hospitalizations as U.S. cases surpass 2.5 million,” The Washington Post (28 June 2020).

Joshua Partlow & Josh Dawsey, “Workers removed thousands of social distancing stickers before Trump’s Tulsa rally, according to video and a person familiar with the set-up,” The Washington Post (28 June 2020).

Toluse Olorunnipa et al, “With Trump leading the way, America’s coronavirus failures exposed by record surge in new infections,” The Washington Post (28 June 2020).

Robert Booth, “Covid-19: risk of death in UK care homes 13 times higher than in Germany,” The Guardian (28 June 2020).

Adelina Comas-Herrera et al, “Mortality associated with COVID-19 outbreaks in care ,homes: early international evidence,” LTC Responses to Covid-19 (26 June 2020).

Zaheena Rasheed & Usaid Siddiqui, “India coronavirus cases surpass 500,000: Live updates,” Aljazeera (27 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. states backtrack on reopening as cases climb,” The New York Times (27 June 2020).

Aamna Mohdin et al, “Coronavirus live news: Egypt loosens lockdown despite surging infections as India passes 500,000 cases,” The Guardian (27 June 2020).

More pain ahead: Global economic outlook worsens, survey shows,” Aljazeera (27 June 2020).

Adam G. Laing et al, “A consensus Covid-19 immune signature combines immuno-protection with discrete sepsis-like traits associated with poor prognosis,” medRxiv (9 June 2020).

Gina Kolata, “How the coronavirus short-circuits the immune system,” The New York Times (27 June 2020).

Creede Newton, “Covid-19 prison problem as cases soar at California’s San Quentin,” Aljazeera (27 June 2020).

Patrick Butler, “Millions went hungry during first months of UK lockdown, figures show,” The Guardian (27 June 2020).

Matt Apuzzo et al, “How the world missed covid-19’s silent spread,” The New York Times (27 June 2020).

Tom Britton et al, “A mathematical model reveals the influence of population heterogeneity on herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2,” Science (26 June 2020).

Kimberly A. Prather et al, “Reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2,” Science (26 June 2020).

Juanjuan Zhang et al, “Changes in contact patterns shape the dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak in China,” Science (26 June 2020).

Zaheena Rasheed & Umut Uras, “India coronavirus cases spike to near half-million: Live updates,” Aljazeera (26 June 2020).

Nadeem Badshah et al, “Coronavirus live news: soldiers sent to southern Italian town amid tension over new outbreak,” The Guardian (26 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Texas bars must close, governor says in reversal, amid surge in cases,” The New York Times (26 June 2020).

Katie Shepard et al, “Live updates: Texas abruptly changes strategy in an attempt to stave off surge in coronavirus cases,” The Washington Post (26 June 2020).

How the coronavirus crisis exposes India’s social inequalities,” Aljazeera (26 June 2020).

Frances Perraudin et al, “Coronavirus live news: Europe’s cases surge since lockdowns eased; 1,100 Qatar World Cup workers test positive,” The Guardian (25 June 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “Coronavirus cases in Gulf region surge past 400,000: Live updates,” Aljazeera (25 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. sets record for daily new cases,” The New York Times (25 June 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: State officials and companies delay reopening measures after record high in new infections,” The Washington Post (25 June 2020).

Elian Peltier, “22 police officers injured in scuffles at illegal London block party,” The New York Times (25 June 2020).

Zania Stamataki, “I’m a viral immunologist. Here’s what antibody tests for Covid-19 tell us,” The Guardian (25 June 2020).

Kate Mayberry & Elizabeth Melimopoulos, “Beijing officials declare outbreak ‘under control’: live updates,” Aljazeera (24 June 2020).

Jessica Murray et al, “Coronavirus live news: India records its highest daily rise in cases; EU border rules could bar US visitors,” The Guardian (24 June 2020).

Scarce medical oxygen worldwide leaves many gasping for air,” Aljazeera (24 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: cases in the U.S. grow to their highest levels since April,” The New York Times (24 June 2020).

Sui-Lee Wee et al, “How the world is learning to live with a deadly pandemic,” The New York Times (24 June 2020).

Jonathan Corum et al, “Coronavirus vaccine tracker,” The New York Times (24 June 2020).

Ben Hubbard & Declan Walsh, “The Hajj Pilgrimage is canceled, and grief rocks the Muslim world,” The New York Times (24 June 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Federal government to scale back testing support even as hospitalizations reach new highs,” The Washington Post (24 June 2020).

David J. Lynch, “IMF says global economic collapse caused by coronavirus will be even worse than feared,” The Washington Post (24 June 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “German districts under lockdown after coronavirus outbreak: Live,” Aljazeera (23 June 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: Brazilian judge orders Bolsonaro to wear mask; German district put in local lockdown,” The Guardian (23 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: as outbreak spreads, some states roll back plans to reopen,” The New York Times (23 June 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: FDA warns against hand sanitizers that contain the toxic substance methanol,” The Washington Post (23 June 2020).

Asad Hashim, “‘Smart lockdown’ in Pakistan to target 500 coronavirus hotspots,” Aljazeera (23 June 2020).

Charles Anderson, “New Zealand tightens Covid-19 border measures in ‘dangerous new phase‘,” The Guardian (23 June 2020).

Mutation affects sensitivity of COVID-19 tests in Turkey, experts say,” Daily Sabah (22 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. accounts for 20% of new cases globally,” The New York Times (22 June 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: Bolsonaro silent as Brazil passes 50,000 deaths; global cases reach 9 million,” The Guardian (22 June 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “Global number of coronavirus cases near 9 million: Live updates,” Aljazeera (22 June 2020).

Rachel Weiner & Ariana Eunjung Cha, “Amid threats and political pushback, public health officials are leaving their posts,” The Washington Post (22 June 2020).

Katie Shepard et al, “Live updates: 29 states report coronavirus spikes as government prepares for possible second wave,” The Washington Post (22 June 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “Live: Spain reopens borders as coronavirus restrictions lifted,” Aljazeera (21 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: 12 states hit daily records and the White House says it’s preparing for a possible fall wave,” The New York Times (21 June 2020).

Jessica Silver-Greenberg & Amy Julia Harris, “They just dumped him like trash’: nursing homes evict vulnerable residents,” The New York Times (21 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: tensions grow over masks in the U.S.,” The New York Times (19 June 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: Trump says he told officials to slow coronavirus testing to keep case numbers low,” The Washington Post (21 June 2020).

Clea Skopeliti et al, “Coronavirus live news: Latin America and Caribbean exceed 2m cases as Brazil’s death toll passes 50,000,” The Guardian (21 June 2020).

Zaheena Rasheed et al, “UK lowers coronavirus alert level: Live updates,” Aljazeera (19 June 2020).

Nazia Parveen et al, “Coronavirus live news: virus present in two big Italian cities over two months before first case detected,” The Guardian (19 June 2020).

Rick Noack, “In countries keeping the coronavirus at bay, experts watch U.S. case numbers with alarm,” The Washington Post (19 June 2020).

Lily Kuo, “Anxiety in Beijing as officials battle new coronavirus outbreak,” The Guardian (19 June 2020).

Karin Brulliard, “People probably caught coronavirus from minks. That’s a wake-up call to study infections in animals, researchers say,” The Washington Post (19 June 2020).

Laura Sanders, “The way the coronavirus messes with smell hints at how it affects the brain,” Science News (12 June 2020).

Trump superfans line up early for Tulsa rally,” The New York Times (19 June 2020).

Clear signs of brain injury with severe COVID-19,” ScienceDaily (18 June 2020).

David Cyranoski, “Why children avoid the worst coronavirus complications might lie in their arteries,” Nature (11 June 2020).

Laura Winter, “Data fog: Why some countries’ coronavirus numbers do not add up,” Aljazeera (17 June 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “Live: Indonesia reports biggest daily rise in coronavirus cases,” Aljazeera (18 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: cases rise as Trump says virus is ‘fading away’,” The New York Times (18 June 2020).

Sarah Marsh et al, “Coronavirus live news: New York set to ease lockdown further as outdoor restaurants reopen,” The Guardian (18 June 2020).

Helen Davidson, “Global report: Beijing Covid-19 cluster may have begun a month earlier – China health official,” The Guardian (18 June 2020).

Jason Burke, “African countries drop Covid-19 curbs in effort to limit economic harm,” The Guardian (18 June 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus cases surge in Florida and California, while Trump’s Tulsa rally will go on as planned,” The Washington Post (18 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: in Beijing, a new round of restrictions,” The New York Times (17 June 2020).

Josh Halliday et al, “Coronavirus live news: Sweden to lift advice against non-essential travel as death toll passes 5,000,” The Guardian (17 June 2020).

Kate Mayberry & Elizabeth Melimopoulos, “Grim India record with 2,000 dead in one day: Live updates,” Aljazeera (17 June 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Nine states hit record highs for covid-19 cases as Pence calls fear of a second wave ‘overblown’,” The Washington Post (17 June 2020).

Lily Kuo & Helen Davidson, “Beijing coronavirus outbreak: travel restricted to tackle ‘extremely severe’ situation,” The Guardian (16 June 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “Steroid found to slash coronavirus mortality rate: live updates,” Aljazeera (16 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: drug proven to reduce virus deaths, scientists say,” The New York Times (16 June 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: A cheap, generic steroid reduces deaths among patients with severe covid-19, study says,” The Washington Post (16 June 2020).

Robert Booth, “Covid-19 can damage lungs of victims beyond recognition, expert says,” The Guardian (15 June 2020).

Robert Booth & Pamela Duncan, “More than 16,000 people in UK care homes have died from coronavirus,” The Guardian (16 June 2020).

Up to 45 percent of SARS-CoV-2 infections may be asymptomatic,ScienceDaily (15 June 2020).

Daniel P. Oran et al, “Prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection,” Annals of Internal Medicine (3 June 2020).

Researchers create new type of COVID-19 antibody test,” ScienceDaily (11 June 2020).

COVID-19 threatens the entire nervous system,” ScienceDaily (11 June 2020).

Zaheena Rasheed et al, “India coronavirus cases top 300,000: live updates,” Aljazeera (13 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Brazil death toll now world’s 2nd highest,” The New York Times (13 June 2020).

Jedidajah Otte et al, “Coronavirus live news: Beijing back into partial lockdown as new cluster emerges,” The Guardian (13 June 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: Trump addresses West Point graduates amid coronavirus pandemic,” The Washington Post (13 June 2020).

Ishi Nobu, “CoV-2 infectiousness,” (12 June 2020).

Jessica Murray et al, “Coronavirus live news: Germany set to lift land border checks; Italian PM questioned on decision not to lock down earlier,” The Guardian (12 June 2020).

Shereena Qazi et al, “Pakistan PM warns of more coronavirus deaths: Live updates,” Aljazeera (12 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: White House seeks to cement ‘emergency’ restrictions on immigration,” The New York Times (12 June 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Oregon pauses its reopening plans for one week after coronavirus cases hit new high,” The Washington Post (12 June 2020).

Coronavirus live news: pandemic accelerating across Africa; over 2 million cases in US,” The Guardian (11 June 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “Russia surpasses 500,000 coronavirus cases: Live updates,” Aljazeera (11 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: businesses seek protections in case customers and workers contract virus,” The New York Times (11 June 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Grim numbers and signs of hope signal a complicated economic recovery from coronavirus,” The Washington Post (11 June 2020).

Jessica Murray et al, “Coronavirus live news: Africa passes 200,000 confirmed cases after Burundi president dies of suspected Covid-19,” The Guardian (10 June 2020).

Jon Henley, “Global report: EU nations continue steady exits from lockdown,” The Guardian (10 June 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Nine states report significant uptick in coronavirus hospitalizations after Memorial Day,” The Washington Post (10 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: cases are rising in 21 states as the U.S. reopens,” The New York Times (10 June 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “Worst recession in a century amid pandemic – OECD: Live updates,” Aljazeera (10 June 2020).

Coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan may have started in August,” Aljazeera (9 June 2020).

Elaine Okanyene Nsoesie et al, “Analysis of hospital traffic and search engine data in Wuhan China indicates early disease activity in the Fall of 2019,” Harvard (June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: W.H.O. walks back claim that asymptomatic transmission is rare,” The New York Times (9 June 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: WHO walks back comment about asymptomatic coronavirus spread,” The Washington Post (9 June 2020).

Debbie Cenziper et al, “As nursing home residents died, new covid-19 protections shielded companies from lawsuits. Families say that hides the truth,” The Washington Post (9 June 2020).

William Wan & Miriam Berg, “Are asymptomatic people spreading the coronavirus? A WHO official’s words spark confusion, debate,” The Washington Post (9 June 2020).

Amir Khan, “Where are we in developing a coronavirus vaccine?,” Aljazeera (9 June 2020).

India running out of hospital beds amid record coronavirus cases,” Aljazeera (9 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: New York City prepares to reopen,” The New York Times (7 June 2020).

Clea Skopeliti et al, “Coronavirus live updates: Bolsonaro hides Brazil death figures; pope warns Italians not to let their guard down,” The Guardian (7 June 2020).

Kyunghee Park, “Singapore’s future won’t look like the one before coronavirus,” Bloomberg (7 June 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “Saudi Arabia’s coronavirus cases exceed 100,000: Live updates,” Aljazeera (7 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: job losses hit everywhere, but infections have not,’ The New York Times (6 June 2020).

Zaheena Rasheed et al, “‘Disaster’ looms in coronavirus-hit Afghanistan: live updates,” Aljazeera (6 June 2020).

Molly Blackwell et al, “Coronavirus live updates: Brazil threatens to quit WHO over ‘ideological bias’,” The Guardian (6 June 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Free coronavirus testing sites pop up as protests continue,” The Washington Post (6 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: students fall behind and racial disparities are expected to widen,” The New York Times (5 June 2020).

Trump urges states to halt coronavirus lockdowns: Live updates,” Aljazeera (5 June 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Federal unemployment rate drops to 13.3 percent in May, from 14.7 percent in April,” The Washington Post (5 June 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: Sweden sees third consecutive day of over 1,000 new cases; virus ‘under control’ in France,” The Guardian (5 June 2020).

Peter Whoriskey et al, “Hundreds of nursing homes ran short on staff, protective gear as more than 30,000 residents died during pandemic,” The Washington Post (5 June 2020).

Kelly Servick & Martin Enserink, “The pandemic’s first major research scandal erupts,” Science (5 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: cases worldwide multiply at fastest pace yet,” The New York Times (4 June 2020).

Russia’s coronavirus case tally edges past 440,000: live updates,” Aljazeera (4 June 2020).

Lucy Campbell et al, “Coronavirus live news: Iran sees record rise in cases; Africa’s low Covid-19 figures ‘broadly accurate’ says WHO,” The Guardian (4 June 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Fauci says some schools may have ‘no problem’ reopening to students in fall,” The Washington Post (4 June 2020).

William Wan & Carolyn Y. Johnson, “The biggest challenge for a coronavirus vaccine could be getting countries to share,” The Washington Post (4 June 2020).

Melissa Davey, “Unreliable data: how doubt snowballed over Covid-19 drug research that swept the world,” The Guardian (4 June 2020).

Melissa Davey et al, “Governments and WHO changed Covid-19 policy based on suspect data from tiny US company,” The Guardian (3 June 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: Sweden passes France’s death rate as virus chief admits room for improvement,” The Guardian (3 June 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “Gaza mosques, nursery schools reopen: coronavirus live updates,” Aljazeera (3 June 2020).

Jon Henley, “We should have done more, admits architect of Sweden’s Covid-19 strategy,” The Guardian (3 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Trump administration selects 5 companies most likely to produce a vaccines,” The New York Times (3 June 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “S Africa court rules some coronavirus curbs invalid: live updates,” Aljazeera (2 June 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Pennsylvania braces for chaos during primary; coronavirus could haunt economy for next decade,” The Washington Post (2 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: economists warn that major U.S. employers are left out of virus relief,” The New York Times (2 June 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: cases in Africa pass 150,000; Germany lifts travel warning for Europe,” The Guardian (2 June 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “Iran coronavirus cases hit two-month high: live updates,” Aljazeera (1 June 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: infections spike and wane unevenly across the U.S.,” The New York Times (1 June 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Officials warn that protests could set off second wave of coronavirus infections,” The Washington Post (1 June 2020).

Jason Gruenauer, “Covid survivor receives $840,000 statement for treatment, with more on the way,” Denver 7 (29 May 2020).

Farah Najjar & Shereena Qazi, “Spain PM seeks final lockdown extension: live coronavirus updates,” Aljazeera (31 May 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. protests raise fears of new outbreaks,” The New York Times (31 May 2020).

Derek Hawkins, “Live updates: All coronavirus testing centers shuttered in Los Angeles over ‘safety worries’ during protests,” The Washington Post (31 May 2020).

Caroline Davies et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain’s prime minister seeks final two-week extension of state of emergency,” The Guardian (31 May 2020).

Peter Beaumont et al, “Global report: fears of coronavirus surge from US protests as world cases hit 6m,” The Guardian (31 May 2020).

Jason Burke & Nyasha Chingono, “African nations fail to find coronavirus quarantine escapees,” The Guardian (31 May 2020).

Arwa Ibrahim & Virginia Pietromarchi, “Modi says India facing ‘long’ coronavirus battle: live updates,” Aljazeera (30 May 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: major U.S. cities ease restrictions, as global caseload nears 6 million,” The New York Times (30 May 2020).

Kai Schultz & Sameer Yasir, “Its coronavirus caseload soaring, India is reopening anyway,” The New York Times (30 May 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: Trump’s withdrawal from the WHO draws criticism from health experts, world leaders,” The Washington Post (30 May 2020).

Patrick Kingsley, “A mile-long line for free food in Geneva, one of world’s richest cities,” The New York Times (30 May 2020).

Moscow revises coronavirus tally, doubling death toll: live coverage,” The New York Times (29 May 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: As some hard-hit regions move to reopen, pandemic’s hotbeds shift,” The Washington Post (29 May 2020).

Barney S. Graham, “Rapid covid-19 vaccine development,” Science (29 May 2020).

Kimberly A. Prather et al, “Reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2,” Science (29 May 2020).

Virus ignited in US no earlier than mid-January, study says,” Medical Xpress (29 May 2020).

Nicole M Kuderer et al, “Clinical impact of COVID-19 on patients with cancer (CCC19): a cohort study,” The Lancet (28 May 2020).

Zaheena Rasheed et al, “Russia reports record rise in coronavirus deaths: Live updates,” Aljazeera (29 May 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: Sweden left out of Nordic border opening amid calls for inquiry into Covid-19 response,” The Guardian (29 May 2020).

Luke Harding, “Global report: South Korea postpones school reopening due to new outbreak,” The Guardian (29 May 2020).

Masks probably slow the spread of covid-19,” The Economist (30 May 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “Trump says coronavirus a ‘very bad gift from China’: live updates,” Aljazeera (28 May 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: South Korea re-tightens lockdown restrictions after spike in cases,” The Guardian (28 May 2020).

U.K. to roll out mass coronavirus testing and contact tracing: live coverage,” The New York Times (28 May 2020).

Nadja Popovich & Margot Sanger-Katz, “The world is still far from herd immunity for coronavirus,” The New York Times (28 May 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Trump notes ‘very sad milestone’ after U.S. coronavirus death toll surpasses 100,000,” The Washington Post (28 May 2020).

Simon Denyer & Joel Achenbach, “Researchers ponder why covid appears more deadly in the U.S. and Europe than in Asia,” The Washington Post (28 May 2020).

William Wan & Carolyn Y. Johnson, “Coronavirus may never go away, even with a vaccine,” The Washington Post (27 May 2020).

E.U. and Japan push coronavirus stimulus packages: live coverage,” The New York Times (27 May 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: European commission proposes €750bn Covid-19 recovery plan,” The Guardian (27 May 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: America’s mental health is suffering; Trump mocks reporter over ‘politically correct’ mask,” The Washington Post (27 May 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “EU unveils huge coronavirus recovery plan: live updates,” Aljazeera (27 May 2020).

Michael Birnbaum & Loveday Morris, “E.U. proposes $825 billion coronavirus rescue plan giving Brussels power to raise money for first time,” The Washington Post (27 May 2020).

WHO: Coronavirus ‘accelerating’ in some Latin American countries,” Aljazeera (27 May 2020).

Josh Halliday et al, “Coronavirus live news: global cases pass 5.5m; Orbán’s rule by decree to end on 20 June,” The Guardian (26 May 2020).

Chadi M. Saad-Roy et al, “Dynamics in a simple evolutionary-epidemiological model for the evolution of an initial asymptomatic infection stage,” PNAS (26 May 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “Putin says Russia past pandemic peak: coronavirus live updates,” Aljazeera (26 May 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: WHO warns of ‘second peak’; some U.S. states see uptick in hospitalizations,” The Washington Post (26 May 2020).

Joel Achenbach, “‘Tell me what to do! Please!’: Even experts struggle with coronavirus unknowns,” The Washington Post (26 May 2020).

Wuhan tallies 6.5 million coronavirus tests in 2 weeks: live coverage,” The New York Times (26 May 2020).

Hospitals overwhelmed as coronavirus cases explode in India,” Aljazeera (26 May 2020).

Amy Qin, ‘Coronavirus threatens China’s devotion to chopsticks and sharing food,” The New York Times (26 May 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Memorial Day weekend crowds cause concern as U.S. death toll nears 100,000,” The Washington Post (25 May 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “Russia’s coronavirus infections pass 350,000: live updates,” Aljazeera (25 May 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain eases restrictions in major cities; Japan to end state of emergency,” The Guardian (25 May 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. observes Memorial Day, with tone varying by state,” The New York Times (25 May 2020).

Reis Thebault & Abigail Hauslohner, “A deadly ‘checkerboard’: covid-19’s new surge across rural America,” The Washington Post (24 May 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “Russia reports its highest single-day death toll: live updates,” Aljazeera (24 May 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: in U.S., a stark human toll; in Germany, cluster emerges as church reopens,” The New York Times (24 May 2020).

Nick Ames et al, “Coronavirus live news: Wuhan lab had bat viruses but not Covid-19 strain; Russia reports highest daily death toll,” The Guardian (24 May 2020).

Global report: China records no new Covid-19 cases for first time as Hertz files for bankruptcy,” The Guardian (23 May 2020).

Arwa Ibrahim et al, “Far-right protests in Spain over lockdowns: coronavirus updates,” Aljazeera (23 May 2020).

Zaheena Rasheed et al, “Spain partly lifts lockdown in Madrid: live updates,” Aljazeera (22 May 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: as U.S. nears 100,000 deaths, Trump disputes the toll,” The New York Times (23 May 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: States ease coronavirus restrictions going into Memorial Day weekend,” The Washington Post (23 May 2020).

Max Bearak & Rael Ombuor, “At a busy East African border, testing truckers created perfect conditions for coronavirus to spread,” The Washington Post (22 May 2020).

Coronavirus poses challenges for muslims during Eid Holiday: live coverage,” The New York Times (22 May 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: study shows hydroxychloroquine may harm virus patients,” The New York Times (22 May 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: Madrid and Barcelona join rest of Spain in easing lockdown restrictions,” The Guardian (22 May 2020).

Ayseba Umutl, “Coronavirus, lockdowns and the looming second wave,” Aljazeera (22 May 2020).

Ben Guarino & Joel Achenbach, “Virus ‘does not spread easily’ from contaminated surfaces or animals, revised CDC website states,” The Washington Post (22 May 2020).

Justin McCurry, “From near disaster to success story: how Japan has tackled coronavirus,” The Guardian (22 May 2020).

Supinda Bunyavanich et al, “Nasal gene expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in children and adults,” JAMA (20 May 2020).

Why COVID-19 may be less common in children than adults,” ScienceDaily (22 May 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “Coronavirus cases in Africa near 100,000: live updates,” Aljazeera (21 May 2020).

Global coronavirus cases near 5 million: live coverage,” The New York Times (21 May 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: East Africa facing ‘triple menace’ of Covid-19, floods and locusts,” The Guardian (21 May 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Global cases top 5 million as WHO reports worst day yet for new infections,” The Washington Post (21 May 2020).

Thoughts that the young are not much affected by SARS-CoV-2 look wrong,” The Economist (21 May 2020).

Kai Kupferschmidt, “Why do some COVID-19 patients infect many others, whereas most don’t spread the virus at all?,” Science (19 May 2020).

Sen Pei et al, “Differential effects of intervention timing on covid-19 spread in the United States,” Columbia University (20 May 2020).

Kate Mayberry & Farah Najjar, “Trump slams China’s ‘incompetence’ over coronavirus: live update,” Aljazeera (20 May 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain mandates face masks as Greece prepares to unveil tourism plans,” The Guardian (20 May 2020).

Disasters and school reopenings bring test of new coronavirus normal: live coverage,” The New York Times (20 May 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: All 50 states have partially reopened; U.S. death toll surpasses 90,000,” The Washington Post (20 May 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “WHO states agree to coronavirus response probe: live updates,” Aljazeera (19 May 2020).

Presymptomatic virus patients can contaminate environments: study,” Medical Xpress (19 May 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: Canada-US border to remain closed; Barcelona beaches to reopen,” The Guardian (19 May 2020).

W.H.O. says it will investigate global coronavirus response: live coverage ,” The New York Times (19 May 2020).

Fiona Harvey, “Lockdowns trigger dramatic fall in global carbon emissions,” The Guardian (19 May 2020).

Brittany Shammas et al, “Pelosi criticizes Trump for taking hydroxychloroquine, ‘something that has not been approved by the scientists’,” The Washington Post (19 May 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “Iran slams US sanctions amid coronavirus pandemic: Live update,” Aljazeera (18 May 2020).

China defends its handling of coronavirus at W.H.O. meeting: live coverage,” The New York Times (18 May 2020).

Nick Ames et al, “Coronavirus live news: Italy begins reopening bars and cafes as rate of deaths and new infections falls again,” The Guardian (18 May 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live updates: China backs WHO investigation into pandemic’s origins; vaccine trial produces promising results,” The Washington Post (18 May 2020).

Choe Sang-Hun, “Yes, those were sex dolls cheering on a South Korean soccer team,” The New York Times (18 May 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “India lockdown 4.0: Delhi extends restrictions – Live updates,” Aljazeera (17 May 2020).

China quarantines thousands as coronavirus resurges and India extends lockdown: live coverage,” The New York Times (17 May 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: Top Trump official says country safe to reopen as governors stress social distancing,” The Washington Post (17 May 2020).

Clea Skopeliti et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain records lowest death toll in two months as Italy prepares to open shops and salons,” The Guardian (17 May 2020).

Debbie Cenziper et al, “Major nursing home chain violated federal standards meant to stop spread of disease even after start of covid-19, records show,” The Washington Post (17 May 2020).

Luke Harding & Denis Campbell, “Up to 20% of hospital patients in England got coronavirus while in for another illness,” The Guardian (17 May 2020).

Dan Baltz, “Crisis exposes how America has hollowed out its government,” The Washington Post (16 May 2020).

Hundreds of Greek beaches open with coronavirus limits: live coverage,” The New York Times (16 May 2020).

Jedidajah Otte et al, “Coronavirus live news: Russia records highest daily fatalities; German football gets back under way,” The Guardian (16 May 2020).

Arwa Ibrahim et al, “Italy to ease coronavirus travel restrictions: Live updates,” Aljazeera (16 May 2020).

Joanna Walters, “US states begin to reopen amid contact tracing programs scramble,” The Guardian (16 May 2020).

Julie Bosman et al, “Coronavirus cases slow in U.S., but the big picture remains tenuous,” The New York Times (16 May 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: states reopen with outbreak control ‘right on the edge’,” The New York Times (16 May 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: House passes $3 trillion relief package; Texas supreme court halts voting by mail amid coronavirus pandemic,” The Washington Post (16 May 2020).

Aamna Mohdin et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain hails large-scale antibody study; no Danish virus deaths for first time since March,” The Guardian (15 May 2020).

Germany enters recession and China’s rebound is shaky: live coverage,” The New York Times (15 May 2020).

Zaheena Rasheed et al, “US to stockpile possible coronavirus vaccines: Live updates,” Aljazeera (15 May 2020).

Luke Harding, “‘Weird as hell’: the Covid-19 patients who have symptoms for months,” The Guardian (15 May 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “First coronavirus case in Bangladesh Rohingya camps: Live update,” Aljazeera (14 May 2020).

France balks at suggestion that U.S. could get coronavirus vaccine first: live coverage,” The New York Times (14 May 2020).

Simon Burnton, “Coronavirus latest: at a glance,” The Guardian (14 May 2020).

Brittany Shammas et al, “Live updates: Expert casts doubt on coronavirus vaccine timeline in testimony before Congress,” The Washington Post (14 May 2020).

Patricia Cohen & Tiffany Hsu, “‘Rolling shock’ as job losses mount even with reopenings,” The New York Times (14 May 2020).

Liz Sly, “Hunger could be more deadly than coronavirus in poorer countries,” The Washington Post (14 May 2020).

Fulzele Sadanand et al, “Covid-19 virulence in aged patients might be impacted by the host cellular micrornas abundance/profile,” Aging and Disease (13 May 2020).

Tiny RNA that should attack coronavirus diminish with age, disease,” MedicalXpress (13 May 2020).

Valentyn Stadnytskyi et al, “The airborne lifetime of small speech droplets and their potential importance in SARS-CoV-2 transmission,” PNAS (13 May 2020).

Joel Achenbach, “Experiment shows human speech generates droplets that linger in the air for more than 8 minutes,” The Washington Post (14 May 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Countries that reopened are closing down again as coronavirus infections spike,” The Washington Post (13 May 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “China’s Jilin in lockdown after coronavirus cluster: live updates,” Aljazeera (13 May 2020).

Kevin Rawlinson et al, “Coronavirus live news: Covid may never be eradicated, warns WHO,” The Guardian (13 May 2020).

“‘Travel bubbles’ emerge as nations relax coronavirus restrictions: live coverage,” The New York Times (13 May 2020).

Peng Xie et al, “Severe covid-19: a review of recent progress with a look toward the future,” Frontiers in Public Health (13 May 2020).

Heather Long, “Small business used to define America’s economy. The pandemic could change that forever,” The Washington Post (12 May 2020).

Liz Sly & Loveday Morris, “As some countries ease up, others are reimposing lockdowns amid a resurgence of coronavirus infections,” The Washington Post (13 May 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Trump claims ‘we have met the moment and prevailed’; U.S. death toll surpasses 80,000,” The Washington Post (12 May 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: WHO reports ‘potentially positive data’ on Covid-19 drugs; Italy to reopen bars and restaurants,” The Guardian (12 May 2020).

Wuhan orders coronavirus tests of all 11 million residents: live coverage,” The New York Times (12 May 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “‘Needless deaths’ warns Fauci over opening: coronavirus updates,” Aljazeera (12 May 2020).

Anna Fifield, “After six new cases, Wuhan plans to test all 11 million residents for coronavirus,” The Washington Post (12 May 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: more new cases in China as parts of Europe ease restrictions,” The Guardian (11 May 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: White House adviser says it’s ‘scary to go to work’ as coronavirus outbreak fears spread,” The Washington Post (11 May 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “Russia announces easing of coronavirus lockdown: live updates,” Aljazeera (11 May 2020).

Once-empty public spaces are revived as coronavirus lockdowns ease: live coverage,” The New York Times (11 May 2020).

Ian Sample, “Scientists concerned that coronavirus is adapting to humans,” The Guardian (10 May 2020).

China finds a flare-up of coronavirus infections near Russian border: live coverage,” The New York Times (10 May 2020).

Lenny Bernstein & Ariana Eunjung Cha, “Doctors keep discovering new ways the coronavirus attacks the body,” The Washington Post (10 May 2020).

Michael Safi et al, “Global report: Covid-19 cases rise in Germany as Wuhan reports first infection in weeks,” The Guardian (10 May 2020).

Zaheena Rasheed et al, “Germany’s coronavirus infections accelerate again: live updates,” Aljazeera (10 May 2020).

Jon Sharman, “‘Summer is not going to make this go away’: Temperature has little or no impact on spread of coronavirus, new study suggests,” Independent (9 May 2020).

James Gorman, “Coronavirus: summer heat cannot be expected to slow spread of outbreak, report finds,Independent (9 April 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: Trump flouts coronavirus protocols even as second staffer tests positive this week,” The Washington Post (9 May 2020).

Ted Regencia & Virginia Pietromarchi, “Seoul shuts bars, clubs after new coronavirus cases: Live updates,” Aljazeera (9 May 2020).

Coronavirus crisis sets up new climate battle: live coverage,” The New York Times (9 May 2020).

Triple anti-viral drug shows COVID-19 promise in Hong Kong study,” Aljazeera (9 May 2020).

David Nakamura et al, “Trump flouts coronavirus protocols as security experts warn of need to protect president from a lethal threat,” The Washington Post (9 May 2020).

Christopher Ingraham, “One chart shows how the stock market is completely decoupled from the labor market,” The Washington Post (9 May 2020).

Covid-19 has many faces,” The Economist (9 May 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “Coronavirus sparked ‘tsunami of hate, xenophobia’: Live updates,” Aljazeera (8 May 2020).

Mexico’s government is hiding huge coronavirus toll: live updates,” The New York Times (8 May 2020).

Kenrie PY Hui et al, “Tropism, replication competence, and innate immune responses of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in human respiratory tract and conjunctiva: an analysis in ex-vivo and in-vitro cultures,” The Lancet (7 May 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan et al, “Live updates: ‘Those jobs will all be back,’ Trump vows after U.S. workforce takes historic hit,” The Washington Post (8 May 2020).

US economy loses a record 20.5 million jobs in April,” Aljazeera (8 May 2020).

Frances Perraudin et al, “Coronavirus live news: Hong Kong bars, gyms and cinemas reopen; 20m Americans lost jobs in April,” The Guardian (8 May 2020).

Nemo Kim, “Anti-gay backlash feared in South Korea after coronavirus media reports,” The Guardian (8 May 2020).

U.S. jobs report shows clearest data yet on economic toll: live updates,” The New York Times (8 May 2020).

Valerie Strauss, “Millions of children out of school because of coronavirus in the world’s poorest countries may never go back, expert says,” The Washington Post (7 May 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: As U.S. workforce suffers, economists issue dire warning about permanent job loss,” The Washington Post (7 May 2020).

Conflict and famine loom as coronavirus spreads: live global coverage,” The New York Times (7 May 2020).

Zaheena Rasheed et al, “Pakistan to ease coronavirus lockdown from Saturday: live updates,” Aljazeera (7 May 2020).

Simon Murphy et al, “Coronavirus live news: Russia overtakes Germany and France after record rise in cases,” The Guardian (7 May 2020).

Benedict Carey & James Glanz, “Travel from New York City seeded wave of U.S. outbreaks,” The New York Times (7 May 2020).

Dino Grandoni, “The Energy 202: A Harvard study tying coronavirus death rates to pollution is causing an uproar in Washington,” The Washington Post (7 May 2020).

Vanessa Williams, “Disproportionately black counties account for over half of coronavirus cases in the U.S. and nearly 60% of deaths, study finds,” The Washington Post (7 May 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Trump says coronavirus task force will continue ‘indefinitely’; U.S. death toll surpasses 70,000,” The Washington Post (6 May 2020).

Coronavirus cases jump as India eases lockdown; E.U. expects major contraction: live coverage,” The New York Times (6 May 2020).

Jessica Murray, “Coronavirus live news: Merkel hails end of first pandemic phase as Germany eases lockdown further,” The Guardian (6 May 2020).

B. Korber et al, “Spike mutation pipeline reveals the emergence of a more transmissible form of SARS-CoV-2,” bioRxiv (30 April 2020).

Sarah Kaplan & Joel Achenbach, “Researchers hypothesize that a highly contagious strain of the coronavirus is spreading, but other experts remain skeptical,” The Washington Post (6 May 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “China says US has no evidence of virus lab leak: live updates,” Aljazeera (6 May 2020).

Haroon Siddique, “Rashes, headaches, tingling: the less common coronavirus symptoms that patients have,” The Guardian (6 May 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: As U.S. reopens, Fauci asks: ‘How much suffering are you willing to accept?’,” The Washington Post (5 May 2020).

Coronavirus reached France in December, doctors find: live coverage,” The New York Times (5 May 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: infection rates show the threat is not fading,” The New York Times (5 May 2020).

India to launch massive evacuation mission: Live updates,” Aljazeera (5 May 2020).

Shaun Walker et al, “Why has eastern Europe suffered less from coronavirus than the west?,” The Guardian (5 May 2020).

Richard Partington, “Inflation collapses around the world amid coronavirus pandemic,” The Guardian (5 May 2020).

Joseph Goldstein, “15 Children are hospitalized with mysterious illness possibly tied to covid-19,” The New York Times (5 May 2020).

Denis Campbell & Ian Sample, “At least 12 UK children have needed intensive care due to illness linked to Covid-19,” The Guardian (27 April 2020).

Jessica Murray et al,Coronavirus live news: WHO urges countries to investigate suspicious early cases after French find,” The Guardian (5 May 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live U.S. updates: Trump raises potential coronavirus death toll to 100,000,” The Washington Post (4 May 2020).

Jessica Murray et al, “Coronavirus live news: Italy’s death toll far higher than reported, says country’s statistics office,” The Guardian (4 May 2020).

Kate Mayberry & Farah Najjar, “China: Pompeo ‘insane’ over coronavirus lab theory – live updates,” Aljazeera (4 May 2020).

At least 12 nations ease coronavirus lockdowns: live coverage,” The New York Times (4 May 2020).

Aamna Mohdin, “Coronavirus latest: at a glance,” The Guardian (4 May 2020).

Poppy Noor, “A tale of two cities: how New York police enforce social distancing by the color of your skin,” The Guardian (4 May 2020).

William Wan, “The coronavirus pandemic is pushing America into a mental health crisis,” The Washington Post (4 May 2020).

Sumit Khanna & Devjyot Ghoshal, “Police clash with crowds as India eases coronavirus curbs,” Reuters (4 May 2020).

Sam Jones, “Spain and Italy ease Covid-19 lockdown but Russia hits daily high,” The Guardian (3 May 2020).

Spain daily coronavirus deaths reach six-week low: Live updates,” Aljazeera (3 May 2020).

Jennifer Hassan et al, “Live updates: Protesters refusing masks, distancing protocols are ‘devastatingly worrisome,’ White House coronavirus coordinator says,” The Washington Post (3 May 2020).

Tamila Varshalomidze & Shereena Qazi, “Spain to make masks compulsory on public transport: live updates,” Aljazeera (2 May 2020).

Karla Adam et al, “Live updates: Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway reports nearly $50 billion loss amid coronavirus pandemic; Nazi slogans seen at ‘reopen Illinois’ protest,” The Washington Post (2 May 2020).

Ishaan Tharoor, “The risk of rich countries neglecting poorer ones during the pandemic,” The Washington Post (4 May 2020).

Hannah Beech, “Hundreds of Rohingya refugees stuck at sea with ‘zero hope’,” The New York Times (1 May 2020).

Isabelle Khurshudyan, “Coronavirus is spreading rapidly in Belarus, but its leader still denies there is a problem,” The Washington Post (2 May 2020).

Christopher Ingraham, “There’s a more accurate way to compare coronavirus deaths to the flu,” The Washington Post (2 May 2020).

Emma Graham-Harrison et al, “Russia now has second-highest rate of Covid-19 spread as other countries ease restrictions,” The Guardian (2 May 2020).

Erica Werner & Mike DeBonis, “White House blocks Fauci from testifying before House panel next week,” The Washington Post (2 May 2020).

Migrants are rounded up in Malaysia and face surging coronavirus in Singapore dorms: live coverage,” The New York Times (2 May 2020).

Ruiyun Li et al, “Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2),” Science (1 May 2020).

Moritz U. G. Kraemer et al, “The effect of human mobility and control measures on the COVID-19 epidemic in China,” Science (1 May 2020).

Mark M. Lamers et al, “SARS-CoV-2 productively infects human gut enterocytes,” Science (1 May 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: As states begin to reopen, a report suggests coronavirus pandemic could last two more years,” The Washington Post (1 May 2020).

Ted Regencia et al, “India extends coronavirus lockdown for two weeks: Live updates,” Aljazeera (1 May 2020).

Amid coronavirus lockdown, world cities rethink Labor Day protests: live coverage,” The New York Times (1 May 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: India extends coronavirus lockdown for two weeks,” The Guardian (1 May 2020).

Kristine A. Moore et al, “Covid-19: the CIDRAP viewpoint,” University of Minnesota (30 April 2020).

The pieces of the puzzle of covid-19’s origin are coming to light,” The Economist (2 May 2020).

Covid-19 has put pangolins in the spotlight,” The Economist (2 May 2020).

Leaving lockdown means understanding immune responses to the virus,” The Economist (2 May 2020).

Closing schools for covid-19 does lifelong harm and widens inequality,” The Economist (30 April 2020).

Brittany Shammas et al, “Live updates: Fauci confirms ramped-up coronavirus vaccine effort; U.S. unemployment claims rise by 3.8 million,” The Washington Post (30 April 2020).

Zaheena Rasheed et al, “US jobless claims top 30m amid coronavirus crisis: Live updates,” Aljazeera (30 April 2020).

Simon Murphy et al, “Coronavirus live news: Denmark says partial easing of lockdown has not led to bigger spread of infection,” The Guardian (30 April 2020).

No new coronavirus cases in South Korea and Hong Kong, a milestone: live coverage,” The New York Times (30 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: unemployment surges to over 30 million in six weeks,” The New York Times (30 April 2020).

Maria Abi-Habib, “Millions had risen out of poverty. Coronavirus is pulling them back,” The New York Times (30 April 2020).

Jack Ewing, “European slump is worst since World War II, reports show,” The New York Times (30 April 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: As ‘quarantine fatigue’ spreads, Fauci says second wave of coronavirus is ‘inevitable’,” The Washington Post (29 April 2020).

Kate Myberry & Saba Aziz, “US GDP drops 4.8pc as coronavirus impact hits hard: live updates,Aljazeera (29 April 2020).

Study finds coronavirus in tiny airborne droplets in Wuhan,” The New York Times (29 April 2020).

Ariana Eunjung Cha, “‘Frostbite’ toes and other peculiar rashes may be signs of hidden coronavirus infection, especially in the young,” The Washington Post (29 April 2020).

Coronavirus live news: Paris ‘exiles’ told to return when lockdown ends, as Sweden passes 20,000 confirmed cases,” The Guardian (29 April 2020).

Tony Romm, “Mass layoffs begin in cities and states amid coronavirus fallout, threatening education, sanitation, health and safety,” The Washington Post (29 April 2020).

Taylor Telford & Kimberly Kindy, “As they rushed to maintain U.S. meat supply, big processors saw plants become covid-19 hot spots, worker illnesses spike,” The Washington Post (25 April 2020).

Taylor Telford et al, “Trump orders meat plants to stay open in pandemic,” The Washington Post (29 April 2020).

Paul Waldman, “Trump’s latest executive order highlights our inequality crisis,” The Washington Post (29 April 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: House leaders abandon plans to return next week; U.S. coronavirus cases near 1 million,” The Washington Post (28 April 2020).

Joel Achenbach, “Antibody tests support what’s been obvious: Covid-19 is much more lethal than the flu,” The Washington Post (29 April 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “France unveils plans for coronavirus lockdown exit: Live updates,” Aljazeera (28 April 2020).

China pushes back against U.S. calls for coronavirus compensation: live updates,” The New York Times (28 April 2020).

Helen Davidson & Alison Rourke, “Trump says China could have stopped Covid-19 and suggests US will seek damages,” The Guardian (28 April 2020).

Greg Miller & Ellen Nakashima, “President’s intelligence briefing book repeatedly cited virus threat,” The Washington Post (28 April 2020).

Matt Phillips, “Investors bet giant companies will dominate after crisis,” The New York Times (28 April 2020).

Toluse Olorunnipa, “As Trump puts partisan spin on federal aid for states, Republicans and Democrats warn of coming financial calamity,” The Washington Post (27 April 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “UN says pandemic may cause ‘human rights disaster’: Live updates,” Aljazeera (27 April 2020).

John Wagner et al, “Live updates: U.S. sees signs of ‘quarantine fatigue’; Italy to ease West’s longest coronavirus lockdown,” The Washington Post (27 April 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: crisis delays non-Covid vaccines for 13m people, says WHO,” The Guardian (27 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: demand for small business aid crashes computer system; some states ease restrictions,” The New York Times (27 April 2020).

Katrin Bennhold, “‘Sadness’ and disbelief from a world missing American leadership,” The New York Times (27 April 2020).

Ishaan Tharoor, “The pandemic and the waning of American prestige,” The Washington Post (27 April 2020).

Gabrielle Emanuel, “What’s happening inside the cells of a coronavirus patient,” WGBH News (27 April 2020).

Marisa Iati et al, “Live updates: 2 U.S. governors defend reopening their states; China’s Wuhan claims it has no coronavirus cases in hospital,” The Washington Post (26 April 2020).

Zaheena Rasheed et al, “China says all Wuhan virus patients discharged: Live updates,” Aljazeera (26 April 2020).

Jedidajah Otte et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain’s daily death toll drops below 300 as children allowed out for first time in weeks,” The Guardian (26 April 2020).

Anthony Faiola & Ana Vanessa Herrero, “A pandemic of corruption: $40 masks, questionable contracts, rice-stealing bureaucrats mar coronavirus response,” The Washington Post (26 April 2020).

Dominic Rushe & Mona Chalabi, “‘Heads we win, tails you lose’: how America’s rich have turned pandemic into profit,” The Guardian (26 April 2020).

No coronavirus patients in Wuhan hospitals, China says: live coverage,” The New York Times (26 April 2020).

Colby Itkowitz, “Republican strategy memo advises GOP campaigns to blame China for coronavirus,” The Washington Post (25 April 2020).

Ted Regencia & Joseph Stepansky, “Coronavirus deaths in UK hospitals pass 20,000: Live updates,” Aljazeera (25 April 2020).

Ariana Eunjung Cha, “Young and middle-aged people, barely sick with covid-19, are dying of strokes,” The Washington Post (25 April 2020).

Karla Dam et al, “Live updates: WHO warns against antibody immunity ‘passports’ as confirmed coronavirus cases surpass 900,000 in U.S.,” The Washington Post (25 April 2020).

W.H.O. warns against ‘immunity passports’; much of the world remains under coronavirus lockdown: live coverage,” The New York Times (25 April 2020).

Aaron Walawalkar et al, “Coronavirus live news: ‘No evidence’ you can’t get Covid-19 twice, says WHO,” The Guardian (25 April 2020).

Apoorva Mandavilli, “Coronavirus antibody tests: Can you trust the results?,” The New York Times (25 April 2020).

Rosalind S. Helderman et al, “The pandemic at sea,” The Washington Post (25 April 2020).

Lisa Rein, “VA health chief acknowledges a shortage of protective gear for its hospital workers,” The Washington Post (25 April 2020).

Matteo Chinazzi et al, “The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak,” Science (24 April 2020).

Ted Regencia & Joseph Stepansk, “WHO, partners, accelerate work on COVID-19 vaccine: Live updates,” Aljazeera (24 April 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: FDA issues hydroxychloroquine warning, citing serious effects, including death; U.S. coronavirus toll nears 50,000,” The Washington Post (24 April 2020).

Ramadan begins amid coronavirus restrictions: live coverage,” The New York Times (24 April 2020).

Alasdair Fotheringham, “Spain: Was coronavirus already spreading a month before lockdown?,” Aljazeera (24 April 2020).

Damian Carrington, “Coronavirus detected on particles of air pollution,” The Guardian (24 April 2020).

Jason Horowitz & Emma Bubola, “Isolating the sick at home, Italy stores up family tragedies,” The New York Times (24 April 2020).

Jon Henley, “Sweden queries basis of lockdowns as Germany keeps its guard up, “The Guardian (24 April 2020).

Paige Winfield Cunningham, “Here’s why the U.S. can’t get its coronavirus testing act together,” The Washington Post (24 April 2020).

Danielle Paquette, “Warnings of worsening hunger, malaria emerge as coronavirus cases spike 40% in Africa,” The Washington Post (23 April 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: China boosts WHO funding as pressure mounts for coronavirus inquiry; U.S. unemployment claims soar,” The Washington Post (23 April 2020).

Zaheena Rasheed et al, “Coronavirus live updates: China to donate $30m more to WHO,” Aljzeera (23 April 2020).

Joanna Walters, “Coronavirus US live: Andrew Cuomo slams Senate leader Mitch McConnell over ‘reckless’ state bankruptcy proposal,” The Guardian (23 April 2020).

Benedict Carey & James Glanz, “Hidden outbreaks spread through U.S. cities far earlier than Americans knew, estimates say,” The New York Times (23 April 2020).

Merkel warns of potential coronavirus resurgence: Live world coverage,” The New York Times (23 April 2020).

Gayathri Vaidyanathan, “People power: How India is attempting to slow the coronavirus,” Nature (12 April 2020).

Patricia Cohen, “Jobless numbers are ‘eye-watering’ but understate the crisis,” The New York Times (23 April 2020).

Paul Mozur & Steven Lee Myers, “China imposes new limits as coronavirus fears return,” The New York Times (23 April 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Deaths suggest coronavirus was spreading in U.S. earlier than previously thought; CDC director warns of devastating second wave,” The Washington Post (22 April 2020).

Ariana Eunjung Cha, “A mysterious blood-clotting complication is killing coronavirus patients,” The Washington Post (22 April 2020).

Coronavirus world news: Germany to begin vaccine trials; cluster found among Japanese children,” The New York Times (22 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: revelation of first U.S. death shifts timeline of virus spread,” The New York Times (22 April 2020).

Dawn Fallik, “COVID-19 is hitting some patients with obesity particularly hard,” Science News (22 April 2020).

Allyson Chiu & Teo Armus, “Autopsies find first U.S. coronavirus death occurred in early February, weeks earlier than previously thought,” The Washington Post (22 April 2020).

Kate Mayberry & Saba Aziz, “Spain reports 435 coronavirus deaths overnight: Live updates,” Aljazeera (22 April 2020).

Heather Long, “There’s a growing possibility of a ‘W’-shaped economic recovery — and it’s scary,” The Washington Post (22 April 2020).

Ariana Eunjung Cha, “In New York’s largest hospital system, 88 percent of coronavirus patients on ventilators didn’t make it,” The New York Times (22 April 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live updates: Global coronavirus cases surpass 2.5 million; states begin to lift restrictions,” The Washington Post (21 April 2020).

Kate Mayberry & Usaid Siddiqui, “No evidence coronavirus created in a lab – WHO: Live updates,” Aljazeera (21 April 2020).

Larry Elliott, “Top economist: US coronavirus response is like ‘third world’ country,” The Guardian (22 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Trump says he will halt immigration; markets dip as oil prices crater,” The New York Times (21 April 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: global confirmed cases pass 2.5m, as Sweden reports its highest daily death toll,” The Guardian (21 April 2020).

“World news updates: Coronavirus could double number of people facing acute hunger,” The New York Times (21 April 2020).

Meagan Flynn, “ICE delayed its pandemic response, putting detainees at ‘substantial’ risk of harm, judge finds,” The Washington Post (21 April 2020).

Stocks fall as oil’s slide continues: Live markets updates,” The New York Times (21 April 2020).

Paige Winfield Cunningham, “The Health 202: Los Angeles antibody test results are a warning to states thinking of reopening,” The Washington Post (21 April 2020).

Jeff Stein & Robert Costa, “White House readies push to slash regulations as major part of its coronavirus economic recovery plan,” The Washington Post (21 April 2020).

Melanie Mason, “Hundreds of thousands in L.A. County may have been infected with coronavirus, study finds,” Los Angeles Times (20 April 2020).

Frances Perraudin et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain proposes €1.5tn EU Covid-19 fund; US blocks pro-WHO statement by G20,” The Guardian (20 April 2020).

Kate Mayberry et al, “China refutes Australia’s coronavirus questioning: Live updates,” Aljazeera (20 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Congress nears deal for more small business aid,” The New York Times (20 April 2020).

Michael E. Miller, “‘Someone in our building has it’: Covid-19 fuels tensions at apartments and condos,” The Washington Post (20 April 2020).

Jacob Bogage & Thomas Heath, “U.S. stocks tumble amid steep drop in crude prices,” The Washington Post (20 April 2020).

Kim Bellware et al, “Live updates: Pelosi calls state protests a ‘distraction’ as Congress appears close to $400 billion-plus coronavirus aid deal,” The Washington Post (19 April 2020).

Laurie McGinley, “Dozens of coronavirus antibody tests on the market were never vetted by the FDA, leading to accuracy concerns,” The Washington Post (19 April 2020).

Steve Eder et al, “Antibody test, seen as key to reopening country, does not yet deliver,” The New York Times (19 April 2020).

Coronavirus spreads to Afghanistan’s presidential palace; france confronts carrier outbreak: live updates,” The New York Times (19 April 2020).

Clea Skopeliti, “Coronavirus latest: 19 April at a glance,” The Guardian (19 April 2020).

“In Italy, a sharp drop in coronavirus I.C.U. patients; Tehran’s lockdown lifts: live coverage,” The New York Times (18 April 2020).

Nicola Slawson et al, “Coronavirus live news: US accused of ‘dereliction of duty’ as deaths in Spain top 20,000,” The Guardian (18 April 2020).

Kareem Fahim et al, “Live updates: Conservatives to protest coronavirus restrictions in Maryland, Texas; confirmed U.S. cases near 700,000,” The Washington Post (18 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Texas protests to demand a reopening,” The New York Times (18 April 2020).

David J. Lynch, “Record government and corporate debt risks ‘tipping point’ after pandemic passes,” The Washington Post (18 April 2020).

Rachel Bucchino, “Here are the states with schools closed for rest of academic year,” The Hill (18 April 2020).

Craig Timberg et al, “Governments around the world are trying a new weapon against coronavirus: Your smartphone,” The Washington Post (17 April 2020).

David Willman, “Contamination at CDC lab delayed rollout of coronavirus tests,” The Washington Post (18 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: opposition to closings rises as Trump signals approval,” The New York Times (18 April 2020).

David Adam, “Special report: The simulations driving the world’s response to COVID-19,” Nature (2 April 2020).

Heidi Ledford, “How does COVID-19 kill? Uncertainty is hampering doctors’ ability to choose treatments,” Nature (9 April 2020).

China raises Wuhan’s coronavirus death toll 50 percent: live coverage,” The New York Times (17 April 2020).

Allyson Chiu et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus crushes China’s economy as Wuhan death toll revised higher; Trump tells governors to ‘call your own shots’,” The Washington Post (17 April 2020).

Kirsten Han, “Singapore’s new covid-19 cases reveal the country’s two very different realities,” The Washington Post (17 April 2020).

Aamna Mohdin et al, “Coronavirus live news: China denies cover-up as Wuhan death toll revised up by 50%,” The Guardian (17 April 2020).

Rachel Siegel & Thomas Heath, “U.S. stocks climb after coronavirus drug trial shows early promise against severe symptoms,” The Washington Post (17 April 2020).

Daisuke Wakabayashi et al, “Bill Gates, at odds with Trump on virus, becomes a right-wing target,” The New York Times (17 April 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Trump to issue guidelines on easing U.S. coronavirus restrictions; unemployment claims continue to soar,” The Washington Post (16 April 2020).

Rael Ombuor & Max Bearak, “‘Killing in the name of corona’: Death toll soars from Kenya’s curfew crackdown,” The Washington Post (16 April 2020).

Hellen Sullivan et al, “Italy sees lowest increase in Covid-19 infections for a month – as it happened,” The Guardian (16 April 2020).

U.K. extends lockdown 3 weeks in the battle against the coronavirus: live updates,” The New York Times (16 April 2020).

More than 5.2 million U.S. workers filed for unemployment: live updates,” The New York Times (16 April 2020).

Adam Tooze, “How coronavirus almost brought down the global financial system,” The Guardian (14 April 2020).

Xi He et al, “Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19,” Nature Medicine (15 April 2020).

Graham Readfearn, “What happens to people’s lungs when they get coronavirus?,” The Guardian (15 April 2020).

Emily Kwong, “Where did this coronavirus originate? Virus hunters find genetic clues in bats,” NPR (15 April 2020).

Arman Azad, “People might be most infectious with coronavirus before they show symptoms, study suggests,” CNN (15 April 2020).

Lenny Bernstein et al, “Coronavirus destroys lungs. But doctors are finding its damage in kidneys, hearts and elsewhere,” The Washington Post (15 April 2020).

David Lim, “Coronavirus testing hits dramatic slowdown in U.S.,” Politico (15 April 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: global coronavirus count surpasses 2 million; officials respond after Trump suspends WHO funding,” The Washington Post (15 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: retail sales show steepest drop on record,” The New York Times (15 April 2020).

Leah Shaffer, “Wondering if you have covid-19? Diarrhea may be a symptom,” Discover (15 April 2020).

Fallout from Trump’s decision to cut W.H.O. funding over coronavirus response: live updates,” The New York Times (15 April 2020).

China didn’t warn public of likely pandemic for 6 key days,” The Associated Press (15 April 2020).

William Hanage & Helen Jenkins, “Virus models predict possible outcomes. We can fight to stop the worst ones,” The Washington Post (14 April 2020).

Vivian Wang, “China’s coronavirus battle is waning. Its propaganda fight is not,” The New York Times (8 April 2020).

China exonerates doctor reprimanded for warning of virus,” The Associated Press (19 March 2020).

Anne Gearan, “Trump announces cutoff of new funding for the World Health Organization over pandemic response,” The Washington Post (14 April 2020).

Kate Connolly, “Germany calls on migrant medics to help tackle coronavirus,” The Guardian (14 April 2020).

Maura Judkis, “What it’s like to suffer from the coronavirus’s weirdest symptom,” The Washington Post (14 April 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus causing worst economic slide since Great Depression; Trump touts ‘total’ authority as states explore plans to lift restrictions,” The Washington Post (14 April 2020).

As virus cases near 2 million, hard-hit countries try to look beyond peak: live coverage,” The New York Times (14 April 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: cases worldwide near 2 million as leader of Ireland’s Sinn Féin tests positive,” The Guardian (14 April 2020).

Larry Elliot, “‘Great Lockdown’ to rival Great Depression with 3% hit to global economy, says IMF,” The Guardian (14 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Trump and governors clash over authority to reopen,” The New York Times (14 April 2020).

Joseph Marks & Tonya Riley, “The Cybersecurity 202: Privacy experts fear a boom in coronavirus surveillance,” The Washington Post (14 April 2020).

Gerry Shih, “China’s bid to repair its coronavirus-hit image is backfiring in the West,” The Washington Post (14 April 2020).

Ashley Parker, “The Me President: Trump uses pandemic briefing to focus on himself,” The Washington Post (14 April 2020).

Alissa J. Rubin, “Stigma hampers Iraqi efforts to fight the coronavirus,” The New York Times (14 April 2020).

Carol H. Yan et al, “Association of chemosensory dysfunction and Covid-19 in patients presenting with influenza-like symptoms,” Allergy & Rhinology (12 April 2020).

Loss of smell and taste validated as COVID-19 symptoms in patients with high recovery rate,” ScienceDaily (13 April 2020).

Peter Foster et al, “Phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes,” PNAS (8 April 2020).

Amber Hicks, “Coronavirus ‘mutates’ into three types – experts share which one UK may have,” MSN News (11 April 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Sailor from USS Theodore Roosevelt dies of coronavirus complications; China reports its largest number of new cases in six weeks,” The Washington Post (13 April 2020).

Britain is expected to extend coronavirus lockdown: Live coverage,” The New York Times (13 April 2020).

SoftBank faces a $17 billion hit and stocks dip: live updates,” The New York Times (13 April 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain records another drop in daily death toll as cases worldwide pass 1.85m,The Guardian (13 April 2020).

Sarah Marsh, “Coronavirus latest: at a glance,” The Guardian (13 April 2020).

Mathematical modeling draws more accurate picture of coronavirus cases,” Medical Xpress (13 April 2020).

Marc Lipsitch, “Who is immune to the coronavirus?,” The New York Times (13 April 2020).

Peter Whoriskey & Heather Long, “Who’s getting these hundreds of billions in the government aid? For now, the public may be in the dark,” The Washington Post (13 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Trump wants to reopen the economy. Experts argue it will be slow to recover,” The New York Times (13 April 2020).

Hannah Ellis-Petersen & Shaikh Azizur Rahman, “Coronavirus conspiracy theories targeting Muslims spread in India,” The Guardian (13 April 2020).

David J. Lynch, “More than 90 countries plead for financial lifelines as coronavirus wreaks economic havoc across the globe,” The Washington Post (13 April 2020).

Jeffrey Gettleman & Maria Abi-Habi, “In India, Modi’s policies have lit a fuse,” The New York Times (1 March 2020).

William Booth et al, “Live updates: Some churches defy restrictions on Easter; coronavirus will stalk ‘human race for quite a long time’ WHO special envoy says,” The Washington Post (12 April 2020).

Jeremy Howard et al, “Face masks against covid-19: an evidence review,” Preprints (12 April 2020).

Annie Linskey et al, “As feds play ‘backup,’ states take unorthodox steps to compete in cutthroat global market for coronavirus supplies,” The Washington Post (11 April 2020).

Sylvia Richardson & David Spiegelhalter, “Coronavirus statistics: what can we trust and what should we ignore?,” The Guardian (12 April 2020).

Isabelle Khurshudyan, “Russia’s state-backed media uses the pandemic to spin anti-Western views. They are not alone,” The Washington Post (12 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: officials struggle with when to lift restrictions, weighing the economy against public health,” The New York Times (12 April 2020).

Mike DeBonis & Paul Kane, “Sidelined by coronavirus pandemic, Congress cedes stage and authority to Trump,” The Washington Post (11 April 2020).

Aimee Cunningham, “Why covid-19 is bad for the heart,” Science News (11 April 2020).

Jada Yuan & Ben Guarino, “The military’s medical ‘relief valves’ remain mostly empty in New York. This is why,” The Washington Post (10 April 2020).

Stephanie Nebehay, “North Korea testing, quarantining for COVID-19, still says no cases: WHO representative,” Reuters (7 April 2020).

Emma Graham-Harrison, “Coronavirus: US records 2,000 dead in a day as Italy and India extend lockdowns,” The Guardian (11 April 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: U.S. surpasses Italy for most confirmed coronavirus deaths,” The Washington Post (11 April 2020).

Spain to ease work rules; india may extend lockdown to fight coronavirus: live coverage,” The New York Times (11 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: states are split over how quickly to reopen as Trump eyes calendar,” The New York Times (11 April 2020).

Eric Lipton et al, “He could have seen what was coming: behind Trump’s failure on the virus,” The New York Times (11 April 2020).

Joanna Slater, “In India, life under coronavirus brings blue skies and clean air,” The Washington Post (11 April 2020).

Siobhán O’Grady et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus death toll nears 100,000 worldwide; Trump’s push to reopen U.S. economy spurs worries over resurgence of infections,” The Washington Post (10 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: confirmed death toll nears 100,000 worldwide,” The New York Times (10 April 2020).

Gregory Robinson et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain to lift some restrictions on non-essential workers returning to work,” The Guardian (10 April 2020).

How important is “silent spreading” in the covid-19 epidemic?,” The Economist (11 April 2020).

Zhen-Dong Guo et al, “Aerosol and surface distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in hospital wards, Wuhan, China, 2020,” Emerging Infectious Diseases 27(7) July 2020.

Dyani Lewis, “Is the coronavirus airborne? Experts can’t agree,” Nature (2 April 2020).

Emily Feng, “Mystery in Wuhan: recovered coronavirus patients test negative … then positive,” NPR (27 March 2020).

Siobhán O’Grady et al, “Live updates: U.S. death toll climbs, but signs emerge that new coronavirus cases may be leveling off; unemployment claims soar,” The Washington Post (9 April 2020).

Merkel says numbers give ‘cautious hope’: live coronavirus coverage,” The New York Times (9 April 2020).

Coronavirus live news: confirmed global cases pass 1.5m as US sees new record unemployment,” The Guardian (9 April 2020).

Graham Readfearn, “How did coronavirus start and where did it come from? Was it really Wuhan’s animal market?,” The Guardian (9 April 2020).

Tracy Jan, “Two black men say they were kicked out of Walmart for wearing protective masks. Others worry it will happen to them,” The Washington Post (9 April 2020).

Antonia Noori Farzan, “Masks and gloves are used to help stop the spread of coronavirus. The way they’re disposed of are putting people, animals at risk,” The Washington Post (9 April 2020).

Why a study showing that covid-19 is everywhere is good news,” The Economist (8 April 2020).

Half a billion people could be pushed into poverty by coronavirus, warns Oxfam,” Oxfam International (9 April 2020).

Study: only 6% of actual covid-19 cases detected worldwide,” Sci-News (7 April 2020).

Nathaniel Scharping, “Could we be living with covid-19 forever?,” Discover (30 March 2020).

Graham Readfearn, “How did coronavirus start and where did it come from? Was it really Wuhan’s animal market?,” The Guardian (9 April 2020).

Siobhán O’Grady et al, “Live updates: Trump attacks WHO as U.S. reports record coronavirus death toll; Wuhan lockdown lifted after 76 days,” The Washington Post (8 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Democrats call for $500 billion in additional funds, double the white house request,” The New York Times (8 April 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: global trade forecast to fall by up to a third as US sees highest one-day death toll,” The Guardian (8 April 2020).

Mary Beth Sheridan et al, “As coronavirus fears grow, doctors and nurses face abuse, attacks,” The Washington Post (8 April 2020).

David Nakamura & Josh Dawsey, “To protect Trump, White House among first to use rapid coronavirus tests sought by communities,” The Washington Post (8 April 2020).

Jim Tankersley, “U.S. is nowhere close to reopening the economy, experts say,” The New York Times (8 April 2020).

Larry Elliot, “Coronavirus putting world on track for new Great Depression, says WTO,” The Guardian (8 April 2020).

COVID-19: On average, only 6% of actual infections detected worldwide,Medical Xpress (7 April 2020).

Coronavirus patients can benefit from blood of the recovered, new study shows,” Medical Xpress (7 April 2020).

Siobhán O’Grady et al, “Live updates: Boris Johnson receiving oxygen in ICU; America’s most influential coronavirus model revises estimates downward,” The Washington Post (7 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: New York sees its highest daily death toll,” The New York Times (7 April 2020).

Jon Henley & Ted Pilkington, “Covid-19: Europe toll passes 50,000 as Japan declares emergency,” The Guardian (7 April 2020).

Simon Denyer, “Japan opts for emergency but ‘no lockdown’ – keeping its eye on the economy,” The Washington Post (7 April 2020).

Japan PM Abe declares state of emergency amid widespread virus infections,” Kyodo News (7 April 2020).

Joan E. Greve et al, “Coronavirus US live: New York suffers highest single-day death toll,” The Guardian (7 April 2020).

David J. Lynch, “Trump wants quick economic comeback from coronavirus, but China’s incomplete recovery hints at long-lasting problems,” The Washington Post (7 April 2020).

Per Liljas, “Coronavirus? Pandemic? For many in Sweden, life goes on as usual,” The Washington Post (6 April 2020).

Sudarsan Raghavan et al, “As coronavirus layoffs surge in richer countries, poorer ones lose vital remittance payments,” The Washington Post (6 April 2020).

Kim Bellware et al, “Live updates: Surgeon general warns of ‘hardest, saddest week’ ahead as coronavirus deaths soar; U.S. hospitals facing ‘severe shortages’ of equipment and staff, watchdog says,” The Washington Post (6 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. death toll nears 10,000 as hospitals run low on supplies,” The New York Times (6 April 2020).

Damien Gyle et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain deaths lower for fourth day in a row as Germany sees further case drop,” The Guardian (6 April 2020).

Lauren Ancel Meyers et al, “Probability of current covid-19 outbreaks in all US counties,” University of Texas (6 April 2020 (though the report is thoughtlessly undated)).

James Glanz et al, “Does my county have an epidemic? Estimates show hidden transmission,” The New York Times (6 April 2020).

Marisa Iati et al, “Live coronavirus updates: Surgeon general says coming week will ‘be our Pearl Harbor moment, our 9/11 moment’,” The Washington Post (5 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: New Jersey and New Orleans among new U.S. hot spots; top U.S. Officials warn of ‘our Pearl Harbor’,” The New York Times (5 April 2020).

Louisa Loveluck et al, “Journalists threatened and detained as countries on multiple continents restrict coronavirus coverage,” The Washington Post (5 April 2020).

Bryan Armen Graham et al, “US coronavirus live: New York governor Andrew Cuomo says ‘this is war time’,” The Guardian (5 April 2020).

Cleda Skopeliti et al,” Coronavirus live news: Spain records smallest rate of increase in infections since start of crisis,” The Guardian (5 April 2020).

Yasmeen Abutaleb et al, “The U.S. was beset by denial and dysfunction as the coronavirus raged,” The Washington Post (4 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. pushes face masks as its death toll rises above 7,000,” The New York Times (4 April 2020).

Timothy Bella et al, “Live updates: Cruise ship docks in Miami with two passengers dead, captain says; U.S. reports more than 30,000 coronavirus cases in record day,” The Washington Post (4 April 2020).

Molly Blackall et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain records second day of fewer deaths as China honours ‘martyrs’,” The Guardian (4 April 2020).

Jeanne Whalen et al, “White House scrambles to scoop up medical supplies worldwide, angering Canada, Germany,” The Washington Post (4 April 2020).

Abha Bhattarai, “Retailers furloughed nearly 1 million workers this week. But the industry’s troubles are just beginning,” The Washington Post (4 April 2020).

Katrin Bennhold, “A German exception? Why the country’s coronavirus death rate is low,” The New York Times (4 April 2020).

Carolyn Y. Johnson & Ariana Eunjung Cha, “The dark side of ventilators: those hooked up for long periods face difficult recoveries,” The Washington Post (3 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: half of humanity under lockdown orders,” The New York Times (3 April 2020).

Alex W.H. Chin et al, “Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in different environmental conditions,” The Lancet Microbe (2 April 2020).

Aamna Mohdin et al, “Coronavirus live news: Italy records 766 more deaths but infection rate continues to slow,” The Guardian (3 April 2020).

Richard Partington, “Unemployment in US and UK may ‘rise above Great Depression’,” The Guardian (3 April 2020).

David Blanchflower & David Bell, “Forget ‘recession’: this is a depression,” The Guardian (3 April 2020).

Adam Taylor et al, “Live updates: U.S. marks record number of coronavirus-related deaths; China warns about risk of new infections,” The Washington Post (3 April 2020).

Ben Quinn, “Coronavirus latest: at a glance,” The Guardian (3 April 2020).

Niko Kommenda, “How is the coronavirus affecting global air traffic?,” The Guardian (3 April 2020).

How important is speech in transmitting coronavirus?,” ScienceDaily (3 April 2020).

Danielle Renwick, “Face masks: can they slow coronavirus spread – and should we be wearing them?,” The Guardian (2 April 2020).

Joan E. Greve, “US coronavirus live: Fauci says ‘I don’t understand’ why every state has not issued stay-home order,” The Guardian (3 April 2020).

Umair Irfan, “Why it can be so hard to tell if you have Covid-19,” Vox (2 April 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus cases nearing 1 million worldwide as death toll soars in U.S., Europe; American unemployment claims explode,” The Washington Post (2 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: job losses in the U.S. soar, part of global economic collapse,” The New York Times (2 April 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: confirmed global cases approaching 1 million,” The Guardian (2 April 2020).

Peter Whoriskey & Neena Satija, “How U.S. coronavirus testing stalled: Flawed tests, red tape and resistance to using the millions of tests produced by the WHO,” The Washington Post (2 April 2020).

Lydia Bourouiba. “Turbulent gas clouds and respiratory pathogen emissions,” JAMA (26 March 2020).

2 meters enough for social distancing? MIT researcher says droplets carrying coronavirus can travel up to 8 meters,” Medical Xpress (1 April 2020).

Stefan Nicola, “A Berlin biotech company got a head start on coronavirus tests,” Bloomberg Businessweek (11 March 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live updates: U.N. says pandemic is ‘most challenging’ crisis since World War II; Trump projects up to 240,000 U.S. coronavirus deaths,” The Washington Post (1 April 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: amid growing financial fears, Washington weighs a jobs program,” The New York Times (1 April 2020).

Ken Klippenstein, “Exclusive: the military knew years ago that a coronavirus was coming,” The Nation (1 April 2020).

Apoorva Mandavilli, “Infected but feeling fine: the unwitting coronavirus spreaders,” The New York Times (1 April 2020).

Joan E. Greve, “US coronavirus live: Florida governor issues stay-home order after weeks of resistance,” The Guardian (1 April 2020).

Jon Henley, “Italy extends lockdown amid signs coronavirus infection rate is easing,” The Guardian (1 April 2020).

Roni Caryn Rabin, “Some coronavirus patients show signs of brain ailments,” The New York Times (1 April 2020).

Zolan Kanno-Youngs & Ana Swanson, “Wartime production law has been used routinely, but not with coronavirus,” The New York Times (1 April 2020).

New IRC analysis reveals risk that coronavirus transmission rates in Moria, Al Hol and Cox’s Bazar refugee camps could outpace those seen on the Diamond Princess cruise ship,” International Rescue Committee (1 April 2020).

Christian Davenport et al, “As coronavirus spreads, so do reports of companies mistreating workers,” The Washington Post (1 April 2020).

Damien Gyle et al, “Coronavirus live news: rise in Italy deaths takes global confirmed toll past 40,000,” The Guardian (31 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. deaths surpass China’s, but China’s figures remain in doubt,” The New York Times (31 March 2020).

Joan E. Greve & Tom McCarthy, “Coronavirus US live: Cuomo says bidding war for ventilators is ‘like being on eBay‘,” The Guardian (31 March 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live updates: More people have died in the U.S. from the coronavirus than in the 9/11 attacks,” The Washington Post (31 March 2020).

Danielle Renwick, “How long does coronavirus live on different surfaces?,” The Guardian (31 March 2020).

Motoko Rich, “Why Asia’s new coronavirus controls should worry the world,” The New York Times (31 March 2020).

Mary Beth Sheridan, “Coronavirus on the border: Why Mexico has so few cases compared with the U.S.,” The Washington Post (31 March 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: death toll in Spain reaches 7,340 as Austria makes face masks compulsory for shoppers,” The Guardian (30 March 2020).

Antonia Moori Farzan et al, “Live updates: Trump extends social distancing guidelines after experts warn the coronavirus could kill 200,000 in the U.S.,” The Washington Post (30 March 2020).

Karen DeYoung, “World’s 70 million displaced people face a coronavirus disaster, report says,” The Washington Post (30 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. extends social curbs after estimate of 200,000 deaths,” The New York Times (30 March 2020).

Ann Maloney, “Grocery shopping during the coronavirus: Wash your hands, keep your distance and limit trips,” The Washington Post (30 March 2020).

Chun Pan et al, “Lung recruitability in SARS-CoV-2 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: a single-center, observational study,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (23 March 2020).

Wuhan study shows lying face down improves breathing in severe COVID-19,” ScienceDaily (24 March 2020).

Simon Denyer & Carolyn Y. Johnson, “Japan uses targeted coronavirus testing; South Korea goes big. The U.S. faces a choice.,” The Washington Post (29 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Trump retreats on quarantine threat; india’s lockdown brings chaos and hunger,” The New York Times (29 March 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: ‘As the president fiddles, people are dying,’ Pelosi says; Japan’s coronavirus cases accelerate,” The Washington Post (29 March 2020).

Jedidajah Otte et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain records new highest daily death toll; Australia limits public gatherings to two,” The Guardian (29 March 2020).

Martin Pengelly, “Coronavirus US live: Pelosi says Trump’s inaction cost American lives,” The Guardian (29 March 2020).

Martha Busby & Matthew Weaver, “UK coronavirus live: daily Downing Street briefing to start, as death toll rises to 1,228,” The Guardian (29 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: over 600,000 cases worldwide as hospital ship prepares to head to New York,” The New York Times (28 March 2020).

Brittany Shammas et al, “Live updates: Trump considering coronavirus quarantine in N.Y., N.J. and Conn.; Italy death toll tops 10,000,” The Washington Post (28 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Jena McGregor, “The latest sign the recession is intensifying: White-collar workers are being laid off now,” The Washington Post (28 March 2020).

Michael D. Shear et al, “The lost month: how a failure to test blinded the U.S. to Covid-19,” The New York Times (28 March 2020).

Zeeshan Aleem, “The FDA approves a coronavirus test that can give results in 5 minutes,” Vox (28 March 2020).

Emily Cochrane & Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “$2 trillion coronavirus stimulus bill is signed into law,” The New York Times (27 March 2020).

Donald E. Sanger et al, “Under intense criticism, Trump says government will buy more ventilators,” The New York Times (27 March 2020).

Molly Blackall et al, “Coronavirus live news: France death toll passes 2,000 while 90,000 cases confirmed in Italy,” The Guardian (28 March 2020).

Hannah Devlin, “Coronavirus: what are the latest scientific advances?,” The Guardian (28 March 2020).

Emma Graham-Harrison et al, “Lockdowns around the world bring rise in domestic violence,” The Guardian (28 March 2020).

Nate Cohn et al, “Some U.S. cities could have coronavirus outbreaks worse than Wuhan’s,” The New York Times (28 March 2020).

Joel Achenbach, “Three months into the pandemic, here is what we know about the coronavirus,” The Washington Post (28 March 2020).

Sabrina Tavernise et al, “‘We have lost it all’: the shock felt by millions of unemployed Americans,” The New York Times (27 March 2020).

James Hall, “Federal Government to pay wages of Australia’s workforce,” news.com.au (29 March 2020).

Benjamin Mason Meier et al, “Travel restrictions violate international law,” Science (27 March 2020).

Motoko Rich & Hisako Ueno, “Japan’s virus success has puzzled the world. Is its luck running out?,” The New York Times (26 March 2020).

Aimee Cunningham, “Travel bans have barely slowed the coronavirus’s spread,” Science News (6 March 2020).

Jennifer Hassan et al, “Live updates: British Prime Minister Boris Johnson tests positive for coronavirus; the U.S. now leads the world in confirmed cases,” The Washington Post (27 March 2020).

Bryan Armen Graham, “Coronavirus US live: single Republican may stall $2.2tn stimulus package,” The Guardian (27 March 2020).

Lucy Campbell & Amy Walker, “UK coronavirus live: chief medical officer self-isolates with symptoms as Johnson and Hancock test positive,” The Guardian (27 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: house vote on $2 trillion in relief may face delay; Boris Johnson tests positive,” The New York Times (27 March 2020).

Rachel Siegel & Thomas Heath, “U.S. markets sharply turn after three straight days of gains,” The Washington Post (27 March 2020).

Peter Beaumont, “More countries deploy their military to help during Covid-19 crisis,” The Guardian (27 March 2020).

Ron Judd, “ER doctor who criticized Bellingham hospital’s coronavirus protections has been fired,” The Seattle Times (27 March 2020).

Drew Harwell, “Gouged prices, middlemen and medical supply chaos: Why governors are so upset with Trump,” The Washington Post (27 March 2020).

The Editorial Board, “Why is America choosing mass unemployment?,” The New York Times (27 March 2020).

David Cyranoski, “What China’s coronavirus response can teach the rest of the world,” Nature (17 March 2020).

Ewen Callaway, “Coronavirus vaccines: five key questions as trials begin,” Nature (18 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. jobless claims are highest ever; house to take up $2 trillion stimulus,” The New York Times (26 March 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus death toll in U.S. reaches 1,000; confirmed cases approach 500,000 worldwide;,” The Washington Post (26 March 2020).

Matthew Weaver et al, “Coronavirus live news: IMF urges G20 to double emergency funding as WHO sees ‘encouraging signs’ in Europe,” The Guardian (26 March 2020).

Lauren Gambino & Tom Lutz, “Coronavirus US live: House to vote on historic $2.2tn stimulus package,” The Guardian (26 March 2020).

Liz Sly et al, “The U.S. traditionally leads in times of crisis. Now it’s practicing self-isolation.,” The Washington Post (26 March 2020).

Kevin Sieff, “Soldiers around the world get a new mission: Enforcing coronavirus lockdowns,” The Washington Post (26 March 2020).

Andrew Sparrow & Amy Walker, “UK coronavirus live: death tolls rise in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland; police get new powers to enforce lockdown,” The Guardian (26 March 2020).

Coronavirus: at least 23 killed in Colombia prison unrest,” BBC News (23 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Senate moves toward passing sweeping $2 trillion aid deal,” The New York Times (25 March 2020).

Alexandra Topping et al, “Coronavirus live news: death toll in Spain passes China, as global numbers approach 20,000,” The Guardian (25 March 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live updates: White House and Senate leaders agree to massive relief deal,” The Washington Post (25 March 2020).

Stocks unsteady as Wall Street weighs U.S. rescue deal: live updates,” The New York Times (25 March 2020).

Andrew Sparrow & Lucy Campbell, “UK coronavirus live: London City airport to close until at least end of April,” The Guardian (25 March 2020).

Marc Fisher, “He urged saving the economy over protecting those who are ‘not productive’ from the coronavirus. Then he faced America’s wrath,” The Washington Post (25 March 2020).

Joel Achenbach, “The coronavirus isn’t mutating quickly, suggesting a vaccine would offer lasting protection,” The Washington Post (24 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: India imposes a lockdown; Trump to use federal powers for critical supplies,” The New York Times (24 March 2020).

William Feuer, “CDC says coronavirus RNA found in Princess Cruise ship cabins up to 17 days after passengers left,” CNBC (24 March 2020).

Daniel Stauss, “Coronavirus US live: New York governor attacks Trump’s handling of outbreak,” The Guardian (24 March 2020).

Ben Quinn et al, “Coronavirus news: India announces 21-day lockdown; Tokyo Olympics moved to 2021,” The Guardian (24 March 2020).

Andrew Sparrow & Lucy Campbell, “UK coronavirus lockdown live: MPs criticise government over Britons stuck abroad and lack of testing,” The Guardian (24 March 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live updates: India declares nationwide coronavirus lockdown; WHO warns that United States could become next epicenter,” The Washington Post (24 March 2020).

Adam Kilgore et al, “Japan, International Olympic Committee agree to postpone Tokyo Games,” The Washington Post (24 March 2020).

Jeffrey Gettleman & Kai Schultz, “Modi orders 3-week total lockdown for all 1.3 billion Indians,” The New York Times (24 March 2020).

Chico Harlan et al, “Italy’s coronavirus deaths are staggering. They may be more preview than anomaly.,” The Washington Post (23 March 2020).

Qasim Bukhari & Yusuf Jameel, “Will coronavirus pandemic diminish by summer?,” SSRN (17 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: global leaders beg public to stay home; Fed vows to buy as much debt as needed,” The New York Times (23 March 2020).

Max Fisher & Choe Sang-Hun, “How South Korea flattened the curve,” The New York Times (23 March 2020).

Angel Gurria, “Tackling the coronavirus (COVID-19),” OECD (23 March 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Trump suggests coronavirus containment measures may be too extreme as more states issue stay-at-home orders,” The Washington Post (23 March 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus news: global death toll passes 15,000 as total confirmed cases go above 350,000 – live updates,” The Guardian (23 March 2020).

David E. Sanger et al, “Trump bets business will answer call to fight virus, but strategy bewilders firms,” The New York Times (23 March 2020).

Robert Costa & Aaron Gregg, “Governors and mayors in growing uproar over Trump’s lagging coronavirus response,” The Washington Post (23 March 2020).

Toluse Olorunnipa et al, “As coronavirus spreads, so do doubts about America’s ability to meet the moment,” The Washington Post (23 March 2020).

Stocks fall despite Fed unleashing new spending power: live updates,” The New York Times (23 March 2020).

Micheal Crowley, “Coronavirus drives the U.S. and China deeper into global power struggle,” The New York Times (23 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. official says some areas will have towait for medical supplies; national and global tolls rise,” The New York Times (22 March 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: Top WHO official says coronavirus lockdowns alone not sufficient as confirmed cases top 300,000 worldwide,” The Washington Post (22 March 2020).

Hannah Mays et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain death toll up by almost 400 as cases rise around the globe,” The Guardian (22 March 2020).

Traffic and pollution plummet as U.S. cities shut down for coronavirus,” The New York Times (22 March 2020).

Editorial Board, “The coronavirus has upended the world. But what exactly is it?,” The Washington Post ( 22 March 2020).

Shane Harris, “Italy’s coronavirus death toll feeds fear of what lies ahead in Europe and the U.S.,.” The Washington Post (22 March 2020).

Graham Readfearn, “Coronavirus: what happens to people’s lungs when they get Covid-19?,” The Guardian (21 March 2020).

Julie Bosman & Jesse McKinley, “One in five Americans ordered to stay home in coronavirus crackdown,” The New York Times (21 March 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: Spain reports largest single-day coronavirus death toll; more U.S. states issue stay-at-home orders,” The Washington Post (21 March 2020).

Aamna Mohdin et al, “Coronavirus news: UK government gives daily briefing – live updates,” The Guardian (21 March 2020).

Heather Stewart & Peter Walker, “Coronavirus UK: Boris Johnson announces closure of all UK pubs and restaurants,” The Guardian (21 March 2020).

Helen Davidson, “Chinese inquiry exonerates coronavirus whistleblower doctor,” The Guardian (21 March 2020).

Sarah Marsh et al, “Coronavirus live updates: global cases top quarter of a million, as Jordan and Tunisia announce lockdowns,” The Guardian (20 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. extends tax filing deadline to July 15,” The New York Times (20 March 2020).

Taylor Telford et al, “Live updates: Tax filing deadline extended to July 15 due to coronavirus disruption,” The Washington Post (20 March 2020).

Tiffany Hsu & Tara Siegel Bernard, “Coronavirus layoff surge overwhelms unemployment offices,” The New York Times (20 March 2020).

Sohee Kim & Heesu Lee, “The virus hunter showing the world how to fight an epidemic,” Bloomberg (20 March 2020).

Siobhán O’Grady et al, “Live updates: New York workers told to stay home to slow coronavirus; Spain’s death toll jumps by 30 percent,” The Washington Post (20 March 2020).

Economic damage piles up, keeping investors on edge: live updates,” The New York Times (20 March 2020).

Lucy Campbell & Amy Walker, “UK coronavirus live: London hospital declares ‘critical incident’ due to surge in patients,” The Guardian (20 March 2020).

Anne Gearan, “Trump takes direct aim at China as known U.S. infections double and criticism mounts,” The Washington Post (19 March 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live updates: As coronavirus death toll mounts, more countries shut their borders,” The Washington Post (19 March 2020).

Michael Marshall, “We’re beginning to understand the biology of the Covid-19 virus,” New Scientist (19 March 2020).

Andrew Sparrow & Lucy Campbell, “UK coronavirus live: death toll rises to 137; health officials get powers to detain,” The Guardian (19 March 2020).

Severe outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) — United States, February 12–March 16, 2020,” CDC (18 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Thomas Heath, “Live updates: U.S. stocks in flux as central banks roll out latest stimulus plans,” The Washington Post (19 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: as economic toll rises, lawmakers weigh $1 trillion relief plan,” The New York Times (19 March 2020).

Ariana Eunjung Cha, “Younger adults are large percentage of coronavirus hospitalizations in United States, according to new CDC data,” The Washington Post (19 March 2020).

Javier C. Hernández, “China hits a coronavirus milestone: no new local infections,” The New York Times (19 March 2020).

Matthew Weaver, “Coronavirus latest: at a glance,” The Guardian (19 March 2020).

Wall Street faces more turmoil as stocks waver: live updates,” The New York Times (19 March 2020).

A. Pawlowski, “Coronavirus test: What is it like to get the nasal swab for detecting covid-19?,” Today (18 March 2020).

Planned services to support London’s critical workers,” Transport of London (18 March 2020).

Jacqueline Howard & Jason Hanna, “The new coronavirus can last on surfaces for up to three days, study says,” CNN Health (18 March 2020).

Bethany Allen-Ebrahimian, “Timeline: The early days of China’s coronavirus outbreak and cover-up,” Axios (18 March 2020).

Neeltje van Doremalen et al, “Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1,” The New England Journal of Medicine (17 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: nations pledge trillions to stave off economic catastrophe,” The New York Times (18 March 2020).

Siobhán O’Grady et al, “Live updates: Trump says border with Canada closing to ‘non-essential traffic’ in effort to slow coronavirus spread,” The Washington Post (18 March 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: death toll in Italy approaches 3,000; WHO tells Africa to ‘prepare for worst’,” The Guardian (18 March 2020).

Covid-19 live coverage: tracking its impact across the U.S.,” The New York Times (18 March 2020).

Peter Baker & Eileen Sullivan, “U.S. Virus plan anticipates 18-month pandemic and widespread shortages,” The New York Times (18 March 2020).

Ben Casselman et al, “Layoffs are just starting, and the forecasts are bleak,” The New York Times (18 March 2020).

Wall Street plunges with global markets in turmoil: live updates,” The New York Times (18 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Heather Long, “Live updates: U.S. stocks and oil prices slump as coronavirus reaches all 50 states,” The Washington Post (18 March 2020).

Ariana Eunjung Cha, “Coronavirus looks different in kids than in adults,” The Washington Post (17 March 2020).

Yuanyuan Dong et al, “Epidemiological characteristics of 2143 pediatric patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in China,” Pediatrics (2020).

Siobhán O’Grady et al, “Live updates: White House suggests deferred taxes or direct payments to individuals and businesses,” The Washington Post (17 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: White House seeks $850 billion stimulus and urges sending checks to Americans within 2 weeks,” The New York Times (17 March 2020).

Lucy Campbell, “Coronavirus news: Britain needs ‘big increase in testing,’ says government adviser; Euro 2020 postponed for a year – live updates,” The Guardian (17 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Heather Long, “Live updates: Fed launches special fund to keep corporate credit flowing, powering Wall Street’s second wind,” The Washington Post (17 March 2020).

Wall Street climbs after monday’s slump: live updates,” The New York Times (17 March 2020).

Rob Davies, “UK manufacturers to regear factories to build ventilators for NHS,” The Guardian (17 March 2020).

Stephen Chen, “People with blood type A may be more vulnerable to coronavirus, China study finds,” South China Morning Post (17 March 2020).

More than 80 countries have imposed travel bans to curb the new coronavirus,” The Economist (16 March 2020).

Edward Helmore, “‘Easiest time I’ve ever had’: US airports return to calm after travel ban chaos,” The Guardian (16 March 2020).

Denis Campbell, “The big question over coronavirus – can a person get it twice?,” The Guardian (16 March 2020).

Pablo Gutiérrez, “Coronavirus map: how Covid-19 is spreading across the world,” The Guardian (16 March 2020).

Siobhan O’Grady et al, “Live updates: Supreme Court postpones oral arguments due to coronavirus; E.U. proposes 30-day travel restriction,” The Washington Post (16 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: public life curtailed as nations step up restrictions,” The New York Times (16 March 2020).

Kevin Rawlinson et al, “Coronavirus updates: Canada closes borders to foreigners, as WHO tells countries to ‘test, test, test’ – live news,” The Guardian (16 March 2020).

Damien Gayle, “Coronavirus latest: at a glance,” The Guardian (16 March 2020).

Wall Street plummets despite the Fed’s support: live updates,” The New York Times (16 March 2020).

Graeme Wearden, “Wall Street plunges as Covid-19 global recession fears haunt markets – business live,” The Guardian (16 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Thomas Heat, “Live updates: U.S. stocks nosedive, trading paused as emergency Fed action fails to mollify investors,” The Washington Post (16 March 2020).

Hannah Devlin, “Can a face mask stop coronavirus? Covid-19 facts checked,” The Guardian (15 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: chaos at American airports, U.K. issues warning on travel to U.S.,” The New York Times (15 March 2020).

“‘It’s totally ad hoc’: Why america’s virus response looks like a patchwork,” The New York Times (15 March 2020).

Ben Casselman et al, “Coronavirus cost to businesses and workers: ‘It has all gone to hell’,” The New York Times (15 March 2020).

Laura Spinney,”When will a coronavirus vaccine be ready?,” The Guardian (15 March 2020).

Jeanna Smialek & Neil Irwin, “Fed slashes rates to near-zero and unveils sweeping program to aid economy,” The New York Times (15 March 2020).

Lucy Campbell et al, “Coronavirus latest updates: 14 more people die in UK as flight bans and lockdowns increase globally,” The Guardian (15 March 2020).

Katie Mettler et al, “Live updates: Puerto Rico enacts curfew over coronavirus concerns; travelers face hours-long delays at U.S. airports,” The Washington Post (15 March 2020)

Zhanwei Du et al, “Risk for transportation of 2019 novel coronavirus disease from Wuhan to other cities in China,” Emerging Infectious Diseases (5 May 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Trump says he’s been tested and extends travel ban to britain and ireland as outbreak hits 49 states,” The New York Times (14 March 2020).

Molly Blackall et al, “Coronavirus latest updates: Trump extends travel ban to UK and Ireland,” The Guardian (14 March 2020).

Katie Mettler et al, “Live updates: U.S. will suspend all travel from U.K and Ireland; Trump says he got coronavirus test,” The Washington Post (14 March 2020).

Tina Hesman Saey, “Vaccine scientists target coronavirus,” Science News (14 March 2020).

Tina Hesman Saey, “Coronavirus is most contagious before and during the first week of symptoms,” Science News (13 March 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Trump declares coronavirus outbreak a national emergency, announces measures that send financial markets soaring,” The Washington Post (13 March 2020).

Joel Achenbach, “Coronavirus can stay infectious for days on surfaces. But it’s still okay to check your mail.,” The Washington Post (13 March 2020).

Thomas Heath & Taylor Telford, “Emergency declaration brings second wind during another wild day on Wall Street,” The New York Times (13 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Trump declares national emergency,” The New York Times (13 March 2020).

Coronavirus live news: Trump says UK may be included in travel ban as WHO calls Europe ‘centre of pandemic’,” The Guardian (13 March 2020).

Ian Sample, “Coronavirus: many infections spread by people yet to show symptoms – scientists,” The Guardian (12 March 2020).

Michael Le Page, “Why is it so hard to calculate how many people will die from covid-19?,” New Scientist (11 March 2020).

Colin Barras, “Coronavirus testing in the US has been hampered by multiple problems,” New Scientist (11 March 2020).

Jessica Hamzelou, “Coronavirus: Risk of death rises with age, diabetes and heart disease,” New Scientist (9 March 2020).

Coronavirus map: Tracking the spread of the outbreak,” The New York Times (11 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Trump says some domestic travel could be curtailed, and senate cancels recess,” The New York Times (12 March 2020).

Damien Gayle, “Coronavirus live updates: death toll in Italy passes 1,000,” The Guardian (12 March 2020).

Coronavirus: Children as susceptible as adults,” Nature (12 March 2020).

Ruby Mellen, “El Salvador’s president says the country has no coronavirus cases, declares a national quarantine,” The New York Times (12 March 2020).

Roni Caryn Rabin, “Coronavirus is an even worse threat to more than half of Americans,” The New York Times (12 March 2020).

Anna Fifield et al, “Live updates: Brazilian official who met Trump and Pence at Mar-a-Lago tests positive for coronavirus,” The Washington Post (12 March 2020).

Thomas Heath et al, “Live updates: U.S. stocks dive after Trump issues coronavirus travel ban; Fed will inject $1.5 trillion into bond markets,” The Washington Post (12 March 2020).

Smriti Mallapaty, “Why does the coronavirus spread so easily between people?,” Nature (11 March 2020).

Pam Belluck, “What does the coronavirus do to the body?,” The New York Times (11 March 2020).

Jonathan Corum & Carl Zimmer, “How coronavirus hijacks your cells,” The New York Times (11 March 2020) – graphical step-by-step guide to how SARS-CoV-19 does its business.

Kate Ravilious, “Will spring slow spread of coronavirus in northern hemisphere?,” The Guardian (11 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: W.H.O. declares pandemic as number of infected countries grows,” The New York Times (11 March 2020).

U.S. coronavirus cases surpass 1,000: full map,” The New York Times (11 March 2020).

Haroon Siddique et al, “Coronavirus live updates: WHO says Covid-19 is pandemic,” The Guardian (11 March 2020).

Rick Noack, “Live updates: WHO declares coronavirus a pandemic; White House considers moving all of Europe to restrictive travel advisory,” The Washington Post (11 March 2020).

Stocks fall as investors look to Washington for help: live updates,” The New York Times (11 March 2020).

Sheri Fink & Mike Baker, “‘It’s just everywhere already’: how delays in testing set back the U.S. coronavirus response,” The New York Times (11 March 2020).

New study on COVID-19 estimates 5.1 days for incubation period,” ScienceDaily (10 March 2020).

Stephen A. Lauer et al, “The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: Estimation and application,” Annals of Internal Medicine (10 March 2020).

Mohammad M. Sajadi, “Temperature and latitude analysis to predict potential spread and seasonality for COVID-19,” SSRN (9 March 2020). (paywall protected)

Breaking! Preprint research shows that SARS-CoV-2 has third binding mode, making it a truly potent coronavirus that is in a league of its own,” Thailand Medical News (9 March 2020).

Ibrahim Ibrahim et al, “COVID-19 Spike-host cell receptor GRP78 binding site prediction,” Research Square (26 February 2020).

Yanan Cao et al, “Comparative genetic analysis of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) receptor ACE2 in different populations,” Cell Discovery (24 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: governments struggle to cope as anxiety rises,” The New York Times (10 March 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live updates: UK death toll rises to six as Italy-wide lockdown comes into force,” The Guardian (10 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Thomas Heath, “Live updates: Stocks fluctuate after opening bell bounce,” The Washington Post (10 March 2020).

Adam Taylor et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus lockdown in Italy triggers flight suspensions; major U.S. colleges close classrooms as virus spreads,” The Washington Post (10 March 2020).

Steven Lee Myers, “Xi goes to Wuhan, coronavirus epicenter, in show of confidence,” The New York Times (10 March 2020).

Stock markets unsteady after early rally: live updates,” The New York Times (10 March 2020).

James B. Stewart, “It’s a ‘swimming naked’ moment: the financial system has a real test,” The New York Times (10 March 2020).

William Wan & Joel Achenbach, “Coronavirus is mysteriously sparing kids and killing the elderly. Understanding why may help defeat the virus,” The New York Times (10 March 2020).

Valarie Strauss, “Is it really a good idea to close schools to fight coronavirus?,” The Washington Post (10 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: virus keeps spreading as governments clamp down,” The New York Times (9 March 2020).

Lucy Campbell et al, “Coronavirus live updates: fourth death confirmed in UK, as head of New York’s airports tests positive,” The Guardian (9 March 2020).

Adam Taylor et al, “Live updates: World markets spiral as coronavirus fear unleashes oil-price war; NY Port Authority head tests positive,” The Washington Post (9 March 2020).

Thomas Hweath et al, “Live updates: U.S. markets crater with stocks down more than 5 percent as coronavirus spreads,” The Washington Post (9 March 2020).

Jason Horowitz & Emma Bubola, “On day 1 of lockdown, Italian officials urge citizens to abide by rules,” The New York Times (9 March 2020).

Stocks suffer worst drop since 2011: live updates,” The New York Times (9 March 2020).

Heather Long, “The markets are sending a message about coronavirus: The recession risk is real,” The Washington Post (9 March 2020).

Rebecca Smithers, “Shopping, travel, events: what coronavirus means for consumers,” The Guardian (9 March 2020).

Denise Grady, “U.S. health experts say stricter measures are required to limit coronavirus’s spread,” The New York Times (9 March 2020).

Thomas Escritt, “Coronavirus: Germany promises support to companies, urges public to stay home,” Reuters (8 March 2020)

Mitch Smith et al, “Tracking every coronavirus case in the U.S.: full map,” The New York Times (8 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Italian PM signs lockdown decree affecting millions in north,” The Guardian (8 March 2020).

Live coronavirus updates: Grand Princess cruise ship to dock in Oakland; Virginia announces second case,” The Washington Post (8 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: cruise ship with infected passengers and crew to dock in California,” The New York Times (8 March 2020).

Colby Itkowitz et al, “Coronavirus continues its rapid spread, confounding efforts by global leaders,” The Washington Post (8 March 2020).

Michael D. Shear et al, “Inside Trump administration, debate raged over what to tell public,” The New York Times (8 March 2020).

Jason Horowitz, “Italy locks down much of the country’s north over the coronavirus,” The New York Times (8 March 2020).

Nicola Slawson et al, “Coronavirus live updates: number of confirmed cases in UK jumps to 206,” The Guardian (7 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: outbreak spreads in U.S. and surges in Europe; American sailor Infected in Italy,” The New York Times (7 March 2020).

Chico Harlan et al, “Live updates: U.S. coronavirus death toll reaches 17 as Florida reports first fatalities outside West Coast,” The Washington Post (7 March 2020).

David Enrich et al, “Spiraling virus fears are causing financial carnage,” The New York Times (7 March 2020).

Coronavirus quarantine hotel in China collapses, trapping dozens,” The Guardian (7 March 2020).

Tourism flows and death rates suggest covid-19 is being under-reported,” The Economist (7 March 2020).

Timelapse of coronavirus cases by country” – an interesting graphical display

Adam Taylor et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus fears reverberate as cases pass 100,000; U.S. officials widen states of emergency,” The Washington Post (6 March 2020).

Sarah Marsh & Helen Sullivan, “Coronavirus latest updates: 163 cases confirmed in the UK, including two British Airways staff,” The Guardian (6 March 2020).

Hannah Devlin & Sarah Boseley, “Coronavirus facts: what’s the mortality rate and is there a cure?,” The Guardian (6 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: W.H.O. chief warns it’s ‘time to act’,” The New York Times (6 March 2020).

David Gelles & Niraj Chokshi, “‘Almost without precedent’: airlines hit hard by coronavirus,” The New York Times (6 March 2020).

Austan Goolsbee, “Why the coronavirus could threaten the U.S. economy even more than China’s,” The New York Times (6 March 2020).

Thomas Heath, “Wall Street tumbles, global stocks slide as coronavirus drives week’s frenzy,” The Washington Post (6 March 2020).

Stocks plunge and bond yields sink: live updates,” The New York Times (6 March 2020).

Coronavirus updates: countries intensify efforts to halt outbreaks,” The New York Times (5 March 2020).

Jessica Hamzelou, “Coronavirus: Are there two strains and is one more deadly?,” New Scientist (5 March 2020).

Coronavirus news: UK cases jump to 115, department of health confirms – latest updates,” The Guardian (5 March 2020).

Live updates: Cruise ship held off California coast; coronavirus turmoil widens as U.S. death toll mounts,” The Washington Post (5 March 2020).

Mapping the spread of the coronavirus in the U.S. and worldwide,” The Washington Post (5 March 2020).

Niraj Chokshi, “Airlines feel deepening impact as coronavirus upends travel,” The New York Times (5 March 2020).

Stocks slide and airlines flag up to $113 billion in losses: live updates,” The New York Times (5 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Thomas Heath, “U.S. markets flash across-the-board declines as coronavirus outlook worsens,” The Washington Post (5 March 2020).

Amy Goldstein et al, “Expanded coronavirus testing may overwhelm lab capacity, say some experts,” The Washington Post (5 March 2020).

Xiaolu Tang et al, “On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2,” National Science Review (3 March 2020).

Jiehao Cai et al, “A case series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: clinical and epidemiological features,” Clinical Infectious Diseases (28 February 2020).

Farnaz Fassihi & David D. Kirkpatrick, “Iran’s coronavirus response: pride, paranoia, secrecy, chaos,” The New York Times (4 March 2020).

Adam Taylor, “Live updates: Italy to close schools as coronavirus death toll passes 100, L.A. County declares health emergency as cases mount,” The Washington Post (4 March 2020).

Katie Mettler, “How the coronavirus compares with the flu,” The Washington Post (4 March 2020).

Helen Davidson & Martin Farrer, “Coronavirus: fears of global slowdown grow as US stimulus fails to rally markets,” The Guardian (4 March 2020).

Adam Taylor et al, “Live updates: Fed cuts interest rate; G7 finance chiefs stop short of announcing specific actions to contain coronavirus fallout,” The Washington Post (3 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: W.H.O. says Covid-19 has higher fatality rate than the flu,” The New York Times (4 March 2020).

Sarah Marsh et al, “Coronavirus: Iran to mobilise 300,000 soldiers and volunteers as 23 MPs infected – latest news,” The Guardian (3 March 2020).

Coronavirus updates: After gaps in U.S. testing draw criticism, officials move to ramp up screening,” The New York Times (3 March 2020).

Coronavirus map: tracking the spread of the outbreak,” The New York Times (3 March 2020).

U.S. stocks whipsaw after the fed cuts rates: live markets updates,” The New York Times (3 March 2020).

Rachel Siegel & Thomas Heath, “Dow spikes, then plunges after Fed issues emergency rate cut to stem coronavirus panic,” The Washington Post (3 March 2020).

Jeanna Smialek, “Fed slashes interest rates in emergency move as coronavirus fears mount,” The New York Times (3 March 2020).

IOC insists Tokyo 2020 will go ahead on time despite coronavirus outbreak,” The Guardian (3 March 2020).

Wei-jie Guan et al, “Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China,” The New England Journal of Medicine (28 February 2020).

Coronavirus: two patients die in France as four new cases detected in England – live updates,” The Guardian (2 March 2020).

Stocks rally as traders look for economic help: live market updates,” The New York Times (2 March 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Global coronavirus death toll surpasses 3,000; markets stage cautious recovery on stimulus hopes,” The Washington Post (2 March 2020).

Jeanna Smialek & Jack Ewing, “Economists slash global growth forecasts as coronavirus spreads,” The New York Times (2 March 2020).

Joel Achenbach et al, “Coronavirus may have spread undetected for weeks in Washington state, which reported first two deaths in U.S.,” The Washington Post (2 March 2020).

Paul Mozur et al, “In coronavirus fight, China gives citizens a color code, with red flags,” The New York Times (2 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Rhode Island reports first ‘presumptive’ case, and Louvre closes its door,” The New York Times (1 March 2020).

Katie Mettler et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus was probably spreading for six weeks in Washington state, study says; first deaths confirmed in U.S., Australia and Thailand,” The Washington Post (1 March 2020).

Molly Blackall et al, “Coronavirus: Italy death toll rises to 34 as Dominican Republic reports first case – latest updates,” The Guardian (1 March 2020).

Mike Baker et al, “Washington state declares emergency amid coronavirus death and illnesses at nursing home,” The New York Times (1 March 2020).

Elisabeth Rosenthal, “We don’t really know how many people have coronavirus,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

Maayan Jaffe-Hoffman, “Israeli scientists: ‘In a few weeks, we will have coronavirus vaccine’,” Jerusalem Post (27 February 2020).

David Cyranoski, “Mystery deepens over animal source of coronavirus,” Nature (26 February 2020).

G. Kampf et al, “Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents,” The Journal of Hospital Infection (22 January 2020).

Zi Yue Zu et al, “Perspective from China,” Radiology (21 February 2020).

Kathy Lofy, “2019 novel coronavirus (Covid-19) infection,” Washington State Department of Health (12 February 2020).

Coronavirus: South Korea reports ‘critical moment’ after 813 new cases – latest updates,” The Guardian (29 February 2020).

Phillip Inman, “Markets expected to fall further as coronavirus hits China’s economy,” The Guardian (29 February 2020).

Denis Grady, “How does the coronavirus compare with the flu?,” The New York Times (29 February 2020).

Live updates: New coronavirus cases indicate virus is spreading in U.S.; FDA expands testing,” The Washington Post (29 February 2020).

Lenny Bernstein et al, “Oregon’s first coronavirus case is a school employee, two more cases confirmed on West Coast,” The Washington Post (29 February 2020).

Coronavirus updates: no known source for new cases in U.S. and U.K.,” The New York Times (29 February 2020).

Matt Phillips, “Coronavirus fears drive stocks down for 6th day and into correction,” The New York Times (29 February 2020).

Donald G. McNeil Jr. “To take on the coronavirus, go medieval on it,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

Live updates: Coronavirus pummels financial markets; Japanese island declares state of emergency,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

Emily Cochrane et al, “U.S. health workers responding to coronavirus lacked training and protective gear, whistle-blower says,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

Stock market continues to plummet in worst week since 2008: Live updates,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

Tanya Lewis, “A promising antiviral is being tested for the coronavirus—but results are not yet out,” Scientific American (28 February 2020).

Matt Phillips, “Coronavirus fears drive stocks down for 6th day and into correction,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

David J. Lynch, “As stock markets tumble because of coronavirus, this time feels different,” The Washington Post (28 February 2020).

Simon Denyer, “Japan’s Abe faces mounting anger over school closures, lack of virus testing,” The Washington Post (28 February 2020).

Javier C. Hernandez, “China spins coronavirus crisis, hailing itself as a global leader,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

Peter Beaumont, “An epidemic is coming’: Europe struggles to contain coronavirus,” The Guardian (28 February 2020).

Rob Davis & Graeme Wearden, “Dow Jones plunges 1,000 points on coronavirus fears,” The Guardian (28 February 2020).

Sarah Marsh, “Coronavirus: UK schools could shut for two months in event of pandemic – live updates,” The Guardian (27 February 2020).

Today’s coronavirus news at a glance,” The Guardian (27 February 2020).

Richard Parthington, “Coronavirus ‘could trigger damage on scale of 2008 financial crisis‘,” The Guardian (27 February 2020).

Adam Taylor et al, “Live updates: Fears grow of a coronavirus pandemic as markets stumble again; Japan shuts schools,” The Washington Post (27 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: new cases light up the map as countries brace for outbreaks,” The New York Times (27 February 2020).

Roni Caryn Rabin & Sheri Fink, “Coronavirus patient in California was not tested for days,” The New York Times (27 February 2020).

Geoffrey A. Fowler et al, “Dozens of staffers at Calif. hospital that treated coronavirus patient with no travel to affected countries are being monitored,” The Washington Post (27 February 2020).

Vivian Wang, “Most coronavirus cases are mild. That’s good and bad news.,” The New York Times (27 February 2020).

Matt Phillips, “Coronavirus drives stocks down for 6th day,” The New York Times (27 February 2020).

Coronavirus: Ireland v Italy Six Nations games postponed amid global rise in cases – live updates,” The Guardian (26 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Europe prepares for pandemic as illness spreads from Italy,” The New York Times (26 February 2020).

Live updates: Coronavirus fears spook markets as outbreak spreads; Trump calls news conference, accuses media of ‘panicking markets’,” The Washington Post (26 February 2020).

Taylor Telford, “Wall Street makes a comeback after brutal coronavirus sell-off,” The Washington Post (26 February 2020).

Peter S. Goodman & Aaron H. Maines, “‘Not just an Italian problem’: coronavirus threatens Europe’s economy,” The New York Times (26 February 2020).

Age, sex, existing conditions of Covid-19 cases and deaths,” WorldOMeter (23 February 2020).

Mattha Busby et al, “Coronavirus: Switzerland, Austria and Croatia report cases as Tenerife quarantines hotel – updates,” The Guardian (25 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: case in Canary Islands locks down 1,000 resort guests,” The New York Times (25 February 2020).

Adam Taylor et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus sparks new travel disruption; Iran’s deputy health minister tests positive as death toll rises,” The Washington Post (25 February 2020).

Matt Phillips & Keith Bradsher, “Stock market jitters persist after Wall Street’s worst drop in 2 years,” The New York Times (25 February 2020).

Jeanne Whalen & Abha Bhattarai, “U.S. companies face crucial test over China’s factory shutdown,” The Washington Post (25 February 2020).

Martin Chulov, “Iran’s deputy health minister: I have coronavirus,” The Guardian (25 February 2020).

Ian M. Mackay & Katherine E. Arden, “So you think you’re about to be in a pandemic?,” Virology Down Under (25 February 2020).

James Hamblin, “You’re likely to get the coronavirus,” The Atlantic (24 February 2020).

Adam Taylor & Rick Noack, “Live updates: Coronavirus cases surge globally as Italy confirms fifth death; China delays National People’s Congress,” The Washington Post (24 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: W.H.O. warns the world is unready for global spread,” The New York Times (24 February 2020).

Matthew Weaver et al, “Coronavirus: sixth person dies in Italy amid confusion over death toll in Iran – live updates,” The Guardian (24 February 2020).

Sam Jones & Aamna Mohdin, “Coronavirus: Iran denies cover-up as six deaths reported in Italy,” The Guardian (24 February 202 ).

Michael T. Osterhom & Mark Olshaker, “Is it a pandemic yet?,” The New York Times (24 February 2020).

Rachel Siegel & Thomas Heath, “Dow, global markets plunge as coronavirus cases spike outside China,” The Washington Post (24 February 2020).

Kalyeena Makortoff et al, “Wall Street plummets as coronavirus spreads in Europe – as it happened,” The Guardian (24 February 2020).

WHO says no longer uses ‘pandemic’ category, but virus still emergency,” Reuters (24 February 2020).

Wall Street plummets as coronavirus spreads in Europe – as it happened,” The Guardian (24 February 2020).

Angela Giuffrida et al, “World is approaching coronavirus tipping point, experts say,” The Guardian (23 February 2020).

Richard Partington, “Economic impact of coronavirus outbreak deepens,” The Guardian (23 February 2020).

Sarah Marsh, “Coronavirus outbreak: four cruise ship passengers test positive in UK – live news,” The Guardian (23 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Italy locks down region after spike in infections,” The New York Times (23 February 2020).

Adam Taylor et al, “Coronavirus cases spike in Italy, China says most new infections limited to Hubei, South Korea declares ‘red alert’,” The Washington Post (23 February 2020).

Angela Giuffrida & Lauren Cochrane, “Italy imposes draconian rules to stop spread of coronavirus,” The Guardian (23 February 2020).

Patrick Wintour, “Turkey and Pakistan close borders with Iran over coronavirus deaths,” The Guardian (23 February 2020).

Emma Graham-Harrison, “China encourages citizens to return to work as coronavirus hits economy,” The Guardian (23 February 2020).

Mattha Busby & Haroon Siddique, “Coronavirus: more deaths confirmed as authorities around the world struggle to contain outbreak – latest updates,” The Guardian (22 February 2020).

Carolyn Y. Johnson et al, “Coronavirus outbreak edges closer to pandemic,” The Washington Post (22 February 2020).

Yan Bai et al, “Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19,” JAMA Network (21 February 2020).

Lirong Zou et al, “SARS-CoV-2 viral load in upper respiratory specimens of infected patients,” The New England Journal of Medicine (19 February 2020).

Ruiyun Li et al, “Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (COVID-19),medRxiv (17 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: W.H.O. team heads to Wuhan as its leader warns Africa,” The New York Times (22 February 2020).

Anna Fifield et al, “New developments suggest coronavirus incubation could be longer than 14 days, as global infections rise,” The Washington Post (22 February 2020).

Roni Caryn Rabin, “Why the coronavirus seems to hit men harder than women,” The New York Times (20 February 2020).

Jessica Glenza, “Coronavirus: US says Russia behind disinformation campaign,” The Guardian (22 February 2020 ).

Nemo Kim & Rebecca Ratcliffe, “South Korea screens thousands of religious sect members for coronavirus,” The Guardian (22 February 2020 ).

Motoko Rich, “‘We’re in a petri dish’: How a coronavirus ravaged a cruise ship,” The New York Times (22 February 2020).

Gerry Shih et al, “Live updates: China again changes coronavirus reporting criteria, as prison outbreak raises alarm; cases soar in South Korea,” The Washington Post (21 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: more confusion as China changes counting method yet again,” The New York Times (21 February 2020).

Lily Kuo & Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Coronavirus kills young Wuhan doctor as hundreds infected in China’s prisons,” The Guardian (21 February 2020).

Mark Sweeney, “China car sales tumble by 92% as coronavirus weighs on industry,” The Guardian (21 February 2020).

Mark Sweeney, “Coronavirus: air travel demand ‘will fall for first time in 11 years’,” The Guardian (21 February 2020).

Molly Blackall & Rachel Obordo, “‘It’s post-apocalyptic’: how coronavirus has altered day-to-day life,” The Guardian (21 February 2020).

Choe Sang-Hun, “Shadowy church is at center of coronavirus outbreak in South Korea,” The New York Times (21 February 2020).

Martin Belam et al, “Coronavirus: cruise ship accounts for more than half of cases outside China – latest news,” The Guardian (20 February 2020).

Sarah Boseley, “Experts fear false rumours could harm Chinese cooperation on coronavirus,” The Guardian (20 February 2020).

Aamna Mohdin & Laith Al-Khalaf, “China’s coronavirus outbreak leaves foreign nationals in limbo,” The Guardian (20 February 2020).

Gerry Shih et al, “Live updates: First coronavirus deaths among Diamond Princess passengers and in South Korea; health experts warn of mounting cases beyond China,” The Washington Post (20 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: studying clusters in Japan for clues on virus’s spread,” The New York Times (20 February 2020).

Keith Bradsher, “As China fights the coronavirus, some say it has gone too far,” The New York Times (20 February 2020).

Coronavirus: two patients in Iran have died as cruise ship cases rise to 621 – live updates,” The Guardian (19 February 2020).

Gerry Shih & Rick Noack, “Live updates: China strikes upbeat note on coronavirus as businesses reopen; Hong Kong reports second death,” The Washington Post (19 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: hundreds let off quarantined ship in Japan,” The New York Times (19 February 2020).

Motoko Rich & Eimi Yamamitsu, “Japan lets cruise passengers walk free. Is that safe?,” The New York Times (19 February 2020).

Alexandra Stevenson, “China expels 3 Wall Street Journal reporters as media relations sour,” The New York Times (19 February 2020).

Walter Russell Mead, “China is the real sick man of Asia,” The Wall Street Journal (3 February 2020).

Jessica Murray et al, “Coronavirus: Japan to trial HIV antiretroviral drugs on patients – latest news,” The Guardian (18 February 2020).

Anna Fifield et al, “Live updates: Director of Wuhan hospital dies of coronavirus as infections mount in China,” The Washington Post (18 February 2020).

Live updates: over 150 million Chinese are under coronavirus lockdown,” The New York Times (18 February 2020).

Taylor Telford, “Global markets shudder as Apple’s warning deepens coronavirus fallout,” The Washington Post (18 February 2020).

Bill Gallaher, “Remarkable age distribution of OC43 vs. SARS-CoV-2 in China,” (17 February 2020).

Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Health experts question coronavirus quarantine measures on cruise ship,” The Guardian (18 February 2020).

Li Yuan, “In coronavirus fight, China sidelines an ally: its own people,” The New York Times (18 February 2020).

Kristian G. Andersen, Andrew Rambaut, W. Ian Lipkin, Edward C. Holmes, & Robert F. Garry, “The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2,” Artic Network (16 February 2020).

Jessica Murray et al, “Coronavirus: 99 more cases confirmed on cruise ship – live news,” The Guardian (17 February 2020).

Graeme Wearden, “Japan’s economy on brink of recession; Cathay’s profits warning – as it happened,” The Guardian (17 February 2020).

Justin McCurry & Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Diamond Princess cruise ship in Japan confirms 99 new coronavirus cases,” The Guardian (17 February 2020).

Coronavirus updates: infected americans evacuated from cruise ship and flown to U.S.,” The New York Times (17 February 2020).

Anna Fifield, “Fourteen American cruise ship passengers with coronavirus among those evacuated to the U.S.,” The Washington Post (17 February 2020).

Sarah Boseley et al, “What is coronavirus and what should I do if I have symptoms?,” The Guardian (17 February 2020).

Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Taiwan reports first death from coronavirus,” The Guardian (16 February 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “As U.S. plans evacuations for American travelers on cruise ship in Japan, a passenger from another ship turns up with coronavirus,” The Washington Post (16 February 2020).

Gerry Shih & Katie Mettler, “Fears mount over new coronavirus case in Westerdam cruise ship thought to be infection free,” The Washington Post (16 February 2020).

Coronavirus: first fatality in Europe confirmed – live updates,” The Guardian (15 February 2020).

Kim Willsher & Simon Murphy, “Chinese tourist in France becomes Europe’s first coronavirus fatality,” The Guardian (15 February 2020).

Jasper Jolly et al, “‘Black swan’ coronavirus casts its shadow over the global economy,” The Guardian (15 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: first death outside Asia reported in France,” The New York Times (15 February 2020).

Raymond Zhong & Paul Mozur, “To tame coronavirus, Mao-Style social control blankets China,” The New York Times (15 February 2020).

Carolyn Y. Johnson & Lena H. Sun, “The biggest questions about the new coronavirus and what we know so far,” The Washington Post (15 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: China says 1,700 health workers infected,” The New York Times (14 February 2020).

Simon Murphy et al, “Coronavirus latest updates: two MPs self-isolate over conference scare – live news,” The Guardian (14 February 2020).

David J. Lynch, “Economic fallout from China’s coronavirus mounts around the world,” The Washington Post (14 February 2020).

Smriti Mallapty, “Scientists fear coronavirus spread in countries least able to contain it,” Nature (13 February 2020).

Max Fisher, “Coronavirus ‘hits all the hot buttons’ for how we misjudge risk,” The New York Times (14 February 2020).

Carolyn Y. Johnson, “Inside a lab where scientists are working urgently to fight the coronavirus outbreak,” The Washington Post (14 February 2020).

Pablo M. De Salazar et al, “Using predicted imports of 2019-nCoV cases to determine locations that may not be identifying all imported cases,” medRxiv (11 February 2020).

Agence France-Presse, “‘It’s insulting’: Indonesia criticizes US study concerns over no coronavirus cases,” The Jakarta (12 February 2020).

Hong Zhang, “Early lessons from the frontline of the 2019-nCoV outbreak,” The Lancet (11 February 2020).

Jessica Murray et al, “Coronavirus: no significant shift in mortality or severity, say WHO – live news,” The Guardian (13 February 2020).

Niko Kommenda et al, “How the coronavirus spread across China and the world – visual explainer,” The Guardian (13 February 2020).

Lily Kuo et al, “Coronavirus: China purges regional leaders hours after spike in deaths and new cases,” The Guardian (13 February 2020).

Gerry Shih & Adam Taylor, “Live updates: China’s leaders shake up political ranks as coronavirus cases near 60,000; Japan announces second virus fatality outside China,” The Washington Post (13 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: China expands mass roundup,” The New York Times (13 February 2020).

Denis Campbell, “London coronavirus patient turned up at hospital in Uber taxi,” The Guardian (13 February 2020).

Tariro Mzezewa, “In coronavirus, $45-billion cruise industry faces a big challenge,” The New York Times (13 February 2020).

Roni Caryn Rabin, “Coronavirus cases seemed to be leveling off. Not anymore.,” The New York Times (12 February 2020).

Coronavirus updates: China seeks to restart economy while fighting outbreak,” The New York Times (12 February 2020).

Amy Walker et al, “Coronavirus: Tests on 83 people quarantined in Wirral come back negative – latest news,” The Guardian (12 February 2020).

Anna Fifield & Rick Noack, “Live updates: Rate of new coronavirus infections slows, but China remains largely shut down,” The Washington Post (12 February 2020).

Coronavirus updates: the illness now has a name: Covid-19,” The New York Times (11 February 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Live updates: China urges countries to restore ties for sake of the global economy as coronavirus deaths pass 1,000,” The Washington Post (11 February 2020).

Coronavirus: two UK prisoners being tested as vaccine could be ready in 18 months – latest news,” The Guardian (11 February 2020).

Sarah Boseley, “Coronavirus ‘could infect 60% of global population if unchecked‘,” The Guardian (11 February 2020).

Megan Specia & Constant Meheut, “U.K. declares coronavirus ‘imminent threat’ as Europe scrambles,” The New York Times (11 February 2020).

Coronavirus disease named Covid-19,” BBC News (11 February 2020).

Coronavirus vaccine could be 18 months away, says WHO,” The Guardian (11 February 2020).

Alexander E. Gorbalenya, “Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus – The species and its viruses, a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group,” BioRxiv (11 February 2020).

Imperial College of London reports on the number of 2019-nCoV cases in Wuhan City, 2019-nCoV transmissibility, and its severity.

Amy Walker et al, “Coronavirus: new UK cases are ‘closely linked’, official says – live news,” The Guardian (10 February 2020).

Ben Dooley & Motoko Rich, “Cruise ship’s coronavirus outbreak leaves crew nowhere to hide,” The New York Times (10 February 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Cruise ship coronavirus infections double, exceeding the total for any country but China,” The Washington Post (10 February 2020).

Phillip Inman, “Will the coronavirus outbreak derail the global economy?,” The Guardian (10 February 2020).

Simon Denyer & Adam Taylor, “Coronavirus live updates: Cruise-ship infections surge as thousands remain quarantined,” The Washington Post (10 February 2020).

Coronavirus updates: Xi tours Beijing after 97 die in a day in China,” The New York Times (10 February 2020).

Steven Lee Myers, “‘Let’s not shake hands’: Xi Jinping tours Beijing amid coronavirus crisis,” The New York Times (10 February 2020).

Gabriel Leung, “The urgent questions scientists are asking about coronavirus,” The New York Times (10 February 2020).

Denis Campbell & Frances Perraudin, “Coronavirus: number of confirmed UK cases rises from four to eight,” The Guardian (10 February 2020).

Shibani Mahtani, “In Hong Kong, toilet paper is in short supply. Trust in the government is even more scarce.,” The Washington Post (10 February 2020).

Steven Lee Myers & Karen Zraick, “Coronavirus epidemic reaches bleak milestone, exceeding SARS toll,” The New York Times (10 February 2020).

Lucy Campbell, “Chinese in UK report ‘shocking’ levels of racism after coronavirus outbreak,” The Guardian (9 February 2020).

Michael Safi et al, “Coronavirus deaths overtake Sars as global toll rises to at least 800,” The Guardian (9 February 2020).

Gerry Shih & Alex Horton, “Coronavirus deaths climb as China corrals sick in quarantine facilities in outbreak epicenter,” The Washington Post (9 February 2020).

Dawei Wang et al, “Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China,” JAMA (7 February 2020).

Tom Frieden, “New study an eye-opener on how coronavirus is spreading and how little we know,” CNN (9 February 2020).

China allocates $10.26 billion to fight coronavirus,” Reuters (9 February 2020).

Latest on the coronavirus spreading in China and beyond,” Reuters (9 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: an American in Wuhan dies of the virus,” The New York Times (8 February 2020).

Anna Fifield & Gerry Shih, “First American and Japanese deaths reported in coronavirus epidemic,” The Washington Post (8 February 2020).

K.K. Rebecca Lai et al, “Coronavirus map: tracking the spread of the outbreak,” The New York Times (8 February 2020).

Kim Willsher et al, “Coronavirus: UK child, 9, in hospital in France with coronavirus,” The Guardian (8 February 2020).

Steven Sanche et al, “The novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, is highly contagious and more
infectious than initially estimated,” medRxiv (7 February 2020).

Donald G. McNeil Jr. & Zolan Kanno-Youngs, “C.D.C. and W.H.O. offers to help China have been ignored for weeks,” The New York Times (7 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: offers of help go unanswered by China as death toll grows again,” The New York Times (7 February 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Coronavirus live updates: Death of whistleblower doctor unleashes fury in China; more trouble for cruise passengers,” The Washington Post (7 February 2020).

Simon Denyer & Siobhan O’Grady, “Passengers quarantined on cruise ship are desperate to escape coronavirus that infected 64 fellow travelers,” The Washington Post (7 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Trump praises China’s response to outbreak as death toll passes 600,” The New York Times (7 February 2020).

Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Concerns coronavirus is going undetected in Indonesia,” The Guardian (7 February 2020).

Joel Achenbach, “Coronavirus came from bats or possibly pangolins amid ‘acceleration’ of new zoonotic infections,” The Washington Post (7 February 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus: public buying protective suits causing shortages for emergency services – latest news,” The Guardian (7 February 2020).

Li Yuan, “Widespread outcry in China over death of coronavirus doctor,” The New York Times (7 February 2020).

Gerry Shih, “Doctor’s death from coronavirus sparks a digital uprising, rattling China’s leaders,” The Washington Post (7 February 2020).

Simon Murphy et al, “Coronavirus: Chinese doctor who warned about outbreak ‘dies from infection’ – latest news,” The Guardian (6 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: soaring death toll heightens concerns about care,” The New York Times (6 February 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Coronavirus live updates: Ten more people test positive on quarantined cruise ship; Chinese doctor who tried to sound alarm has died from disease,” The Washington Post (6 February 2020).

Emma Graham-Harrison & Justin McCurry, “Whistleblower Chinese doctor dies from coronavirus in Wuhan, state media says,” The Guardian (6 February 2020).

Justin McCurry & Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Newborn among 24,500 coronavirus cases as death toll nears 500,” The Guardian (5 February 2020).

Do face masks help prevent coronavirus? – video explainer,” The Guardian (5 February 2020).

Shibani Mahtani & Siobhán O’Grady, “Coronavirus live updates: Hundreds of evacuees to be held on bases in California; Hong Kong and Taiwan restrict travel from mainland China,” The Washington Post (5 February 2020).

Taylor Telford, “Unconfirmed reports of coronavirus treatment send global markets soaring,” The Washington Post (5 February 2020).

Gerry Shih, “In China’s virus-hit heartland, fear and loathing on the road to Wuhan,” The Washington Post (5 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Americans evacuated from Wuhan arrive in California,” The New York Times (5 February 2020).

Linda J. Bilmes, “Did Trump leave America unprepared for the coronavirus?,” Yahoo! Finance (4 February 2020).

Isabella Nikolic, “Thai medics claim coronavirus break-through: Patient is declared ‘disease-free’ in 48 hours using HIV and flu drugs – as Dettol is forced to warn there is ‘NO evidence spray kills virus’,” Daily Mail (3 February 2020).

Coronavirus: UK advises British citizens to leave China – live updates,” The Guardian (4 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Xi urges tougher response to the crisis,” The New York Times (4 February 2020).

Anna Fifield & Siobhan O’Grady, “Coronavirus live updates: Hong Kong reports first coronavirus fatality as new cases spread across Southeast Asia,” The Washington Post (4 February 2020).

Lily Kuo, “Coronavirus: death toll passes Sars virus as dozens more die in Wuhan,” The Guardian (3 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: China death toll is greater than in SARS outbreak,” The New York Times (3 February 2020).

Simon Denyer & Adam Taylor, “Coronavirus live updates: China’s reopened stock markets plunge as coronavirus outbreak threatens to become pandemic,” The Washington Post (3 February 2020).

Donald G. McNeil Jr., “Wuhan coronavirus looks increasingly like a pandemic, experts say,” The New York Times (2 February 2020).

Bruce Y. Lee, “Coronavirus: here are 10 misconceptions being spread,” Forbes (2 February 2020).

Anna Fifield, “Coronavirus infections predicted to grow exponentially; first death outside China; outbreak becomes political,” The Washington Post (2 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: death in Philippines is first outside China,” The New York Times (2 February 2020 ).

Alexandra Stevenson, “China increasingly walled off as countries seek to stem coronavirus,” The New York Times (1 February 2020).

Knvul Sheikh et al, “How bad will the coronavirus outbreak get? Here are 6 key factors,” The New York Times (1 February 2020).

Justin McCurry, “Coronavirus deaths hit 259 as China voices anger at US travel ban,” The Guardian (1 February 2020).

Nadeem Badshah et al, “Coronavirus: officials seek people linked to UK cases as some airlines stop China flights – live news,” The Guardian (1 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: toll passes 250, and Apple shuts China stores,” The New York Times (1 February 2020).

Lenny Bernstein, “Get a grippe, America. The flu is a much bigger threat than coronavirus, for now,” The Washington Post (1 February 2020).

Dyani Lewis, “Coronavirus outbreak: what’s next?,” Nature (31 January 2020).

Shibani Mahtani, “Coronavirus deaths surge as U.S. warns on China travel; Hong Kong shuts schools until March,” The Washington Post (31 January 2020).

Rebecca Ratcliffe & Justin McCurry, “Coronavirus: first human transmission in Thailand as Russia and UK confirm cases,” The Guardian (31 January 2020).

Shibani Mahtani & Adam Taylor, “Live updates: Coronavirus deaths soar as U.S. warns against China travel,” The Washington Post (31 January 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Delta and American Airlines suspend flights to China,” The New York Times (31 January 2020).

Sarah Boseley & Justin McCurry, “Coronavirus deaths leap in China as countries struggle to evacuate citizens,” The Guardian (30 January 2020).

Molly Blackall et al, “Coronavirus: Italy and Germany confirm cases after WHO declares global emergency – live news,” The Guardian (30 January 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Live updates: World Health Organization declares coronavirus outbreak a ‘public health emergency’,” The Washington Post (30 January 2020).

Dan Werb, “To understand the Wuhan coronavirus, look to the epidemic triangle,” The New York Times (30 January 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: emergency declaration is considered as toll rises,” The New York Times (30 January 2020).

Denise Grady, “As coronavirus explodes in China, countries struggle to control its spread,” The New York Times (30 January 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Live updates: U.S. plans new evacuation flights as coronavirus cases in China grow by more than 1,000 a day,” The Washington Post (30 January 2020).

Coronavirus: health chief in Chinese city near Wuhan sacked – live news,” The Guardian (30 January 2020).

Tough quarantine measures have spread across China,” The Economist (30 January 2020)

Taylor Telford, “Global markets sink as investors weigh fallout of coronavirus,” The Washington Post (30 January 2020).

Alison Rourke, “Coronavirus live updates: death toll jumps to 170 amid evacuation delays for foreign nationals,” The Guardian (30 January 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Coronavirus live updates: New cases in China surpass SARS epidemic as infections grow abroad; WHO calls for emergency committee meeting,” The Washington Post (29 January 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Coronavirus live updates: New cases in China surpass SARS epidemic as infections grow abroad; WHO calls for emergency committee meeting,” The Washington Post (29 January 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. Evacuates citizens, and deaths mount,” The New York Times (29 January 2020).

Paul Mozur, “Containing the coronavirus: countries limit travel to China,” The New York Times (29 January 2020).

Gerry Shih et al, “U.S. seeks to send expert team to China to combat coronavirus outbreak; Xi defends response,” The Washington Post (28 January 2020).

Naaman Zhou, “Coronavirus live updates: US and Japanese citizens evacuated from Wuhan, China – latest news,” The Guardian (29 January 2020).

Shi Zhao et al, “Preliminary estimation of the basic reproduction number of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China, from 2019 to 2020: A data-driven analysis in the early phase of the outbreak,” bioRxiv (29 January 2020).

Sarah Boseley, “Germany confirms first human coronavirus transmission in Europe,” The Guardian (28 January 2020).

Paul Mozur, “Cordoning the coronavirus: countries limit travel to China,” The New York Times (28 January 2020).

K.K. Rebecca Lai, “Wuhan coronavirus map: tracking the spread of the outbreak,” The New York Times (28 January 2020).

Gerry Shih et al, “Coronavirus live updates: Xi defends response as death toll increases; Asian financial markets down amid virus fears,” The Washington Post (28 January 2020).

Tess Bonn, “Former head of CDC warns coronavirus more infectious than SARS,” The Hill (28 January 2020).

Coronavirus: China death toll climbs to 106 with first fatality in Beijing – live updates,” The Guardian (28 January 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: alarm grows as markets tumble and death toll rises,” The New York Times (27 January 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: As death toll rises, mayor at center of outbreak offers to resign,” The New York Times (27 January 2020).

Joseph Guzman, “Coronavirus could be much more contagious than previously thought,” The Hill (27 January 2020).

Saheli Roy Choudhury, “More than 2,700 cases of coronavirus in China as death toll climbs to 80,” CNBC (26 January 2020).

Sarah Boseley & Rowena Mason, “Coronavirus: 100,000 may already be infected, experts warn,” The Guardian (26 January 2020).

Chris Buckley et al, “As coronavirus fears intensify, effectiveness of quarantines is questioned,” The New York Times (26 January 2020).

Gerry Shih et al, “Chinese coronavirus infections, death toll soar as fifth case is confirmed in U.S.,” The Washington Post (26 January 2020).

Kariem Ezzat et al, “The viral protein corona directs viral pathogenesis and amyloid aggregation,” Nature Communications (27 May 2019).

J.S.M. Peiris, “Coronaviruses,” Medical Microbiology (2012).

Stephen N.J. Korsman & Wolfgang Preiser, “Human coronaviruses,” Virology (2012).

Rebecca Ratcliffe et al, “Coronavirus’s ability to spread getting stronger, China suggests,” The Guardian (26 January 2020).

Gerry Shih et al, “Strengthening coronavirus surges across China as authorities expect 1,000 more cases; third case confirmed in U.S.,” The Washington Post (26 January 2020).

Chaolin Huang et al, “Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China,” The Lancet (24 January 2020).

Coronavirus spurs China to suspend tours abroad and Xi to warn of a ‘grave situation’,” The New York Times (26 January 2020).

Donald J. Lynch, “Global markets swoon as lethal virus in China spreads,” The Washington Post (24 January 2020).

Catharine I. Paules et al, “Coronavirus infections – more than just the common cold,” JAMA (23 January 2020).

Lily Kuo, “China confirms human-to-human transmission of coronavirus,” The Guardian (21 January 2020).

Lena H. Sun & Lenny Bernstein, “First U.S. case of potentially deadly Chinese coronavirus confirmed in Washington state,” The Washington Post (21 January 2020).

Javier C. Hernández & Austin Ramzy, “China confirms new coronavirus spreads from humans to humans,” The New York Times (20 January 2020).

A new human coronavirus has appeared in China,” The Economist (16 January 2020).

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),” Wikipedia (26 January 2020).

Coronavirus diagram courtesy of Crenim.

Covid-19 global cases,” Johns Hopkins CSSE (updated several times a day).

Covid-19 coronavirus outbreak,” WorldOMeter (updated several times a day).

Max Roser et al, “Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) – statistics and research,” World in Data.