Coronavirus Pandemic

This report is as of 18:00 GMT on Sunday, 29 March 2020.

The world is suffering a pandemic of a coronavirus. Coronaviruses cause upper respiratory tract colds. Covid-19 is a cold, not a flu, though the symptoms can be similar.

Covid-19 is the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus: a newly evolved variety of the virus responsible for SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), of which China had an outbreak in 2002-2003.

Covid-19 began in Wuhan, China in late November 2019. Because this virus is very transmissible, especially via asymptomatic infection, a Covid-19 pandemic was inevitable. The  estimate of contagion (called “R-naught”) – at its peak – is that an infected person transmits the virus to 5-6 people.

~80% of those with Covid-19 suffer only mild symptoms throughout the course of infection. Children especially may have Covid-19 and be asymptomatic (not ill) but infectious.

The mortality rate of Covid-19 is ~1%. Those in unsound health – the elderly and those with chronic health conditions – are most at risk. But the situation in parts of the world paints a more complex picture. 40% of Moscow’s Covid-19 patients on ventilators are under the age of 40. The US has reported similar figures.

SARS-CoV-2 may not be entirely flushed from the system after symptom recovery and continue to shed infectious bits post-recovery. The virus has evaded testing via dormancy: a wily virus which evolved to maximize its contagion.

Status:

There are 521,956 active cases, with 41,319 new cases in the past day. 704,401 infections have been reported worldwide since the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic. Those with mild or no symptoms are not likely to report themselves. Covid-19 is worldwide.Countries reporting 500 or more new infections in the past day: USA 9,461 | Spain 5,564 | Italy 5,217 | Germany 2,964 | Iran 2,901 | UK 2,433 | Turkey 1,815 | Belgium 1,702 | Netherlands 1,104 | Portugal 792 | Switzerland 753.
Regional tables below are of territories with 100 or more active cases.

Asia:

Country Active New Recovered Dead
South Korea 4,398 105 5,033 152
China 2,691 45 75,448 3,300
Pakistan 1,483 31 29 14
Thailand 1,284 143 97 7
Japan 1,217 424 52
India 910 37 87 27
Singapore 629 42 212 3
Hong Kong 519 81 118 4
Taiwan 257 15 39 2
Kazakhstan 232 23 18 1
Réunion 182 1
Vietnam 163 14 25
Uzbekistan 135 40 7 2
Afghanistan 114 10 2 4
Diamond Princess 105 597 10
Sri Lanka 105 4 11 1

North America:

Country Active New Recovered Dead
USA 126,299 9,461 4,378 2,362
Canada 5,315 231 508 63

New York City (NYC) is the epicenter of US outbreak, with 1/3rd of the cases in the country. New York state has a dire shortage of critical medical equipment.

Europe:

Country Active New Recovered Dead
Italy 73,880 5,217 13,030 10,779
Spain 57,484 5,564 14,709 6,606
Germany 50,966 2,964 9,211 482
France 29,561 5,700 2,314
UK 18,159 2,433 135 1,228
Switzerland 12,934 753 1,595 300
Netherlands 9,845 1,104 250 771
Belgium 9,046 1,702 1,359 431
Turkey 8,981 1,815 105 131
Austria 8,107 401 479 86
Portugal 5,800 792 43 119
Norway 4,213 230 7 25
Sweden 3,574 253 16 110
Czechia 2,719 112 11 13
Ireland 2,564 200 5 46
Denmark 2,322 194 1 72
Luxembourg 1,889 119 40 21
Poland 1,744 133 7 20
Romania 1,549 308 169 42
Russia 1,462 270 64 8
Finland 1,219 73 10 11
Greece 1,066 95 52 38
Iceland 904 57 114 2
Slovenia 709 46 10 11
Serbia 686 82 42 13
Estonia 656 34 20 3
Croatia 655 56 52 6
Lithuania 429 43 1 7
Ukraine 404 62 5 9
Armenia 391 17 30 3
Hungary 361 65 34 13
Latvia 346 42 1
Andorra 327 26 1 6
Bulgaria 324 15 14 8
Slovakia 312 22 2
Bosnia and Herzegovina 309 45 8 6
Moldova 259 32 2 2
North Macedonia 250 18 3 6
San Marino 196 6 22
Cyprus 194 35 15 5
Azerbaijan 190 27 15 4
Albania 169 15 33 10
Malta 149 2 2

Middle East:

Country Active New Recovered Dead
Iran 23,278 2,901 12,391 2,640
Israel 3,761 246 89 15
Saudi Arabia 1,225 96 66 8
Qatar 544 45 1
UAE 509 102 58 3
Lebanon 398 26 30 10
Iraq 362 41 143 42
Jordan 227 18 1
Bahrain 223 23 272 4
Kuwait 188 20 67
Oman 144 15 23

Oceania:

Country Active New Recovered Dead
Australia 3,738 345 226 16
Malaysia 2,047 150 388 35
Philippines 1,305 343 42 71
Indonesia 1,107 130 64 114
New Zealand 457 56 1

Central & South America:

Country Active New Recovered Dead
Brazil 3,781 6 117
Chile 2,057 230 75 7
Ecuador 1,830 67 3 57
Panama 880 4 17
Mexico 828 131 4 16
Peru 818 181 16 18
Dominican Republic 817 140 3 39
Argentina 654 72 19
Colombia 592 10 6
Uruguay 303 1
Costa Rica 290 3 2
Cuba 132 20 4 3
Honduras 105 15 3 2

Central & South America’s outbreaks are belatedly growing.
Africa:

Country Active New Recovered Dead
South Africa 1,155 31 1
Algeria 449 57 31 31
Egypt 419 121 36
Morocco 411 48 13 26
Tunisia 268 2 8
Burkina Faso 175 21 11
Ghana 145 11 2 5
Ivory Coast 137 39 3
Senegal 115 12 27
Mauritius 105 5 2

Reports of Africa’s outbreaks are gradually growing.

Reaction:

Given the wiles of this virus, containment would have proved impossible in our modern world, with global travel and inept governments.

The societal damage from Covid-19 is largely self-inflicted: panic and post facto quarantines which are largely ineffective. China only managed to slow its Covid-19 outbreak for a few days despite severe quarantines.

The mainland China epidemic appears to have mostly run its course, though the appearance may prove deceptive. After a 2-month lockdown of Hubei, the province where Covid-19 outbreak originated, life is returning to normal. China is helping other countries with their epidemics.

The key to slowing an outbreak is testing. “You can’t stop it if you can’t see it,” said epidemiologist Bruce Aylward. “You want to know whether or not you have it. You want to know whether the people around you have it. Because then you could stop it.”

For a testing program to be effective, tests must repeatedly be given. Error occurs in all medical tests. Covid-19 tests may fail to catch ~20% of infected people (a “false negative” result).

“What we really need to focus on is finding those who are sick, those who have the virus, and isolate them, find their contacts and isolate them,” said Mike Ryan, the World Health Organization’s chief emergency expert. That means extensive testing which most other countries are not practicing.

Once Covid-19’s rough virulence and infectiousness had been established, the apt policy to deal with outbreaks would have been what experts advised: ramp up testing and medical care, and isolate the sick to reduce contagion – rather than creating the global economic depression which is unfolding by shutting down economic activity wholesale.

South Korea exemplified a sensibly disciplined approach to dealing with its epidemic. Rather than block the movement of people or lame its economy with lockdowns, South Korea relied on extensive testing to isolate and care for those infected. South Korea’s epidemic has passed its peak – recoveries are rising twice as fast as new infections.

Only Japan and Germany have emulated South Korea.

Like South Korea, Japan worked to “identify early chains of infections in so-called clusters,” explained Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe announced on Saturday (28 March).

Abe announced Saturday (28 March) that Japan’s government will craft an economic stimulus package to combat its recession. “We will provide support for small and medium-size businesses that is on a scale never before seen, that is unprecedented,” Abe said. Anyone, regardless of nationality, found infected with Covid-19 in Japan receives treatment under Japan’s comprehensive health care regime.

There has not been an epidemic in Japan like many other countries. That is now changing. The number of cases in Japan has jumped in recent days.

Regional political leaders in Japan are asking people to restrict their movements and venture out only as necessary. To date, cautions from officialdom have not stopped Japanese from congregating as they normally do.

In Italy, 9.5% of those with Covid-19 have died; in France 4.3%. But in Germany, only 0.4%. The difference is that Germany diligently worked to test, track, and contain infection clusters.

In lieu of extensive testing, countries around the world are practicing economically crippling, belated, ineffectual lockdowns. The travel bans and flight restrictions) violate international law – not that law means anything beyond what states want to do.

One place of commerce left unfettered in much of the world has been grocery stores. Anecdotal reports from France, Canada, and the US of infected shop workers indicate that these stores have more than food that may be taken home. “We warned about this from the start. But we’ve let the stores run at full speed. Nobody listened to us,” said French labor union leader Amar Lagh.

Failing coordination, European nations have closed themselves off. Europe catches a cold and its vaunted union becomes every man for himself.

Italy, the original epicenter of European pandemic, imposed a nationwide lockdown 9 March. That did not stall its outbreak. But, nearly 3 weeks later, police report crime at a record low.

Failing foresight to prepare itself, Europe now faces critical shortages in medical supplies, the World Health Organization reported 17 March. The one critical treatment for Covid-19 – an upper respiratory tract disease – is to mechanically assist breathing in severe cases. European nations and the US have been scrambling to produce more ventilators.

On Friday, (26 March), China issued restrictions on foreign air travel – allowing each airline only 1 international flight per week, with a maximum 75% potential passenger load. Japan is barring all foreign visitors from 21 European countries and Iran (as of 26 March). Japan has had a sudden spike in infections in recent days.

Many nations, including the US and UK, had sufficient advance warning to prepare, but their inept governments diddled.

Britain belatedly instituted a halfhearted lockdown 25 March. Unsurprisingly, London has been the center of the outbreak in Britain, with over 1/3rd of the country’s confirmed cases. London’s hospitals are now overwhelmed. But doubtlessly a comfy place will be made for UK prime minister Boris Johnson if need be. Johnson admitted that he contracted Covid-19 Friday (27 March).

Across Europe and in the US, affluent city dwellers escaped urban outbreaks by leaving for their 2nd homes in the countryside. They delivered fear in the small communities they arrived at – that they will spread contagion. The New York Times reported on Sunday (29 March): “The situation has ignited anger over what the pandemic is laying bare every day: the ever widening gap between the rich and the poor.” Locals also resent the hoarding which the rich are doing by buying up limited supplies.

Only El Salvador had the sense to quarantine the country before it had any Covid-19 outbreak. El Salvador now has 24 active cases: a slowly growing number.

There is no substitute for competent political leadership during a crisis – something which the US sorely lacks. “If you look historically in the United States when it is challenged with something like this, they pull out all the stops across the system and they make it work,” said Bruce Aylward. “In international crises, America has always been the country to which other countries have turned for leadership. And now, which country is looking to the United States? No one,” said British international relations expert Elisabeth Braw.

Before the Covid-19 pandemic, the US was rated as the country best equipped to deal with an epidemic. Events have proven the falsity of that. The blame rests squarely on president Trump, who dismantled federal ability to deal with an epidemic a year ago. Trump did less than nothing to prepare the US for its outbreak. He pathologically lied about the situation and created confusion.

On 29 February, US President Trump idiotically called Covid-19 a “hoax.” Less than 2 weeks later, on Friday 13 March, Trump declared Covid-19 a national emergency, but did not coordinate a national response. On 18 March 2020, President Trump declared martial law: using a standing statute to allow the government to run the US economy as it chooses. Trump then hesitated for nearly a week before mandating the production of test kits. Trump has otherwise refused to order production of critical medical supplies.

Instead of leadership, Trump has treated the American epidemic as political theater: chiding and bullying state officials and referring to Covid-19 as “the Chinese virus.” Following his typical pattern, Trump’s utterances about Covid-19 have been mostly lies.

The leader of the US lower federal legislature, Nancy Pelosi, said that “his denial at the beginning was deadly. His delay in getting equipment to where it’s needed is deadly.”

Trump went out of his way to alienate China – a country which the US desperately needs cooperation with, both for China’s expertise on dealing with Covid-19 and for supplies, including many drugs. On Friday, Trump did an about-face: praising China for its Covid-19 response. “Much respect!,” Trump tooted. Just a day earlier Mike Pompeo, Trump top diplomat, has proclaimed China’s government “a threat to our health and way of life, as the Wuhan virus outbreak clearly has demonstrated.”

The American response to its Covid-19 outbreak has been uncoordinated: each state deciding on how to respond. Testing has been restricted but not travel – the exact opposite of what ought to be done to contain outbreak. Having been caught unprepared despite months of advanced warning, the US is pretending containment in the most economically crippling way. “This could have been stopped by implementing testing and surveillance much earlier – for example, when the first imported cases were identified,” exclaimed American virologist Angela Rasmussen.

New Orleans illustrates American cluelessness about Covid-19 when containment was possible and caution should have been the byword. New Orleans proceeded with its annual Mardi Gras festival in the last week of February, with revelers packing the streets. Less than 2 weeks later, the famous bonhomie showed itself as the incubator for a massive outbreak. “No red flags were given,” New Orleans mayor LaToya Cantrell moaned. “If we were given clear direction, we would not have had Mardi Gras.”

The epidemic in the US is now raging, with the most active recorded cases. Given the paucity of testing, the outbreak is doubtlessly worse than reported.

Given Trump’s capriciousness, American companies have hesitated to increase needed medical supplies, as the government has not provided purchasing guarantees. After a torrent of criticism from local and regional officials, Trump announced Friday (27 March) that the federal government would buy ventilators.

Millions of Americans have lost their jobs by government-imposed lockdowns. A torrent of unemployment has overwhelmed US state systems which grapple with joblessness. The US has no national employment program.

The US enacted a $2 trillion stimulus Friday (27 March): doling out largess to large corporations while providing only pittances for the unemployed. US congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez lamented, “The option that we have is to either let them suffer with nothing, or to allow this greed to contribute to the largest income inequality gap in our future.”

Iran has had a fierce epidemic, which Iranian president Hassan Rouhani has warned could last “1 or 2 years.” Arbitrarily imposed economic sanctions by the US has meant that Iran has not been able to import critical medicines and medical supplies. “There are a lot of shortages now,” remarked Iranian surgeon Nouradin Pirmoazen. The US is not only killing its own citizens by wanton neglect, it also making other countries needlessly suffer.

Shortages of medical supplies are reported in countries around the world. The US is running short surprisingly quickly – its epidemic has barely begun.

Malaysian factories supply 3/4ths of the medical gloves used in the world. Malaysia’s glove factories are operating at half capacity as a result of recent government restrictions on businesses aimed at stemming Covid-19 outbreak.

Public events of all kinds around the world have been postponed or canceled. Such events typically generate more than $1 trillion in associated spending: travel, hotels, and catering. The 2020 Summer Olympics has been postponed for a year.

Schools are shut in most countries affected by Covid-19. Japan is reopening some of the schools it shut. Children generally have mild symptoms when they catch a Covid-19 cold; many are asymptomatic but infectious nonetheless.

There is much greater cruelty to decimating hundreds of millions of people’s economic well-being over a bad cold than letting an unstoppable Darwinist virus kill a few tens of thousands. Why then the generally inapt reaction?

Many people put an absolute value on life itself while not paying sufficient attention to quality of life: hence widespread obesity and other consequences of poor lifestyle choices – and, in the case of Covid-19, wanting to “save” lives (and not overwhelm inadequate medical systems). Further, morality is commonly viewed transactionally rather than systemically. Hence capitalism, which is a regime of exploitative evil, is viewed as relatively benign.  Beyond sheer incompetence, the biased perspective of morality explains the short-sighted measures being taken.

Countries around the world, including China and South Korea, have reported large prison outbreaks. Several prison riots erupted in Italy this month and in Columbia last weekend.

US prisons are reporting Covid-19 outbreaks. Doubtlessly people in these horrible institutions will suffer epidemics. The US imprisons more of its population – mostly minorities and the poor – than any other country in the world. Many American prisoners serve long sentences for petty economic crimes.

Reminiscent of Nazi treatment of Jews, the US has large populations of immigrants in concentration camps, with families torn apart. Outbreaks are spreading through these prisons, brought in by camp guards. The American government does its best to repress news of these camps, and the mainstream media largely obliges the government’s wishes.

Late Saturday (28 March), a federal judge ordered the government to release thousands of imprisoned migrant children, after reports of outbreaks in the facilities they are held in. The Trump government has a history of ignoring court orders. Courts have no way to enforce their rulings.

Recognizing the epidemic potential of prisons, Iran released tens of thousands of its prisoners weeks ago on furlough. Iran, which is often castigated as a repressive regime, has had a more humanitarian response than the US to ward off the potential of prison epidemics. Turkey is releasing early as many as 100,000 prisoners.

Authoritarian-oriented governments around the world – including the US, India, Russia, Hungary, Philippines, Thailand, Brazil, and Arab states – are exploiting the pandemic for political ends, by cracking down on dissent and postponing scheduled elections.

The US ‘justice’ department under Trump wants to be able to imprison anyone indefinitely without trial. It has already done so this century for those it accuses of terrorism. The department has also requested to bar all asylum seekers. Such measures violate international human rights law.

On 24 March, Indian prime minister Narendra Modi ordered for 1.3 billion people “a total ban of coming out of your homes” for 3 weeks, beginning 4 hours later. India already had one of the world’s largest homeless populations, and the lockdown tripled it overnight. Now India has one of the biggest migrations in its recent history. Hundreds of thousands of migrant laborers have begun long journeys on foot to get home, having been rendered homeless and jobless.

In the capital, Delhi, thousands of migrants, including whole families, packed their meager belongings and walked along highways. Some planned to walk hundreds of miles. But as they reached the Delhi border, many were beaten back by the police.

Effective Friday (27 March), Singapore criminalized intentional physical proximity. Singapore has one of the world’s highest population densities. The city-state has relied on intensive surveillance and curtailment of public freedoms to contain its Covid-19 outbreak.

In the Philippines, quarantine violators are sometimes beaten or put into dog cages. “Anyone out at the wrong time will be shot,” one Manila police officer said. Contrastingly, an infected senator who supports the government went to a hospital Wednesday (25 March) and exposed others to contagion. The Philippine Justice Department said it would “temper the rigor of the law with human compassion” in holding the senator accountable.

Countries around the world are employing soldiers to enforce domestic lockdowns and curfews. “We are at war,” declared France’s Emmanuel Macron, who has deployed 100,000 troops to keep order. “It’s really easy to ratchet up these kinds of powers and really hard to ratchet them back down,” said American domestic security expert Juliette Kayyem. “Once the military is seen as a solution to a public health problem, it’s hard to get the military out of the way.”

“We may end up having more deaths and injuries from military brutality than the feared coronavirus,” said Nigerian merchant Ibrahim Sadiq. That observation applies throughout Africa and much of the world. For instance, in cities across Kenya, now under curfew, security forces have unleashed beatings and tear gas in a brutal crackdown – exposing more people to contagion by corralling those captured together.

The 1918 influenza pandemic began largely in US army camps. Instead of containing the virus, deployed troops helped spread it.

The world airline industry is largely grounded. Governments have banned international flights. International tourism is moribund. Domestic air travel is also down to a trickle worldwide.

Commodity prices worldwide have slumped. Oil prices continue their downward trajectory.

Japan’s stock market was volatile Friday (27 March), ending up in anticipation of Abe’s Saturday press conference. Asian financial bourses were otherwise subdued. European bourses were glum, declining ~6%. After surging for the past 3 days despite reports of stiffening mass unemployment, Wall Street (the US stock markets) fell nearly 4% on Friday.

Wall Street has fallen faster in recent weeks than it did at the onset of the Great Depression. Western financial markets are nowhere near the bottom. Financial lubricants will prove insufficient as national lockdowns and epidemics take their toll. Asia will be recovering while the West is still throttling itself.

The scenario Ishi Nobu laid out 3 weeks ago (26 February) of economic depression from the pandemic is playing out. Other economists are now onboard. On Monday (23 March), OECD head Angel Gurria wrote: “Compounding a global health crisis with a major economic and financial crisis will put large strains on our societies. Even after the worst of the health crisis has passed, people will be confronted with the jobs crisis.” American economist Jacob Robbins said Thursday (26 March) that there is “widespread carnage” in US joblessness and that “it’s going to get worse.”

While the governments of wealthy nations are throwing money at their financial institutions to prop them up (plutocracy at full tilt), governments, institutions, and rich people from these countries have committed only meager sums to poorer countries to help them fight their outbreaks. Similarly, US governments are doing next to nothing for poorer communities and the homeless in that country. “History will judge us on how we responded to the poorest communities in our darkest hour,” said World Health Organization head Tedros Ghebreyesus.

Refugee camps around the world are packed with traumatized and undernourished people who have scant access to health care and basic sanitation – perfect breeding grounds for contagion. Along with governmental incompetence, Covid-19 will lay bare the inhumanity of humanity.

The good news of the pandemic has been a dramatic reduction in air pollution from vehicles. Whereas Covid-19 has been considered a crises, self-extinction from pollution has been ignored as much as possible. An order of magnitude more people will die from industrial pollution this year than from Covid-19 – yet societal concern has been minimal to self-extinction from the industrialized lifestyle.

Background:

A coronavirus is a subfamily of viruses, so named because they have large bulbous projections from their envelope, which the virologist naming the virus thought resembled a monarchial crown.

“The term ‘protein corona’ refers to the layer of proteins that adhere to the surfaces of nanostructures when they encounter biological fluids,” noted Swedish virologist Kariem Ezzat. These proteins are strategically perched on the outside of a virus, acting as intelligence agents and first-contact specialists. “The importance of the corona layer is that it constitutes the actual surface of interaction with biological membranes or ‘what the cell sees’,” explained Ezzat.

Various coronaviruses are widespread among birds and mammals. There are 7 known strains of human coronaviruses. Like all other viruses, coronaviruses opportunistically speciate by adaptively acquiring (via infection) or problem-solving new proteins which provide better tools for infection.

Many mammalian coronaviruses originated with bats. Humans first encountered coronaviruses roughly 2 centuries ago from eating infected cattle. Modern outbreaks of new variants typically happen from eating infected animals.

Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and digestive tract of mammals and birds. In people, coronaviruses are responsible for an unhealthy percentage of common colds. Coronaviruses also cause pneumonia and bronchitis.

Coronaviruses are the viral family responsible for the “common cold.” By slight contrast, a distinct family of viruses cause influenza (the “flu”). Both viral families are enveloped RNA viruses. Symptoms of cold and flu are often selfsame. The SARS-Cov-2 virus has 29,891 nucleotides – twice as large as an influenza virus genome.

Coronavirus disease was first described in 1931, with the viruses themselves first seen in 1965, having been taken from the nasal cavities of people with the common cold and put under an electron microscope.

Most coronaviruses are not dangerous. But those that cause Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), SARS, and now Covid-19, can be deadly.

Besides the ability for human-to-human transmission, Covid-19 is clever enough to delay symptoms from appearing for over 2 weeks, thereby making it easier for infected victims to spread the disease. This viral savvy is termed asymptomatic infection. Covid-19 asymptomatic covertness is how the virus has been able to be so successful in its propagation.

97.5% of people who develop symptoms from Covid-19 do so within 12 days. The median incubation period for the virus is 5.1 days. There are statistical outliers. On 22 February 2020, authorities in China reported that a man in Hubei had tested positive for Covid-19 after what appeared to be a 38-day incubation period with no symptoms.

Early symptoms of Covid-19 include losing sense of smell, fever (83-98%) dry cough (76-82%), fatigue (11-44%), sore throat, and shortness of breath. Covid-19 reaches peak infectiousness shortly after people start to feel sick, and spreads like the flu.

Infectiousness – what epidemiologists call reproductive ratio (R0 (pronounced “R-naught”) – is a mathematical estimation of how easily a pathogen spreads. The SARS virus had an R0 of 0.5, meaning that every 2 cases of SARS resulted in only 1 additional infection.

Covid-19 has been estimated to have an R0 of 4.7-6.6: producing ~5-6 new cases for each initial infection. This estimate has been revised upwards from earlier, lower projection of 2.-2.6.

The seasonal flu virus has an R0 of 1.3. Measles has an R0 of 12 to 18.

R0 is not a constant. For an epidemic to end, R0 has to drop below 1.

People are typically sick for a week from the seasonal flu. 2019-nCoV has its victims out of action an average of 24 days. “Reports suggest potential for clinical deterioration during the 2nd week of illness,” notes American Dr. Kathy Lofy.

Roughly 80% of those with Covid-19 suffer only mild symptoms, with 15% severe and only 5% critical. Many infected may not realize it because their symptoms are so mild.

Covid-19 typically does not bother children much. 4% don’t show any symptoms. ~52% have mild symptoms typical of a cold. ~39% of children have moderate illness, mostly coughing. Severe cases are rare in children: only ~5% require critical care. Chinese researchers note that “young children, particularly infants, are vulnerable.” “Why most of the children’s COVID-19 cases were less severe than adults’ case is puzzling,” said one the researchers, Yuanyuan Dong.

The simplistic story is that Covid-19 culls the weak. But nothing is simple.

The risk factors for getting seriously sick from Covid-19 is similar to those for other respiratory illnesses. Older people and those with underlying illnesses, such as diabetes or high blood pressure, are at increased risk. But there is tremendous individual variation in how people respond – as with other diseases. Some people with known risk factors recover, and some in otherwise good health develop severe cases. The mind-body complex is an intricate gyre barely understood.

60% of all Americans have at least one chronic health condition, and 40% have more than 1. The US is a wealthy country where most people have not taken care of themselves as a lifestyle choice: through bad diet, overeating, lack of exercise, and substance abuse.

In the US, as of 18 March, 38% of hospitalized Covid-19 patients in the US were between 20 and 54 years of age. And nearly half of the 121 sickest patients studied – those admitted to intensive care units – were adults under 65. 20% of the hospitalized patients were 20-44 years of age.

Men are at greater risk and more likely to succumb to Covid-19 than women. Though men and women are equally represented in infections, 64% of the reported deaths have been men.

People with type A blood are more vulnerable to Covid-19, whereas those with type O are more resistant.

Chinese epidemiologist Gabriel Leung reports that “those most at risk of infection includes older adults, the obese and people with underlying medical conditions. There are few reports of children becoming infected.”

“With respiratory infections like this, we usually see a U-shaped curve on who gets hits hardest. Young children at one end of the U because their immune systems aren’t yet developed and old people at the other end because their immune systems grow weaker,” said American virologist Vineet Menachery. “With this virus, one side of the U is just completely missing.”

“Human coronaviruses can persist on inanimate surfaces like metal, glass or plastic for up to 9 days, but can be efficiently inactivated by surface disinfection procedures with 62–71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide, or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Other biocidal agents such as 0.05–0.2% benzalkonium chloride or 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate are less effective,” explains German hygienist Guenter Kampf. A study of the Diamond Princess cruise ship found that the Covid-19 virus survived up to 17 days on hard surfaces – far longer than previous research had indicated.

Along with fomite (surface) contagion, Covid-19 is transmissible through droplets from coughing and sneezing. The virus can linger in aerosols for 3 hours.

Face masks can be effective at stopping droplet contact, which is a main transmission route. Some studies suggest roughly 5-fold protection from a face mask. But small virus-laden aerosols can penetrate masks.

SARS had a mortality rate of 9.6%; 774 people died. The 1918 “Spanish flu” killed only about 2.5% of its victims, but because it infected so many people and medical care was much cruder then, 20-50 million died.

Covid-19 is showing a death rate of less than 1% in regions where the epidemic is resolving (near its end) and extensive testing has been done. Wuhan, the epicenter of the global outbreak had a 1.4% fatality rate.

Dividing deaths by reported cases in countries with insufficient testing is inaccurate, and anyway an inapt methodology for figuring death rate. In most of the world, the number of reported cases is much less than the total number of people infected. In other words, the denominator (# of infections) is too small.

Methodologically, the proper calculation would be of outcomes: deaths/(recovered + dead), as active cases are unresolved. While an epidemic is raging, such a calculation shows a high death rate (that will decline in time): in the instance of Covid-19 on 18 March 2020 = 9%.

A recent study suggests that the spread of Covid-19 in the US and Europe may be slowed somewhat with the advent of warmer weather. 90% of viral transmissions have occurred within an ambient temperature range of 2.8-17 degrees C (37-63 F). When temperatures were outside this range, the virus still spread, albeit slower. Already, US states with warmer climates (e.g., Texas, Florida) have not had the same exponential outbreak seen in New York and Washington state.

Chinese and Western researchers link SARS-CoV-2 to the pangolin (pictured below), a mammal illegally trafficked in huge numbers for the reputed (but superstitious) healing qualities of its scales and meat. But pangolins may not be the source of SARS-CoV-2. The research published on the origin of the virus so far is inconclusive, other than to point to bats as the mammalian origin, with some intermediary mammal as the source of human infection.

The Chinese government belatedly cracked down on the wildlife trade believed to be behind the viral outbreak. On Monday 17 February 2020, Chinese president Xi condemned the “major hidden danger” of eating wild animals.

The SARS coronavirus in 2002 probably originated in bats and spread to humans through the civet cat, which was sold in wildlife markets and eaten as a delicacy in southern China. Civets were slaughtered en masse after the SARS outbreak.

Covid-19 opportunistically adapted much faster than SARS did. It took SARS 3 months to mutate to human-to-human transmission; a feat that took Covid-19 only 1 month, according to Chinese epidemiologist George Fu.

Saltation is the attribution evolutionary biologists use for organisms which make seemingly sudden evolutionary leaps. Turtles are an example of saltation, in having suddenly appeared in the fossil record (bones being well preserved, proto-turtles would have been discovered). The striking varieties of orchids is another example of saltation.

In its rapid adaptations for asymptomatic infectiousness and prolonged virulence, SARS-CoV-2 looks to be a viral example of saltation. Further, a preliminary report indicates the SARS-CoV-2 has evolved greater sophistication in being able to flexibly attach to host cells and infect than has been seen with other coronaviruses.

A team of Chinese virologists reported on 3 March that there are 2 strains of the Covid-19 virus: an earlier-evolved, less assertive strain, and a more vivacious strain that developed shortly thereafter. While the more aggressive strain appeared more prevalent at the start of the outbreak in Wuhan, the milder strain appears to dominate the pandemic.

“We don’t know that much about immunity to this virus,” remarked American viral immunologist Michael Diamond in early March. Immunity is short-lived for the coronaviruses that cause common colds; even people who have high levels of antibodies against these viruses can still become infected.

Recently genetic analyses indicate that SARS-CoV-2 has achieved a self-satisfied state, and is not significantly mutating as it courses its way through the planetary human population. There have only been 4-10 genetic developments since the original virus spread out of Wuhan. “The mutation rate suggests that the vaccine developed for SARS-CoV-2 would be a single vaccine, rather than a new vaccine every year like the flu vaccine,” said American molecular geneticist Peter Thielen on 23 March.

There are no vaccines or antivirals in routine clinical use for coronaviruses, nor for Covid-19. Work on vaccines and possible drug treatments proceeds with haste in several countries. China and the US are testing their first coronavirus vaccines. A publicly-available effective vaccine is likely 12-18 months away.

On 22 March, Gilead Sciences announced that it was halting access to remdesivir, an experimental drug used to treat Covid-19. Prudently concerned about safety, the company said it wanted more of those receiving the antiviral to participate in a clinical trial.

All vaccines work on the same basic principle. A certain part or all of a pathogen is presented to the human immune system, prompting it produce antibodies which fight against infection. Traditionally, vaccines used live, weakened forms of a virus – a technique with drawbacks which can backfire.

New genetic analysis techniques offer promise to accelerate vaccine development. But developing and testing candidates is expensive – and a risky gamble. “Not all horses that leave the starting gate will finish the race,” says American immunologist Bruce Gellin. And the Covid-19 carrier is a novel coronavirus with considerable wiles, which means developing a vaccine for it will be tricky business.

“Virus biology and vaccines technology could be the limiting factors, but politics and economics are far more likely to be the barrier to immunization,” explains American public health researcher Jonathan Quick. The final hurdle is getting the vaccine to all those who need it. This is a challenge beyond sheer logistics, as plutocratic mechanics are inherent in all political institutions. Mass vaccination is a costly proposition. During the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic, vaccine supplies were snapped up by rich nations, leaving poorer ones short.

References:

Covid-19 global cases,” Johns Hopkins CSSE (updated several times a day).

Covid-19 coronavirus outbreak,” WorldOMeter (updated several times a day).

Max Roser et al, “Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) – statistics and research,” World in Data.

Coronavirus live updates: Trump retreats on quarantine threat; india’s lockdown brings chaos and hunger,” The New York Times (29 March 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: ‘As the president fiddles, people are dying,’ Pelosi says; Japan’s coronavirus cases accelerate,” The Washington Post (29 March 2020).

Jedidajah Otte et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain records new highest daily death toll; Australia limits public gatherings to two,” The Guardian (29 March 2020).

Martin Pengelly, “Coronavirus US live: Pelosi says Trump’s inaction cost American lives,” The Guardian (29 March 2020).

Martha Busby & Matthew Weaver, “UK coronavirus live: daily Downing Street briefing to start, as death toll rises to 1,228,” The Guardian (29 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: over 600,000 cases worldwide as hospital ship prepares to head to New York,” The New York Times (28 March 2020).

Brittany Shammas et al, “Live updates: Trump considering coronavirus quarantine in N.Y., N.J. and Conn.; Italy death toll tops 10,000,” The Washington Post (28 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Jena McGregor, “The latest sign the recession is intensifying: White-collar workers are being laid off now,” The Washington Post (28 March 2020).

Michael D. Shear et al, “The lost month: how a failure to test blinded the U.S. to Covid-19,” The New York Times (28 March 2020).

Zeeshan Aleem, “The FDA approves a coronavirus test that can give results in 5 minutes,” Vox (28 March 2020).

Emily Cochrane & Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “$2 trillion coronavirus stimulus bill is signed into law,” The New York Times (27 March 2020).

Donald E. Sanger et al, “Under intense criticism, Trump says government will buy more ventilators,” The New York Times (27 March 2020).

Molly Blackall et al, “Coronavirus live news: France death toll passes 2,000 while 90,000 cases confirmed in Italy,” The Guardian (28 March 2020).

Hannah Devlin, “Coronavirus: what are the latest scientific advances?,” The Guardian (28 March 2020).

Emma Graham-Harrison et al, “Lockdowns around the world bring rise in domestic violence,” The Guardian (28 March 2020).

Nate Cohn et al, “Some U.S. cities could have coronavirus outbreaks worse than Wuhan’s,” The New York Times (28 March 2020).

Joel Achenbach, “Three months into the pandemic, here is what we know about the coronavirus,” The Washington Post (28 March 2020).

Sabrina Tavernise et al, “‘We have lost it all’: the shock felt by millions of unemployed Americans,” The New York Times (27 March 2020).

James Hall, “Federal Government to pay wages of Australia’s workforce,” news.com.au (29 March 2020).

Benjamin Mason Meier et al, “Travel restrictions violate international law,” Science (27 March 2020).

Motoko Rich & Hisako Ueno, “Japan’s virus success has puzzled the world. Is its luck running out?,” The New York Times (26 March 2020).

Aimee Cunningham, “Travel bans have barely slowed the coronavirus’s spread,” Science News (6 March 2020).

Jennifer Hassan et al, “Live updates: British Prime Minister Boris Johnson tests positive for coronavirus; the U.S. now leads the world in confirmed cases,” The Washington Post (27 March 2020).

Bryan Armen Graham, “Coronavirus US live: single Republican may stall $2.2tn stimulus package,” The Guardian (27 March 2020).

Lucy Campbell & Amy Walker, “UK coronavirus live: chief medical officer self-isolates with symptoms as Johnson and Hancock test positive,” The Guardian (27 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: house vote on $2 trillion in relief may face delay; Boris Johnson tests positive,” The New York Times (27 March 2020).

Rachel Siegel & Thomas Heath, “U.S. markets sharply turn after three straight days of gains,” The Washington Post (27 March 2020).

Peter Beaumont, “More countries deploy their military to help during Covid-19 crisis,” The Guardian (27 March 2020).

Ron Judd, “ER doctor who criticized Bellingham hospital’s coronavirus protections has been fired,” The Seattle Times (27 March 2020).

Drew Harwell, “Gouged prices, middlemen and medical supply chaos: Why governors are so upset with Trump,” The Washington Post (27 March 2020).

The Editorial Board, “Why is America choosing mass unemployment?,” The New York Times (27 March 2020).

David Cyranoski, “What China’s coronavirus response can teach the rest of the world,” Nature (17 March 2020).

Ewen Callaway, “Coronavirus vaccines: five key questions as trials begin,” Nature (18 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. jobless claims are highest ever; house to take up $2 trillion stimulus,” The New York Times (26 March 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus death toll in U.S. reaches 1,000; confirmed cases approach 500,000 worldwide;,” The Washington Post (26 March 2020).

Matthew Weaver et al, “Coronavirus live news: IMF urges G20 to double emergency funding as WHO sees ‘encouraging signs’ in Europe,” The Guardian (26 March 2020).

Lauren Gambino & Tom Lutz, “Coronavirus US live: House to vote on historic $2.2tn stimulus package,” The Guardian (26 March 2020).

Liz Sly et al, “The U.S. traditionally leads in times of crisis. Now it’s practicing self-isolation.,” The Washington Post (26 March 2020).

Kevin Sieff, “Soldiers around the world get a new mission: Enforcing coronavirus lockdowns,” The Washington Post (26 March 2020).

Andrew Sparrow & Amy Walker, “UK coronavirus live: death tolls rise in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland; police get new powers to enforce lockdown,” The Guardian (26 March 2020).

Coronavirus: at least 23 killed in Colombia prison unrest,” BBC News (23 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Senate moves toward passing sweeping $2 trillion aid deal,” The New York Times (25 March 2020).

Alexandra Topping et al, “Coronavirus live news: death toll in Spain passes China, as global numbers approach 20,000,” The Guardian (25 March 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live updates: White House and Senate leaders agree to massive relief deal,” The Washington Post (25 March 2020).

Stocks unsteady as Wall Street weighs U.S. rescue deal: live updates,” The New York Times (25 March 2020).

Andrew Sparrow & Lucy Campbell, “UK coronavirus live: London City airport to close until at least end of April,” The Guardian (25 March 2020).

Joel Achenbach, “The coronavirus isn’t mutating quickly, suggesting a vaccine would offer lasting protection,” The Washington Post (24 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: India imposes a lockdown; Trump to use federal powers for critical supplies,” The New York Times (24 March 2020).

William Feuer, “CDC says coronavirus RNA found in Princess Cruise ship cabins up to 17 days after passengers left,” CNBC (24 March 2020).

Daniel Stauss, “Coronavirus US live: New York governor attacks Trump’s handling of outbreak,” The Guardian (24 March 2020).

Ben Quinn et al, “Coronavirus news: India announces 21-day lockdown; Tokyo Olympics moved to 2021,” The Guardian (24 March 2020).

Andrew Sparrow & Lucy Campbell, “UK coronavirus lockdown live: MPs criticise government over Britons stuck abroad and lack of testing,” The Guardian (24 March 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live updates: India declares nationwide coronavirus lockdown; WHO warns that United States could become next epicenter,” The Washington Post (24 March 2020).

Adam Kilgore et al, “Japan, International Olympic Committee agree to postpone Tokyo Games,” The Washington Post (24 March 2020).

Jeffrey Gettleman & Kai Schultz, “Modi orders 3-week total lockdown for all 1.3 billion Indians,” The New York Times (24 March 2020).

Chico Harlan et al, “Italy’s coronavirus deaths are staggering. They may be more preview than anomaly.,” The Washington Post (23 March 2020).

Qasim Bukhari & Yusuf Jameel, “Will coronavirus pandemic diminish by summer?,” SSRN (17 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: global leaders beg public to stay home; Fed vows to buy as much debt as needed,” The New York Times (23 March 2020).

Max Fisher & Choe Sang-Hun, “How South Korea flattened the curve,” The New York Times (23 March 2020).

Angel Gurria, “Tackling the coronavirus (COVID-19),” OECD (23 March 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Trump suggests coronavirus containment measures may be too extreme as more states issue stay-at-home orders,” The Washington Post (23 March 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus news: global death toll passes 15,000 as total confirmed cases go above 350,000 – live updates,” The Guardian (23 March 2020).

David E. Sanger et al, “Trump bets business will answer call to fight virus, but strategy bewilders firms,” The New York Times (23 March 2020).

Robert Costa & Aaron Gregg, “Governors and mayors in growing uproar over Trump’s lagging coronavirus response,” The Washington Post (23 March 2020).

Toluse Olorunnipa et al, “As coronavirus spreads, so do doubts about America’s ability to meet the moment,” The Washington Post (23 March 2020).

Stocks fall despite Fed unleashing new spending power: live updates,” The New York Times (23 March 2020).

Micheal Crowley, “Coronavirus drives the U.S. and China deeper into global power struggle,” The New York Times (23 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. official says some areas will have towait for medical supplies; national and global tolls rise,” The New York Times (22 March 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: Top WHO official says coronavirus lockdowns alone not sufficient as confirmed cases top 300,000 worldwide,” The Washington Post (22 March 2020).

Hannah Mays et al, “Coronavirus live news: Spain death toll up by almost 400 as cases rise around the globe,” The Guardian (22 March 2020).

Traffic and pollution plummet as U.S. cities shut down for coronavirus,” The New York Times (22 March 2020).

Editorial Board, “The coronavirus has upended the world. But what exactly is it?,” The Washington Post ( 22 March 2020).

Shane Harris, “Italy’s coronavirus death toll feeds fear of what lies ahead in Europe and the U.S.,.” The Washington Post (22 March 2020).

Graham Readfearn, “Coronavirus: what happens to people’s lungs when they get Covid-19?,” The Guardian (21 March 2020).

Julie Bosman & Jesse McKinley, “One in five Americans ordered to stay home in coronavirus crackdown,” The New York Times (21 March 2020).

Derek Hawkins et al, “Live updates: Spain reports largest single-day coronavirus death toll; more U.S. states issue stay-at-home orders,” The Washington Post (21 March 2020).

Aamna Mohdin et al, “Coronavirus news: UK government gives daily briefing – live updates,” The Guardian (21 March 2020).

Heather Stewart & Peter Walker, “Coronavirus UK: Boris Johnson announces closure of all UK pubs and restaurants,” The Guardian (21 March 2020).

Helen Davidson, “Chinese inquiry exonerates coronavirus whistleblower doctor,” The Guardian (21 March 2020).

Sarah Marsh et al, “Coronavirus live updates: global cases top quarter of a million, as Jordan and Tunisia announce lockdowns,” The Guardian (20 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. extends tax filing deadline to July 15,” The New York Times (20 March 2020).

Taylor Telford et al, “Live updates: Tax filing deadline extended to July 15 due to coronavirus disruption,” The Washington Post (20 March 2020).

Tiffany Hsu & Tara Siegel Bernard, “Coronavirus layoff surge overwhelms unemployment offices,” The New York Times (20 March 2020).

Sohee Kim & Heesu Lee, “The virus hunter showing the world how to fight an epidemic,” Bloomberg (20 March 2020).

Siobhán O’Grady et al, “Live updates: New York workers told to stay home to slow coronavirus; Spain’s death toll jumps by 30 percent,” The Washington Post (20 March 2020).

Economic damage piles up, keeping investors on edge: live updates,” The New York Times (20 March 2020).

Lucy Campbell & Amy Walker, “UK coronavirus live: London hospital declares ‘critical incident’ due to surge in patients,” The Guardian (20 March 2020).

Anne Gearan, “Trump takes direct aim at China as known U.S. infections double and criticism mounts,” The Washington Post (19 March 2020).

Rick Noack et al, “Live updates: As coronavirus death toll mounts, more countries shut their borders,” The Washington Post (19 March 2020).

Michael Marshall, “We’re beginning to understand the biology of the Covid-19 virus,” New Scientist (19 March 2020).

Andrew Sparrow & Lucy Campbell, “UK coronavirus live: death toll rises to 137; health officials get powers to detain,” The Guardian (19 March 2020).

Severe outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) — United States, February 12–March 16, 2020,” CDC (18 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Thomas Heath, “Live updates: U.S. stocks in flux as central banks roll out latest stimulus plans,” The Washington Post (19 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: as economic toll rises, lawmakers weigh $1 trillion relief plan,” The New York Times (19 March 2020).

Ariana Eunjung Cha, “Younger adults are large percentage of coronavirus hospitalizations in United States, according to new CDC data,” The Washington Post (19 March 2020).

Javier C. Hernández, “China hits a coronavirus milestone: no new local infections,” The New York Times (19 March 2020).

Matthew Weaver, “Coronavirus latest: at a glance,” The Guardian (19 March 2020).

Wall Street faces more turmoil as stocks waver: live updates,” The New York Times (19 March 2020).

Planned services to support London’s critical workers,” Transport of London (18 March 2020).

Jacqueline Howard & Jason Hanna, “The new coronavirus can last on surfaces for up to three days, study says,” CNN Health (18 March 2020).

Bethany Allen-Ebrahimian, “Timeline: The early days of China’s coronavirus outbreak and cover-up,” Axios (18 March 2020).

Neeltje van Doremalen et al, “Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1,” The New England Journal of Medicine (17 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: nations pledge trillions to stave off economic catastrophe,” The New York Times (18 March 2020).

Siobhán O’Grady et al, “Live updates: Trump says border with Canada closing to ‘non-essential traffic’ in effort to slow coronavirus spread,” The Washington Post (18 March 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live news: death toll in Italy approaches 3,000; WHO tells Africa to ‘prepare for worst’,” The Guardian (18 March 2020).

Covid-19 live coverage: tracking its impact across the U.S.,” The New York Times (18 March 2020).

Peter Baker & Eileen Sullivan, “U.S. Virus plan anticipates 18-month pandemic and widespread shortages,” The New York Times (18 March 2020).

Ben Casselman et al, “Layoffs are just starting, and the forecasts are bleak,” The New York Times (18 March 2020).

Wall Street plunges with global markets in turmoil: live updates,” The New York Times (18 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Heather Long, “Live updates: U.S. stocks and oil prices slump as coronavirus reaches all 50 states,” The Washington Post (18 March 2020).

Ariana Eunjung Cha, “Coronavirus looks different in kids than in adults,” The Washington Post (17 March 2020).

Yuanyuan Dong et al, “Epidemiological characteristics of 2143 pediatric patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in China,” Pediatrics (2020).

Siobhán O’Grady et al, “Live updates: White House suggests deferred taxes or direct payments to individuals and businesses,” The Washington Post (17 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: White House seeks $850 billion stimulus and urges sending checks to Americans within 2 weeks,” The New York Times (17 March 2020).

Lucy Campbell, “Coronavirus news: Britain needs ‘big increase in testing,’ says government adviser; Euro 2020 postponed for a year – live updates,” The Guardian (17 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Heather Long, “Live updates: Fed launches special fund to keep corporate credit flowing, powering Wall Street’s second wind,” The Washington Post (17 March 2020).

Wall Street climbs after monday’s slump: live updates,” The New York Times (17 March 2020).

Rob Davies, “UK manufacturers to regear factories to build ventilators for NHS,” The Guardian (17 March 2020).

Stephen Chen, “People with blood type A may be more vulnerable to coronavirus, China study finds,” South China Morning Post (17 March 2020).

More than 80 countries have imposed travel bans to curb the new coronavirus,” The Economist (16 March 2020).

Edward Helmore, “‘Easiest time I’ve ever had’: US airports return to calm after travel ban chaos,” The Guardian (16 March 2020).

Denis Campbell, “The big question over coronavirus – can a person get it twice?,” The Guardian (16 March 2020).

Pablo Gutiérrez, “Coronavirus map: how Covid-19 is spreading across the world,” The Guardian (16 March 2020).

Siobhan O’Grady et al, “Live updates: Supreme Court postpones oral arguments due to coronavirus; E.U. proposes 30-day travel restriction,” The Washington Post (16 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: public life curtailed as nations step up restrictions,” The New York Times (16 March 2020).

Kevin Rawlinson et al, “Coronavirus updates: Canada closes borders to foreigners, as WHO tells countries to ‘test, test, test’ – live news,” The Guardian (16 March 2020).

Damien Gayle, “Coronavirus latest: at a glance,” The Guardian (16 March 2020).

Wall Street plummets despite the Fed’s support: live updates,” The New York Times (16 March 2020).

Graeme Wearden, “Wall Street plunges as Covid-19 global recession fears haunt markets – business live,” The Guardian (16 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Thomas Heat, “Live updates: U.S. stocks nosedive, trading paused as emergency Fed action fails to mollify investors,” The Washington Post (16 March 2020).

Hannah Devlin, “Can a face mask stop coronavirus? Covid-19 facts checked,” The Guardian (15 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: chaos at American airports, U.K. issues warning on travel to U.S.,” The New York Times (15 March 2020).

“‘It’s totally ad hoc’: Why america’s virus response looks like a patchwork,” The New York Times (15 March 2020).

Ben Casselman et al, “Coronavirus cost to businesses and workers: ‘It has all gone to hell’,” The New York Times (15 March 2020).

Laura Spinney,”When will a coronavirus vaccine be ready?,” The Guardian (15 March 2020).

Jeanna Smialek & Neil Irwin, “Fed slashes rates to near-zero and unveils sweeping program to aid economy,” The New York Times (15 March 2020).

Lucy Campbell et al, “Coronavirus latest updates: 14 more people die in UK as flight bans and lockdowns increase globally,” The Guardian (15 March 2020).

Katie Mettler et al, “Live updates: Puerto Rico enacts curfew over coronavirus concerns; travelers face hours-long delays at U.S. airports,” The Washington Post (15 March 2020)

Zhanwei Du et al, “Risk for transportation of 2019 novel coronavirus disease from Wuhan to other cities in China,” Emerging Infectious Diseases (5 May 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Trump says he’s been tested and extends travel ban to britain and ireland as outbreak hits 49 states,” The New York Times (14 March 2020).

Molly Blackall et al, “Coronavirus latest updates: Trump extends travel ban to UK and Ireland,” The Guardian (14 March 2020).

Katie Mettler et al, “Live updates: U.S. will suspend all travel from U.K and Ireland; Trump says he got coronavirus test,” The Washington Post (14 March 2020).

Tina Hesman Saey, “Vaccine scientists target coronavirus,” Science News (14 March 2020).

Tina Hesman Saey, “Coronavirus is most contagious before and during the first week of symptoms,” Science News (13 March 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Trump declares coronavirus outbreak a national emergency, announces measures that send financial markets soaring,” The Washington Post (13 March 2020).

Thomas Heath & Taylor Telford, “Emergency declaration brings second wind during another wild day on Wall Street,” The New York Times (13 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Trump declares national emergency,” The New York Times (13 March 2020).

Coronavirus live news: Trump says UK may be included in travel ban as WHO calls Europe ‘centre of pandemic’,” The Guardian (13 March 2020).

Ian Sample, “Coronavirus: many infections spread by people yet to show symptoms – scientists,” The Guardian (12 March 2020).

Michael Le Page, “Why is it so hard to calculate how many people will die from covid-19?,” New Scientist (11 March 2020).

Colin Barras, “Coronavirus testing in the US has been hampered by multiple problems,” New Scientist (11 March 2020).

Jessica Hamzelou, “Coronavirus: Risk of death rises with age, diabetes and heart disease,” New Scientist (9 March 2020).

Coronavirus map: Tracking the spread of the outbreak,” The New York Times (11 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Trump says some domestic travel could be curtailed, and senate cancels recess,” The New York Times (12 March 2020).

Damien Gayle, “Coronavirus live updates: death toll in Italy passes 1,000,” The Guardian (12 March 2020).

Coronavirus: Children as susceptible as adults,” Nature (12 March 2020).

Ruby Mellen, “El Salvador’s president says the country has no coronavirus cases, declares a national quarantine,” The New York Times (12 March 2020).

Roni Caryn Rabin, “Coronavirus is an even worse threat to more than half of Americans,” The New York Times (12 March 2020).

Anna Fifield et al, “Live updates: Brazilian official who met Trump and Pence at Mar-a-Lago tests positive for coronavirus,” The Washington Post (12 March 2020).

Thomas Heath et al, “Live updates: U.S. stocks dive after Trump issues coronavirus travel ban; Fed will inject $1.5 trillion into bond markets,” The Washington Post (12 March 2020).

Smriti Mallapaty, “Why does the coronavirus spread so easily between people?,” Nature (11 March 2020).

Pam Belluck, “What does the coronavirus do to the body?,” The New York Times (11 March 2020).

Jonathan Corum & Carl Zimmer, “How coronavirus hijacks your cells,” The New York Times (11 March 2020) – graphical step-by-step guide to how SARS-CoV-19 does its business.

Kate Ravilious, “Will spring slow spread of coronavirus in northern hemisphere?,” The Guardian (11 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: W.H.O. declares pandemic as number of infected countries grows,” The New York Times (11 March 2020).

U.S. coronavirus cases surpass 1,000: full map,” The New York Times (11 March 2020).

Haroon Siddique et al, “Coronavirus live updates: WHO says Covid-19 is pandemic,” The Guardian (11 March 2020).

Rick Noack, “Live updates: WHO declares coronavirus a pandemic; White House considers moving all of Europe to restrictive travel advisory,” The Washington Post (11 March 2020).

Stocks fall as investors look to Washington for help: live updates,” The New York Times (11 March 2020).

Sheri Fink & Mike Baker, “‘It’s just everywhere already’: how delays in testing set back the U.S. coronavirus response,” The New York Times (11 March 2020).

New study on COVID-19 estimates 5.1 days for incubation period,” ScienceDaily (10 March 2020).

Stephen A. Lauer et al, “The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: Estimation and application,” Annals of Internal Medicine (10 March 2020).

Mohammad M. Sajadi, “Temperature and latitude analysis to predict potential spread and seasonality for COVID-19,” SSRN (9 March 2020). (paywall protected)

Breaking! Preprint research shows that SARS-CoV-2 has third binding mode, making it a truly potent coronavirus that is in a league of its own,” Thailand Medical News (9 March 2020).

Ibrahim Ibrahim et al, “COVID-19 Spike-host cell receptor GRP78 binding site prediction,” Research Square (26 February 2020).

Yanan Cao et al, “Comparative genetic analysis of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) receptor ACE2 in different populations,” Cell Discovery (24 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: governments struggle to cope as anxiety rises,” The New York Times (10 March 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus live updates: UK death toll rises to six as Italy-wide lockdown comes into force,” The Guardian (10 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Thomas Heath, “Live updates: Stocks fluctuate after opening bell bounce,” The Washington Post (10 March 2020).

Adam Taylor et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus lockdown in Italy triggers flight suspensions; major U.S. colleges close classrooms as virus spreads,” The Washington Post (10 March 2020).

Steven Lee Myers, “Xi goes to Wuhan, coronavirus epicenter, in show of confidence,” The New York Times (10 March 2020).

Stock markets unsteady after early rally: live updates,” The New York Times (10 March 2020).

James B. Stewart, “It’s a ‘swimming naked’ moment: the financial system has a real test,” The New York Times (10 March 2020).

William Wan & Joel Achenbach, “Coronavirus is mysteriously sparing kids and killing the elderly. Understanding why may help defeat the virus,” The New York Times (10 March 2020).

Valarie Strauss, “Is it really a good idea to close schools to fight coronavirus?,” The Washington Post (10 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: virus keeps spreading as governments clamp down,” The New York Times (9 March 2020).

Lucy Campbell et al, “Coronavirus live updates: fourth death confirmed in UK, as head of New York’s airports tests positive,” The Guardian (9 March 2020).

Adam Taylor et al, “Live updates: World markets spiral as coronavirus fear unleashes oil-price war; NY Port Authority head tests positive,” The Washington Post (9 March 2020).

Thomas Hweath et al, “Live updates: U.S. markets crater with stocks down more than 5 percent as coronavirus spreads,” The Washington Post (9 March 2020).

Jason Horowitz & Emma Bubola, “On day 1 of lockdown, Italian officials urge citizens to abide by rules,” The New York Times (9 March 2020).

Stocks suffer worst drop since 2011: live updates,” The New York Times (9 March 2020).

Heather Long, “The markets are sending a message about coronavirus: The recession risk is real,” The Washington Post (9 March 2020).

Rebecca Smithers, “Shopping, travel, events: what coronavirus means for consumers,” The Guardian (9 March 2020).

Denise Grady, “U.S. health experts say stricter measures are required to limit coronavirus’s spread,” The New York Times (9 March 2020).

Thomas Escritt, “Coronavirus: Germany promises support to companies, urges public to stay home,” Reuters (8 March 2020)

Mitch Smith et al, “Tracking every coronavirus case in the U.S.: full map,” The New York Times (8 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Italian PM signs lockdown decree affecting millions in north,” The Guardian (8 March 2020).

Live coronavirus updates: Grand Princess cruise ship to dock in Oakland; Virginia announces second case,” The Washington Post (8 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: cruise ship with infected passengers and crew to dock in California,” The New York Times (8 March 2020).

Colby Itkowitz et al, “Coronavirus continues its rapid spread, confounding efforts by global leaders,” The Washington Post (8 March 2020).

Michael D. Shear et al, “Inside Trump administration, debate raged over what to tell public,” The New York Times (8 March 2020).

Jason Horowitz, “Italy locks down much of the country’s north over the coronavirus,” The New York Times (8 March 2020).

Nicola Slawson et al, “Coronavirus live updates: number of confirmed cases in UK jumps to 206,” The Guardian (7 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: outbreak spreads in U.S. and surges in Europe; American sailor Infected in Italy,” The New York Times (7 March 2020).

Chico Harlan et al, “Live updates: U.S. coronavirus death toll reaches 17 as Florida reports first fatalities outside West Coast,” The Washington Post (7 March 2020).

David Enrich et al, “Spiraling virus fears are causing financial carnage,” The New York Times (7 March 2020).

Coronavirus quarantine hotel in China collapses, trapping dozens,” The Guardian (7 March 2020).

Tourism flows and death rates suggest covid-19 is being under-reported,” The Economist (7 March 2020).

Timelapse of coronavirus cases by country” – an interesting graphical display

Adam Taylor et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus fears reverberate as cases pass 100,000; U.S. officials widen states of emergency,” The Washington Post (6 March 2020).

Sarah Marsh & Helen Sullivan, “Coronavirus latest updates: 163 cases confirmed in the UK, including two British Airways staff,” The Guardian (6 March 2020).

Hannah Devlin & Sarah Boseley, “Coronavirus facts: what’s the mortality rate and is there a cure?,” The Guardian (6 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: W.H.O. chief warns it’s ‘time to act’,” The New York Times (6 March 2020).

David Gelles & Niraj Chokshi, “‘Almost without precedent’: airlines hit hard by coronavirus,” The New York Times (6 March 2020).

Austan Goolsbee, “Why the coronavirus could threaten the U.S. economy even more than China’s,” The New York Times (6 March 2020).

Thomas Heath, “Wall Street tumbles, global stocks slide as coronavirus drives week’s frenzy,” The Washington Post (6 March 2020).

Stocks plunge and bond yields sink: live updates,” The New York Times (6 March 2020).

Coronavirus updates: countries intensify efforts to halt outbreaks,” The New York Times (5 March 2020).

Jessica Hamzelou, “Coronavirus: Are there two strains and is one more deadly?,” New Scientist (5 March 2020).

Coronavirus news: UK cases jump to 115, department of health confirms – latest updates,” The Guardian (5 March 2020).

Live updates: Cruise ship held off California coast; coronavirus turmoil widens as U.S. death toll mounts,” The Washington Post (5 March 2020).

Mapping the spread of the coronavirus in the U.S. and worldwide,” The Washington Post (5 March 2020).

Niraj Chokshi, “Airlines feel deepening impact as coronavirus upends travel,” The New York Times (5 March 2020).

Stocks slide and airlines flag up to $113 billion in losses: live updates,” The New York Times (5 March 2020).

Taylor Telford & Thomas Heath, “U.S. markets flash across-the-board declines as coronavirus outlook worsens,” The Washington Post (5 March 2020).

Amy Goldstein et al, “Expanded coronavirus testing may overwhelm lab capacity, say some experts,” The Washington Post (5 March 2020).

Xiaolu Tang et al, “On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2,” National Science Review (3 March 2020).

Jiehao Cai et al, “A case series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: clinical and epidemiological features,” Clinical Infectious Diseases (28 February 2020).

Farnaz Fassihi & David D. Kirkpatrick, “Iran’s coronavirus response: pride, paranoia, secrecy, chaos,” The New York Times (4 March 2020).

Adam Taylor, “Live updates: Italy to close schools as coronavirus death toll passes 100, L.A. County declares health emergency as cases mount,” The Washington Post (4 March 2020).

Katie Mettler, “How the coronavirus compares with the flu,” The Washington Post (4 March 2020).

Helen Davidson & Martin Farrer, “Coronavirus: fears of global slowdown grow as US stimulus fails to rally markets,” The Guardian (4 March 2020).

Adam Taylor et al, “Live updates: Fed cuts interest rate; G7 finance chiefs stop short of announcing specific actions to contain coronavirus fallout,” The Washington Post (3 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: W.H.O. says Covid-19 has higher fatality rate than the flu,” The New York Times (4 March 2020).

Sarah Marsh et al, “Coronavirus: Iran to mobilise 300,000 soldiers and volunteers as 23 MPs infected – latest news,” The Guardian (3 March 2020).

Coronavirus updates: After gaps in U.S. testing draw criticism, officials move to ramp up screening,” The New York Times (3 March 2020).

Coronavirus map: tracking the spread of the outbreak,” The New York Times (3 March 2020).

U.S. stocks whipsaw after the fed cuts rates: live markets updates,” The New York Times (3 March 2020).

Rachel Siegel & Thomas Heath, “Dow spikes, then plunges after Fed issues emergency rate cut to stem coronavirus panic,” The Washington Post (3 March 2020).

Jeanna Smialek, “Fed slashes interest rates in emergency move as coronavirus fears mount,” The New York Times (3 March 2020).

IOC insists Tokyo 2020 will go ahead on time despite coronavirus outbreak,” The Guardian (3 March 2020).

Wei-jie Guan et al, “Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China,” The New England Journal of Medicine (28 February 2020).

Coronavirus: two patients die in France as four new cases detected in England – live updates,” The Guardian (2 March 2020).

Stocks rally as traders look for economic help: live market updates,” The New York Times (2 March 2020).

Teo Armus et al, “Live updates: Global coronavirus death toll surpasses 3,000; markets stage cautious recovery on stimulus hopes,” The Washington Post (2 March 2020).

Jeanna Smialek & Jack Ewing, “Economists slash global growth forecasts as coronavirus spreads,” The New York Times (2 March 2020).

Joel Achenbach et al, “Coronavirus may have spread undetected for weeks in Washington state, which reported first two deaths in U.S.,” The Washington Post (2 March 2020).

Paul Mozur et al, “In coronavirus fight, China gives citizens a color code, with red flags,” The New York Times (2 March 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Rhode Island reports first ‘presumptive’ case, and Louvre closes its door,” The New York Times (1 March 2020).

Katie Mettler et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus was probably spreading for six weeks in Washington state, study says; first deaths confirmed in U.S., Australia and Thailand,” The Washington Post (1 March 2020).

Molly Blackall et al, “Coronavirus: Italy death toll rises to 34 as Dominican Republic reports first case – latest updates,” The Guardian (1 March 2020).

Mike Baker et al, “Washington state declares emergency amid coronavirus death and illnesses at nursing home,” The New York Times (1 March 2020).

Elisabeth Rosenthal, “We don’t really know how many people have coronavirus,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

Maayan Jaffe-Hoffman, “Israeli scientists: ‘In a few weeks, we will have coronavirus vaccine’,” Jerusalem Post (27 February 2020).

David Cyranoski, “Mystery deepens over animal source of coronavirus,” Nature (26 February 2020).

G. Kampf et al, “Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents,” The Journal of Hospital Infection (22 January 2020).

Zi Yue Zu et al, “Perspective from China,” Radiology (21 February 2020).

Kathy Lofy, “2019 novel coronavirus (Covid-19) infection,” Washington State Department of Health (12 February 2020).

Coronavirus: South Korea reports ‘critical moment’ after 813 new cases – latest updates,” The Guardian (29 February 2020).

Phillip Inman, “Markets expected to fall further as coronavirus hits China’s economy,” The Guardian (29 February 2020).

Denis Grady, “How does the coronavirus compare with the flu?,” The New York Times (29 February 2020).

Live updates: New coronavirus cases indicate virus is spreading in U.S.; FDA expands testing,” The Washington Post (29 February 2020).

Lenny Bernstein et al, “Oregon’s first coronavirus case is a school employee, two more cases confirmed on West Coast,” The Washington Post (29 February 2020).

Coronavirus updates: no known source for new cases in U.S. and U.K.,” The New York Times (29 February 2020).

Matt Phillips, “Coronavirus fears drive stocks down for 6th day and into correction,” The New York Times (29 February 2020).

Donald G. McNeil Jr. “To take on the coronavirus, go medieval on it,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

Live updates: Coronavirus pummels financial markets; Japanese island declares state of emergency,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

Emily Cochrane et al, “U.S. health workers responding to coronavirus lacked training and protective gear, whistle-blower says,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

Stock market continues to plummet in worst week since 2008: Live updates,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

Tanya Lewis, “A promising antiviral is being tested for the coronavirus—but results are not yet out,” Scientific American (28 February 2020).

Matt Phillips, “Coronavirus fears drive stocks down for 6th day and into correction,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

David J. Lynch, “As stock markets tumble because of coronavirus, this time feels different,” The Washington Post (28 February 2020).

Simon Denyer, “Japan’s Abe faces mounting anger over school closures, lack of virus testing,” The Washington Post (28 February 2020).

Javier C. Hernandez, “China spins coronavirus crisis, hailing itself as a global leader,” The New York Times (28 February 2020).

Peter Beaumont, “An epidemic is coming’: Europe struggles to contain coronavirus,” The Guardian (28 February 2020).

Rob Davis & Graeme Wearden, “Dow Jones plunges 1,000 points on coronavirus fears,” The Guardian (28 February 2020).

Sarah Marsh, “Coronavirus: UK schools could shut for two months in event of pandemic – live updates,” The Guardian (27 February 2020).

Today’s coronavirus news at a glance,” The Guardian (27 February 2020).

Richard Parthington, “Coronavirus ‘could trigger damage on scale of 2008 financial crisis‘,” The Guardian (27 February 2020).

Adam Taylor et al, “Live updates: Fears grow of a coronavirus pandemic as markets stumble again; Japan shuts schools,” The Washington Post (27 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: new cases light up the map as countries brace for outbreaks,” The New York Times (27 February 2020).

Roni Caryn Rabin & Sheri Fink, “Coronavirus patient in California was not tested for days,” The New York Times (27 February 2020).

Geoffrey A. Fowler et al, “Dozens of staffers at Calif. hospital that treated coronavirus patient with no travel to affected countries are being monitored,” The Washington Post (27 February 2020).

Vivian Wang, “Most coronavirus cases are mild. That’s good and bad news.,” The New York Times (27 February 2020).

Matt Phillips, “Coronavirus drives stocks down for 6th day,” The New York Times (27 February 2020).

Coronavirus: Ireland v Italy Six Nations games postponed amid global rise in cases – live updates,” The Guardian (26 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Europe prepares for pandemic as illness spreads from Italy,” The New York Times (26 February 2020).

Live updates: Coronavirus fears spook markets as outbreak spreads; Trump calls news conference, accuses media of ‘panicking markets’,” The Washington Post (26 February 2020).

Taylor Telford, “Wall Street makes a comeback after brutal coronavirus sell-off,” The Washington Post (26 February 2020).

Peter S. Goodman & Aaron H. Maines, “‘Not just an Italian problem’: coronavirus threatens Europe’s economy,” The New York Times (26 February 2020).

Age, sex, existing conditions of Covid-19 cases and deaths,” WorldOMeter (23 February 2020).

Mattha Busby et al, “Coronavirus: Switzerland, Austria and Croatia report cases as Tenerife quarantines hotel – updates,” The Guardian (25 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: case in Canary Islands locks down 1,000 resort guests,” The New York Times (25 February 2020).

Adam Taylor et al, “Live updates: Coronavirus sparks new travel disruption; Iran’s deputy health minister tests positive as death toll rises,” The Washington Post (25 February 2020).

Matt Phillips & Keith Bradsher, “Stock market jitters persist after Wall Street’s worst drop in 2 years,” The New York Times (25 February 2020).

Jeanne Whalen & Abha Bhattarai, “U.S. companies face crucial test over China’s factory shutdown,” The Washington Post (25 February 2020).

Martin Chulov, “Iran’s deputy health minister: I have coronavirus,” The Guardian (25 February 2020).

Ian M. Mackay & Katherine E. Arden, “So you think you’re about to be in a pandemic?,” Virology Down Under (25 February 2020).

James Hamblin, “You’re likely to get the coronavirus,” The Atlantic (24 February 2020).

Adam Taylor & Rick Noack, “Live updates: Coronavirus cases surge globally as Italy confirms fifth death; China delays National People’s Congress,” The Washington Post (24 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: W.H.O. warns the world is unready for global spread,” The New York Times (24 February 2020).

Matthew Weaver et al, “Coronavirus: sixth person dies in Italy amid confusion over death toll in Iran – live updates,” The Guardian (24 February 2020).

Sam Jones & Aamna Mohdin, “Coronavirus: Iran denies cover-up as six deaths reported in Italy,” The Guardian (24 February 202 ).

Michael T. Osterhom & Mark Olshaker, “Is it a pandemic yet?,” The New York Times (24 February 2020).

Rachel Siegel & Thomas Heath, “Dow, global markets plunge as coronavirus cases spike outside China,” The Washington Post (24 February 2020).

Kalyeena Makortoff et al, “Wall Street plummets as coronavirus spreads in Europe – as it happened,” The Guardian (24 February 2020).

WHO says no longer uses ‘pandemic’ category, but virus still emergency,” Reuters (24 February 2020).

Wall Street plummets as coronavirus spreads in Europe – as it happened,” The Guardian (24 February 2020).

Angela Giuffrida et al, “World is approaching coronavirus tipping point, experts say,” The Guardian (23 February 2020).

Richard Partington, “Economic impact of coronavirus outbreak deepens,” The Guardian (23 February 2020).

Sarah Marsh, “Coronavirus outbreak: four cruise ship passengers test positive in UK – live news,” The Guardian (23 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Italy locks down region after spike in infections,” The New York Times (23 February 2020).

Adam Taylor et al, “Coronavirus cases spike in Italy, China says most new infections limited to Hubei, South Korea declares ‘red alert’,” The Washington Post (23 February 2020).

Angela Giuffrida & Lauren Cochrane, “Italy imposes draconian rules to stop spread of coronavirus,” The Guardian (23 February 2020).

Patrick Wintour, “Turkey and Pakistan close borders with Iran over coronavirus deaths,” The Guardian (23 February 2020).

Emma Graham-Harrison, “China encourages citizens to return to work as coronavirus hits economy,” The Guardian (23 February 2020).

Mattha Busby & Haroon Siddique, “Coronavirus: more deaths confirmed as authorities around the world struggle to contain outbreak – latest updates,” The Guardian (22 February 2020).

Carolyn Y. Johnson et al, “Coronavirus outbreak edges closer to pandemic,” The Washington Post (22 February 2020).

Yan Bai et al, “Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19,” JAMA Network (21 February 2020).

Lirong Zou et al, “SARS-CoV-2 viral load in upper respiratory specimens of infected patients,” The New England Journal of Medicine (19 February 2020).

Ruiyun Li et al, “Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (COVID-19),medRxiv (17 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: W.H.O. team heads to Wuhan as its leader warns Africa,” The New York Times (22 February 2020).

Anna Fifield et al, “New developments suggest coronavirus incubation could be longer than 14 days, as global infections rise,” The Washington Post (22 February 2020).

Roni Caryn Rabin, “Why the coronavirus seems to hit men harder than women,” The New York Times (20 February 2020).

Jessica Glenza, “Coronavirus: US says Russia behind disinformation campaign,” The Guardian (22 February 2020 ).

Nemo Kim & Rebecca Ratcliffe, “South Korea screens thousands of religious sect members for coronavirus,” The Guardian (22 February 2020 ).

Motoko Rich, “‘We’re in a petri dish’: How a coronavirus ravaged a cruise ship,” The New York Times (22 February 2020).

Gerry Shih et al, “Live updates: China again changes coronavirus reporting criteria, as prison outbreak raises alarm; cases soar in South Korea,” The Washington Post (21 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: more confusion as China changes counting method yet again,” The New York Times (21 February 2020).

Lily Kuo & Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Coronavirus kills young Wuhan doctor as hundreds infected in China’s prisons,” The Guardian (21 February 2020).

Mark Sweeney, “China car sales tumble by 92% as coronavirus weighs on industry,” The Guardian (21 February 2020).

Mark Sweeney, “Coronavirus: air travel demand ‘will fall for first time in 11 years’,” The Guardian (21 February 2020).

Molly Blackall & Rachel Obordo, “‘It’s post-apocalyptic’: how coronavirus has altered day-to-day life,” The Guardian (21 February 2020).

Choe Sang-Hun, “Shadowy church is at center of coronavirus outbreak in South Korea,” The New York Times (21 February 2020).

Martin Belam et al, “Coronavirus: cruise ship accounts for more than half of cases outside China – latest news,” The Guardian (20 February 2020).

Sarah Boseley, “Experts fear false rumours could harm Chinese cooperation on coronavirus,” The Guardian (20 February 2020).

Aamna Mohdin & Laith Al-Khalaf, “China’s coronavirus outbreak leaves foreign nationals in limbo,” The Guardian (20 February 2020).

Gerry Shih et al, “Live updates: First coronavirus deaths among Diamond Princess passengers and in South Korea; health experts warn of mounting cases beyond China,” The Washington Post (20 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: studying clusters in Japan for clues on virus’s spread,” The New York Times (20 February 2020).

Keith Bradsher, “As China fights the coronavirus, some say it has gone too far,” The New York Times (20 February 2020).

Coronavirus: two patients in Iran have died as cruise ship cases rise to 621 – live updates,” The Guardian (19 February 2020).

Gerry Shih & Rick Noack, “Live updates: China strikes upbeat note on coronavirus as businesses reopen; Hong Kong reports second death,” The Washington Post (19 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: hundreds let off quarantined ship in Japan,” The New York Times (19 February 2020).

Motoko Rich & Eimi Yamamitsu, “Japan lets cruise passengers walk free. Is that safe?,” The New York Times (19 February 2020).

Alexandra Stevenson, “China expels 3 Wall Street Journal reporters as media relations sour,” The New York Times (19 February 2020).

Walter Russell Mead, “China is the real sick man of Asia,” The Wall Street Journal (3 February 2020).

Jessica Murray et al, “Coronavirus: Japan to trial HIV antiretroviral drugs on patients – latest news,” The Guardian (18 February 2020).

Anna Fifield et al, “Live updates: Director of Wuhan hospital dies of coronavirus as infections mount in China,” The Washington Post (18 February 2020).

Live updates: over 150 million Chinese are under coronavirus lockdown,” The New York Times (18 February 2020).

Taylor Telford, “Global markets shudder as Apple’s warning deepens coronavirus fallout,” The Washington Post (18 February 2020).

Bill Gallaher, “Remarkable age distribution of OC43 vs. SARS-CoV-2 in China,” (17 February 2020).

Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Health experts question coronavirus quarantine measures on cruise ship,” The Guardian (18 February 2020).

Li Yuan, “In coronavirus fight, China sidelines an ally: its own people,” The New York Times (18 February 2020).

Kristian G. Andersen, Andrew Rambaut, W. Ian Lipkin, Edward C. Holmes, & Robert F. Garry, “The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2,” Artic Network (16 February 2020).

Jessica Murray et al, “Coronavirus: 99 more cases confirmed on cruise ship – live news,” The Guardian (17 February 2020).

Graeme Wearden, “Japan’s economy on brink of recession; Cathay’s profits warning – as it happened,” The Guardian (17 February 2020).

Justin McCurry & Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Diamond Princess cruise ship in Japan confirms 99 new coronavirus cases,” The Guardian (17 February 2020).

Coronavirus updates: infected americans evacuated from cruise ship and flown to U.S.,” The New York Times (17 February 2020).

Anna Fifield, “Fourteen American cruise ship passengers with coronavirus among those evacuated to the U.S.,” The Washington Post (17 February 2020).

Sarah Boseley et al, “What is coronavirus and what should I do if I have symptoms?,” The Guardian (17 February 2020).

Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Taiwan reports first death from coronavirus,” The Guardian (16 February 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “As U.S. plans evacuations for American travelers on cruise ship in Japan, a passenger from another ship turns up with coronavirus,” The Washington Post (16 February 2020).

Gerry Shih & Katie Mettler, “Fears mount over new coronavirus case in Westerdam cruise ship thought to be infection free,” The Washington Post (16 February 2020).

Coronavirus: first fatality in Europe confirmed – live updates,” The Guardian (15 February 2020).

Kim Willsher & Simon Murphy, “Chinese tourist in France becomes Europe’s first coronavirus fatality,” The Guardian (15 February 2020).

Jasper Jolly et al, “‘Black swan’ coronavirus casts its shadow over the global economy,” The Guardian (15 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: first death outside Asia reported in France,” The New York Times (15 February 2020).

Raymond Zhong & Paul Mozur, “To tame coronavirus, Mao-Style social control blankets China,” The New York Times (15 February 2020).

Carolyn Y. Johnson & Lena H. Sun, “The biggest questions about the new coronavirus and what we know so far,” The Washington Post (15 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: China says 1,700 health workers infected,” The New York Times (14 February 2020).

Simon Murphy et al, “Coronavirus latest updates: two MPs self-isolate over conference scare – live news,” The Guardian (14 February 2020).

David J. Lynch, “Economic fallout from China’s coronavirus mounts around the world,” The Washington Post (14 February 2020).

Smriti Mallapty, “Scientists fear coronavirus spread in countries least able to contain it,” Nature (13 February 2020).

Max Fisher, “Coronavirus ‘hits all the hot buttons’ for how we misjudge risk,” The New York Times (14 February 2020).

Carolyn Y. Johnson, “Inside a lab where scientists are working urgently to fight the coronavirus outbreak,” The Washington Post (14 February 2020).

Pablo M. De Salazar et al, “Using predicted imports of 2019-nCoV cases to determine locations that may not be identifying all imported cases,” medRxiv (11 February 2020).

Agence France-Presse, “‘It’s insulting’: Indonesia criticizes US study concerns over no coronavirus cases,” The Jakarta (12 February 2020).

Hong Zhang, “Early lessons from the frontline of the 2019-nCoV outbreak,” The Lancet (11 February 2020).

Jessica Murray et al, “Coronavirus: no significant shift in mortality or severity, say WHO – live news,” The Guardian (13 February 2020).

Niko Kommenda et al, “How the coronavirus spread across China and the world – visual explainer,” The Guardian (13 February 2020).

Lily Kuo et al, “Coronavirus: China purges regional leaders hours after spike in deaths and new cases,” The Guardian (13 February 2020).

Gerry Shih & Adam Taylor, “Live updates: China’s leaders shake up political ranks as coronavirus cases near 60,000; Japan announces second virus fatality outside China,” The Washington Post (13 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: China expands mass roundup,” The New York Times (13 February 2020).

Denis Campbell, “London coronavirus patient turned up at hospital in Uber taxi,” The Guardian (13 February 2020).

Tariro Mzezewa, “In coronavirus, $45-billion cruise industry faces a big challenge,” The New York Times (13 February 2020).

Roni Caryn Rabin, “Coronavirus cases seemed to be leveling off. Not anymore.,” The New York Times (12 February 2020).

Coronavirus updates: China seeks to restart economy while fighting outbreak,” The New York Times (12 February 2020).

Amy Walker et al, “Coronavirus: Tests on 83 people quarantined in Wirral come back negative – latest news,” The Guardian (12 February 2020).

Anna Fifield & Rick Noack, “Live updates: Rate of new coronavirus infections slows, but China remains largely shut down,” The Washington Post (12 February 2020).

Coronavirus updates: the illness now has a name: Covid-19,” The New York Times (11 February 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Live updates: China urges countries to restore ties for sake of the global economy as coronavirus deaths pass 1,000,” The Washington Post (11 February 2020).

Coronavirus: two UK prisoners being tested as vaccine could be ready in 18 months – latest news,” The Guardian (11 February 2020).

Sarah Boseley, “Coronavirus ‘could infect 60% of global population if unchecked‘,” The Guardian (11 February 2020).

Megan Specia & Constant Meheut, “U.K. declares coronavirus ‘imminent threat’ as Europe scrambles,” The New York Times (11 February 2020).

Coronavirus disease named Covid-19,” BBC News (11 February 2020).

Coronavirus vaccine could be 18 months away, says WHO,” The Guardian (11 February 2020).

Alexander E. Gorbalenya, “Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus – The species and its viruses, a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group,” BioRxiv (11 February 2020).

Imperial College of London reports on the number of 2019-nCoV cases in Wuhan City, 2019-nCoV transmissibility, and its severity.

Amy Walker et al, “Coronavirus: new UK cases are ‘closely linked’, official says – live news,” The Guardian (10 February 2020).

Ben Dooley & Motoko Rich, “Cruise ship’s coronavirus outbreak leaves crew nowhere to hide,” The New York Times (10 February 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Cruise ship coronavirus infections double, exceeding the total for any country but China,” The Washington Post (10 February 2020).

Phillip Inman, “Will the coronavirus outbreak derail the global economy?,” The Guardian (10 February 2020).

Simon Denyer & Adam Taylor, “Coronavirus live updates: Cruise-ship infections surge as thousands remain quarantined,” The Washington Post (10 February 2020).

Coronavirus updates: Xi tours Beijing after 97 die in a day in China,” The New York Times (10 February 2020).

Steven Lee Myers, “‘Let’s not shake hands’: Xi Jinping tours Beijing amid coronavirus crisis,” The New York Times (10 February 2020).

Gabriel Leung, “The urgent questions scientists are asking about coronavirus,” The New York Times (10 February 2020).

Denis Campbell & Frances Perraudin, “Coronavirus: number of confirmed UK cases rises from four to eight,” The Guardian (10 February 2020).

Shibani Mahtani, “In Hong Kong, toilet paper is in short supply. Trust in the government is even more scarce.,” The Washington Post (10 February 2020).

Steven Lee Myers & Karen Zraick, “Coronavirus epidemic reaches bleak milestone, exceeding SARS toll,” The New York Times (10 February 2020).

Lucy Campbell, “Chinese in UK report ‘shocking’ levels of racism after coronavirus outbreak,” The Guardian (9 February 2020).

Michael Safi et al, “Coronavirus deaths overtake Sars as global toll rises to at least 800,” The Guardian (9 February 2020).

Gerry Shih & Alex Horton, “Coronavirus deaths climb as China corrals sick in quarantine facilities in outbreak epicenter,” The Washington Post (9 February 2020).

Dawei Wang et al, “Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China,” JAMA (7 February 2020).

Tom Frieden, “New study an eye-opener on how coronavirus is spreading and how little we know,” CNN (9 February 2020).

China allocates $10.26 billion to fight coronavirus,” Reuters (9 February 2020).

Latest on the coronavirus spreading in China and beyond,” Reuters (9 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: an American in Wuhan dies of the virus,” The New York Times (8 February 2020).

Anna Fifield & Gerry Shih, “First American and Japanese deaths reported in coronavirus epidemic,” The Washington Post (8 February 2020).

K.K. Rebecca Lai et al, “Coronavirus map: tracking the spread of the outbreak,” The New York Times (8 February 2020).

Kim Willsher et al, “Coronavirus: UK child, 9, in hospital in France with coronavirus,” The Guardian (8 February 2020).

Steven Sanche et al, “The novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, is highly contagious and more
infectious than initially estimated,” medRxiv (7 February 2020).

Donald G. McNeil Jr. & Zolan Kanno-Youngs, “C.D.C. and W.H.O. offers to help China have been ignored for weeks,” The New York Times (7 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: offers of help go unanswered by China as death toll grows again,” The New York Times (7 February 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Coronavirus live updates: Death of whistleblower doctor unleashes fury in China; more trouble for cruise passengers,” The Washington Post (7 February 2020).

Simon Denyer & Siobhan O’Grady, “Passengers quarantined on cruise ship are desperate to escape coronavirus that infected 64 fellow travelers,” The Washington Post (7 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Trump praises China’s response to outbreak as death toll passes 600,” The New York Times (7 February 2020).

Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Concerns coronavirus is going undetected in Indonesia,” The Guardian (7 February 2020).

Joel Achenbach, “Coronavirus came from bats or possibly pangolins amid ‘acceleration’ of new zoonotic infections,” The Washington Post (7 February 2020).

Damien Gayle et al, “Coronavirus: public buying protective suits causing shortages for emergency services – latest news,” The Guardian (7 February 2020).

Li Yuan, “Widespread outcry in China over death of coronavirus doctor,” The New York Times (7 February 2020).

Gerry Shih, “Doctor’s death from coronavirus sparks a digital uprising, rattling China’s leaders,” The Washington Post (7 February 2020).

Simon Murphy et al, “Coronavirus: Chinese doctor who warned about outbreak ‘dies from infection’ – latest news,” The Guardian (6 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: soaring death toll heightens concerns about care,” The New York Times (6 February 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Coronavirus live updates: Ten more people test positive on quarantined cruise ship; Chinese doctor who tried to sound alarm has died from disease,” The Washington Post (6 February 2020).

Emma Graham-Harrison & Justin McCurry, “Whistleblower Chinese doctor dies from coronavirus in Wuhan, state media says,” The Guardian (6 February 2020).

Justin McCurry & Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Newborn among 24,500 coronavirus cases as death toll nears 500,” The Guardian (5 February 2020).

Do face masks help prevent coronavirus? – video explainer,” The Guardian (5 February 2020).

Shibani Mahtani & Siobhán O’Grady, “Coronavirus live updates: Hundreds of evacuees to be held on bases in California; Hong Kong and Taiwan restrict travel from mainland China,” The Washington Post (5 February 2020).

Taylor Telford, “Unconfirmed reports of coronavirus treatment send global markets soaring,” The Washington Post (5 February 2020).

Gerry Shih, “In China’s virus-hit heartland, fear and loathing on the road to Wuhan,” The Washington Post (5 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Americans evacuated from Wuhan arrive in California,” The New York Times (5 February 2020).

Linda J. Bilmes, “Did Trump leave America unprepared for the coronavirus?,” Yahoo! Finance (4 February 2020).

Isabella Nikolic, “Thai medics claim coronavirus break-through: Patient is declared ‘disease-free’ in 48 hours using HIV and flu drugs – as Dettol is forced to warn there is ‘NO evidence spray kills virus’,” Daily Mail (3 February 2020).

Coronavirus: UK advises British citizens to leave China – live updates,” The Guardian (4 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Xi urges tougher response to the crisis,” The New York Times (4 February 2020).

Anna Fifield & Siobhan O’Grady, “Coronavirus live updates: Hong Kong reports first coronavirus fatality as new cases spread across Southeast Asia,” The Washington Post (4 February 2020).

Lily Kuo, “Coronavirus: death toll passes Sars virus as dozens more die in Wuhan,” The Guardian (3 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: China death toll is greater than in SARS outbreak,” The New York Times (3 February 2020).

Simon Denyer & Adam Taylor, “Coronavirus live updates: China’s reopened stock markets plunge as coronavirus outbreak threatens to become pandemic,” The Washington Post (3 February 2020).

Donald G. McNeil Jr., “Wuhan coronavirus looks increasingly like a pandemic, experts say,” The New York Times (2 February 2020).

Bruce Y. Lee, “Coronavirus: here are 10 misconceptions being spread,” Forbes (2 February 2020).

Anna Fifield, “Coronavirus infections predicted to grow exponentially; first death outside China; outbreak becomes political,” The Washington Post (2 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: death in Philippines is first outside China,” The New York Times (2 February 2020 ).

Alexandra Stevenson, “China increasingly walled off as countries seek to stem coronavirus,” The New York Times (1 February 2020).

Knvul Sheikh et al, “How bad will the coronavirus outbreak get? Here are 6 key factors,” The New York Times (1 February 2020).

Justin McCurry, “Coronavirus deaths hit 259 as China voices anger at US travel ban,” The Guardian (1 February 2020).

Nadeem Badshah et al, “Coronavirus: officials seek people linked to UK cases as some airlines stop China flights – live news,” The Guardian (1 February 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: toll passes 250, and Apple shuts China stores,” The New York Times (1 February 2020).

Lenny Bernstein, “Get a grippe, America. The flu is a much bigger threat than coronavirus, for now,” The Washington Post (1 February 2020).

Dyani Lewis, “Coronavirus outbreak: what’s next?,” Nature (31 January 2020).

Shibani Mahtani, “Coronavirus deaths surge as U.S. warns on China travel; Hong Kong shuts schools until March,” The Washington Post (31 January 2020).

Rebecca Ratcliffe & Justin McCurry, “Coronavirus: first human transmission in Thailand as Russia and UK confirm cases,” The Guardian (31 January 2020).

Shibani Mahtani & Adam Taylor, “Live updates: Coronavirus deaths soar as U.S. warns against China travel,” The Washington Post (31 January 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: Delta and American Airlines suspend flights to China,” The New York Times (31 January 2020).

Sarah Boseley & Justin McCurry, “Coronavirus deaths leap in China as countries struggle to evacuate citizens,” The Guardian (30 January 2020).

Molly Blackall et al, “Coronavirus: Italy and Germany confirm cases after WHO declares global emergency – live news,” The Guardian (30 January 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Live updates: World Health Organization declares coronavirus outbreak a ‘public health emergency’,” The Washington Post (30 January 2020).

Dan Werb, “To understand the Wuhan coronavirus, look to the epidemic triangle,” The New York Times (30 January 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: emergency declaration is considered as toll rises,” The New York Times (30 January 2020).

Denise Grady, “As coronavirus explodes in China, countries struggle to control its spread,” The New York Times (30 January 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Live updates: U.S. plans new evacuation flights as coronavirus cases in China grow by more than 1,000 a day,” The Washington Post (30 January 2020).

Coronavirus: health chief in Chinese city near Wuhan sacked – live news,” The Guardian (30 January 2020).

Tough quarantine measures have spread across China,” The Economist (30 January 2020)

Taylor Telford, “Global markets sink as investors weigh fallout of coronavirus,” The Washington Post (30 January 2020).

Alison Rourke, “Coronavirus live updates: death toll jumps to 170 amid evacuation delays for foreign nationals,” The Guardian (30 January 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Coronavirus live updates: New cases in China surpass SARS epidemic as infections grow abroad; WHO calls for emergency committee meeting,” The Washington Post (29 January 2020).

Simon Denyer et al, “Coronavirus live updates: New cases in China surpass SARS epidemic as infections grow abroad; WHO calls for emergency committee meeting,” The Washington Post (29 January 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: U.S. Evacuates citizens, and deaths mount,” The New York Times (29 January 2020).

Paul Mozur, “Containing the coronavirus: countries limit travel to China,” The New York Times (29 January 2020).

Gerry Shih et al, “U.S. seeks to send expert team to China to combat coronavirus outbreak; Xi defends response,” The Washington Post (28 January 2020).

Naaman Zhou, “Coronavirus live updates: US and Japanese citizens evacuated from Wuhan, China – latest news,” The Guardian (29 January 2020).

Shi Zhao et al, “Preliminary estimation of the basic reproduction number of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China, from 2019 to 2020: A data-driven analysis in the early phase of the outbreak,” bioRxiv (29 January 2020).

Sarah Boseley, “Germany confirms first human coronavirus transmission in Europe,” The Guardian (28 January 2020).

Paul Mozur, “Cordoning the coronavirus: countries limit travel to China,” The New York Times (28 January 2020).

K.K. Rebecca Lai, “Wuhan coronavirus map: tracking the spread of the outbreak,” The New York Times (28 January 2020).

Gerry Shih et al, “Coronavirus live updates: Xi defends response as death toll increases; Asian financial markets down amid virus fears,” The Washington Post (28 January 2020).

Tess Bonn, “Former head of CDC warns coronavirus more infectious than SARS,” The Hill (28 January 2020).

Coronavirus: China death toll climbs to 106 with first fatality in Beijing – live updates,” The Guardian (28 January 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: alarm grows as markets tumble and death toll rises,” The New York Times (27 January 2020).

Coronavirus live updates: As death toll rises, mayor at center of outbreak offers to resign,” The New York Times (27 January 2020).

Joseph Guzman, “Coronavirus could be much more contagious than previously thought,” The Hill (27 January 2020).

Saheli Roy Choudhury, “More than 2,700 cases of coronavirus in China as death toll climbs to 80,” CNBC (26 January 2020).

Sarah Boseley & Rowena Mason, “Coronavirus: 100,000 may already be infected, experts warn,” The Guardian (26 January 2020).

Chris Buckley et al, “As coronavirus fears intensify, effectiveness of quarantines is questioned,” The New York Times (26 January 2020).

Gerry Shih et al, “Chinese coronavirus infections, death toll soar as fifth case is confirmed in U.S.,” The Washington Post (26 January 2020).

Kariem Ezzat et al, “The viral protein corona directs viral pathogenesis and amyloid aggregation,” Nature Communications (27 May 2019).

J.S.M. Peiris, “Coronaviruses,” Medical Microbiology (2012).

Stephen N.J. Korsman & Wolfgang Preiser, “Human coronaviruses,” Virology (2012).

Rebecca Ratcliffe et al, “Coronavirus’s ability to spread getting stronger, China suggests,” The Guardian (26 January 2020).

Gerry Shih et al, “Strengthening coronavirus surges across China as authorities expect 1,000 more cases; third case confirmed in U.S.,” The Washington Post (26 January 2020).

Chaolin Huang et al, “Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China,” The Lancet (24 January 2020).

Coronavirus spurs China to suspend tours abroad and Xi to warn of a ‘grave situation’,” The New York Times (26 January 2020).

Donald J. Lynch, “Global markets swoon as lethal virus in China spreads,” The Washington Post (24 January 2020).

Catharine I. Paules et al, “Coronavirus infections – more than just the common cold,” JAMA (23 January 2020).

Lily Kuo, “China confirms human-to-human transmission of coronavirus,” The Guardian (21 January 2020).

Lena H. Sun & Lenny Bernstein, “First U.S. case of potentially deadly Chinese coronavirus confirmed in Washington state,” The Washington Post (21 January 2020).

Javier C. Hernández & Austin Ramzy, “China confirms new coronavirus spreads from humans to humans,” The New York Times (20 January 2020).

A new human coronavirus has appeared in China,” The Economist (16 January 2020).

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),” Wikipedia (26 January 2020).

Coronavirus diagram courtesy of Crenim.