This web page is a compendium of people mentioned in all the Spokes of the Wheel books, including Clarity and Unraveling Reality.

Aanen, Duur K.: Dutch evolutionary biologist, interested in cooperation and conflicts of interest.

Aardema, Frederick: Dutch psychologist, interested in out-of-body experiences.

Aaron, Henry J.: American economist and public policy analyst.

Abatzoglou, John: American geographer, interested in climate, meteorology, wildfire, hydrology, and ecosystem dynamics.

Abbate, Janet: American historian.

Abbott, Charles C.: American physician.

Abbott, Derek: Australian electrical engineer.

Abby, Edward (1927–1989): American author.

Abelson, Robert P. (1928–2005): American psychologist and political scientist.

Abhinavagupta (950–1020): Indian philosopher, aesthetician, musician, poet, dramatist, and logician. Abhinavagupta was not his given name; rather, it was a title earned from his teacher, meaning “competence and authoritativeness.”

Abraham, Max (1875–1922): German physicist who hypothesized in 1902 that the electron was a perfect sphere, with its charge evenly distributed around its surface.

Abrahamsen, Hilde: Norwegian cytologist.

Abrams, Stacey Y. (1973–): American politician (Democrat).

Abzhanov, Arkhat: evolutionary zoologist.

Abzug, Bella (1920–1998): American politician and civil rights advocate.

Acemoğlu, Daron (1967–): Turkish-born American economist.

Acheson, Dean G. (1893–1971): American lawyer and diplomat. Acheson persuaded President Harry Truman to intervene in the Korean War in June 1950, and also persuaded Truman to dispatch assistance to French forces fighting in Indochina. Truman’s acquiescence to Acheson’s militarism would cost the US dearly in the decades that followed.

Achenwall, Gottfried (1719–1772): German philosopher, historian, economist, jurist, and statistician; a pioneer in statistics.

Acton, John Dalberg (aka Lord Acton)(1834–1902): English historian and politician.

Adamec, Lubomír: Czech plant physiologist.

Adami, Christoph (1962–): Flemish microbiologist, molecular geneticist, physicist, and astronomer.

Adamo, Shelley Anne: Canadian invertebrate behavioral physiologist.

Adams, Abigail (1744–1818): American intellectual and woman of letters, despite lacking formal education; wife and closest advisor to President John Adams.

Adams, Ansel (1902–1984): American photographer and environmentalist.

Adams, Douglas (1952–2001): English writer and wry humorist, best known for The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy.

Adams, Henry (1838–1918): American historian.

Adams, James Truslow (1878–1949): American historian who coined “the American Dream” in his 1931 book The Epic of America.

Adams, John (1735–1826): American politician (Federalist); 1st US Vice President (1789–1797); 2nd US President (1797–1801).

Adams, John Quincy (1767–1848): American politician and diplomat; 6th US President (1825–1829).

Adams, Katherine L.: American communication scholar.

Adams, Samuel (1722–1803): American politician and political philosopher.

Adelson, David L.: Australian geneticist.

Adivarahan, Srivathsan: Indian geneticist.

Adkins, Joshua N.: American molecular biologist and biochemist.

Adler, Alfred W. (1870–1937): Austrian psychotherapist and physician.

Adler, Franz: German American sociologist.

Adler, Mortimer J. (1902–2001): American philosopher and educator.

Adole, Tracy: Nigerian terrestrial ecologist, interested in vegetation dynamics.

Adolphs, Ralph: American psychologist and neurobiologist.

Aepinus, Franz Maria Ulrich Theodor Hoch (1724–1802): German physicist who discovered pyroelectricity (1756) and published the 1st mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism (1759). Aepinus studied medicine and was also interested in astronomy.

Aerts, Diederick (1953–): Belgian theoretical physicist.

Aesop (620–564 BCE): Greek fabulist, famous for his fables (Aesop’s Fables). His existence is uncertain. No writings by him survive. His legend sustained via the oral storytelling tradition. Numerous tales are credited to him, in many of which animals speak and have human traits.

Aftergood, Steven (1956–): American physicist and political activist, interested in computer data security.

Agnew, Spiro T. (1918–1996): American politician (Republican); 39th US Vice President (1969–1973).

Ahern, Laurie: American human rights advocate, especially interested in welfare for disabled persons, and bettering the deplorable conditions of orphanages worldwide.

Ahmose: the Egyptian military leader who conquered the Hyksos and restored Egypt to a unified kingdom in 1570 BCE.

Aiken, Howard H. (1900–1973): American physicist and pioneer in computing.

Aiello, Brett R.: American biologist and anatomist.

Aiello, Leslie C.: American paleoanthropologist.

Ailes, Roger (1940–): American media consultant and television business executive. Founder and head of Fox News until he resigned in July 2016 when his chronic sexual harassment of female employees became public.

Airy, George (1801–1892): English mathematician and astronomer who, by dint of his being Astronomer Royal at the right time, established Greenwich as the prime meridian.

Akcali, Christopher K.: American zoologist.

Akera, Takashi: Japanese cytologist and molecular biologist.

Akerlof, George A. (1940–): American economist.

Akey, Joshua M.: American evolutionary biologist and geneticist.

Akhenaten (?–1336 BCE): a heretical Egyptian pharaoh during the mid-14th century BCE. Tutankhamun, Akhenaten’s son by incest, succeeded him.

Aktar, Md. Wasim: Indian pesticide researcher.

al-Haytham, Ibn (965–1040): Iraqi scientist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher.

Al-Jahiz (781–868): Arab writer who produced a 7-volume encyclopedia about animals, describing 350 different varieties.

al-Shatir, Ibn (1304–1375): Muslim astronomer.

Alais, David: Australian psychologist.

Alaric I: King of the Visigoths (395–410). The Visigoths were Germanic nomadic tribes, collectively known as the Goths.

Alatalo, Katherine: American astronomer.

Alba, David M.: Spanish paleontologist.

Albers, Josef (1888–1976): German-born American artist and educator.

Albert I of Germany (Hapsburg) (1255–1308): King of Germany from 1298 until being assassinated by his nephew, Duke John, whom Albert had deprived of his inheritance.

Albiach-Serrano, Anna: German zoologist.

Albrecht, Andreas J.: American theoretical physicist and cosmologist.

Albright, Rebecca: American marine ecologist.

Alcock, Joe: American evolutionary biologist and physician.

Alegado, Rosanna A.: American cytologist and molecular biologist, interested in marine microbes.

Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro: Mexican environmental toxicologist.

Aleksandrova, Antoniya: theoretical physicist.

Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedonia) (356–323 BCE): king of Macedonia (Macedon) (336–323 BCE); wildly enthusiastic military adventurist. Born in Pella in northern Greece, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until he was 16 years old. He succeeded his father, Philip II, to the throne of the Macedon kingdom after Philip’s assassination. Inheriting a strong kingdom and army, Alexander began a series of military campaigns that within a decade created one of the largest empires of the ancient world. Alexander was undefeated in battle and is regarded as one of history’s greatest warlords.

Alfred the Great (849–899): King of Wessex (871–899). Alfred successfully defended his kingdom against an attempted Viking conquest, and by his death had become the dominant ruler in England. The only other English monarch to be awarded the epithet “the Great” was the Scandinavian Cnut the Great (995–1035), who was King of Denmark, England, and Norway, which was called the North Sea Empire.

Ali (601–661): a Muslim, born in Mecca, who was the 4th caliph (656–661) of Islam. Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad.

Ali, Zine El Abidine Ben (1936–): Tunisian military leader (1987–2011) who reneged on his early promises of democratic reform and was eventually overthrown.

Alicante, Tutu: Equatorial Guinean civil rights lawyer.

Alighieri, Dante (known simply as Dante) (1265–1321): Italian poet. Dante’s Divine Comedy is the most important poem of the Middle Ages.

Alito, Samuel A. (1950–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (2006–).

Alstadsæter, Annette: Norwegian economist.

Allaby, Robin G.: English botanist and evolutionary biologist.

Allain, Rhett: American physics professor.

Allais, Maurice Félix Charles (1911–2010): French economist, interested in decision theory and monetary policy.

Allbaugh, Todd: American Republican political operative.

Allen, Joel (1838–1921): American zoologist who published Allen’s rule in 1877.

Allen, Paul (1953–2018): American programmer who co-founded Microsoft with Bill Gates.

Allende, Salvador (1908–1973): Chilean physician and politician; the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections (1970). Deposed by a CIA-sponsored coup in 1973.

Allport, Gordon W. (1897–1967): American psychologist.

Almécija, Sergio: Spanish paleoanthropologist.

Alvarez, Ramón A.: American physical chemist.

Alzheimer, Alois (1864–1915): German physician and psychiatrist, credited with discovering the disease that bears his name.

Amann-Winkel, Katrin: Austrian chemist.

Amar, Akhil Reed (1958–): American legal scholar and constitutional law expert.

Amash, Justin (1980–): American politician (libertarian Republican).

Ambady, Nalini (1959–2013): Indian social psychologist.

Amemiya, Chris: American biologist, interested in the evolution of vertebrates.

Ames, Daniel R.: American social psychologist.

Amiel, Henri Frédéric (1821–1881): Swiss philosopher and poet.

Ammann, Jakob (1644 to between 1712–1730): Swiss Anabaptist leader and namesake of the Amish religious movement.

Amon, Joe: American health and human rights activist.

Amphlett, Chrissy (1959–2013): Australian singer and dancer, best known as the singer in the musical group Divinyls (1980–1996).

Amrhein, Valentin: Swiss zoologist, interested in statistics.

Amunugama, Kaushalya: Indian molecular biologist and biochemist.

Anacharsis (6th century BCE): Scythian philosopher who traveled to Athens and made quite an impression as an outspoken “barbarian”; a forerunner of the Cynics.

Ananat, Elizabeth O.: American economist and public policy maven.

Anastasius I(431–518): Byzantine Emperor (491–518).

Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (~510–428 BCE): Turkish-born Greek philosopher, astronomer, geographer, mathematician, and proponent of science who who proposed panspermia and taught that coherence – as a universal mind – was the force behind Nature.

Anaximander of Miletus (610-547 BCE): Turkish Greek philosopher, astronomer, geographer, mathematician, and proponent of science.

Anderson, Adam K.: American cognitive scientist and psychologist.

Anderson, Benedict (1936–2015): Anglo Irish American historian and political scientist, best known for his book Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (1983).

Anderson, Carl D. (1905–1991): American physicist who discovered the positron and the muon.

Anderson, Carol (1959–): American political scientist, interested in race, justice, and social equality.

Anderson, Craig D.: American psychologist.

Anderson, Darrell: American political essayist.

Anderson, Don L. (1933–): American geophysicist.

Anderson, Gerard F.: American health policy maven and professor of medicine.

Anderson, Harlan (1929–): American electronics engineer who co-founded Digital Equipment Corporation with Ken Olsen.

Anderson, Margaret L.: American sociologist.

Anderson, Perry (1938–): English historian.

Andersen, Peter A.: American communication scholar.

Anderson, Peter W. (1923–): American theoretical physicist, interested in particle physics, localization, emergence, symmetry breaking, and superconductivity.

Anderson, Philip W. (1923–): American physicist.

Anderson, Sarah: American economist and public policy analyst.

Andersson, Leif: Swedish evolutionary geneticist.

Andolfatto, Peter: Canadian evolutionary biologist.

Andreas, Dwayne O. (1918–): American agribusiness executive and political patron.

Andreesen, Marc (1971–): American programmer; coauthor of Mosaic, the first widely-used web browser.

Andrew, Megan: American sociologist.

Andrews, George A.: American mathematician.

Andronikos II Palaiologos (1259–1332): Byzantine emperor (1282–1328) who faced persistent economic problems. Andronikos II was forced to abdicate in 1328 after losing a civil war.

Andrulis, Erik D.: American microbiologist who works on gyre theory.

Anglicus, Bartholomeus (aka Bartholomew the Englishman, Berthelet) (~1203–1272): French Franciscan friar.

Angelou, Maya (1928–): American author.

Annan, Kofi A. (1938–): Ghanaian diplomat who was Secretary-General of the UN (1997–2006).

Anne, Queen of Great Britain (1665–1714): Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1702, with the union of England and Scotland into a single sovereign state in 1707. Anne was plagued by ill health throughout her life. She became lame and increasingly obese from her 30s on. Despite 17 pregnancies by her husband, Prince George Denmark, Anne died with no surviving children, and so was the last monarch of the House of Stuart, which had ruled England from 1603, after the death of Queen Elizabeth I.

Anselm of Canterbury (~1033–1109): Benedictine monk, abbot, theologian, and philosopher who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. Anselm made an ontological argument for the existence of God in his book Proslogion (1077–1078).

“God is something which nothing greater can be conceived.” ~ Anselm of Canterbury

Anthony, Robert: American psychologist.

Anthony, Susan B. (1815–1902): American social reformer and egalitarian who played a seminal role in promoting women’s civil rights.

Antipater II (4–46 BCE): Herod’s 1st-born son; Herod’s only child by his 1st wife Doris.

Antón, Susan C.: American paleoanthropologist.

Antonucci, Robert: American astrophysicist.

Antony, Mark (aka Marcus Antonius) (83–30 BCE): Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.

Anzai, Ikuro: Japanese nuclear scientist.

Apkarian, Ara: Indian American physical chemist.

Aplin, Lucy M.: English zoologist.

Appel, Heidi M.: Canadian botanist, interested in plant behavior.

Appel, Lawrence J.: American epidemiologist.

Aquinas, Thomas (1225–1274): Italian Dominican priest, theologian, and philosopher.

Archer, John: English psychologist.

Archie, Elizabeth A.: American ethologist.

Archimedes (287–212 BCE): Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer; considered one of the leading scientists in antiquity, and one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes was killed during the Siege of Syracuse by an impatient Roman soldier, despite explicit orders that Archimedes was not to be harmed. The solder got ticked off because Archimedes told him to wait until he finished a problem he was working on. The soldier was executed for his indiscretion.

Arciuli, Joanne: Australian psycholinguist.

Arendt, Johanna (Hannah) (1906–1975): German-born Jewish American philosopher.

Arfer, Kodi B.: American psychologist and statistician, interested in social psychology, decision-making, health, and sexuality.

Ariely, Dan (1967–): American psychologist and behavioral economist.

Aristarchus of Samos (310–230 BCE): Greek astronomer and mathematician who first speculated that the Earth orbited the Sun. His astronomical ideas were rejected in favor of Ptolemy and Aristotle, who touted a geocentric model with Earth as the center of the universe.

Aristotle (384–322 BCE): Greek philosopher and polymath. Prolific Aristotle had views on a wide range of subjects, and was considered authoritative for centuries, sometimes stymying further investigation that might have gone against his belief.

Armbrust, E. Virginia: American marine biologist, interested in phytoplankton.

Armour, Kyle C.: American oceanographer.

Armstrong, David (1926–2014): Australian philosopher, interested in metaphysics and the mind.

Armstrong, Neal (1930–): American astronaut; first to set foot on the Moon.

Armstrong, Tim (1971–): American business executive, CEO of AOL.

Arnheim, Rudolf (1904–2007): German perceptual psychologist, author, and art theorist.

Arnould, John P.Y.: Australian zoologist.

Arnsten, Amy F.T.: American cognitive scientist.

Arnuk, Sal: American stock market trader.

Aron, Raymond (1905–1983): French political scientist, sociologist, journalist, and philosopher. Aron is best known for his book The Opium of the Intellectuals (1955). The title inverted Karl Marx’s claim that religion was the opium of the masses. Aron argued that in post-war France, Marxism was the opium of the intellectuals. Aron chastised French intellectuals for their harsh criticism of capitalism and democracy while defending Marxist intolerance, oppression, and atrocities. Basically, Aron got it all wrong.

Arp, Jean (1886–1966): German French sculptor, painter, and poet.

Arrhenius, Svante (1859–1927): Swedish scientist, with interests in chemistry, physics, mathematics, geology, and cosmology. Arrhenius is often referred to as a chemist, the science for which he won the 1903 Nobel Prize.

Arrow, Kenneth (1921–2017): American economist, mathematician, and political theorist.

Arsuaga, Juan Luis: Spanish paleoanthropologist.

Artaxerxes II: King of Persia (404–358 BCE) until his death. A randy ruler, Artaxerxes II reputedly had 350 wives, who bore him over 115 sons – daughters did not count.

Artis, David: American microbiologist.

Ascarrunz, Nataly: Bolivian botanist.

Asch, Solomon E. (1907–1996): American Gestalt psychologist and social psychologist, known for his study of conformity.

Ascham, Roger (1515–1568): English scholar and educator.

Aschenauer, Elke-Caroline: American nuclear physicist.

Asclepiades (~124–40 BCE): Bithynian-born Greek physician who promoted a theory of disease based on the flow of atoms through pores in the body. His treatments aimed at restoring harmony through diet, exercise, and bathing.

Ashear, Janet Bare: American psychologist.

Ashtekar, Abhay (1949–): Indian theoretical physicist who was a founder of loop quantum gravity.

Asimov, Isaac (born Isaak Ozimov) (1920–1992): Russian-born American writer and biochemist, known for his works of science fiction and popular science.

Asperger, Hans (1906–1980): Austrian pediatrician, medical theorist, and professor who identified Asperger’s syndrome.

Astell, Mary (1666–1731): English writer.

Astington, Janet Wilde: Canadian developmental psychologist.

Atahualpa (1502–1533): last Inca Emperor (of Peru), falling to Spanish conquest.

Athanasius of Alexandria (aka Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor) (297–373): Egyptian Christian theologian.

Athelstan (aka Æthelstan) (894–939): King of the Anglo-Saxons (924–927) and King of the English (927–939).

Atisa (980–1054): Buddhist teacher.

Atkinson, Richard C. (1929–): American psychologist.

Atlee, Clement (1883–1967): English politician (Labour).

Atran, Scott (1952–): French American anthropologist, interested in violence and religion.

Attenborough, David (1926–): English naturalist and broadcaster; famous for his BBC TV Nature programs.

Attila the Hun (?–453): ruler of the Huns 434–453, an empire that stretched from the Ural River to the Rhine River, and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea. Attila invaded Europe but was unable to take either Constantinople or Rome.

Atwood, Margaret (1939–): Canadian novelist, poet, essayist, and environmental activist.

Auber, Daniel François Esprit (1782–1871): French composer.

Auchincloss, Amy: American epidemiologist.

Auesperg, Alice M.I.: Austrian ornithologist.

Augustine of Hippo (354–430): Algerian Latin theologian and prolific author. Augustine influenced the evolution of European Christian thought.

Augustulus, Romulus (460–507?): emperor who ruled the Western Roman Empire October 475–September 476. Augustulus was a usurper not recognized as a legitimate ruler by the Eastern emperor. Augustulus was deposed by the Germanic King Odoacer. Though he adopted the name Augustus upon his accession, he is remembered by the derisive nickname Augustulus, which means “little Augustus.” To men, size matters.

Augustus (born Gaius Octavius) (63 BCE–14 ce): founder of the Roman Empire and its 1st emperor (27 BCE–14 CE).

Aurelius, Marcus (151–180): Roman Emperor (161–180) and Stoic philosopher; last of the so-called Five Good Emperors.

Aurobindo, Sri (born Aurobindo Ghose) (1872–1950): Indian guru, poet, and nationalist.

Ausländer, Simon: Swiss biologist.

Austen, Jane (1775–1817): English novelist.

Austin, Benjamin: American economist.

Avanzo, Laura: English zoologist.

Avargues-Weber, Aurore: French zoologist.

Avicenna (980–1037): Persian polymath who wrote 450 books on a wide range of subjects. His most famous books were medical. Avicenna was the most influential scholar of the Islamic Golden Age (950–1258).

Avirianto: Indonesian aircraft regulator.

Avilés, Leticia: Ecuadoran evolutionary biologist and ecologist, interested in social spiders.

Avogadro, Amedeo (1776–1856): Italian physicist, mathematician, and ecclesiastical lawyer who contributed to molecular theory. Avogadro’s work was ignored for almost a century.

Axelrod, Robert (1943–): American political scientist.

Ayala, Francisco J. (1934–): Spanish American biologist.

Aylward, Frank: American marine microbiologist.

Azar, José: Spanish economist.

Aziz, Abdul (aka Ibn Saud) (1875–1953): founder and king of Saudi Arabia (1932–1953). Aziz sired almost 100 children.

Baba, Meher (born Merwan Sheriar Irani) (1894–1969): Indian guru. From age 30 (1925) to the end of his life, Baba maintained silence, communicating by unique hand gestures or via an alphabet board.

Babbage, Charles (1791–1871): English polymath, famous for his idea of a steam-powered calculating machine that he was unable to make.

Babson, Roger (1875–1967): American entrepreneur, economist, and business theorist.

Babu, Kaladi S.: Indian physicist, interested in the fundamental constituents of matter.

Babu, M. Madan: Indian molecular biologist.

Bach-y-Rita, Paul (1934–2006): American neurobiologist.

Badyaev, Alexander V.: Russian evolutionary biologist.

Bacon, Francis (1561–1626): English philosopher, scientist, and jurist. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism.

Baekeland, Leo (1863–1944): Belgian-American chemist, best known for inventing Velox photographic paper and an inexpensive, nonflammable, durable, and versatile plastic, thereby founding the plastics industry.

Baer, Markus: German sociologist, interested in innovation in organizations.

Baeyer, Adolf von (1835–1917): German chemist who synthesized indigo dye in 1878, though a formula for industrial production was not found until 1897. Indigo is the blue dye used in blue jeans and is also common as a food colorant (US Blue No. 2).

Baez, Joan (1941–): American folk singer/songwriter.

Bahcall, Neta A.: American astrophysicist, interested in the large-scale structure of the universe.

Bailey, John II (1751–1823): American clockmaker who got a patent for a steam jack in 1792.

Bailey, Pearl (1918–1990): American actress.

Baillargeon, Renée (1954–): French Canadian psychologist, interested in infant cognition.

Bain, Alexander (1810–1877): Scottish engineer.

Bain, Alexander (1818–1903): Scottish philosopher who founded the 1st journal of psychology and analytical philosophy: Mind. Bain was an empiricist.

Bainer, Russell O.: American biologist, interested in mechanical biology, gene regulation, and computational biology.

Bair, Sheila C. (1954–): American attorney, head of the FDIC (2006–2011).

Baird, Andrew: Australian coral reef ecologist.

Baird, Katherine: American economist.

Bais, Harsh: American botanist.

Baker, Daniel: American astrophysicist.

Baker, James A. (1930–): American Republican political operative and lawyer.

Bakker, Huib J.: Dutch chemical physicist, immersed in water.

Bakr, Abu (aka The Truthful) (573–634): father-in-law and senior companion to Muhammad, who ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate (632–634) following Muhammad’s death.

Balasubramanian, Shankar (1966–): Indian chemist, interested in nucleic acids.

Balazs, Lajos: Hungarian astronomer.

Balch, Jennifer: American fire investigator.

Balcombe, Jonathan: English ethologist and animal behaviorist.

Baldwin, Ian T. (1958–): American ecologist.

Baldwin, James (1924–1987): American novelist, essayist, poet, playwright, and social critic.

Baldwin, James Mark (1861–1934): American psychologist and philosopher, interested in psychology’s import on evolution.

Baldwin, Stanley (1867–1947): English Conservative politician; UK Prime Minister (1923–1924, 1924–1929, 1935–1937).

Balents, Leon: American physicist.

Balfour, Eve (1898–1990): English organic farmer.

Ball, Alan R.: English political scientist.

Ball, George W. (1909–1994): American diplomat and banker.

Ball, Philip: English physicist, chemist, and science writer.

Ballenger, Joe: American entomologist.

Ballentine, Rudolph: American physician, interested in holistic health practices.

Baluška, František: German botanist.

Bamford, V. James (1946–): American author and journalist, interested in US national security.

Banderas, Antonio (1960–): Spanish actor.

Bandura, Albert (1925–): Canadian American psychologist who was influential in the transition between behaviorism and cognitive psychology.

Banfield, Jill: American planetary scientist, interested in mineralogy, geochemistry, geomicrobiology (the influence of geology on microbes), and microbial evolution.

Banks, Joseph (1743–1820): English naturalist who went with Captain James Cook in his 1st around-the-world voyage (1768–1771).

Banta, Josh: American biologist.

Banwart, Steve: American environmental engineer.

Baradat, Leon P.: American political scientist.

Barclay, Pat: American evolutionary psychologist, interested in cooperation.

Bard, Kim A.: American cognitive psychologist, interested in primate intelligence.

Bareilles, Sara (1979–): American singer-songwriter and musician.

Barge, Laurie: American geochemist.

Bargh, John A. (1955–): American social psychologist.

Barker, Debi: American ecologist.

Barker, Ernest (1874–1960): English political scientist.

Barkow, Jerome H.: Canadian anthropologist, interested in evolutionary psychology.

Barnes, Djuna (1892–1982): American writer and artist, best known for Nightwood, her 1936 novel about lesbian relationships.

Barnes, Ethne: American paleopathologist.

Barnes, Julian (1946–): English writer.

Barney, Charles T. (1851–1907): American banker who helped engineer the Panic of 1907 through his firm, Knickerbocker Trust Company.

Barnosky, Anthony D.: American paleontologist.

Baron, Robert A.: American psychologist.

Barr, Murray (1908–1995): Canadian physician.

Barr, W. Andrew: American anthropologist.

Barra, Mary T. (1961–): American business executive who spent her entire career at General Motors, which she now leads (2013–) (first female CEO of a global automaker).

Barrangou, Rodolphe: French American geneticist, molecular biologist, and food scientist.

Barrell, Joseph (1869–1919): American geologist who developed the concept of the lithosphere. Barrell proposed that sedimentary rocks were produced by marine deposits (sedimentation) and shaped by actions of winds, rivers, and glaciers. Barrell also understood stoping: the ascent of magma from the mantle or lower crust to the surface as a means for delivering igneous material (igneous intrusion).

Barreto, Felipe: American evolutionary geneticist.

Barrett, Christopher B.: American economist.

Barrett, Jonathan: English particle physicist, known for the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem.

Barrett, Justin L. (1971–): American psychologist.

Barrett, Mike: English geologist.

Barrett, William C. (1913–1992): American philosopher.

Barron, Andrew B.: Australian zoologist.

Barron, Matthew G.: English paleontologist who proposed a major revision to dinosaur cladistic classification in 2017.

Barry, Dave (1947–): American writer and humorist.

Barthes, Roland Gérard (1915–1980): French philosopher and linguist.

Bartholow, Bruce: American psychologist.

Barton, Robert A.: English anthropologist.

Barus-Michel, Jacqueline (1955–): French sociologist.

Bashō, Matsuo (1644–1694): Japanese poet.

Bastian, Brock: Australian psychologist.

Bassler, Bonnie L.: American microbial biologist, interested in bacterial intercellular communication.

Bastian, Brock: Australian psychologist.

Bastian, Nate: English science writer.

Baten, Jörg (1965–): German economic historian.

Bates, Henry Walter (1825–1892): English entomologist, interested in animal mimicry.

Bateson, Gregory (1904–1980): English anthropologist.

Bateson, Melissa: English ethologist, interested in decision-making.

Bateson, Patrick (1938–): English biologist.

Bateson, William (1861–1926): English evolutionary biologist who coined the term genetics based upon a Mendelian conception of heredity.

Batista, Fulgencio (1901–1973): Cuban military leader and politician; ruled Cuba 1933–1944 and 1952–1958.

Batista, Rafael Alves: Brazilian physicist and astrobiologist.

Batty, G. David: English epidemiologist.

Baudrillard, Jean (1929–2007): Moroccan French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist, political commentator, and photographer; criticized as a reality-denying irrationalist.

Bauer, Michal: Czech economist, interested in sociology.

Bauer, Ulri Berra, Yogi (1925-2015): American baseball player, coach, and manager, remembered for his dry wit, pithy paradoxical statements, and malapropisms.

Baum, Buzz: American cytologist.

Baum, David A.: American evolutionary biologist and botanist.

Baum, L. Frank (1856–1919): American author, chiefly famous for his children’s books, especially The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) and its 13 sequels. Baum penned 55 novels, 83 short stories, over 200 poems, and more than 42 scripts. In his works Baum anticipated later technologies and social movements, including television, wireless telephones, laptop computers, virtual reality, the ubiquity of advertising for clothing, and liberated women.

Baum, Lauris M.: American astrophysicist.

Baum, Philip: English security consultant.

Baumann, H.: German biologist.

Baumard, Nicolas: French anthropologist.

Baumgart, Johannes: German biophysicist.

Baumeister, Roy F. (1953–): American social psychologist.

Baumann, H.: German biologist.

Bayer, Patrick (1972–): American economist, interested in racial inequity.

Bayes, Thomas (1701–1761): English statistician, philosopher, and Presbyterian minister, remembered for the theorem of inverse probability that bears his name.

Bayle, Pierre (1647–1706): French philosopher. Bayle was a Protestant who advocated toleration of divergent beliefs.

Baylor, Christopher (Chris): American political scientist.

Beach, Frank A. (1911–1988): American ethologist, interested in sexual behavior.

Beale, Kristin M.: American cytologist.

Bear, Adam: American psychologist.

Beattie, Geoffrey: English psychologist.

Beccaria, Cesare (1738–1794): Italian criminologist, jurist, politician, and philosopher.

Becher, Johann Joachim (1635–1682): German alchemist and physician; concocter of the phlogiston theory.

Beck, Aaron T. (1921–): American psychiatrist who is regarded as the father of cognitive therapy.

Beck, Benjamin B.: American zoologist.

Beck, Jeffrey L.: American ecologist.

Beck, Lloyd H.: American physiologist.

Beckage, Nancy E.: American entomologist.

Becker, Dan: American attorney, interested in environmental protection.

Becquerel, Alexandre Edmond (1820–1891): French physicist who discovered the photovoltaic effect.

Becquerel, Henri (1852–1908): French physicist who accidentally discovered radioactivity.

Beer, Stafford (1926 –2002): English theorist, best known for his work in organization management.

Behe, Michael (1952–): American biochemist who proposed irreducible complexity.

Behrman, Samuel N. (1893–1973): American writer.

Beichler, James E.: American theoretical physicist and cosmologist, interested in a theory of everything.

Beig, Gufran: Indian meteorologist and government air quality specialist.

Beijerinck, Martinus (1851–1931): Dutch microbiologist and botanist who discovered viruses in 1898. Beijerinck also discovered nitrogen fixation. Beijerinck invented the enrichment culture: a fundamental method of studying microbes taken from the environment. An enrichment culture is a prepared medium with known, specific qualities that favor the growth of a certain microorganism.

Bejan, Adrian: Romanian American mechanical engineer who conceived constructal law.

Bekenstein, Jacob (1947–): Israeli theoretical physicist who has contributed to understanding black hole thermodynamics. Bekenstein is an adherent of physics as information theory.

Bekoff, Marc (1945–): American ethologist and evolutionary biologist.

Beliveau, Brian: American geneticist, interested in DNA organization.

Belk, Russell W.: Canadian business academic.

Bell, Alexander Graham (1847–1922): Scottish American inventor who patented the first practical telephone.

Bell, Daniel (1919–2011): American sociologist.

Bell, John Stewart (1928–1990): Irish physicist who developed Bell’s theorem, which posits nonlocality.

Bell, Matthew: English zoologist.

Bellinger, John B. III: American lawyer who was legal advisor to the President George W. Bush.

Belshaw, Robert: English zoologist, interested in the evolution of viruses and selfish genetic elements.

Belt, Thomas (1832–1878): English geologist and naturalist.

Ben-Jacob, Eshel (1952–2015): Israeli physicist, interested in self-organization, particularly among bacteria.

Benard, Stephen: American sociologist.

Benbrook, Charles M.: American agricultural economist.

Benedict, Ruth (1887–1948): American anthropologist and folklorist.

Benefit, Brenda: American anthropologist.

Bengston, Sarah E.: American ethologist, interested in arthropods.

Benjamin, Walter (1892–1940): German philosopher.

Benson-Amram, Sarah: American zoologist.

Bernheim, Aude: Israeli molecular geneticist.

Benner, Steven: American chemist who hypothesizes that life on Earth came from Mars. Brenner was first to design a gene, and the first to artificially augment the DNA alphabet.

Bennett, Arnold (1867–1931): English writer.

Bennett, Bo (1972–): American businessman.

Bennett, David: American engineer and spiritual activist.

Benson, Ezra Taft (1899–1994): American farmer and Mormon church religious leader.

Benson, Robert B.J.: English vertebrate paleontologist.

Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832): English philosopher, economist, and theoretical jurist who founded utilitarianism.

Bentley, R. Alexander: English anthropologist and archeologist.

Benton, Michael J. (1956–): English vertebrate paleontologist.

Benton, Tim: English population ecologist.

Bentov, Itzhak (1923–1979): Czech-born Israeli American scientist and inventor.

Benveniste, Jacques (1935–2004): French immunologist, interested in allergies and homeopathy.

Benz, Karl (1844–1929): German engine designer and car engineer who invented the petrol-powered automobile.

Berdahl, Jennifer: American sociologist.

Berezovsky, Jesse: American physicist, interested in matter.

Berg, Gabriele (1963–): German biologist.

Berg, Karl: American ornithologist.

Berg, Yehuda: American rabbi who promotes Kabbalah.

Berger, Christopher C.: American psychologist.

Berger, Joel (1944–): American civil rights lawyer; former NYC government lawyer (1988–1996).

Berger, Lee R.: South African anthropologist.

Berger, Peter L. (1929–): Austrian-born American sociologist.

Bergliaffa, S.E. Perez: Brazilian astrophysicist.

Bergman, Jerry: American biologist and psychologist.

Bergman, Mindy E.: American psychologist.

Bergmann, Christian (1814–1865): German biologist who hypothesized >Bergmann’s rule.

Bergström, Anders: paleoanthropologist, interested in the evolutionary genetics of humans.

Berkeley, Edmund C. (1909–1988): American computer scientist who co-founded the Association for Computing Machinery in 1947.

Berkeley, George (1685–1753): Irish philosopher and Anglican bishop. Berkeley hypothesized immaterialism (later called subjective idealism): that materiality is only in the minds of perceivers. As Berkeley put it: “to be is to be perceived.”

Berkowitz, Leonard (1926–2016): American social psychologist, interested in altruism and human aggression.

Berle, Adolf A. (1895–1971): American corporate lawyer, diplomat, and educator; author of the groundbreaking book The Modern Corporation and Private Property (1932), on corporate governance. Berle was an important contributor to US President Franklin Roosevelt’s “Brain Trust.”

Berlin, Isaiah (1909–1197): Russian British Jewish sociopolitical theorist, philosopher, and historian.

Berlincourt, Maud: Australian zoologist.

Berman, Lea: American diplomat.

Bernanke, Ben (1953–): American economist; head of the Federal Reserve (2006–2014).

Bernard, Claude (1813–1878): French physiologist; one of the first to suggest using blind experiments to ensure objectivity in scientific investigations.

Bernard, H. Russell: American anthropologist, who, along with Peter Killworth, countered Dunbar’s number of 150 with a larger one.

Bernard, Jeremy: American diplomat.

Bernauer, Jan C.: German physicist.

Bernieri, Frank: American psychologist.

Bernoulli, Daniel (1700–1782): Swiss mathematician and physicist, known for his contributions in fluid mechanics, probability, and statistics.

Bernoulli, Jakob (1654–1705): Swiss mathematician; discoverer of e; contributor in the field of probability, where he derived the law of large numbers; an early proponent of Leibnizian calculus.

Bernstein, Carl (1944–): American journalist, known for his role in helping to uncover the Watergate scandal.

Bernstein, Jared (1955–): American economist, interested in economic inequality.

Bernstein, Lillian: American author.

Berra, Yogi (1925–2015): American baseball player, coach, and manager, remembered for his dry wit, pithy paradoxical statements, and malapropisms.

Berry, Richard: Australian molecular biologist.

Berry, Wendell (1934–): American farmer and environmentalist.

Berson, David M.: American neurobiologist, interested in “what the eye tells the brain.”

Bertness, Mark D.: American ecologist.

Berzelius, Jöns Jacob (1779–1848): Swedish chemist who worked out the modern technique of chemical formula notation.

Besant, Annie (1847–1933): English women’s rights activist, socialist, and advocate of Indian and Irish self-rule.

Bessemer, Henry (1813–1898): English engineer who modernized steel production.

Bhushan, Bharat: Indian American mechanical engineer, interested in biological designs.

Bettini, Alessandro: Italian particle physicist.

Bettlelheim, Bruno (1903–1990): Austrian-born American psychologist.

Betts, Matthew G.: American forest ecologist.

Bevel, James (1936–2008): American civil rights leader.

Beveridge, William Henry (1879–1963): English economist and social reformer, best known for his proposal which served as the basis for the post-World War 2 British welfare state, enacted in 1945.

Bevis, Leah E. M.: American economist.

Beyer, Brian: American cybersecurity researcher.

Bezos, Jeff (1964–): American businessman who founded

Bhidé, Amar: Indian American economist.

Bhutto, Benazir (1953–2007): Pakistani politician; a scion of a politically powerful family, Benazir was the 1st woman to lead an Islamic state.

Bi Shēng (990–1051): Chinese inventor of movable type.

Bi Xiuyan: Chinese merchant.

Bichat, Marie François Xavier (1771–1802): French anatomist and physiologist; the father of modern histology and pathology. Bichat introduced the concept of organ tissues, and that diseases attacked tissues, not entire organs.

Bidelman, Gavin M.: American speech researcher.

Bidwell, Anya: American civil rights attorney.

Bierbach, David: ichthyologist and ecologist.

Bierce, Ambrose (1842–1914): American writer.

Biffen, John (1930–2007): English politician (Conservative).

Bignell, David: English entomologist.

Bigoni, Maria: Italian economist.

Bilalić, Merim: Bosnian psychologist.

Bialek, William: American theoretical biophysicist.

bin Laden, Osama (1957–2011): Saudi Arabian who founded the terrorist organization al-Qaeda.

bin Salman, Mohammad (1985–): Saudi Arabian royalty.

Binet, Alfred (1857–1911): French psychologist who, in collaboration with Théodore Simon, developed the first intelligence tests which met widespread acceptance.

Bingham, Robert: English geophysicist.

Bion, Wilfred R. (1897–1979): English psychoanalyst, interested in groups. Bion was influenced by Melanie Klein.

Bird, Adrian: English geneticist.

Bird, David: Canadian ornithologist.

Birdwhistell, Ray L. (1918–1994): American anthropologist who founded kinesics as a discipline.

Birren, Faber (1900–1988): American color maven.

Bischofs, Ilka: German bacteriologist.

Bisseling, Ton: Dutch botanist.

Bismarck, Otto von (1815–1898): Prussian politician.

Bitler, Marianne P.: American economist, interested in labor.

Bizzarro, Martin: Dutch astronomer and chemist.

Black, Joesph (1728–1799): Scottish chemist and physician, best known for the rediscovery of “fixed air” (carbon dioxide), the concept of latent heat, and the discovery of bicarbonates.

Black, Lewis (1948–): American comedian.

Black, Scott H.: American ecologist.

Blackledge, Todd: American biologist, interested in spiders and their silk.

Blackmun, Harry A. (1906–1997): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1970–1994).

Blackstone, William (1723–1780): English jurist whose 4-volume Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765–1969) became a foundation of legal education in England and North America.

Blair, Steven N.: American epidemiologist.

Blair, Tony (1953–): Scottish politician (Labour); UK Prime Minister (1997–2007).

Blake, Peter R.: American psychologist.

Blake, William (1757–1827): English poet, painter, and printmaker. Considered insane by contemporaries for his idiosyncratic views, Blake was posthumously considered a seminal figure for the poetry and visual arts that characterized Romanticism (~1800–1850), which was a revolt against the Age of Enlightenment, which cherished the scientific rationalization of Nature.

Blanc, Louis Jean Joseph Charles (1811–1882): French politician (socialist) and historian.

Blanchfield, Anthony W.: English psychologist.

Blasi, Damián E.: Swiss psycholinguist.

Bleicken, Stephanie: German cytologist.

Blencowe, Miles P.: English physicist, interested in quantum mechanics and condensed matter.

Bloch, Felix (1905–1983): Swiss physicist.

Bloch, Maurice (1939–): English anthropologist.

Blok, Sergey: Russian-American psychologist.

Bloom, Nathan: American psychologist.

Bloomer, Carolyn M.: American cultural anthropologist.

Bloomfield, Maxwell: American law historian and law professor.

Blount, Zachary D.: American evolutionary biologist.

Blüthgen, Nico: German ecologist.

Boccaccio, Giovanni (1313–1375): Italian author and poet.

Bodin, Jean (1530–1596): French jurist and political philosopher.

Boeckx, Cedrick: Spanish linguist.

Boethius (Ancius Manlius Severinus Boëthius) (480–524): Roman philosopher and politician; his Consolation of Philosophy became one of the most popular and influential works during the Middle Ages.

Boetius, Antje (1967–): German marine biologist.

Bohach, Carolyn Hovde: American microbiologist, interested in foodborne pathogens, especially E. coli O157:H7.

Bohm, David J. (1917–1992): American theoretical physicist.

Bohn, Kirsten: American ethologist.

Bohr, Niels (1885–1962): Danish physicist who contributed to atomic theory and quantum mechanics.

Bojowald, Martin (1973–): German physicist, working in cosmology and loop quantum gravity.

Boleyn, Anne (1501–1536): 2nd wife of King Henry VIII, mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Beheaded at the behest of the king upon conviction of false charges of adultery and incest.

Boleyn, Mary (1500–1543): sister to Anne Boleyn.

Bolker, Jessica A.: American developmental and evolutionary biologist.

Bolstad, Geir H.: Norwegian evolutionary biologist.

Bolton, Adam S.: American astrophysicist.

Bolton, Charles Thomas (Tom) (1943–): American astronomer who was the first to show evidence of a black hole.

Bolton, Robert (1572–1631): English clergyman and academic.

Boltzmann, Ludwig (1844–1906): Austrian physicist who made significant contributions to mechanics and thermodynamics. Boltzmann advocated atomic theory when it was still quite controversial.

Bolyai, János (1802–1860): Hungarian mathematician who published work on hyperbolic (non-Euclidian) geometry ~1830 – contemporaneously, but independently, of Nikolai Ivanovich.

Bomphrey, Richard J.: English biomechanist, interested in animal flight.

Bonaparte, Jérôme (1784–1860): French politician; youngest brother of Napoléon I; King of Westphalia (1807–1813).

Bonaparte, Napoléon (1769–1821): French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars. Napoléon engineered a coup in 1799 that led to him becoming Emperor (1804–1815). Napoléon dominated Europe and retarded its political development until his defeat and exile on the island of Saint Helena, off the west coast of Africa, in 1815.

Bond, Alexander L.: English marine ecologist and conservation biologist.

Bongiorno, Renata: Australian social psychologist.

Bongo, Ali (aka Ali Bongo Ondimba, born Alain Bernard Bongo) (1959–): Gabonese politician; President (2009–).

Bonito, Lindsay T.: American marine biologist.

Bonmatin, Jean-Marc: French ecologist and chemist.

Boole, George (1815–1964): English mathematician who developed Boolean algebra.

Boorstin, Daniel J. (1914–2004): American historian.

Booth, Alan: American sociologist.

Boothby, Thomas: American biologist, interested in the fundamental mechanisms of extreme stress tolerance.

Boppré, Michael: German entomologist.

Bordet, Jules (1870–1961): Belgian immunologist and microbiologist.

Borden, Lisa W.: American lawyer, interested in civil rights and ending abusive practices in the American justice system.

Borg, Michael: English botanist.

Boring, Edwin G. (1886–1968): American psychologist.

Borjigin, Jimo: Mongolian cognitive scientist.

Born, Max (1882–1970): German-English physicist and mathematician, instrumental in developing quantum mechanics. Born also contributed to optics and solid-state physics.

Boroditsky, Lera (1976–): Belarusian cognitive scientist.

Boscaro, Vittorio: Italian evolutionary biologist and zoologist.

Bosch, Carl (1874–1940): German chemist and engineer; a pioneer in high-pressure industrial chemistry.

Bosco, David L.: American international relations journalist and academic.

Bose, Satyendra Nath (1894–1974): Indian mathematician and physicist who worked on electromagnetic radiation and statistical mechanics.

Boseley, Sarah: English health writer and editor.

Bostrom, Nick (1973–): Swedish philosopher.

Boudinot, Ryan: American writer.

Boulanger, Lisa: American molecular biologist.

Boulding, Kenneth E. (1910 –1993): English economist and sociologist who had wide-ranging beliefs about economic behavior as part of a larger systemic web.

Boutroux, Pierre (1880–1922): French mathematician and historian of science, best known for his accounts of the history and philosophy of mathematics.

Bouts, Paul (1900–1999): Belgium Catholic priest.

Bowler, Chris: English microbiologist, botanist, and marine biologist.

Boyce, Chris: English psychologist.

Boyce, Daniel G.: Canadian marine biologist.

Boyle, Robert (1627–1691): Anglo Irish chemist, physicist, natural philosopher, and inventor.

Boysen, Sarah T. (Sally) (1949–): American psychologist, interested in chimpanzee intelligence.

Braakman, Rogier: Dutch chemical physicist.

Brace, C. Loring (1930–): American anthropologist who argued that human descent was always of single species; for example, humans descended from Neanderthals.

Bradley, Omar (1893–1981): American military commander.

Bradbury, Ray (1920–2012): American fantasy, horror, mystery, and science-fiction novelist.

Bradlaugh, Charles (1833–1891): English political activist; one of the most famous English atheists of the 19th century.

Bradshaw, John (1602–1659): English judge.

Bradshaw, John (1933–2016): American author and educator.

Bradford, Charles M. (Brad): American astrophysicist.

Bragg, William Henry (1862–1942): English physicist, chemist, mathematician, and active sportsman who discovered the elemental dynamics of ionizing radiation in 1903. Bragg’s science legacy is unique, in sharing a Nobel Prize in Physics with his son, fellow physicist William Lawrence Bragg, in 1915, for analysis of crystalline structures using X-rays.

Bragg, William Lawrence (1890–1971): Australian-born English physicist and chemist, known for Bragg’s law, on the diffraction of X-rays by crystals. Bragg was instrumental in the discovery of the structure of DNA, providing support to Francis Crick and James Watson, who worked under his aegis.

Brahe, Tycho (1546–1601): Danish nobleman and astronomer. Brahe refuted the Aristotelian belief in a static celestial realm. Brahe was the last major astronomer to work without a telescope. Skeptical of Copernican heliocentricity, Brahe worked out a system where the rest of the cosmos whirled about the Earth, which he thought a “lazy” body too bulky to move.

Brailsford, Philip: American police officer.

Branca, Giovanni (1571–1645): Italian engineer and architect who developed a steam turbine in the 1620s.

Brancaccio, Marco: neurobiologist, interested in circadian rhythms.

Branch, Curtis W.: American psychologist.

Brand, Hennig (1630–1692 or 1710): German merchant and alchemist who discovered phosphorous in 1669.

Brandeis, Louis D.> (1856–1941): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1916–1939).

Brandengerger, Robert (1956–): Canadian theoretical cosmologist and physicist

Brandt, Willy (1913–1992): German politician (Social Democrat); German Chancellor (1969–1974) (the 1st Social Democrat chancellor since 1930). Brandt won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 for his efforts to strengthen European cooperation.

Brannon, Elizabeth: American cognitive psychologist.

Brantley, Susan: American geoscientist.

Braudel, Fernand (1902–1985): French historian who emphasized the importance of macro-socioeconomic factors in driving history; considered one of the best modern historians.

Braun, David M.: American botanist.

Brauer, Michael: Canadian environmental scientist and biochemist.

Braun, Jack: American software developer, interested in software security.

Braverman, Harry (1920–1976): American political economist; an industrial worker who became a leftist radical in the wake of the Great Depression.

Brayton, George (1830–1892): American mechanical engineer.

Bree, Erica: American evolutionary biologist.

Breitburg, Denise: American marine and estuarine ecologist.

Brennan, Patricia L.R.: American evolutionary biologist.

Brennan, William J. (1856–1941): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1956–1990).

Brenner, Sydney (1927–): South African biologist who studied genetics.

Brent, Lauren: English zoologist, interested in the evolution of sociality.

Bresnahan, Mary I.: American communication scholar.

Brett, Regina: American writer.

Breyer, Stephen G. (1938–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1994–).

Bridge, Donna Jo: American cognitive scientist, interested in memory.

Briefer, Elodie F.: English zoologist.

Briggs, Heather M.: American biologist, interested in ecological interactivity.

Briggs, Katharine Cook (1875–1968): American academic who promoted education for women, known for the Myers-Briggs personality type test.

Bright, Jen A.: English evolutionary ornithologist.

Brillat-Savarin, Jean Anthelme (1755–1826): French lawyer and politician, who gained fame as an epicure; often considered the father of the low-carbohydrate diet.

Brin, Sergey (1973–): Russian-born American computer scientist and co-founder of Google.

Briscoe, Mark: American ecologist and writer.

Britain, Kristen: American novelist.

Britt, Jonathan: Canadian behavioral neurobiologist.

Broach, Jared: American tour guide, interested in ghosts.

Broca, Paul (1824–1880): French anatomist and surgeon.

Brocchi, Giovanni (1772–1826): Italian naturalist, geologist, and mineralogist.

Brockhurst, Michael A.: English evolutionary biologist.

Brody, Dorje: English mathematician.

Broecker, Wallace S.: American climatologist.

Broly, Pierre: French ecological zoologist.

Brongniart, Alexandre (1770–1847): French chemist, mineralogist, and zoologist who collaborated with Georges Cuvier.

Bronowski, Jacob (1908–1974): Polish mathematician, biologist, science historian, playwright, poet, and inventor; best known for his 1973 book and BBC TV documentary series The Ascent of Man, which traced the development of human society.

Brønsted, Johannes Nicolaus (1879–1947): Danish physical chemist who introduced the protonic theory of acid-base reactions in 1923 (as did Thomas Lowry).

Brontë, Charlotte (1816–1855): English novelist.

Brooker, Rohan: Australian marine biologist, interested in the behavioral and chemical ecology of coral reef fishes.

Brosi, Berry J.: American ecologist, interested in mutualisms.

Brout, Robert (1928–2011): Belgian theoretical physicist, interested in particle physics.

Broward, Napoleon Bonaparte (1857–1910): American river pilot and politician; 19th governor of Florida (1905–1909), best known for his project to drain the Everglades.

Brouwer, L.E.J. (1881–1966): Dutch mathematician and philosopher, interested in topology, set theory, and complex analyses.

Brown, Culum: Australian ichthyologist, interested in fish learning and personality.

Brown, Finley: Irish physician.

Brown, Harrison (1911–1986): American chemist, known for his work in geological aging by counting lead isotopes in igneous rocks.

Brown, Henry Billings (1836–1913): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1891–1906).

Brown, Jerry (1938–): American politician (Democrat); twice governor of California (1975–1983 & 2011–).

Brown, Jonathon D.: American psychologist.

Brown, Kate (1960–): American politician (Democrat); governor of Oregon (2015–).

Brown, Lester R. (1934–): American environmental scientist.

Brown, Margaret Wise (1910–1952): American author of children’s books, best known for Goodnight Moon and Runaway Bunny.

Brown, Michael: English geologist, interested in tectonics.

Brown, Robert (1773–1858): Scottish botanist who made contributions to botany by peering through a microscope. Credited with discovering Brownian motion, noted 2,000 years earlier (by Lucretius).

Brown, Tony: English geographer.

Browne, Jackson (1948–): American musician and songwriter.

Browne, Thomas (1605–1682): English author of diverse works in medicine, science, religion, and more esoteric subject matter.

Bruce, David (1855–1931): Scottish pathologist and microbiologist who investigated brucellosis (then called Malta fever) and trypanosomes, the parasitic protozoa behind sleeping sickness.

Bruce, Vicki (1953–): English psychologist, interested in visual perception.

Brukner, Caslav: Austrian theoretical physicist.

Brumfield, Robb T.: American biologist, interested in speciation of Neotropical birds.

Brunelleschi, Filippo (1377–1446): Italian engineer; one of the founding fathers of the Renaissance.

Bruner, Jerome S. (1915–2016): American psychologist, interested in cognitive psychology and learning.

Brunet, Michel (1940–): French paleontologist.

Brunfels, Otto (1464–1534): German Protestant theologian and botanist.

Bruno, Giordano (1548–1600): Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer who proposed that the Sun was just a star, and that the cosmos was populated by other worlds with intelligent life. For his far-fetched speculations, the Catholic Church convicted Bruno of heresy and burned him at the stake.

Brusatte, Stephen L. (1984–): American paleontologist and evolutionary biologist.

Brusini, Perrine: French psychologist.

Brynjolfsson, Erik (1962–): American economist, interested in the economic implications of computer applications.

Bucci, Steve: American military officer, national defense and security specialist.

Buchert, Thomas: German cosmologist

Buchhave, Lars A.: Dutch astrophysicist.

Buchsbaum, Bradley R.: American psychologist.

Buckland, William (1784–1856): English theologian and geologist who construed fossils as supporting the biblical flood (Noah and his notorious ark). To reconcile geology and the fossil record with biblical account of creation, Buckland was a proponent of the Gap Theory, which interpreted the Bible’s book of Genesis as referring to 2 separate episodes of creation, separated by a considerable duration.

Buczkowski, Grzegorz (Grzesiek): American entomologist.

Buddha, Gautama (6th–5th century BCE): Indian guru whose teachings became oral traditions and were finally written down 4 centuries after he lived, becoming the foundation of Buddhism.

Buffett, Warren E. (1930–): American billionaire investor.

Buffon, Comte de (born Georges-Louis Leclerc) (1707–1788): French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopedist. Buffon’s work influenced the next 2 generations of naturalists, including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Georges Cuvier.

Buisson, Henri (1873–1944): French physicist.

Bulkley, L. Duncan: American physician and cancer researcher.

Bullard, Robert D. (1946–): American sociologist and environmentalist.

Bullock, Scott: American attorney, interested in social justice.

Burbank, Luther (1849–1926): American botanist, horticulturist, and pioneer in agricultural science.

Burckhardt, Gottlieb (1836–1907): Swiss psychiatrist.

Burd, Lori Ann: American environmentalist and attorney.

Burd, Martin: Australian evolutionary ecologist.

Burger, Joanna: American ethologist, interested in animal behavior and the ecology of communities.

Burghardt, Gordon M.: English zoologist, interested in evolutionary psychology.

Burgoon, Judee K.: American communication scholar.

Buric, Ivana: Croatian psychologist.

Burkart, Judith Maria: Swiss anthropologist.

Burke, Edmund (1729–1797): Irish politician.

Burkett, James P.: American ethologist.

Burki, Fabien: Canadian biologist.

Burman, Leonard E. (Len) (1953–): American economist and tax policy maven.

Burns, George (born Nathan Birnbaum) (1896–1996): American comedian, actor, singer, and writer.

Burns, Kevin C.: New Zealander biologist.

Burr, Richard (1955–): American politician (Republican).

Burroughs, William Seward (1857–1898): American inventor who created the first recording adding machine.

Burrows, Malcolm: English zoologist.

Burtless, Gary (1950–): American economist.

Burton, Robert (1577–1640): English scholar and vicar.

Bush, George H. W. (1924–): American politician (Republican); 41rd US President (1981–1989).

Bush, George W. (1946–): American politician (Republican) and businessman; 43rd US President (2001–2009); son of George H.W. Bush. Criticized for deceiving the American people into war with Iraq, and his inept handling of the aftermath of the devastating Hurricane Katrina, among other failures. Bush was the 1st President elected by the supreme court (in 2000) in the face of losing the popular vote.

Bush, John E., Sr. (Jeb) (1953–): American politician (Republican) and businessman; younger brother of George W. Bush.

Bush, Vannevar (1890–1974): American engineer and inventor.

Bushman, Brad J.: American psychologist and communication scholar, interested in human aggression and violence.

Buss, David M. (1953–): American psychologist, interested in evolutionary psychology.

Butler, Judith (1956–): American philosopher and gender theorist.

Butler, Paul: American law professor.

Butcher, Michael T.: American zoologist, interested in muscle biomechanics.

Butler, Richard J.: English vertebrate paleontologist.

Butler, Samuel (1835–1902): English author, best known for the utopian satire Erewhon and the semi-autobiographical novel The Way Of All Flesh. Butler made English prose translations of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey that continue to be used to this day.

Butlerov, Alexander (1828–1886): Russian chemist who was one of the principal theorists of chemical structure (1857–1961), the first to put double bonds into chemical formulas, and discoverer of hexamine (1859), formaldehyde (1859) and the formose reaction (1961).

Butz, Earl (1909–2008): American agricultural economist.

Byrne, David (1952–): Scottish musician.

Byrne, Richard W.: English evolutionary psychologist.

Byrne, Robert (1930–): American author.

Byrne, Ruth M.J.: Irish cognitive scientist, interested in imagination.

Cabeza, Roberto: Argentinian psychologist.

Cabot, John (1450–1499) (Venetian: Zuan Chabotto): Italian navigator and explorer who discovered Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in 1497 under commission of Henry VII, though most of his financial backing came from Italian merchants based in England.

Cabrera, Derek (1970–): American cognitive scientist and systems theorist, interested in human development and learning.

Cady, Walter Guyton (1874–1974): American physicist and electrical engineer.

Caesar, Gaius Julius (100–44 BCE): Roman general, statesman, and author who founded the Roman Empire.

Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo: Argentinian biochemist and geneticist, interested in evolutionary and comparative genomics.

Caffau, Elisabetta: French cosmologist.

Cage, John Milton Jr. (1912–1992): American composer, music theorist, and writer. A pioneer in the use of indeterminacy in music, which allows players to arrange composed fragments in different sequences. Perhaps best known for his 1952 composition 4’33”, which is given without deliberate sound; instead, musicians in attendance do nothing aside from being there for the duration specified by the title. The work was intended to bring awareness to the ambient environment during the non-performance.

Cahn, Edgar S.: American law professor and political scientist.

Cai, Deborah H.: American communication scholar.

Cairns-Smith, Graham (1931–): Scottish organic chemist and molecular biologist who originated the hypothesis that life may have originally replicated via mineral scaffolding. Cairns-Smith explored the evolution and nature of consciousness in Evolving the Mind (1996).

Cajal, Santiago Ramón y (1852–1934): Spanish neurologist.

Cajori, Florian (1859–1930): American mathematics historian.

Callahan, Shannon P.: American social psychologist.

Caldecott, Keith W.: English biochemist, interested in DNA repair.

Calle, Carlos I.: American physicist.

Calne, Donald (1936–): Canadian neurologist.

Calvo, Guillermo A. (1941–): Argentinean-American economist, interested in macroeconomics, especially monetary economics.

Camera, Gabriele: Italian economist.

Camerer, Colin F. (1959–): American behavioral economist.

Cameron, C. Daryl: American psychologist, interested in empathy and moral decision-making.

Cameron, David (1966–): English politician (Conservative); UK Prime Minister (2010–2016).

Cameron, Duncan: English ecologist, interested in how shifts in energy and nutrient flows between symbiotic organisms influences individuals and ultimately communities.

Cameron, Kim S. (1946–): American organization scholar.

Cameron, Rondo (1925–2001): American economic historian.

Campbell, Chad: American politician (Democrat).

Campbell, Howard W.: American neurobiologist.

Campbell, Margaret C.: American marketing academic.

Campbell, T. Colin: American biochemist.

Campbell, Troy H.: American business scholar.

Campbell, William J. (1905–1988): American jurist.

Campos, Paul F.: American law professor.

Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa: conservation ecologist, interested in elephants and seed dispersal.

Camus, Albert (1913–1960): French philosopher, author, and journalist. Camus’ writings contributed to the rise of the philosophical school known as absurdism.

Cangjie: legendary court historian of China’s Yellow Emperor ~2650 BCE.

Cannon, Walter B. (1871–1945): American physiologist who coined the term fight-or-flight response.

Cantlon, Jessica F.: American cognitive scientist.

Cantor, Eddie (1892–1964): American comedian, actor, dancer, singer, and songwriter. Among his famous songs are “Makin’ Whoopee” and “Yes! We Have No Bananas.”

Cantor, Georg (1845–1918): German mathematician who invented set theory.

Cantor, Joanne: American psychologist.

Canton, John: English chemist.

Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth: Swedish psychologist, interested in the contribution of social interaction to mental illness.

Capoccia, Stella: American biologist.

Capone, Al (1899–1947): American gangster who attained fame as a bootlegger during the Prohibition era.

Capote, Truman (1924–1984): American author.

Capra, Fritjof (1939–): Austrian-born American physicist and systems theorist.

Cardano, Gerolamo (1501–1576): Italian mathematician, physician, astrologer, philosopher, and gambler who wrote over 200 works on various subjects. His gambling led him to formulate elementary rules of probability.

Cardinale, Bradley J.: American ecologist, interested in how human activities impact biological diversity.

Cardona, Tanai: Columbian biologist, interested in photosynthesis.

Cardoso, Domingos: Brazilian botanist.

Carey, Samuel Warren (1911–2002): Australian geologist who was an early advocate of continental drift. Carey’s study of plate tectonics led him to propose the unproven Expanding Earth hypothesis: that continental drift is partly driven by the volume of Earth expanding.

Carl, John D.: American criminologist.

Carlin, George (1937–2008): sardonic American comedian.

Carlson, Linda E.: American physician.

Carlyle, Thomas (1795–1881): Scottish philosopher, historian, mathematician, and teacher.

Carnegie, Andrew (1835–1919): Scottish-born American industrialist. Carnegie began work at 12 as a bobbin boy in a cotton factory. In his mid-20s, Carnegie was already making shrewd stock investments in industrial concerns. From 1872, Carnegie began concentrating on steel: an essential building material of the industrial age.

Carnegie, Dale (1888–1955): American writer and lecturer.

Carney, Ryan: American paleontologist, biologist, artist, and musician.

Carnot, Nicolas Léonard Sadi (1796–1832): French military engineer who developed a half-baked theory of heat engines (the Carnot cycle), anticipating the 2nd law of thermodynamics. Carnot was fascinated with steam engines.

Caro, Tim: English zoologist, interested in animal coloration and wildlife conservation.

Carpenter, William T.: American psychiatrist, interested in severe mental illness, especially schizophrenia.

Carr, Deborah: American sociologist.

Carr, John P.: English plant pathologist.

Carr, Lincoln D.: American physicist.

Carr, Thomas D.: Canadian paleontologist.

Carrasco-Urra, Fernando: Chilean botanist.

Carré, Justin M.: Canadian psychologist.

Carrier, David: American evolutionary biologist.

Carroll, Aaron E.: American physician and pediatrician.

Carroll, Jason S.: American sociologist, interested in marriage.

Carroll, Lewis (pseudonym of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) (1832–1898): English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer; best known for the 1865 novel Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (commonly known as Alice in Wonderland) and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass (1871).

Carroll, Sean B. (1960–): American molecular biologist and geneticist.

Carroll, Sean M. (1966–): American theoretical cosmologist, interested in dark energy and general relativity.

Carson, Rachel (1907–1964): American marine biologist, famous for Silent Spring (1962), which chronicled the environmental devastation caused by synthetic pesticides, especially DDT. American chemical companies were incensed by the book.

Carter, Ashton B. (Ash) (1954–): American physicist, historian, and bureaucrat; US Secretary of Defense (2015–2018).

Carter, Brandon (1942–): Australian theoretical physicist, interested black holes; best known for developing the anthropic principle in its modern form.

Carter, Dennis: American biomechanist.

Carter, Jimmy (1924–): 39th US President (1977–1981). As President, Carter had all kinds of bad luck which obscured his decency.

Carter, Vernon Gill: American ecologist.

Cartwright, Rosalind: American psychologist.

Caruso, Charlie: Australian media entrepreneur.

Carouso-Peck, Samantha: American psychologist.

Carvalho, Cláudia: Portuguese psychologist.

Carver, George Washington (1864–1943): American botanist, scientist, inventor, and educator who promoted alternative crops to cotton in the Reconstruction-era South, especially going inventively nuts over peanuts. In 1941, Time magazine dubbed Carver a “Black Leonardo.”

Carvin, Michael A.: American attorney.

Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra: French geneticist.

Casari, Marco: Italian economist.

Cascio, Carissa: American neurobiologist, interested in autism.

Casimir, Hendrik (1909–2000): Dutch physicist, best known for his work on superconductors.

Caspar, Emilie A.: Belgian psychologist, interested in coercion and agency.

Cassirer, Ernst (1874–1945): German philosopher.

Castel, Alan D.: American psychologist.

Castoe, Todd A.: American biologist.

Castro, Fidel (1926–): Cuban communist revolutionary and dictator (1959–2008).

Catherine of Aragon (1485–1536): Spanish royalty; 1st wife of English King Henry VIII.

Cates, Brad: American attorney.

Catling, David C.: American Earth scientist.

Cato the Elder (born Marcus Porcius Cato) (234–149 BCE): Roman politician and historian.

Cau, Andrea: Italian paleontologist.

Cavanaugh, John C.: American psychologist, interested in adult psychological development and aging.

Cavendish, Henry (1731–1810): English pneumatic chemist who discovered “factitious air,” later termed hydrogen.

Cawood, Peter: Australian geologist.

Cela-Conde, Camilo J.: Spanish anthropologist.

Celsius, Anders (1701–1744): Swedish astronomer, physicist, and mathematician who in 1742 proposed an inverse of the Celsius temperature scale, which bears his name.

Cerf, Vinton G. (Vint) (1943–): American Internet pioneer.

Certini, Giacomo: Italian pedologist.

Chabris, Christopher F.: American psychologist.

Chadwick, James? (1891–1974): English physicist who discovered the neutron, which had been predicted Ettore Majorana.

Chait, Jonathan (1972–): American journalist.

Chalancon, Guilhem: French molecular biologist.

Chamberlain, Neville (1869–1940): English politician (Conservative); UK Prime Minister (1937–1940).

Chamberlain, Thomas C. (1843–1928): influential American geologist who founded the Journal of Geology in 1893.

Chambers, Scott A.: American chemist.

Chamovitz, Daniel: American botanist.

Chia-Wei Cheng: Chinese American gerontologist.

Chan, Jason C.K.: American psychologist.

Chanakya (350–275 BCE): Indian political scientist, economist, jurist, and royal advisor.

Chandel, Navdeep S.: Indian American biochemist.

Chandra, Fiona A.: Indonesian biologist.

Chandrasekhar, Subramanyan (1910–1995): Indian astrophysicist.

Chang, Ha-Joon: South Korean institutional economist.

Chang, Roger Larken: American biologist.

Chang Wanquan (1949–): Chinese soldier; Minister of Defense (2013–).

Chang-Jun Liu: Chinese molecular biologist.

Chapais, Bernard: Canadian anthropologist.

Charlemagne (aka Charles the Great, Charles I) (742–814): King of the Franks who united most of Western Europe and became the 1st Holy Roman Emperor in 800.

Charles I (1600–1649): King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1625 until his execution in 1649, having lost the English Civil War (1642–1651), and convicted of treason.

Charles II of England (1630–1685): son of Charles I; king of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1660 until his death.

Charles V (1500–1558): ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary abdication in in 1556, in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I for Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain.

Charles X (1757–1836): (Bourbon) King of France (1824–1830).

Charles, Kerwin Kofi: American political economist.

Charlesworth, Brian (1945–): English evolutionary biologist, interested in population genetics.

Charlesworth, Deborah (1943–): English evolutionary biologist, interested the genetic evolution.

Charlier, Joseph (1816–1896): Belgian writer, jurist, accountant, and merchant.

Charpentier, Augustin (1852–1916): French physician who discovered that people innately correlate size with expected weight.

Chater, Nick: English psychologist, interested in cognition, lanCapote, Truman (1924–1984): American author.

Chatton, Édouard (1883–1947): French biologist who first distinguished between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, interested in biological taxonomy.

Chen Hou: Chinese zoologist.

Cheney, Dick (1941–): American politician (Republican) and businessman; 46th US Vice President (2001–2009).

Cheney, Dorothy L.: American zoologist.

Cheng Chin: Chinese quantum physicist.

Cheng, Patricia W. (1952–): Hong Kong-born American cognitive psychologist, interested in reasoning.

Cheng Zhu: Chinese microbiologist.

Chensheng Lu (Alex): Chinese American ecologist.

Cherenkov, Pavel A. (1904–1990): Russian physicist who discovered Cherenkov radiation.

Cherry, Colin (1914–1979): English cognitive scientist.

Cheshin, Arik: Israeli social psychologist.

Chesler, Phyllis: American psychologist.

Chess, Barry: American molecular biologist.

Chetty, Nadarajan (Rej) (1979–): Indian-born American public policy economist.

Chevallier, Coralie: French social psychologist, interested in evolutionary and environmental aspects of social cognition.

Chia-Wei Cheng: Chinese American gerontologist.

Childe, V. Gordon (1892–1957): Australian archeologist, interested in European prehistory.

Chilton, Floyd: American biologist.

Chin-Shan Wu: Taiwanese information analyst.

Chirac, Jacques (1932–): French politician; President (1995–2007).

Chisholm, Shirley (1924–2005): American politician (Democrat), educator, and author.

Chittka, Lars: English sensory and ethologist.

Chia-Wei Cheng: Chinese American gerontologist.

Cho, Adrian: American physicist and science writer.

Chomsky, Noam (1928–): American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic, and leftist political activist.

Chourrout, Daniel: French molecular biologist.

Christakis, Nicholas A. (1962–): American sociologist and physician.

Christian IV (1577–1648): King of Denmark and Norway (1588–1648).

Christidis, Les (1959–): Australian ornithologist.

Christin, Jean-Pierre (1683–1755): French physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and musician. Christin is remembered for his thermometer and suggestion about the Celsius scale.

Christner, Brent: American biologist.

Chunharas, Chaipat: Indian neurobiologist.

Chung, Henry: American evolutionary biologist.

Chung, Seung Ho: Korean American entomologist.

Church, John: Australian climatologist.

Churchill, Clementine (née Hozier)(1885–1977): English noblewomen; wife of Winston Churchill. Her paternity is unsettled, as her mother, Lady Blanche Hozier, was well known for infidelity. (Her legal father, Henry Hozier, was also fond of playing the field.)

Churchill, Winston (1874–1965): English politician (Labour); UK Prime Minister (1940–1945, 1951–1955).

Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero) (106–43 BCE): Roman philosopher, political theorist, poet, orator, lawyer, politician, consul, and constitutionalist.

“Almost no one dances sober, unless he is insane.” ~ Cicero

Cieri, Robert L.: American biologist.

Cimpian, Andrei: American psychologist.

Cioran, Emile M. (1911–1995): Romanian philosopher and essayist. Cioran dismissed abstract speculation in his early youth, instead favoring introspection as his muse and passionate lyricism as his expression. Pessimism pervades his works.

Clairaut, Alexis (1713–1765): French mathematician, astronomer, and geophysicist; a child prodigy who became dissolute in later life. His friend Charles Bossut remarked:

“He was focused with dining and with evenings, coupled with a lively taste for women, and seeking to make his pleasures into his day-to-day work; he lost rest, health, and finally life at the age of 52.”

Clanton, “Old Man”: southwest American cattle rustler in the 19th century.

Clapeyron, Benoît Paul Émile (1799–1864): French engineer and physicist; one of the founders of thermodynamics; known for writing Driving Force of the Heat (1834), which only sounds like pulp fiction.

Clark, Christopher: American zoologist.

Clark, David D. (1944–): American Internet pioneer.

Clark, Gregory (1957–): Scottish American economist.

Clark, Katie A.: American geneticist.

Clark, Kenneth B. (1914–2005) & Mamie P. (1917–1985): married American psychologists who were active in the US civil rights movement.

Clark, Peter U.: American geoscientist.

Clark, Ramsey (1927–): American lawyer and federal justice department official.

Clarke, Andrew: English ecologist.

Clarke, Arthur C. (1917–2008): English science and science fiction writer, futurist, and inventor.

Clarke, Esther: English anthropologist.

Clarke, Richard A. (1950–): American counter-terrorism expert.

Clarkson, Matthew O.: English geoscientist.

Clarridge, Duane (Dewey) (1932–2016): American spy.

Classen, Constance: American psychologist and author, interested in cultural influences on the senses.

Claude, Albert (1899–1983): Belgian cytologist and physician.

Clausius, Rudolf (1822–1888): German mathematical physicist who formulated the 2nd law of thermodynamics and introduced the concept of entropy in 1850.

Claverie, Jean-Michel: French virologist.

Clay, Henry (1777–1852): American politician, lawyer, planter, and statesman, known as “The Great Compromiser.”

Clay, Zanna: American primatologist, interested in bonobos, particularly communication, emotion, and development.

Clayton, Adam L.: American biologist.

Clayton, David F.: English psychologist.

Clayton, Nicola S.: English psychologist.

Clear, Todd R.: American criminologist.

Cleisthenes (~570–508 BCE): Athenian politician credited with pushing his native city toward democracy in 508 BCE.

Clement of Alexandria (150–215): Greek Christian theologian, well-versed in Hellenistic philosophy, particularly Plato and Stoicism. Clement was also familiar with Gnosticism and pre-Christian Jewish esotericism.

Cleopatra VII Philopator (69–30 BCE): queen of Egypt, diplomat, naval commander, linguist, and medical author.

Clerk, Dugald (1854–1932): Scottish engineer who designed the first successful 2-stroke internal combustion engine in 1878, receiving an English patent for it in 1881.

Cleveland, Grover (1837–1908): American politician (Democrat); 22nd & 24th US President (1885–1889; 1893–1897).

Cliffe, Rebecca (Becky): English zoologist, interested in sloths.

Clifford, Margaret M.: American sociologist.

Clifford, William Kingdon (1845–1879): brilliant English mathematician and philosopher who anticipated the most important developments in 20th-century physics, including relativity and quantum field theory.

Clinton, Bill (1946–): American politician (Democrat); 42nd US President (1993–2001):

Clinton, DeWitt (1769–1828): American politician (Federalist and Democratic-Republican) and naturalist. Clinton was largely responsible for the construction of the Erie Canal during his term as governor of New York (1817–1828).

Clinton, Hillary (1947–): American politician (Democrat); US senator for New York (2001–2009); spouse of former US president Bill Clinton.

Close, Frank (1945–): English particle physicist. Close wrote in his book Lucifer’s Legacy: The Meaning of Asymmetry (2000):

“Fundamental physical science involves observing how the universe functions and trying to find regularities that can be encoded into laws. To test if these are right, we do experiments. We hope that the experiments won’t always work out, because it is when our ideas fail that we extend our experience. The art of research is to ask the right questions and discover where your understanding breaks down.”

Clovis I (~466–511): 1st king of the Franks, uniting all the Frankish tribes in Francia.

Clusius, Carolus (aka Charles de l’Écluse) (1526–1609): Flemish doctor and botanist; one of the most influential horticulturists of the 16th century.

Clutton-Brock, Tim (1946–): English zoologist.

Coase, Ronald (1910–2013): English economist who studied the nature of firms and externalities.

Coates, Michael: American evolutionary biologist, interested in early vertebrate evolution and diversity.

Cobbett, William (1763–1835): English political radical anti-authoritarian, pamphleteer, farmer, and journalist.

Cocucci, Andrea A.: Argentinian botanist.

Coelho, Ricardo Lopes: Portuguese physicist.

Coen, Enrico S. (1957–): English botanist, interested in the biomechanics of flowers.

Coffel, Ethan D.: American atmospheric scientist.

Coffey, Kimberly A.: American psychologist.

Cohen, Adam E.: American biochemist.

Cohen, Carl (1931–): American philosopher.

Cohen, Itai: American physicist.

Cohen, Jerome A.: American legal advisor, specializing in doing business in China.

Cohen, John: English psychologist.

Cohen, Lisa J.: American psychologist.

Cohen, Morris Raphael (1880–1947): American political philosopher, lawyer, and legal scholar.

Cohen, Roger (1955–): American journalist, interested in world affairs.

Cohn, Alain: Swiss economist, interested in ethics.

Cohn, Henry: American mathematician.

Cohn, Jeffrey F.: American psychologist.

Coke, Edward (1552–1634): English jurist and colonial entrepreneur who wrote definitive legal texts which held sway for 300 years.

Colasco, Daniel: English neuroscientist.

Colding, Frederik: Danish physicist.

Cole, George D.H. (1889–1959): English political theorist, economist and historian who was a libertarian socialist; a pacifist until 1938, whereupon “Hitler cured me of pacifism.”

Cole, Steven W.: American immunologist and geneticist, interested in the impact of human sociality on genomes.

Collings, Peter J.: American physicist.

Collodi, Carlo (1826–1890): pen name of Italian author Carlo Lorenzini, best known for his fairy-tale novel The Adventures of Pinocchio (1881).

Colman, Andrew: English psychologist.

Colmar, Charles Xavier Thomas de (1785–1870): French inventor and entrepreneur who invented the first mass-produced mechanical calculator and founded France’s largest insurance group in his time.

Colosi, Laura: American cognitive scientist.

Colton, Charles Caleb (1780–1832): English cleric.

Columbus, Christopher (1451–1506): Genoese explorer, known for his attempt to reach the East Indies by sailing westward and unintentionally landing in the Bahamas; a supposed shortcut to sailing around the cape of Africa. Sponsored by the Spanish crown, his goal was to gain the upper hand over rival powers in the lucrative spice trade based in Asia. Instead of reaching Japan as intended, Columbus wound up in the Bahamas. Unwilling to admit his mistake, Columbus called the indigenes he found indios (Spanish for Indians).

Colville, Louise: English botanist.

Colvin, Christina M.: American British researcher, interested in behavioral zoology, ecology, ethology, and psychology.

Colwell, Rick: American microbiologist.

Colwin, Laurie (1944–1992): American author who wrote novels and cooking books.

Comey, James B. (1960–): American lawyer; FBI Director (2013–2017).

Comstock, Anthony (1844–1915): American postal inspector and politician, dedicated to Victorian morality.

Comte, Auguste (1798–1857): French science philosopher who founded sociology.

Condie, Kent: American geochemist.

Confucius (born Kong Qui); posthumous title Kong Fuzi (which was Latinized to Confucius)) (551–479 BCE): Chinese moral and political philosopher.

“Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself.” ~ Confucius

Conklin, Bruce R.: American geneticist.

Connelly, Harry S.: American attorney.

Connolly, Sean R.: Australian ecologist.

Connelly, William F., Jr.: American political scientist.

Conrad, Klaus (1905–1961): German psychiatrist and neurologist, interested in neuropsychology and psychopathology.

Conrad, Taina: German zoologist, interested in animal communication, especially chemical and vibrational.

Conradt, Barbara: German cytologist.

Conroy, Glenn C.: American anthropologist and anatomist.

Conselice, Christopher J.: English astrophysicist.

Constantine I (aka Constantine the Great) (272–337): Roman Emperor (306–337) who won a series of civil wars to become sole ruler of both the eastern and western Roman empire. Constantine enacted many reforms that strengthened the empire. To combat inflation, he introduced a new gold coin, the solidus. It became the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for over a millennium. Constantine was the 1st Roman emperor to embrace Christianity, and so furthered its adoption.

Conway, Gordon: English agricultural ecologist.

Cook, James (1728–1779): English naval captain, explorer, and cartographer. In 3 voyages around the world, Cook sailed across areas of the globe previously unknown to Europeans. After his first foray, Cook’s journals were published upon his return, and he became something of a hero to the scientific community. Cook was killed in a fight with the natives in Hawaii. Cook went from honored guest to chopped meat because he and his crew attacked the Hawaiians for pilfering from their ship. Such arrogant British diplomacy would continue for as long as the Empire reigned.

Cook, John: Australian psychologist.

Cook, Rick (1944–): American novelist.

Cooke, Deryck (1919–1976): English musicologist and musician.

Cooley, Charles H. (1864–1929): American sociologist.

Coolidge, Calvin (1908–1973): American politician (Democrat); 36th US President (1963–1969).

Coolidge, Frederick L.: American psychologist.

Coolidge, Grace A.G. (1879–1957): teacher of deaf children and social activist; wife of Calvin Coolidge.

Cooper, Leon (1930–): American physicist who contributed to understanding superconductivity.

Copeland, Herbert F. (1902–1968: American biologist, interested in biological taxonomy.

Copernicus, Nicolaus (1473–1543): Prussian astronomer who developed a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology, displacing the Earth from the center of the universe. Copernicus’s work was published posthumously, as he worried about the scorn that his crazy idea would provoke.

Corbet, Philip S. (1929–2008): English entomologist, interested in aquatic insects, particularly dragonflies.

Corbett, Julia B.: American journalist.

Cordell, Dana: Australian resource scientist.

Corliss, George Henry (1817–1888): American mechanical engineer who advanced the state of the art in steam engines in the mid-19th century.

Corn, Jacob: American geneticist and cytologist.

Cornell-Bell, Ann H.: American neurobiologist.

Copi, Irving M. (1917–2002): American logician.

Corrigan, Roberta: American developmental psychologist.

Corriveau, Kathleen H.: American psychologist.

Cort, Henry (1741–1800): English ironmaster.

Cortés, Hernán (1485–1547): Spanish conquistador who caused the fall of the Mexica Empire through treachery and mass murder, bring Mexico under Spanish rule. The Mexica are commonly, but wrongly, called Azteca.

Cornwallis, Charlie K.: English zoologist.

Cosby, Bill (1937–): American comedian, actor, and author.

Cosgrove, Daniel: American biologist.

Cosier, Susan: American environmental scientist and writer.

Cosmides, Leda (1957–): American psychologist, interested in evolutionary psychology.

Costa, Fabio: quantum physicist.

Costello, Elvis (1954–): stage name of Irish English singer, musician, and songwriter Declan Patrick MacManus.

Costello, Elizabeth K.: American microbiologist and immunologist.

Cotler, Jordan: American theoretical physicist.

Coulomb, Charles-Augustin de (1736–1806): French physicist, best known for elucidating the attraction and repulsion of the electrostatic force. Coulomb also worked on friction.

Coumou, Dim: Dutch climatologist, interested in global warming.

Courant, Richard (1888–1972): German mathematician.

Courtney, Robert: Australian zoologist.

Cousens, Gabriel (1943–): American holistic physician and homeopath who advocates live food.

Covington, Michael F.: American biologist, interested in circadian rhythms.

Cox, Cymon J.: English evolutionary biologist.

Cox, Robert M.: American evolutionary biologist.

Cowen, Diane F.: American marine biologist, interested in lobsters.

Cowen, Ron: American science writer.

Cowen, Tyler (1962–): American economist.

Cowper, William (1731–1800): English poet, admired by his contemporaries; one of the forerunners of Romantic poetry.

Cowperthwaite, Matthew: American cytologist and molecular biologist.

Coyte, Katharine Z.: English biologist.

Cózar, Andrés: Spanish ecologist.

Cramer, Gabriel (1704–1752): Swiss mathematician interested in algebraic curves. Cramer’s rule (1750) is still the standard formula for sussing any dependent variable in a linear equation system that has a unique solution.

Crawley, Michael J.: English botanist.

Creel, Scott: American ethologist.

Crick, Francis (1916–2004): English molecular biologist, known as the co-discoverer of the structure of DNA in 1953, with James Watson.

Crisp, Peter A.: Australian botanist.

Crocker, Steven D. (Steve) (1944–): American Internet pioneer.

Crockett, Julie: American mechanical engineer.

Crockett, Molly J.: American psychologist and cognitive scientist.

Cromwell, Townsend (1922–1958): American oceanographer who discovered the Cromwell current.

Crone, Jess: American oil worker.

Cronkite, Walter (1916–2009): American broadcast journalist who was widely considered “the most trusted man in America” in the 1960s and 1970s.

Crothall, Geoffrey: English journalist.

Crowe-Riddell, Jenna M.: Australian herpetologist.

Crowell, Henry Parsons (1855–1943): American businessman who successfully branded quick-cooking rolled oats as “Quaker Oats,” and in doing so popularized in America a previously ignored food. Crowell’s family wealth meant that he was born with a silver spoon in his mouth, but he took it out and dug himself a successful career based upon hard work and uncompromising conviction. Crowell was a devout evangelist Christian who donated over 70% his fortune to helping others. Crowell was one of the most respected businessmen in the US in the early 20th century, at a time when robber barons were the standard model of capitalist enterprise.

Crutchfield, Richard S. (1912–1977): American psychologist.

Cubitt, Toby S.: English theoretical physicist.

Cuddy, Amy J.C. (1972–): American social psychologist.

Cugnot, Nicolas-Joseph (1725–1804): French engineer who built the first automobile in 1768. It was steam powered.

Cunningham, William A.: American psychologist and neurobiologist.

Curie, Janet: Canadian economist, interested in public health and poverty policy in the US.

Curnoe, Darren: Australian evolutionary biologist.

Currivan, Jude: English cosmologist and archeologist.

Curtis, Benjamin R. (1809–1874): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1851–1857). Curtis was the 1st justice to have a formal law degree, and the only justice to resign from the court as a matter of principle. One of the 2 dissenters in Dred Scott v. Standford (1857), Curtis rightly noted that since the majority ruled that Standford lacked standing, the Court had no power to rule on the merits of the case as it had. Disgusted with his bench colleagues, leading to mutual distrust, Curtis was also temperamentally estranged by his disinclination to work with others (not a team player), and tired of riding the circuit (extensive travel) for low pay, as required of justices at the time. Curtis went into private practice in Boston after his resignation and made out quite well. Curtis successfully served as chief counsel for President Andrew Johnson during Johnson’s impeachment trial, which was a political ploy with no constitutional basis.

Cushman, Fiery: American psychologist.

Cuthill, Innes C. (1961–): English biologist and ethologist.

Cutler, David M.: American economist.

Cuttler, Michael V.W.: Australian coral reef ecologist.

Cuvier, Georges (1769–1832): French naturalist who studied fossils. Cuvier ironically denied evolution while establishing extinction as a fact.

Cvijanovic, Ivana: Serbian climatologist.

Cyrus (King Cyrus II of Persia, aka Cyrus the Great, Cyrus the Elder) (576–530 BCE): the founder of the 1st Persian (Achaemenid) Empire.

Cyrus, Miley (1992–): American singer, songwriter, and actress.

d’Humberstein, Lebon: French engineer who invented a 2-stroke internal combustion engine.

da Gama, Vasco (1460 or 1469–1524): Portuguese explorer; the first European to reach India by sea, in 1498.

da Vinci, Leonardo (1452–1519): Italian painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, musician, inventor, scientist, mathematician, engineer, geologist, cartographer, anatomist, botanist, and writer. Best known for a small portrait of a drab woman with a half-smile (Mona Lisa).

da Verranzano, Giovanni (also spelled Verranzzano): Italian explorer of North America; the first to explore the Atlantic coast (in 1524).

Dabbs, James M. Jr.: American sociologist.

Dabiao Liu: Chinese physicist.

Dabo Guan: Chinese ecological economist.

Dacke, Marie: Swedish zoologist, interested in dung beetles.

Dafforn, Katherine: Australian marine ecologist.

Dahl, Ole-Johan (1926–2002): Norwegian software scientist who fathered the Simula programming language with Kristen Nygaard.

Daimler, Gottlieb (1834–1900): German engineer and industrialist who invented the high-speed petrol engine and furthered the 4-wheel automobile.

Dal Lago, Alessandro: Italian anthropologist.

Dalai Lama (1935–):14th in a line of head monks of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.

Dale, Tom: American ecologist.

Dalton, John (1766–1844): English chemist, meteorologist, and physicist, known for his work on atomic theory and color blindness.

Damania, Richard: Australian environmental economist.

Damisch, Lysann: German psychologist.

Damond, Justine (Justine Maia Ruszcyk) (1977–2017): Australian meditation instructor and spiritual healer.

Dangl, Jeffery L. (1957–): American biologist.

Daniels, Anthony (1949–): English writer and psychiatrist.

Danielson, Jonas Å.H.: Swedish botanist.

Dante (Dante Alighieri) (1265–1321): Italian poet.

Dantzig, Tobias (1884–1956): Latvian mathematician.

Danyluck, Chad: American health physiologist.

Darby, Abraham (1678–1717): English metalworker.

Darch, Sophie E.: English molecular biologist.

Darimont, Chris: Canadian evolutionary ecologist.

Darley, John M. (1938–): American social psychologist.

Darling, Frank Fraser (1903–1979): Scottish ecologist, conservationist, ornithologist, and farmer.

Darling, Seth: American chemist interested in photovoltaics.

Darroch, Simon A.F.: English biogeologist.

Dart, Thomas: American sheriff.

Darvish, Behnam: American astrophysicist.

Darwin, Charles (1809–1882): English naturalist, famous for his hollow hypothesis of evolution by “natural selection”.

Daudet, Alphonse (1840–1897): French novelist.

Davenant, Charles (1656–1714): English mercantilist economist and politician.

Davidai, Shai: American psychologist.

Davidson, Richard J.: American psychologist.

Davies, Heather: English human resources coordinator.

Davies, Kert: American environmentalist.

Davies, Nicholas B.: English zoologist.

Davies, Paul C.W. (1946–): English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and astrobiologist, intent on finding extraterrestrial life. Davies generated controversy by noting that the faith of scientists is in the immutability of physical laws; a faith with roots in Christian theology. Davies called the claim that science is “free of faith”: “bogus.”

Davies, Robertson (1913–1995): Canadian novelist.

Davies, Thomas: English ecologist.

Davies, William: English sociologist and political economist.

Davis, Adam: American botanist, interested in crop production.

Davis, Donald: American biochemist.

Davis, Matt: Danish bioscientist.

Davis, Steven J.: American economist.

Davis, Steven J.: American ecologist.

Davis, J.C. Séamus: Scottish-Irish American physicist interested in superconductivity.

Davis, Tamara M.: Australian astrophysicist and ultimate Frisbee player.

Dawkins, Marian Stamp (1945–): English ethologist.

Dawkins, Richard (1941–): English evolutionary biologist; a staunch matterist, Dawkins is known for his atomistic, gene-centric view of evolution, advocacy of random mutation as the sole evolutionary vehicle, and condemnation of spirituality in any form; wrong on all accounts.

Day, Joseph (1855–1946): English engineer who developed the crankcase-compression 2-stroke petrol engine widely used in small engine applications, from lawnmowers to small motorcycles.

Day, Martin V.: American social psychologist.

d’Errico, Francesco: Italian paleontologist.

D’Souza, Glen: German microbiologist and organic chemist.

De, Sandip: Indian epigeneticist.

de Botton, Alain (1969–): Swiss-English writer.

de Bekker, Charissa: American entomologist.

de Besbeque, Ogier Ghiselin (1522–1592): Flemish writer, herbalist, and diplomat who sent Turkish tulip bulbs to Carolus Clusius, a botanist friend in Flanders, thus being the originator of Dutch tulip mania.

de Blasio, Bill (1961–): American politician (Democrat); mayor of New York City (2014–).

de Broglie, Louis (1892–1987): French physicist who developed the pilot wave theory.

de Chazal, Malcolm (1902–1981): Mauritian writer and painter, best known for his aphorisms.

de Clapiers, Luc (1715–1747): French writer following the moralist tradition of describing the moral character of humanity, along with prescriptive maxims.

de Condorcet, Nicolas (aka Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet) (1743–1794): French philosopher, mathematician, and political scientist.

de Fermat, Pierre: see Fermat, Pierre.

De Filippo, Carlotta: Italian nutritionist and microbiologist.

de Gama, Vasco (~1460–1524): Portuguese explorer; the first European to reach India by a sea route, sailing around south Africa.

de Gaulle, Charles (1890–1970): French army officer and politician; France’s President (1958–1969); a nationalist who set back European integration.

de Gelder, Beatrice M.L.: Dutch cognitive neurobiologist and neuropsychologist who hypothesizes pseudoscience.

de Gournay, Jacques Claude Marie Vincent (1712–1759): French economist who coined the phrase laissez faire and the term bureaucracy.

de Knijff, Peter: Dutch geneticist.

de la Fontaine, Jean (1621–1695): French fabulist.

de La Rochefoucauld, François (1613 –1680): French author.

de la Tourette, George A.E.B.G. (1857–1904): French physician and neurologist who chronicled Tourette’s syndrome in 9 patients in 1885.

de las Casas, Bartolomé (1484–1566): Spanish colonist, historian, social reformer, and Dominican friar. Casas was one of the first Spanish (and European) settlers in the New World. de las Casas participated in and then turned against the atrocities committed against Native Americans by Spanish colonists. His humanity evolved from advocating African slaves instead of local labor to opposing slavery altogether. Las Casas became one of the first advocates for universal human rights.

De Martino, Benedetto: English cognitive scientist.

de Montaigne, Michel (1533–1592): French writer.

de Montbrial, Thierry: French economist and international relations researcher.

De Pittà, Maurizio: Italian neurobiologist.

de Rochas, Alphonse Beau (1815–1893): French engineer who in 1861 originated the idea of a 4-stroke internal combustion engine, for which he received a patent in 1862.

de Saint-Simon, Henri (Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon) (1760–1825): French social theorist and businessman who advocated utopian socialism. Saint-Simon’s writings influenced the development of positivism and socialism.

de Sales, Francis (1567–1622): French priest, now honored as a saint by the Catholic church for his deep faith and gentle handling of the turmoil within the church arising from the Protestant reformation.

de Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés (1494–1573): Spanish Renaissance humanist, Catholic theologian, philosopher, and proponent of colonial slavery.

de Sismondi, Jean Charles Léonard (1773–1842): Swiss writer who observed capitalism as prone to periodic crises from misallocation of resources.

de Swart, Rik: Dutch virologist.

de Tocqueville, Alex (1805–1859): French political scientist, historian, and politician.

de Tournefort, Joseph Pitton (1656–1708): French botanist who coined the first clear definition of genus for plants.

de Tracy, Antoine Destutt (1754–1836): French aristocrat and philosopher who coined ideology in 1806.

de Vattel, Emer (1714–1767): Swiss philosopher and legal theorist.

de Vitoria, Francisco (aka Francisco de Victoria) (1483–1546): Spanish Catholic theologian, philosopher, and jurist.

de Vries, Hugo (1848–1935): Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists. de Vries coined the term mutation.

de Waal, Frans (1948–): Dutch primatologist and ethologist.

de Wit, Mieke: Dutch botanist.

Dean, Amy L.: American physician.

Deaton, Angus (1945–): Scottish American economist.

Debas, Karen: Canadian neuropsychologist.

DeCarlo, Thomas M.: American marine biologist.

Decety, Jean: French psychologist.

Deeks, Steven: American clinician.

Deem, Michael W.: American biochemist.

Deeming, Christopher: English sociologist.

Defoe, Daniel (1660–1731): English trader, writer, and spy.

Degas, Edgar (1834–1917): French impressionist painter, draftsman, and graphic artist.

Dehnel, August (1903–1962): Polish zoologist, known for discovering Dehnel phenomenon.

Deiters, Otto (1834–1874): German neuroanatomist who studied the anatomy of nerve cells and astrocytes.

Del-Claro, Kleber: Brazilian ecologist.

Delaplane, Keith S.: American entomologist.

della Porta, Giambattista (1535–1605): Italian scholar, playwright, and polymath in areas both scientific and technical.

Delshad, Jonathan J.: American attorney.

Deming, William Edwards (1900–1993): American engineer, statistician, and management consultant, best known in Japan for inspiring their post-war economic miracle in the 1950s and 1960s by focusing on quality production techniques.

Dembski, William A. (1960–): American theologian, philosopher, and mathematician who advanced the notion of specified complexity in arguing for intelligent design.

deMenocal, Peter B.: American geographic environmentalist who uses marine sediments as archives of past climate changes.

Democritus (!460–370 BCE): Greek rationalist philosopher who formulated an atomic theory for the cosmos and believed in predeterminism.

Demosthenes (384–322 BCE): Athenian statesman and orator who worked as a professional speechwriter (logographer) and lawyer, writing arguments for use in civil suits.

Deneubourg, Jean-Louis: Belgian ecological zoologist.

Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997): Chinese revolutionary who ruled China (1978–1992).

Denny, Frank E.: USDA botanist who discovered in 1924 that citrus detect ethylene in the air.

Denson, Thomas F.: American social psychologist, interested in anger and aggression.

Denton, Peggy: American developmental psychologist.

DePalma, Robert: American vertebrate paleontologist.

Der, Joshua P.: American botanist.

Derex, Maxime: French paleontologist, interested in cumulative human culture.

Derocher, Andrew: Canadian zoologist.

Descartes, René (1596–1650): French rationalist philosopher and mathematician. Considering the senses unreliable, Descartes believed the only indubitable knowledge came from the mind.

“And so something which I thought I was seeing with my eyes is in fact grasped solely by the faculty of judgment which is in my mind.” ~ René Descartes

Descartes never considered what he was at a moment when his mind was empty (transcended).

Disney, Roy O. (1893–1971): American businessman; older brother of Walt Disney.

DeSilva, Jeremy M.: American anthropologist.

Detloff, Kim: German marine biologist.

Detrich, H. William: American marine molecular biologist and biochemist.

DeVoe, Sanford E.: American psychologist.

DeVito, Joseph A.: American psychologist.

Devi, Shakuntala (1929–2013): Indian child prodigy who became a writer and mental calculator, popularly known as the “human computer” for her numeric acumen.

Dewenter, Jana: German animal physiologist.

Dewey, John (1869–1948): American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and progressive social reformer.

Diamond, Jared (1937–): American anthropologist, ecologist, geographer, and biologist.

Diamond, Shari S.: American lawyer, psychologist, and jury maven.

Diat, Louis (1885–1957): French chef and culinary writer.

Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys: Swedish neurobiologist.

Dichter, Ernest (1907–1991): American psychologist and marketing maven.

Dick, Philip K. (1928–1982): American science fiction writer.

Dicke, Marcel: Dutch entomologist.

Dicke, Robert H. (1916–1997): American physicist, interested in astrophysics, gravity, and atomic physics.

Dickens, Charles (1812–1870): English writer and social critic; regarded as a literary giant of his age; well-known works include Oliver Twist (1837–1839), A Christmas Carol (1843), A Tale of Two Cities (1859), and Great Expectations (1861).

“We forge the chains we wear in life.” ~ Charles Dickens

Dicks, Lynn: English zoologist.

Diderot, Denis (1713–1784): French philosopher, writer, and art critic; a prominent figure in the Enlightenment.

Diekelmann, Susanne: German psychologist and neurobiologist, interested in sleep.

Dienstag, Joshua Foa: American philosophical pessimist, lawyer, and author.

Dijkstra, Edsger W. (1930–2002): Dutch computer scientist and mathematician.

Dillard, Irving: American legal scholar.

Dimon, Jamie (1956–): American financial business executive; CEO of JP Morgan Chase bank (2005–).

Dinets, Vladimir: Russian zoologist.

Dingemanse, Mark: Dutch linguist.

Dingle, Hugh: American zoologist.

Dingle, Kamaludin: British mathematical biologist.

Diophantus (~210–~290): Alexandrian Greek mathematician who made advances in algebra.

Dirac, Paul (1902–1984): brilliant English theoretical physicist who contributed to the early development of quantum physics. Dirac was a precise and taciturn man. Raised Catholic, Dirac once remarked, “religion is a jumble of false assertions, with no basis in reality.”

Diringer, Joel: American health policy maven.

Dirksen, Everett (1896–1969): American politician (Republican); US Senator from Illinois (1951–1969).

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804–1881): English politician (Conservative); UK Prime Minister (1868, 1874–1880).

DiSalvo, Susanne: American bacteriologist.

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804–1881): English politician (Conservative) and writer.

Ditto, Peter H.: American social psychologist.

Dix, Dorothea (1802 – 1887): American activist for the mentally ill.

Dobzhansky, Theodosius (1900–1975): Ukrainian geneticist and evolutionary biologist.

Dodds, Lyndsey: English marine biologist and conservationist.

Doebeli, Michael: Canadian mathematical evolutionary biologist.

Dolan, Liam: Irish botanist.

Dolev, Yinnon: New Zealander zoologist.

Dollo, Louis (1857–1931): French born Belgian paleontologist who decreed that devolution was impossible, which became known as Dollo’s law.

Dombeck, Mark: American physician, interested in autism.

Domes, Katja: German zoologist.

Dominy, Nathaniel J.: American anthropologist.

Dondi, Giovanni de’ (aka Giovanni Dondi dell’Orologio) (1330–1388): Italian physician, astronomer, and clockmaker. Dondi built a complex astronomical clock and planetarium from 1348 to 1364.

Donley, Nathan: American environmental biologist.

Donner, K. Kristian: Finnish sensory biologist.

Donoghue, Philip C.J.: English paleontologist and paleobiologist.

Doppler, Christian (1803–1853): Austrian physicist who proposed the Doppler effect in 1842.

Dornford, Josiah (1764–1797): English lawyer and civic activist.

Dornhaus, Anne: German evolutionary and behavioral biologist, interested in entomology.

Dorsey, George (1868–1931): American ethnographer.

Dossey, Larry (1940–): American physician.

Dostoyevsky, Fyodor (1821–1881): Russian novelist.

Dougherty, Michael J.: American biologist.

Douglas, Marjory Stoneman (1890–1998): American environmentalist, journalist, civil rights advocate, and feminist.

Douglas-Home, Alec (1903–1995): English politician (Conservative); UK Prime Minister (1963–1964).

Duke, Stephen O.: US government herbicide researcher.

Dummer, Geoffrey (aka G.W.A. Dummer) (1909–2002): English electronics engineer who first conceived of integrated circuits.

Douglas, Stephen (1813–1861): American politician.

Douglis, Avron: American mathematician and economist.

Dow, Charles (1851–1902): American journalist who founded and edited the Wall Street Journal financial newspaper.

Dowie, Mark: American historian.

Doyle, Arthur Conan (1859–1930): Irish-Scots novelist and physician, best known for the crime fiction tales of detective Sherlock Holmes.

Doyle, Thomas K.: Irish marine biologist.

Draco (7th century): Greek legislator who wrote the first Western laws.

Drake, Edwin (1819 – 1880): American oil driller, commonly credited with the first modern oil well, in 1859.

Drass, Kriss A.: American psychologist.

Dreary, Ian J.: English psychologist.

Dresher, Melvin (1911–1992): Polish-born American mathematician, interested in game theory.

Dreyfus, Tommy: Israeli science educator.

Drossel, B.: German evolutionary zoologist.

Drucker, Ernest: American penologist.

Drucker, Peter (1909–2005): Austrian-born American management consultant and author.

Dryden, John (1631–1700): English poet and playwright.

Dryer, T.F.: paleoanthropologist.

DuCane, Edmund F. (1830–1903): English soldier and prison administrator who advocated hard labor.

Dudley, Robert (1532–1588): English nobleman; close friend of Elizabeth I.

Dudley, Susan: Canadian evolutionary plant ecologist.

Duffy, Ken R.: Irish immunologist.

Duffy, Kevin T. (1933–): American lawyer and jurist.

Duke, Stephen O.: US government herbicide researcher.

Dummer, Geoffrey (aka G.W.A. Dummer) (1909–2002): English electronics engineer who first conceived of integrated circuits.

Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni: Spanish neurobiologist.

Dunant, Henri (born Jean-Henri, aka Henry) (1828–1910): Swiss businessman and social activist who inspired the International Red Cross and the 1st (1864) Geneva Convention.

Dunbar, Robin I.M. (1947–): English anthropologist and evolutionary psychologist who calculated in 1992 a cognitive limit to the number of people with whom humans can maintain stable relationships. Dunbar’s number was 150.

Dunn, Peter O.: Canadian ethologist.

Dunn, Regan: American paleoecologist, interested in the evolution of plants.

Dunn, Rob: American biologist.

Dunoyer, Charles (1786 – 1862): French economist who conceptualized the business cycle, following on work by Jean Sismondi.

Durak, Paul J.: American oceanographer.

Durant, Ariel (1898–1981): Ukrainian-born American historian.

Durant, William C. (1861–1947): American industrialist who pioneered the automobile industry in the United States.

Durant, William J. (Will) (1885–1981): American historian and philosopher.

Durham, William M.: English aquatic microbial ecologist, interested in the fluid dynamics of microbial ecology.

Durkheim, Émile (1858–1917): French sociologist, social psychologist, and philosopher.

Durrell, Gerald (1925–1995): Indian zookeeper.

Duritz, Adam (1964–): American songwriter, singer, and musician in the popular music group Counting Crows (1991–).

Durovic, Stevan: Yugoslavian physician who promoted krebiozen.

Dussutour, Audrey: French biologist, interested in animal behavior.

Duterte, Rodrigo (aka Digong, Rody) (1945–): Filipino lawyer and politician; 16th Philippine president (2016–).

Dutilh, Bas E.: Dutch virologist.

DuVernay, Ava (1972–): American filmmaker.

Dweck, Carol (1946–): American psychologist.

Dwight, Theodore: American lawyer and educator.

Dyer, Adrian: Australian vision scientist.

Dynarski, Susan: American public policy, education, and economics scholar.

Dyson, Freeman (1923–): English-born American physicist, cosmologist, and mathematician.

Eagle, Robert A.: American zoologist.

Eakin, C. Mark: American biological oceanographer.

Earnest, Josh R.H. (1975–): American political journalist.

Ebenstein, Alan O. (1959–): American political scientist.

Ebenstein, William (1910–1976): Austrian political scientist.

Eberhard, William G.: American ethologist.

Ebmeier, Susanna: English ecologist, interested in volcanoes.

Eccles, William (1875–1966): English physicist, interested in radio communication.

Ecker, Joseph R.: American botanist.

Ecker, Ullrich K.H.: Australian psychologist.

Eddie, Bill: English biologist.

Edelson, Micah: Israeli cognitive scientist.

Edison, Thomas (1847–1931): American inventor and businessman.

Edsall, Thomas B. (1941–): American political journalist.

Edward I (aka Edward Longshanks (owing to his commanding height), Hammer of the Scots (owing to his brutality toward rebellious Scots)) (1239–1307): King of England (1272–1307). Edward spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law. In 1290, Edward expelled the Jews from England; an edict that remained in effect for the rest of the Middle Ages; overturned by Oliver Cromwell in 1656.

Edward VI (1537–1553): King of England from age 10 to 15 (1547–1553).

Edward, Margaret J.: American psychologist, interested in cognitive development.

Edwards, David P.: English biologist.

Edwards, Marc (1964–): American civil and environmental engineer.

Edwards, Scott: American evolutionary biologist.

Efferson, Charles: German evolutionary ecologist.

Ehinger, Benedikt V.: German cognitive psychologist and neurobiologist.

Ehrlich, Paul R. (1932–): American biologist, interested in the human impact on the environment.

Eichmann, Otto Adolf (1906–1962): German soldier (lieutenant colonel) during the 2nd World War.

Eichner, Amy: American physician and special advisor on drugs and supplements at the US Anti-Doping Agency, the anti-doping association for American Olympic athletes.

Eimer, Theodor (1843–1898): German zoologist, credited with popularizing the term orthogenesis.

Einhorn, Hillel J. (1947–1987): American psychologist, interested in decision-making.

Eisenberg, Theodore: Israeli mathematician.

Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1890–1969): American army general; Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe during World War 2; politician (Republican) whose entry-level position was 34th US President (1953–1961).

Eisenhower, Milton S. (1899–1985): American educational administrator; younger brother of Dwight Eisenhower.

Einstein, Albert (1879–1955): German theoretical physicist, known for his theories of relativity.

Eisert, Jens (1970–): German physicist, interested in quantum information.

El-Agraa, Ali M. (1941–): Sudanese-British economist.

el-Sisi, Abdel Fattah (1954–): Egyptian military commander who took power in a 2013 military coup.

Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122–1204): French queen consort of France and England; one of the most powerful and wealthiest women in western Europe at the height of the Middle Ages.

Elbroch, L. Mark: American zoologist, interested in the ecology of pumas.

Eldredge, Niles: American paleontologist and biologist who proposed punctuated equilibrium in 1972 with Stephen Jay Gould.

Eldridge, Paul (1888–1982): prolific American writer.

Elemans, Coen P.H.: Danish zoologist, interested in vertebrate vocalization.

Elf, Johan: Swedish molecular biologist.

Elagabalus (aka Heliogabalus) (203–222): Roman Emperor (218–222), taking the name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, and called Elagabalus only after his death. Elagabalus’ eccentricity, debauchery, and unorthodox zealotry led to his assassination at the ripe old age of 18. Elagabalus is remembered as one of the worst Roman emperors.

Elgar, Mark A.: Australian zoologist, interested in unusual animal behaviors and use of chemical communication.

Elias, Norbert (1897–1990): German sociologist, known for his theory of civilizing (and decivilizing) processes.

Eliason, Chad: American zoologist.

Eliason, Randall D.: American criminal law professor & journalist.

Eliassen, Sigrunn: Norwegian zoologist.

Eliasson, Jan (1940–): Swedish diplomat.

Eliot, Lise: American neurobiologist, interested in the gender differences in the human brain.

Eliot, Mary Ann (1819–1880): English novelist who wrote under the pseudonym George Eliot, so as to have her works taken seriously, and to shield her private life.

Eliot, T.S. (1888–1965): American poet, essayist, playwright, and social critic.

Elizabeth I (1533–1603): Queen of England (1558–1603).

Elizabeth II (1926–): Queen of England (1952–).

Elkind, Sarah S.: American historian.

Ellstrand, Norman C.: American botanist.

Elmer, Kathryn R.: Scottish evolutionary biologist.

Elowitz, Michael B.: American biologist.

Elton, Charles (1900 –1991): English zoologist and ecologist; instrumental in establishing the foundation for modern population and community ecology, including invasive organisms.

Elwell, Frank W.: American sociologist.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–1882): American essayist, lecturer, and poet. Emerson championed individualism.

Emery, Carlo (1848–1925): Italian entomologist, best known for Emery’s rule: that interspecific insect parasites chose closely-related animal species as their victims.

Emery, Nathan J.: English zoologist.

Emlen, Douglas J.: American zoologist.

Emons, Anne Mie C.: Dutch botanist and cytologist.

Empedocles (490–430 BCE): eclectic Greek philosopher who originated the cosmogenic theory of the 4 classical elements: earth, water, wind, and fire. Empedocles considered chemical changes similar to emotional relations.

Empiricus, Sextus (160–210): Roman physician and philosopher.

Enfield, Nick J.: Dutch linguist.

Engelhardt, Netta: American physicist.

Engelhardt, Tim: German microbiologist.

Engels, Friedrich (1820–1895): German philosopher, sociologist, and journalist who collaborated with Karl Max.

Ennos, A. Roland: English biomechanist.

Epictetus (55–135): Phrygia-born (now Turkey) Hellenistic Stoic philosopher. Epictetus taught that negative emotions were the product of errors in judgment, and an enlightened person would not suffer such emotions.

Epicurus (341–270 BCE): Greek philosopher who held that pleasure and pain are the metrics of good and evil.

Epley, Nicholas: American psychologist.

Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs: American sociologist.

Eratosthenes (276–194 BCE): Greek astronomer, mathematician, geographer, astronomer, music theorist, and poet.

Erdogan, Recep T. (1954–): Turkish politician; Turkey’s President (2014–), with a decided autocratic bent.

Erez, Zohar: Israeli molecular geneticist.

Erickson, Jon: American geologist.

Ehrlich, Paul (1854–1915): German Jewish physician who popularized the notion of a medical “magic bullet.”

Eronen, Jussi: Finnish environmental ecologist.

Ertter, Barbara: American botanist.

Erwin, Douglas H.: American evolutionary biologist.

Erwin, Terry: American taxonomist.

Estes, James A.: American ecologist and evolutionary biologist.

Ettema, Thijs: Dutch microbiologist.

Etzioni, Amitai (1929–): Israeli American sociologist.

Euclid of Alexandria (~300 BCE): Greek mathematician, the father of geometry. Euclid wrote the most influential mathematics book of all time: Elements, the primary textbook for math, especially geometry, for over 2,000 years, into the early 20th century. Euclidean geometry was extended into higher dimensions via independent work by János Bolyai and Nikolai Lobachevsky.

Eudoxus of Cnidus (408–355 BCE): Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Plato.

Euler, Leonhard (1707–1783): Swiss mathematician, logician, engineer, and physicist who introduced much modern mathematical terminology and notation; also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, and music theory; considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.

Eulgem, Thomas: American plant cytologist.

Euripides (480–406 BCE): Greek playwright, considered one of the great tragedians of classical Athens.

Eustachi, Bartolomeo (aka Eustachius) (1514–1574): Italian anatomist; a founder of the science of human anatomy.

Evans, Arthur (1851–1941): English archeologist.

Evans, Iwan Robert: English immunologist.

Evans, Oliver (1755–1819): American engineer, inventor, and businessman. A pioneer in the fields of steam power, automation, and materials handling.

Evans, Rob L.: American geologist.

Evans, Ronald M.: American geneticist, interested in hormones.

Evans-Wentz, Walter Y. (1878–1965): American anthropologist.

Evelyn, John (1620–1706): English writer and gardener.

Everett, Daniel: American linguist.

Everett, Jim A.C.: English social psychologist and philosopher.

Everett III, Hugh (1930–1982): American physicist who first proposed a many-worlds interpretation of quantum physics.

Ewald, Paul: American evolutionary biologist.

Exiguus, Dionysius (470–544): Christian monk and scholar.

Eyesenck, Hans J. (1916–1997): German-born psychologist who spent his career in England; best remembered for his work on personality and intelligence.

Ezenwa, Vanessa O.: American ethologist, interested in infectious diseases.

Ezzat, Kariem: Swedish molecular biologist.

Faber, Louise: Australian cognitive scientist.

Fabian, Sam: English entomologist.

Fabry, Charles (1867–1945): French physicist.

Fagan, Brian: English anthropologist.

Fahey, Jed W.: American nutritional biochemist.

Fahrenheit, Daniel Gabriel (1686–1736): German glassblower, engineer, and physicist who advanced thermometry by inventing the first practical, accurate thermometer (mercury in glass). Fahrenheit devised the namesake temperature scale.

Fain, Gordon L.: American molecular, cellular, and integrative physiologist.

Falk, Richard A. (1930–): American law professor and author.

Falk, William: American writer.

Falkowski, Paul: American biologist, interested in marine biology.

Fama, Eugene F. (1939–): American economist, often referred to as the “the Father of Finance” for his empirical work on stock market behavior.

Famiglietti, James S. (Jay): American hydrologist.

Fan Lele: Chinese businessman.

Fang, Sungsoon: Korean geneticist and cytologist.

Fanon, Franz (1925–1961): Martinique-born Afro-Caribbean psychiatrist, political philosopher, and revolutionary.

Fanselow, Michael: American psychologist.

Faraday, Michael (1791–1867): largely self-taught English chemist, physicist, and philosopher who greatly contributed to understanding electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Faraday invented electric motors.

Farias, Miguel: Portuguese psychologist.

Farley, Francis J.M.: English physicist.

Farmer, Brian R. (1959–): American humanities scholar and educator.

Farmer, Jesse R.: American Earth scientist.

Farmer, John Jr. (1957–): American lawyer, politician, and jurist. Farmer acted as senior counsel to the 9/11 commission and disbelieved what it produced.

Farrell, Kirby: American physician.

Farroni, Teresa: Italian psychologist.

Fathi, Kambiz: Swedish astrophysicist.

Faulkner, William (1897–1962): American writer.

Fazio, Lisa: American psychologist.

FDR: see Roosevelt, Franklin D.

Fechner, Gustav (1801–1887): German experimental psychologist.

Federico, Christopher M.: American political psychologist.

Fedoroff, Nina V. (1942–): American biologist and chemist.

Feinerman, Ofer: Israeli myrmecologist.

Feinstein, Dianne (1933–): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from California (1992–).

Feldblum, Joseph T.: American evolutionary anthropologist.

Feldman, Gerald: American nuclear physicist.

Feldman, Julie: American psychology.

Feldman, Ruth: Israeli psychologist.

Felson, Marcus: American criminologist and sociologist.

Felt, Dorr E. (1862–1930): American inventor and industrialist who invented the comptometer, a mechanical calculator.

Feltham, Owen (1662–1668): English writer.

Feltz, Adam: American psychologist.

Fenichel, Otto (1897–1946): Freudian 2nd-generation psychoanalyst.

Fennessy, Julian: Australian zoologist.

Ferdinand II of Aragón (1453–1516): King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragón from 1479 until his death. Ferdinand and Isabella I are best known for instigating the Spanish Inquisition, and for sponsoring Christopher Columbus to find a way to India without going south, around Africa. Columbus headed west across the Atlantic Ocean and discovered a New World.

Ferdinand, Franz (1863–1914): Austrian royalty. Ferdinand was an avid trophy hunter, to considerable excess: he killed ~300,000 specimens, including 5,000 deer. Ferdinand himself became a trophy: shot dead on 28 June 2014 by an assassin in the Black Hand, a Serbian secret military society that aimed at uniting all Slavic territories.

Ferenczi, Thomas: French author and journalist.

Ferguson, Charles D.: American physicist, interested in nuclear engineering.

Ferguson, Walter W. (1930–): American paleoanthropologist and painter.

Fermat, Pierre de (1607–1665): French lawyer and mathematician who contributed discoveries in calculus, including the concept of adequality (approximate equality), analytic geometry, probability, and optics; best known for Fermat’s principle for light propagation and Fermat’s last theorem, a number theory.

Fermi, Enrico (1901–1954): Italian-born physicist, best known for his work on developing a nuclear reactor. Fermi was a rare physicist in excelling in both experimental and theoretical work.

Fernald, Russell D.: American biologist.

Ferrante, Joan: American sociologist.

Ferrell, James E., Jr. (1955–): American systems biologist.

Ferrel, William (1817–1891): American meteorologist who explained in 1856 mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. The Ferrel cell is named after him.

Festinger, Leon (1919–1989): American social psychologist, best known for his theories on cognitive dissonance and social comparison.

Fetissov, Sergueï O.: Russian physiologist and nutritionist.

Feuillet, Lionel: French neurologist.

Feynman, Richard (1918–1988): eccentric American theoretical physicist who made contributions to particle physics, electrodynamics, and superfluidity.

Fibonacci (aka Leonardo Bonacci) (1175–1250): Italian mathematician who popularized the Hindu-Arabic numeral system with his 1202 book Liber Abaci (Book of Abacus). Fibonacci traveled extensively in Mediterranean lands.

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (1762—1814): German philosopher.

Field, Stephen J. (1816–1899): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1863–1897).

Field, Tiffany M.: American touch researcher.

Fielding, Henry (1707–1754): English novelist, dramatist, and magistrate, known for his earthy humor and satirical prowess. Fielding co-founded London’s first police force: the Bow Street Runners.

Fields, Howard L.: American neurologist.

Fields, R. Douglas: American neurobiologist.

Fields, William Claude (W.C.) (1880–1946): American comedian, actor, juggler, and writer. Fields was known for his sardonic persona yet remained a sympathetic character despite his snarling contempt.

Filbey, Francesca M.: American psychologist.

Filingeri, Davide: English physiologist.

Fillmore, Millard (1800–1874): American politician (Whig); 13th US President (1850–1853). Vice President Fillmore assumed the presidency when President Taylor died from gastroenteritis. Fillmore chose not to run for president in the 1852 election.

Fine, Julia D.: American entomologist.

Finlay, B. Brett: American microbiologist, immunologist, molecular biologist, and biochemist.

Finley, Kerry: Canadian ornithologist.

Finney, Stan: American paleontologist.

Firestein, Stuart: American biologist.

Fischer, André: German molecular biologist.

Fischer, B. Aubrey: American communication scholar.

Fischer, Bobby (1943–2008): American chess player.

Fischer, Debra: American astronomer.

Fischer, Erich M.: Swiss climatologist and meteorologist.

Fischer, Hubertus: Swiss climatologist.

Fischer, Julia: German cognitive ethologist.

Fischer, Matthias G.: Canadian microbiologist.

Fischer, Martin H. (1879–1962): German American physician.

Fischer, Woodward W.: American geologist.

Fischhoff, Baruch (1946–): American psychologist, interested in decision-making and risk assessment.

Fisher, Jeffrey D.: American psychologist.

Fisher, Irving (1867–1947): American neoclassical mathematical economist.

Fisher, Max: American political analyst and journalist.

Fisher, Ronald A. (1890–1962): English statistician and biologist who crafted, via statistics, the central paradigm of modern biology: evolution.

Fisher, Simon E. (1970–): English geneticist, psycholinguist, and neuroscientist.

Fiske, Susan T.: American social psychologist, interested in stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination.

Fitzgerald, F. Scott (1896–1940): American author.

Flambaum, Victor V.: Australian physicist.

Fleming, Alexander (1881–1955): Scottish scientist who discovered penicillin.

Fleming, Stephen M.: English cognitive scientist.

Fleming, William: Scottish philosopher.

Flannery, Tim (1956–): Australian environmentalist, mammologist, and paleontologist.

Fleischer, Victor: American tax law professor.

Fleming, Ian (1908–1964): English author, known for his James Bond spy novels.

Flinkman, Debbie: American elephant keeper.

Flom, Ross: American developmental psychologist, interested in the cognitive development of children in the 1st 3 years.

Flood, Merrill M. (1908–1991): American mathematician, interested in game theory.

Florence, J. Antonio: American defense attorney.

Floresco, Stan: Canadian behavioral neurobiologist.

Flourens, Pierre (1794–1867): French physician who pioneered experimental brain science via animal ablations.

Fodor, Jerry (1935–): American cognitive scientist and philosopher.

Foley, Robert A. (1953–): English anthropologist.

Folks, J. Leroy: American statistician.

Forbes, Andrew A.: American biologist.

Forbes, Bruce C.: Finnish ecologist, interested in the northern high latitudes.

Forbes, Malcolm S. (1919–1990): American magazine publisher and staunch proponent of capitalism.

Ford Alex T.: American marine biologist.

Ford, Brian J. (1939–): English biologist.

Ford, Clellan S. (1909–1972): American anthropologist.

Ford, Gerald(1913–2006): American politician (Republican); 38th US President (1974–1977).

Ford, Henry (1863–1947): American industrialist who founded the Ford Motor Company and developed the technique of mass production via the assembly line. Ford’s first car company was the Henry Ford Company, which he helped form in 1901, and was chief engineer. Ford left his namesake company in 1902, after the company hired Henry Leland as a consultant, whereupon the company changed its name to Cadillac Motor Company.

Ford, Jennifer S.: Canadian zoologist.

Forbes, Malcolm S. (1919–1990): American magazine publisher and staunch proponent of capitalism.

Forouhi, Nita Gandhi: Indian British epidemiologist.

Forsberg, Kevin J.: American microbiologist.

Forsman, Anders: Swedish evolutionary biologist.

Forster, Catherine A.: American biologist, interested in the descent of birds.

Forterre, Patrick: French molecular biologist.

Fosdick, Harry Emerson (1878–1969): American clergyman.

Fosse, Roar: Norwegian psychologist.

Fossum, Merle A.: American psychologist.

Foster, Kevin R.: English biologist.

Foster, Thomas: German physiologist.

Fourcade, Marion: American sociologist.

Fourier, Charles (1772–1837): French philosopher and utopian socialist.

Fowler, Denver W.: English paleontologist.

Fowler, Henry Watson (1858–1933): English lexicographer.

Fowler, James A. (1970–): American social scientist.

Fox, Jesse: American sociologist and communications scholar, interested in social media.

Frampton, Paul H. (1943–): American astrophysicist.

Fraenkel-Conrat, Heinz (1910–1999): German biochemist, best known for his study of viruses.

Frances, Allen (1942–): American psychiatrist.

Francis II (1768–1835): last Holy Roman Emperor (1792–1806), who dissolved the empire after suffering a decisive defeat from Napoléon. He founded the Austrian Empire in 1804, which he ruled until his death.

The alliance that defeated Napoléon – Austria, Prussia, Russia, and the United Kingdom – formed the Concert of Europe. France later became a member. This congress represented the balance of power that prevailed from the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) to the outbreak of World War 1 (1914). As the Concert largely resisted the nascent liberal and nationalist movements of the time, Francis II became viewed as a reactionary toward the end of his reign.

Francis, Pope (born Jorge Mario Bergoglio) (1936–): Argentinian Catholic priest; 266th Pope of the Catholic Church.

Frank, Robert H. (1954–): American economist, interested in inequality.

Franklin, Benjamin (1706–1790): American author, publisher, politician, scientist, and inventor.

Franklin, Rosalind (1920–1958): English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who managed the first snapshots of DNA via X-ray diffraction imagery. Franklin significantly forwarded understanding of DNA’s intricate structure, providing the foundation of information used by Watson & Crick in their finalizing the structure of DNA.

Franz, Shepherd Ivory (1874–1933): American psychologist, interested in brain functioning.

Fratzl, Peter: German materials scientist.

Fratzscher, Marcel (1971–): German economist.

Frauchiger, Daniela: Swiss theoretical physicist.

Frederick the Great (Frederick II) (1712–1786): king of Prussia (1740–1786), proponent of enlightened absolutism, and military aggressor against neighboring countries. Frederick modernized his bureaucracy and reform the judicial system. Long glorified by German historians, and by the Nazis, which rubbed the shine off his reputation post-war.

Fredrickson, Barbara L. (1964–): American social psychologist, interested in emotions and positive psychology.

Freed, Eric O.: American virologist.

Freedman, Adam H.: American evolutionary biologist.

Freeman, Elliot D.: English cognitive scientist.

Freeman, John: American neurologist.

Freeman, Tom: English psychologist, interested in the psychological effects of marijuana.

Frege, Gottlog (1848–1925): German logician, philosopher, and mathematician; widely considered to be the father of analytic philosophy, albeit largely ignored during his lifetime.

Frenk, Carlos: English Mexican computational cosmologist.

Frenkel, Edward: Russian mathematician.

Fresnel, Augustin (1788–1827): French engineer and physicist whose study of optics led to widespread acceptance of light as a waveform phenomenon, as contrasted to Newton’s earlier particle (corpuscular) theory.

Freud, Anna (1895–1982): Austrian psychoanalyst.

Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939): Austrian neurologist who created psychoanalysis.

Freund, Julien (1921–1993): French sociologist and philosopher.

Frey, Glenn (1948–2016): American musician who co-founded the popular music group the Eagles (1972–1980, 1994–).

Friedan, Daniel H. (1948–): American theoretical physicist who works on string theory and condensed matter theory, focusing on (1+1)-dimensional models.

Friedländer, Carl (1850–1938): German pathologist who worked with Hans Christian Gram to devise Gram staining.

Friedman, Jared P.: American psychologist.

Friedman, Lawrence M. (1930–): law professor and historian.

Friedman, Milton (1912–2006): American statistician and economist who advocated laissez-faire capitalism and monetarism to guide economic policy.

Friedman, William E.: American botanist.

Friedrich, Benjamin M.: German biophysicist.

Fristrup, Kurt M.: American bio-acoustical ecologist.

Fritz, Sandy: American massage therapist.

Fröbisch, Jörg: German paleontologist.

Froese, Tom: American archeologist.

Frohlich, Cliff: American geophysicist.

Frommer, Wolf B.: German botanist.

Frost, Natasha A.: American criminologist.

Frost, Ram (1954–): Israeli psychologist.

Frost, Robert (1874–1963): American poet.

Fründ, Jochen: German ecologist.

Fry, Bryan G.: Australian herpetologist, interested in snake venom.

Fry, Stephen (1957–): English comedian, actor, and writer.

Fuchs, Elaine (1950–): American cytologist, interested in mammalian dermatology.

Fukuyama, Francis (1952–): American political scientist and political economist.

Fuller, Franklin D.: American physicist.

Funiciello, Theresa: American social worker.

Furuta, Kaori Miyashima: Japanese botanist.

Furey, Terrence S.: American geneticist.

Furnham, Adrian: English psychologist.

Fussenegger, Martin: Swiss biologist.

Futterman, Craig B.: American civil rights lawyer, sociologist, and economist.

Gabriel: an archangel, best known for acting as a messenger from God to select personages.

Gabrielse, Gerald: American physicist, interested in antimatter and the electron.

Gächter, Simon (1965–): Austrian economist, interested in economic decision-making.

Gaddafi, Muammar (1942–2011): Libyan political theorist, revolutionary, and dictator (1969–2011).

Gage, Matilda Joslyn (1826–1898): American civil rights activist.

Gagliano, Monica: Australian biologist, interested in ecology and marine biology.

Gaines, Larry K.: American criminal justice scholar.

Gaiti, Federico: evolutionary and molecular biologist.

Galbraith, John Kenneth (1908–2006): Canadian American political economist and public servant.

Galen (Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, better known as Galen of Pergamon) (130–200): Greek physician, surgeon, and philosopher who lived in Rome; the most prolific author in antiquity. Galen subscribed to Hippocrates’ theory of bodily humors and applied it to psychological temperaments. Galen wrote over 500 books on medicine. He was an avid dissector, ripping through innumerable animals to study anatomy. But dissection did not enlighten the insensible Galen, who inscrutably insisted that the bodies of pigs and monkeys were identical to those of humans. Nonetheless, Galen’s theories influenced Western medicine for nearly 1,500 years.

Galileo Galilei (1564–1642): Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher. Galileo was a seminal figure in development of science as a discipline, and a scourge to the Catholic Church for buying into Copernicus’ notion of heliocentricity.

Galimberti, Andrew K.: American biologist.

Galinsky, Adam D. (1969–): American social psychologist.

Gall, Franz Joseph (1758–1828): German physiologist who founded the pseudoscience of phrenology.

Gallan, Patricia: English police chief.

Gallaudet, Tim: American climatologist.

Gallese, Vittorio: Italian cognitive scientist.

Gallio, Marco: American neurobiologist.

Gallistel, Charles Ransom (1941–): American psychologist.

Gallup, Gordon G., Jr. (1941–): American psychologist, known for developing the mirror test.

Galton, Francis (1822-1911): English polymath who believed that Nature trumped nurture. His innate biases, love of statistics, and sloppy methodology proved him right, at least to his own satisfaction.

Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella: Swedish evolutionary biologist, interested in ecology and animal communication.

Gamow, George (1904–1968): Russian theoretical physicist and cosmologist.

Gandhi, Mahatma (1869–1948): Indian political leader who led India to independence from British colonialism through nonviolent demonstration.

Ganguli, Surya (1977–): Indian American physicist, interested in neurobiology, computer science, and electrical engineering.

Gans, Herbert J. (1927–): German-born American sociologist.

Gao Hucheng (1951–): Chinese politician and business executive.

García, Pedro David: Spanish physicist.

García-Seisdedos, Héctor: molecular biologist.

Garczarek, Laurence: French virologist.

Gardiner, Stephen (1924–2007): English architect, teacher, and writer.

Gardner, Howard (1943–): American developmental psychologist.

Gardner, Matthew: American tax analyst.

Garfield, James A. (1831–1881): American politician (Republican); 20th US President (1881). Garfield was gunned down by a disgruntled office-seeker. Lincoln’s assassination less than 2 decades earlier was deemed a fluke. Garfield, like most people at the time, saw no reason why the President should be guarded. His plans and movements were often printed in the newspapers.

Garland, Judy (born Frances Ethel Gumm) (1922–1969): American singer, actress, and vaudevillian; renowned for her contralto vocal. Garland’s most famous movie role was as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz (1939).

Garman, Scott C.: American biochemist and molecular biologist.

Garnett, Stephen T.: Australian zoologist and ecologist.

Garrett, John: English ecologist.

Garrett, Tim: American climatologist, interested in atmosphere dynamics.

Gass, Gillian L.: Canadian biologist.

Gasset, José Ortega y (1883–1955): Spanish philosopher and essayist who felt that philosophy has a critical duty to question beliefs so as to better explain reality.

“Tell me to what you pay attention and I will tell you who you are.” ~ José Ortega y Gasset

Gassmann, Walter: American botanist and biochemist.

Gates, William H. III (Bill) (1955–): American programmer who co-founded Microsoft with Paul Allen.

Gaud, William S.: American biologist.

Gaudet, Andrew D.: American neurobiologist.

Gaudzinski-Windheuser, Sabine (1965–): German archeologist.

Gauss, Johann Carl Friedrich (1777–1855): German mathematician who contributed significantly in many math fields, astronomy, and optics.

Gavanski, Igor (1958–2011): Canadian psychologist.

Gavelis, Gregory S.: Canadian evolutionary and cytologist.

Gavrilets, Sergey: Russian evolutionary biologist.

Gawne, Richard T.: American entomologist.

Gaye, Marvin (1939–1984): American singer-songwriter and musician.

Gee, Henry (1962–): English paleontologist and evolutionary biologist.

Geist, Juergen: German biologist.

Geist, Katherine S.: American evolutionary biologist.

Gelasius I (?–496): North African bishop who became Pope (492–496).

Geldner, Niko: Swiss botanist.

Gell-Mann, Murray (1929–2019): American particle physicist, linguist, collector of antiquities, and avid bird watcher who developed theories about quarks, neutrinos, and the weak force.

Gelman, Rochel (1942–): Canadian psychologist.

Gemmell, Brad J.: American marine biologist.

Gençsü, Ipek: English political theorist, economist, and environmentalist.

Genghis Kahn (born Temüjin) (1162–1227): Mongol military leader who conquered China and a considerable chunk of central Asia, establishing a momentum that resulted in the largest transcontinental land empire in history, stretching from the Pacific Ocean to central Europe.

Gentsch, Antje: German psychologist.

George, Henry (1839–1897): American political economist, journalist, and philosopher.

George, Ronald M.: American jurist.

Gepshtein, Sergei: American vision scientist, interested in perceptual psychology and sensory neuroscience.

Gerl, Mark D.: American programmer.

Gerlach, Nicole M.: English ornithologist.

Gerould, Katharine E.F. (1879–1944): American writer.

Gerum, Richard: German zoologist.

Gervais, Sarah J.: American psychologist, interested in prejudice and violence.

Gervers, Victor: Dutch software security expert.

Gesiarz, Filip: Dutch psychologist.

Geula, Changiz: American cognitive neurologist, interested in Alzheimer’s disease.

Ghiselin, Michael T.: American biologist, biology historian, and philosopher.

Ghonim, Wael (1980–): Egyptian Internet activist and software engineer.

Giacomini, Flaminia: Italian quantum physicist.

Gianoli, Ernesto: Chilean botanist.

Gibbons, Ann: American paleoanthropologist.

Gibbs, James P.: American conservation biologist.

Gibbs, Josiah Willard (1839–1903): American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to mathematics, physics, and chemistry. His work on thermodynamics applications was instrumental in turning physical (atomistic) chemistry into a rigorous inductive science.

Gibbs, Karine A.: American microbiologist.

Gibson, Edward: American cognitive scientist, interested in linguistics.

Gibson, Sloan B. (1951–): American public service bureaucrat.

Giehl, Ricardo F.H.: German botanist.

Gierasch, Lila: American biochemist.

Giffen, Robert (1837–1910): Scottish statistician and economist who proposed Giffen goods.

Gigerenzer, Gerd: German psychologist.

Gilbert, Daniel (1957–): American social psychologist.

Gilbert, Scott F. (1949–): American developmental biologist.

Gilbert, Walter (1932–): American physicist, biochemist, and molecular biologist.

Giles, Herbert A. (1845–1935): English diplomat and sinologist.

Gill, Richard J.: English animal ecologist.

Gillibrand, Kirsten E. (1966–): American politician.

Gilligan, Carol (1936–): American psychologist, ethicist, and feminist. Gilligan was Lawrence Kohlberg’s research assistant during his work related of moral development. She later criticized his exclusion of the female perspective, whereupon Gilligan developed her own theory of moral development based upon the idea of distinct masculine and feminine moral voices. The masculine voice is “logical and individualistic,” where moral decisions are oriented toward rights and justice. The feminine voice is a “care perspective,” which focuses on individual needs, with compassion in mind. Gilligan contends that mature morality integrates both voices.

Gilovich, Thomas D.: American psychologist, interested in decision-making and behavioral economics.

Gilroy, Simon: American botanist, interested in plant senses and ecology.

Ginges, Jeremy: American psychologist, interested in cooperation.

Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (1933–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1993–).

Girotto, Vittorio: Italian psychologist.

Gisin, Nicolas: Swiss quantum physicist.

Gislén, Anna: Swedish zoologist, interested in vision processing.

Giurfa, Martin: French zoologist.

Gladstone, William E. (1809–1898): English Liberal politician; UK Prime Minister 4 times (1868–1874, 1880–1885, February–July 1886 & 1892–1994); widely regarded as one of Britain’s greatest Prime Ministers.

Glantz, Stanton (1946–): American educator and tobacco control activist.

Gläscher, Jan: German neurobiologist.

Glashow, Sheldon Lee (1932–): American theoretical physicist who proposed the first grand unified theory in 1973, as an extension to the Standard Model. Glashow is an outspoken skeptic of superstrings owing to its lack of testable predictions.

Glass, N. Louise: American plant pathologist.

Glattfelder, James B.: Swiss statistician.

Glick, Peter: American social psychologist.

Glicksman, Martin: American materials scientist who in 2017 discovered the energy field which creates fractal patterns during metal solidification.

Glied, Sherry A.: American economist.

Globus, Rea: Israeli microbiologist.

Glover, Beverley J. (1972–): English botanist.

Gluckman, Thanh-Lan: ornithologist and evolutionary zoologist.

Gobley, Theodore Nicolas (1811–1876): French chemist and pharmacist.

Godefroit, Pascal: Belgian paleontologist.

Gödel, Kurt (1906–1978): Austrian logician mathematician, and philosopher; considered one of the most significant logicians in history, along with Aristotle and Gottlob Frege. Best known for his 2 incompleteness theorems, which proved that certain axiomatic systems cannot be proved or disproved. Yes, there is an inherent irony to proving that proof is impossible in a self-contained symbolic system.

Godin, Seth: American author and business executive.

Godwin, William (1756–1836): English social philosopher, novelist, and religious dissenter. Godwin was the father of Mary Shelley (1797–1851), the author of Frankenstein (1818).

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832): German writer, artist, and politician.

Goff, Jon: English physicist.

Goffing, Erving (1922–1982): influential Canadian American sociologist, best known for his theories of symbolic interaction.

Goffman, Erving: Canadian American sociologist.

Gogarten, J. Peter: evolutionary microbiologist.

Goggins, Aidan: English nutritionist.

Gold, Maria Eugenia Leone: American anatomist.

Gold, Vicki: English biochemist, interested in proteins.

Goldbach, Christian (1690–1764): German mathematician who also studied law. Best known for an incidental assertion in a letter: Goldbach’s conjecture.

Goldberg, Marcia B.: American physician, interested in infectious diseases.

Goldberg, Rube (1883–1970): American cartoonist, engineer, inventor, sculptor, and author; best known for his popular cartoons depicting devilishly complicated gadgets to perform simple tasks in convoluted ways.

Goldin, Ian: English political economist.

Goldinger, Stephen D: American cognitive psychologist.

Goldman, Daniel I: American biomechanics physicist.

Goldman, Nir: American chemist with an interest in the origin of life on Earth.

Goldring, Mark (1957–): English sociologist.

Goldsby, Heather J.: American biologist and software engineer.

Goldsmith, James M. (Jimmy) (1933–1997): Anglo French financier and tycoon.

Goldstein, Richard A.: English molecular biochemist.

Goldstone, Jeffrey (1933–): English theoretical physicist.

Goleman, Daniel (1946–): American psychologist.

Golgi, Camillo (1843–1926): Italian physician and pathologist, known for his work on the human central nervous system.

Gompers, Samuel (1850–1924): English-born American labor leader.

Gonzales, Lauren A.: American evolutionary anthropologist and paleontologist.

Gonzalez, Alexander (1946–): American psychologist.

Gonzalez, Patrick: American forest ecologist and climate change scientist.

Gonzalez-Bellido, Paloma T.: neurobiologist, interested in visually driven predation.

Goodale, Christine: American ecologist and evolutionary biologist.

Goodall, Jane (1934–): English primatologist, best known for her 45-year study of the social life of chimpanzees.

Goodman, Noah D.: American psychologist.

Goodman, Paul (1911–1972): American writer and psychotherapist who co-developed Gestalt therapy with Fritz and Laura Perls.

Goodman, Steven N.: American epidemiologist.

Goodwin, Geoffrey P.: American psychologist, interested in morality.

Goodwin, Stephanie A.: American psychologist.

Gopnik, Alison: American psychologist and philosopher.

Gorb, Stanislav N.: Ukrainian entomologist, interested in biomechanics.

Gorbachev, Mikhail (1931–): Ukrainian-Russian Soviet politician; last leader of the Soviet Union (1985–1991).

Gore, Al (1948–): American politician (Democrat) and environmentalist.

Göring, Hermann (1893–1946): German political and military leader; one of the top Nazis.

Gorsuch, Neil M. (1967–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (2017–).

Gosling, Samuel D.: American social psychologist.

Gotelli, Nicholas J.: American biologist, interested in the organization of animal and plant communities.

Gottschalk, Simon: American sociologist.

Gotti, John (1940–2002): American mobster who became the boss of the Gambino crime family, based in New York City. Unlike his peers, reticent to be in the public eye, Gotti was flamboyant.

Gould, Carol G.: American ethologist and evolutionary biologist.

Gould, Fred: American entomologist.

Gould, James L.: American ethologist and evolutionary biologist.

Gould, Stephen Jay (1941–2002): American evolutionary biologist, paleontologist, and science historian, best known for positing the hypothesis of punctuated equilibrium: evolution being marked by rare bursts of speciations, with long periods of stability.

Goulson, Dave (1965–): English ecologist, biologist, and conservationist, interested in bumblebees.

Gournay, Jacques: see de Gournay.

Goyanes, Manuel: Spanish journalism academic.

Grab, Heather: American entomologist.

Grachev, Andrei: Russian politician; last head of intelligence in the Soviet Union.

Gracheva, Elena: Russian-American cellular and molecular physiologist, interested in animal thermoregulation.

Gracian, Baltasar (1601–1658): Spanish philosopher.

Grafman, Jordan: American neurobiologist.

Graham, Billy (1918–): American Christian evangelist.

Graham, George (1673–1751): English clockmaker, geophysicist, and inventor.

Graham, Jesse: American psychologist.

Graham, Martha (1901–1991): American dancer and choreographer who was the mother of modern dance.

Graham, Paul (1964–): English programmer.

Grainger, Jonathan: French psychologist.

Gram, Hans Christian (1850–1938): Danish scientist who devised Gram staining, along with Carl Friedländer.

Grandpre, Lawrence: American public policy scholar.

Grant, Peter R.: American evolutionary biologist.

Grassini, Patricio: Argentinian-American agriculturist.

Gräter, Frauke: German molecular biomechanist, interested in biomaterials and protein evolution, dynamics, and mechanics.

Graunt, John (1620–1674): English haberdasher and one of the first demographers.

Gray, Asa (1810–1888): American botanist.

Gray, Janice D.: Canadian social psychologist.

Gray, John N. (1948–): English philosopher.

Gray, Kurt: American social psychologist, interested in mind perception.

Grazier, Kevin R.: American planetary physicist.

Green, Brian (1963–): American theoretical physicist, mathematician, and string theorist.

Green, John (1977–): American author of young-adult fiction.

Green, Richard E.: American molecular biologist.

Greenaway, Katharine H.: Australian psychologist.

Greenberg, David M.: English psychologist and musician, interested in the relation between personality and musical taste.

Greenberg, Joel: American naturalist and ornithologist.

Greene, Anthony J.: American psychologist.

Greene, Brian R. (1963–): American theoretical physicist.

Greene, Charles H.: American oceanographer.

Greenspan, Alan (1926–): American economist who was the Chairman of the US Federal Reserve (1987–2006).

Greenspan, Stanley I. (1941–2010): American psychiatrist.

Gregory VII (born Hildebrand of Sovana) (~1015–1085): Italian clergyman who became Pope (1073–1085).

Gregory XI (born Pierre Roger de Beaufort) (1329–1378): French clergyman, nephew of Pope Clement VI, and Pope (1370–1378). Gregory confiscated the property and burned at the stake those who criticized the Catholic Church. (The Lollardy was the English pre-Protestant reform movement extant during Gregory’s papacy.)

Gregory, Richard L. (1923–2010): English neuropsychologist.

Gregoryanz, Eugene: condensed matter physicist.

Greider, William: American economic journalist.

Greif, Esther Blank: American psychologist.

Gresham, David: American evolutionary geneticist, interested in adaptation and cell growth regulation.

Grey, Lady Jane (aka Lady Jane Dudley) (1536–1554): English noblewoman and 9-day queen of England (10 July 1553–19 July 1553).

Gribbin, John R. (1946–): English astrophysicist and science-fiction writer.

Griffin, Donald R. (1915–2003): American zoologist; insightful author of several excellent books, including Animal Minds (2001).

Griffin, Kenneth C. (1968–): American hedge fund manager.

Griffiths, Thomas L.: American psychologist.

Grijalva, Emily: American psychologist.

Grinter, Alison: American criminal defense attorney.

Groenewoud, Frank: Dutch evolutionary biologist.

Gross, David (1941–): American particle physicist and string theorist.

Gross, Lisa: American scientist, journalist, and writer.

Grosseteste, Robert (1175–1253): English scholastic philosopher, theologian, and scientist who proposed that the universe began by expanding from a singularity of light. Grosseteste also posited the possibility of a multiverse.

Grossnickle, David M.: American evolutionary biologist.

Grotius, Hugo (1583–1645): Dutch jurist.

Grotthuss, Theodor (1785–1822): German chemist who first theorized electrolysis in 1806 (the Grotthuss mechanism) and formulated in 1817 the 1st law of photochemistry: that light must be absorbed by a chemical substance for a photochemical reaction to occur.

Grove, Andrew S. (1936–2016): Hungarian-born American engineer; founder and CEO (1987–1998) of semiconductor maker Intel.

Grove, William Robert (1811–1896): Welsh jurist, civil servant, and physical scientist who anticipated the theory of conservation of energy. Grove invented the fuel cell.

Groves, Colin (1942–): Australian anthropologist.

GrrlScientist: English evolutionary biologist and ornithologist.

Grubbs, Joshua B.: American psychologist.

Gruca, Thomas S.: American marketing professor.

Gruntman, Michal: German botanist.

Gruson, V.: French quantum physicist.

Guallar, Eliseo: American epidemiologist.

Gualtieri, Samantha: Canadian psychologist.

Guangming Zeng: Chinese ecologist.

Guéguen, Nicolas: French psychologist.

Guerrero, Laura K.: American communication scholar.

Guiber, Sylvain: French geneticist.

Guilak, Farshid: cytologist and orthopedic researcher.

Guillaume, Charles Édouard (1861–1938): Swiss physicist who invented nickel-steel alloys that have negligible thermal fluctuation at ambient temperatures.

Guillod, Benoit P.: Swiss climatologist.

Gumplowicz, Ludwig (1838–1909): German sociologist, jurist, and political scientist who coined the term ethnocentrism in 1879.

Gunn, Simon: English historian.

Gunter, Edmund (1581–1626): Welsh clergyman, mathematician, geometer, and astronomer.

Güntürkün, Onur: Turkish psychologist.

Gupta, Vanita: American civil rights attorney.

Gurumaa, Anandmurti (1966–): Indian guru.

Gutenberg, Johannes (1398–1468): German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced movable type printing to Europe in 1450. The printing press was key to the evolution of the Renaissance, Reformation, and Age of Enlightenment.

Guterres, António (1949–): Portuguese diplomat and politician (Socialist); 9th Secretary General of the United Nations (2017–).

Gutfreund, Yorum: Israeli neurobiologist, interested in sensation.

Guth, Alan (1947–): American cosmologist, credited with concocting cosmic inflation.

Guvenen, Fatih: Turkish-American economist, interested in American income and inequality.

Haacke, Johann Wilhelm (1855–1912): German zoologist who hypothesized orthogenesis in 1893 and introduced the concept of genes as hereditary units, which he called gemmaria.

Haag, Karen L.: Swiss zoologist.

Haber, Fritz (1868–1934): German chemist who invented the Haber process of synthetic nitrogen fixation; considered the father of chemical warfare.

Hacker, Jacob S.: American social policy and political analyst, interested in health care and economic insecurity.

Hadany, Lilach: Israeli botanist.

Haddad, Nick M.: American ecologist.

Hadley, George (1685 –1768): English lawyer and amateur meteorologist who explained the gyre of the trade winds in 1735. The Hadley cell is named after him.

Haeckel, Ernst (1834–1919): German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, and artist who discovered, described, and named thousands of new species. Haeckel conceptualized biological diversity as an evolutionary tree of life. He coined many biological terms, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, stem cell, and the kingdom Protista. Haeckel popularized in German Darwin’s hypotheses of evolution and developed one of his own: the theory of recapitulation, often expressed as “ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”; that an organism’s biological development (ontogeny) is a summation of its evolution (phylogeny). Recapitulation theory has been applied to several disciplines besides biology, including anthropology, psychology, language development, and education theory.

Hadrian (born Publius Aelius Hadrianus) (76–138): Roman Emperor (117–138).

Hagan, John L.: American sociologist, interested in criminology.

Hagel, Chuck (1946–): American politician (Republican); US Defense Secretary (2013–2015).

Hagen, Gaute: American nuclear physicist.

Haggard, Patrick: English psychologist, interested in volition, sensation, and self-representation.

Hahn, Gerald: French neurobiologist.

Hahn, Mark: American toxicologist, interested in the biochemistry of aquatic animals.

Hahnemann, Samuel (1755–1843): German physician, known for creating homeopathy. Hahnemann had a knack for languages: proficient in English, French, Italian, Greek, Latin, Arabic, Syriac, Chaldaic, and Hebrew.

Haidt, Jonathan: American social psychologist.

Haile-Selassie, Yohannes (1961–): Ethiopian paleoanthropologist.

Hajnal, Zoltan L.: American political scientist.

Haldane, J.B.S. (1892–1964): British-born Indian scientist, interested in physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and mathematics.

Halden, Rolf U.: German American environmental scientist and civil engineer.

Hale, Melina E.: American biomechanist and neurobiologist.

Haley, Nikki (1972–): American politician (Republican) and diplomat.

Hall, Brian K. (1941–): Canadian biologist.

Hall, Edward T. (1914–2009): American anthropologist.

Hall, Harriet: American physician.

Hall, Judith A.: American social psychologist.

Hall, Samuel Read (1795–1877): American educator.

Haller, George: American mathematician, interested in nonlinear dynamics.

Halley, Edmund (1656–1742): English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist; best remembered for his namesake comet.

Hallgrímsson, Benedikt: Icelandic biologist.

Halligan, Peter W.: English psychologist.

Hallman, Caspar A.: Dutch ecologist.

Halpern, Paul: American physicist.

Haltiwanger, John C. (1955–): American economist.

Hamann, Emmo: German marine microbiologist.

Hames, Tim: English philosopher, political scientist, writer, and venture capitalist.

Hamilin, J. Kiley: American psychologist.

Hamilton, Alexander (1755–1804): American politician (Federalist) and lawyer.

Hamilton, Jacqueline: English chemist.

Hamilton, Paul: American astrophysicist.

Hamilton, W.D. (Bill) (1936–2000): English evolutionary biologist, interested in kin selection and altruism. Hamilton’s work presaged sociobiology.

Hamilton, William (1788–1856): Scottish metaphysician.

Hamilton, William Rowan (1805–1865): Irish physicist, astronomer, and mathematician who contributed to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra.

Hamlin, James J.: American physicist.

Hammond, Claudia (1971–): English psychologist, author, and media presenter.

Hammurabi (1810–1750 BCE): 6th king of the 1st Babylonian Dynasty (1792–1750 BCE), known for his laws: the Code of Hammurabi.

Han Fei Zi (280–233 BCE): Chinese political philosopher.

Han, Sarah I.: American zoologist.

Han, Tian-Heng (Harry): Chinese American physicist.

Hand, David J.: English statistician.

Hanfstaengl, Ernst (nickname: Putzi) (1887–1985): German businessman who was a close associate of Adolf Hitler from the early 1920s before falling out and defecting in 1937.

Hang, Bo: Korean cytologist, interested in tobacco.

Hanh, Thích Nhat (1926–): Vietnamese Zen Buddhist monk.

Hankel, Wilhelm (1929–2014): German political economist.

Hankison, Shala J.: American zoologist, interested in animal behavior.

Hanks, Angela: American political activist, interested in employment.

Hanley, Lynsey: journalist, sociologist, and political analyst.

Hanlon, Roger: American marine biologist, interested in camouflage.

Hannon, Gregory: American epigeneticist, interested in RNA interference.

Hanqin Tian: Chinese ecosystem ecologist and evolutionary biologist.

Hansel, Cary J.: American attorney.

Hansen, Katherine: American psychologist.

Harari, Yuval Noah (1976–): Israeli historian.

Harcourt-Smith, William: American paleoanthropologist.

Hardin, Garrett J. (1915–2003): American ecologist and philosopher who coined the term tragedy of the commons in 1968.

Harding, Emma J.: English zoologist.

Harding, Warren G. (1865–1923): American politician (Republican); 29th US President (1921–1923). Harding was one of the most popular Presidents while in office, but scandals that took place under him, which came to light only after his death, thereby marking him (by historians) as among the worst Presidents.

Hardison, Amber: American marine biologist.

Hardy, G.H. (1877–1947): English mathematician, known for his work in mathematical analysis and number theory.

Hardy, Karen: English evolutionary biologist.

Hardy, Thomas (1840–1928): English novelist and poet.

Hare, Brian: American evolutionary anthropologist.

Harholt, Jesper: Danish microbiologist.

Harkness, Deborah (1955–): American scholar and novelist.

Harlan, John Marshall (1899–1971): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1955–1971).

Harman, Jane (1945–): American politician (Democrat) and security analyst.

Harper, David U.: American biologist.

Harrington, James (1511–1592): English public servant.

“The law is but words and paper without the hands of swords of men.” ~ James Harrington

Harris, Kamala (1964–): American attorney and politician (Democrat).

Harris, Karen: American economist.

Harris, Marvin (1927–2001): American anthropologist, influential in the development of cultural materialism.

Harris, Sam B. (1967–): American neurobiologist and philosopher.

Harris, Thomas Anthony (1910–1995): American psychiatrist and author of the 1969 self-help book I’m OK, You’re OK.

Harman, Denham (1916–): American physician, interested in biogerontology.

Harmon, Jason P.: American entomologist, interested in insect ecology.

Harms, Michael J.: American evolutionary biochemist.

Harrington, Anne: American science historian.

Harrington, Kelsey: American psychologist.

Harris, David R. (1930–2013): English anthropologist, archeologist, and geographer, interested in the origins of agriculture and the domestication of plants and livestock.

Harris, Frederick A.: American physicist and astronomer.

Harris, Paul L.: American psychologist.

Harris, Sam: American philosopher and cognitive scientist.

Harrison, Benjamin (1833–1901): American politician (Republican) and lawyer; 23rd US President (1889–1893); grandson of William Henry Harrison.

Harrison, George (1943–2001): English spiritually oriented musician; lead guitarist of The Beatles (1960–1970). Harrison’s love of Nature was so profound that his son, as a child, thought his father was a gardener.

Harrison, John (1693–1776): English clockmaker and carpenter.

Harrison, William Henry (1773–1841): American military man and politician (Whig); 9th US President (1841). Harrison was 68 years old when elected; the 1st to die in office, from pneumonia complications, after 32 days in office. Harrison first gained national fame for fighting American Indians, specifically in the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe.

Hart, B.H. Liddell (1895–1970): English military historian.

Hartline, Peter H.: American neurobiologist.

Hartmann, Marie-Andrée: French molecular biologist.

Hartwell, Ronald Max (1921–2009): Australian economic historian.

Hartzler, Bob: American agronomist.

Harvey, David: English astrophysicist.

Harvey, William (1578-1657): English physician, interested in the circulatory system.

Haskins, Caryl (1908–2001): ambitious American entomologist who established his own research laboratory, with studies in microbiology, radiation physics, genetics, and nutrition.

Haskins, Henry S. (1875–1957): American stockbroker.

Haskins, Ron: American political scientist.

Haslam, Nick: Australian psychologist.

Hass, Rudolph: American postal worker who cultivated the Hass avocado.

Hassin, Ran R.: Israeli psychologist.

Hastie, Reid: American behaviorist.

Haugen, Robert A. (Bob) (1942–2013): American financial economist.

Haun, Daniel (1977–): German psychologist, interested in ape and human child cognition.

Hautefeuille, Jean de (1647–1724): French abbé, physicist, and inventor. Besides inventing the balance wheel spring contemporaneous with Christiaan Huygens, Hautefeuille was first to propose using a piston in a heat engine.

Hauter, Wenonah: American anthropologist and ecologist.

Havel, Vaclav (1936–2011): Czech writer, playwright, political philosopher, and politician; last President of Czechoslovakia (1989–1992), before its dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Hawk, John: American anthropologist.

Hawkesworth, Chris J.: English geologist, interested in tectonics.

Hawking, Stephen (1942–2018): English theoretical physicist and cosmologist, interested in general relativity, especially black holes. Foolishly emboldened by his confidence in empirical science, Hawking asserted that “philosophy is dead.”

Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1804–1864): American novelist.

Hayashi, Morito: Japanese invertebrate zoologist.

Haydon, Philip G.: American neurobiologist.

Hayek, Friedrich August von (1899–1992): influential Austrian-born British economist who had religious faith in the goodness of capitalism.

Hayes, Rutherford B. (1822–1893): American politician (Republican); 19th US President (1877–1881). Hayes lost the popular vote for President to his opponent but won an intensely disputed electoral college vote after a Congressional commission awarded him 20 contested electoral votes. There had been voter fraud by both parties, making the outcome in the contested states uncertain. Hayes took office only via a quid pro quo with Democrats to essentially end post-civil war Reconstruction in the south.

Hayes, Terry: (1951–): English author and screenwriter.

Hays, Graeme C.: Australian marine biologist.

Hazen, Robert M. (1948–): American mineralogist and astrobiologist.

Hazlitt, William (1778–1830): English writer, literary and drama critic, painter, social commentator, and philosopher.

Head, Megen: English evolutionary biologist.

Healy, Kevin: Irish zoologist.

Heard, Dwayne: English chemist, interested in photochemistry, atmospheric and interstellar chemistry.

Heath, Edward (aka Ted Heath) (1916–2005): English Conservative politician; UK Prime Minister (1970–1974).

Heaven, Alan: English astronomer.

Heaviside, Oliver (1850–1925): self-taught English electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who used complex numbers to study electrical circuits, invented techniques to solve differential equations, formulated vector analysis, and reformulated Maxwell’s field equations in terms of energy flux and electromagnetic forces.

Hebb, Donald O. (1904–1985): Canadian neuropsychologist.

Hecht, Michael L.: American communication scholar.

Heckman, Timothy M.: American astrophysicist.

Hedenström, Anders: Swedish evolutionary ecologist, interested in bird and bat flight.

Hedin, Lars O.: American evolutionary biologist and biogeochemist, interested in ecosystems.

Heffernan, Tom M.: English psychologist.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770–1831): German philosopher.

Hehman, Eric: American psychologist.

Heilbroner, Robert L. (1919–2005): American economist.

Heinlein, Robert A. (1907–1988): American science fiction writer.

Heisenberg, Werner (1901–1976): German theoretical physicist, best known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum field theory, which states that measurement of subatomic particles is tricky to the point of indeterminate.

Heinze, Fritz Augustus (1869–1914): American mining engineer who mined copper in Montana before speculating in the copper market with his brother Otto.

Heinze, Otto: American speculator who tried to corner the US copper market with his brother Augustus.

Held, Karsten: Austrian solid-state physicist.

Held, Richard (1922–2016): American psychologist, interested in human vision development.

Held, Karsten: Austrian solid-state physicist.

Heldstab, Sandra A.: Swiss anthropologist, interested in mammalian brain size evolution.

Heldwein, Ekaterina E.: microbiologist and biochemist.

Heller, Joseph (1923–1999): American author.

Heller, Robert (1826?–1878): English magician, mentalist, and musician.

Heller, Walter (1915–1987): American economist who served as an economic advisor to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson.

Helm, Jonathan L.: American psychologist.

Helmig, Detlev: German atmospheric chemist.

Helper, Susan: American economist.

Hemmings, Sally (1773–1835): sex slave owned by Thomas Jefferson.

Henderson, Lawrence Joseph (1878–1942): American biochemist, physiologist, biologist, sociologist, and philosopher; best known for contributing to the equation used to calculate pH as a measure of acidity.

Henderson, Yandell (1873–1944): American physiologist.

Hendricks, Vincent F. (1970–): Danish philosopher and logician.

Hendrikz, Derek: South African group consultant.

Hendrix, Jimi (1942–1970): American musician, renowned guitar player.

Henking, Hermann (1858–1942): German cytologist who discovered the X chromosome.

Henneberg, Maciej: Australian biologist, interested in comparative anatomy and human evolution.

Henning, Tilo: German botanist.

Henrich, Joseph: American anthropologist.

Henriques, Diana B. (1948–): American financial journalist.

Henry I (1068–1135): King of England (1100–1135); the 4th son of William the Conqueror.

Henry II (1133–1189): King of England (1154–1189); founder of the short-lived Angevin Empire, comprising the British Isles and parts of western France.

Henry III (aka Henry of Winchester) (1207–1272): King of England (1216–1272); a pious man who assumed the throne when he as 9 years old. Henry’s attempt to reclaim his family’s lands in France was an expensive debacle that led to his unpopularity.

Henry IV (1050–1106): King of the Germans from age 7 (1057); Holy Roman Emperor (1084–1105).

Henry IV of France (aka Good King Henry, Henry the Great) (1553–1610): King of France (1589–1610).

Henry VII (1457–1509): King of England and Lord of Ireland after seizing the crown in 1485. Though fiscally prudent, Henry VII was capricious, and instituted ruthless taxation.

Henry VIII (1491–1547): King of England (1509–1547), best known for having 6 wives. Henry made radical changes to the constitution, and greatly expanded royal prerogative. Attractive and charismatic as a young man, Henry indulged himself into obesity, ill health, and ill temper. Historians characterize Henry in later life as lustful, insecure, egotistical, and harsh.

Henry of Bracton (aka Henry de Bracton) (1210–1268): English cleric and jurist; famous for his writings on law, particularly criminal intent. Bracton brought motive to the fore in helping determine the perpetrator of a criminal act.

Henry the Navigator (Prince Henry, Infante D. Herrique) (1394–1460): Portuguese navigator and exploration organizer, credited with initiating the Age of Imperialism.

Henry, Jessica S.: American public defender and criminologist.

Henry, Patrick (1736–1799): American attorney, planter, and politician.

Henslin, James (1937–): American sociologist and historian.

Hepburn, Audrey (1929–1993): English actress.

Heraclitus (535–475 BCE): Turkish Greek energyist philosopher who posited an ever-changing universe and a force of coherence creating a unity of existence.

Herbart, Johann Friedrich (1776–1841): German philosopher, psychologist, and founder of pedagogy: the theory of academic instruction.

Herbert, Frank (1920–1986): American science fiction novelist, best known for the space opera Dune (1965) and its 5 sequels.

Herbst, C.T.: Czech biophysicist.

Hergenhahn, B.R.: American psychologist.

Hernandez, Rosalba: American public health scholar.

Hero of Alexandria (aka Heron of Alexandria) (10–70 ce): Greek mathematician and engineer; considered the greatest experimenter of antiquity.

Herod (aka Herod the Great) (74/73–4 BCE): Roman client king of Judea, Galilee, and Samaria.

Herodotus (484–425 BCE): Greek historian.

Herring, Matthew: Australian ecologist.

Herron, Matthew D.: American evolutionary biologist.

Herschel, William (1738–1822): German-born English astronomer and composer of 24 symphonies. Herschel discovered Uranus and 2 moons of Saturn. He and his sister Caroline compiled the first map of the Milky Way galaxy.

Hertwig, Oscar (1849–1922): German zoologist and evolutionary theorist.

Hertz, Heinrich (1857–1894): German physicist who demonstrated the existence of electromagnetic waves.

Herzen, Alexander Ivanovich (1812–1870): Russian revolutionary theorist, known as the “father of Russian socialism.”

Herzog, Roman (1934–): German politician (Christian Democratic Union); President (1994–1999).

Hesiod (~700 BCE): Greek poet.

Hess, Ursula: Canadian psychologist.

Hetherington, Alexander J.: English botanist.

Hetherington, Marc J. (1968–): American political scientist.

Hetzer, Martin W.: American cytologist.

Hevelius, Johannes (1611–1687): German astronomer and civic leader. Hevelius described 10 new constellations, 7 of which are still recognized.

Hewish, Tony: English astronomer.

Hewison, Kevin: Australian social and political scientist.

Heydens, William F.: American business executive for Monsanto.

Heywood, Andrew: English political scientist.

Heywood, Wendy: Australian sociologist.

Hiatt, John (1952–): crafty and influential American songwriter, singer, and musician.

Hickey, Paul: American stock analyst.

Hicks, William M. (1850–1934): English mathematician and physicist who proposed negative gravity as an adjunct to a vortex theory of gravity.

Higgins, Edmund S.: American psychiatrist.

Higginson, Andrew D.: English zoologist, interested in animal cognition, morphology, development, and behavior.

Hilbert, David (1862–1943): German mathematician; one of the most influential mathematicians of his time.

Hildebrandsson, Hugo Hildebrand (1838–1925): Swedish meteorologist who studied clouds.

Hiley, Basil J. (1935–): Burma-born British quantum physicist.

Hill, Russell A.: English anthropologist.

Hillman, James (1926–2011): American psychologist who developed archetypal psychology.

Hills, Thomas T.: American psychologist.

Hillyard, Paul: English arachnologist.

Hincks, Thea (1977–): English mathematician and physicist, interested in decision-making under uncertainty.

Hines, Pamela J.: American biologist and science writer.

Hippasus (5th century BCE): Greek Pythagorean philosopher who is sometimes credited with the discovery of irrational numbers.

Hippocrates (460–370 BCE): Greek physician; considered the father of western medicine.

Hirmas, Daniel R.: American Earth scientist, interested in soil.

Hirohito (1901–1989): Japanese Emperor (1926–1989).

Hirsh, Jacob B.: Canadian psychologist.

Hirst, Andrew G.: English evolutionary biologist.

Hirst, William: American psychologist.

Hirth, Frank: English neurobiologist.

Hitchcock, Alfred (1899–1980): English film director, known for suspense movies and psychological thrillers.

Hitler, Adolf (1889–1945): Austrian-born German politician who founded and led the Nazi party, and his country, into the disastrous madness known as World War 2.

Hittinger, Chris Todd: American geneticist.

Hoare, Ben: English zoologist.

Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679): English sociologist and political philosopher who established social contract theory and advocated despotism.

Hobson, Art: American theoretical physicist.

Hobson, John A. (aka J.A. Hobson) (1858–1940): English economist and social scientist who criticized imperialism.

Hodge, Angela: English botanist.

Hodgson, Dave: English ecologist.

Hodos, William: American biologist.

Hoekstra, Arjen Y.: Dutch hydrologist.

Hoekstra, Hopi E.: American biologist.

Hoenig, Melanie: American physician.

Hoenig, Thomas M. (1956–): American economist; head of the FDIC (2012–).

Hofmann, Albert (1906–2008): Swiss chemist fascinated with psychotropic substances; first to synthesize and enjoy LSD.

Hoffman, Donald (1955–): American cognitive psychologist.

Hoffman, Dustin (1937–): American actor, known for his portrayal of antiheroes and vulnerable characters.

Hofmann, Hans (1880–1966): German-born American abstract expressionist painter.

Hoffman, Paul G. (1891–1974): American businessman and global development aid administrator.

Hoffmann, Stefan: German marketing academic.

Hoffman, Yehuda: Israeli cosmologist.

Hofstede, Geert (1928–): Dutch social psychologist who developed cultural dimensions theory.

Hojo, Masaru: Japanese ecologist.

Hokusai, Katsushika (1760–1849): Japanese artist, ukioy-e painter, and printmaker, influenced by the 15th-century Japanese ink-and-wash painter Sesshū Tōyō.

Holder, Eric H. (1951–): American lawyer; US Attorney General (2009–2015).

Holdridge, Leslie R. (1907–1999): American botanist and climatologist who developed a biome classification using life zones which were based upon soil type and dominant plants.

Hölker, Franz: German ecologist.

Holland, Jennifer S.: American author.

Holland, Steven M.: American geologist.

Hölldobler, Bert (1936–): American entomologist who studies ants.

Hollerith, Herman (1860–1929): American inventor of an electromechanical punched card tabulator.

Holliday, Robin: English biologist.

Holliger, Philipp: English molecular biologist, interested in abiogenesis.

Holloway, Kali: American social activist and journalist.

Holmberg, Diane: American psychologist, interested in relationships.

Holmes, Henry H. (1922–1981): American East Asian scholar.

Holmes, John G.: American psychologist, interested in interpersonal relations.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr. (1841–1935): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1902–1932).

Holmes, Oliver Wendell Sr. (1809–1894): American physician and poet.

Holmes, Sherlock: English fictional private detective, created by Arthur Conan Doyle.

Holst, Gustav (1874–1934): English composer, best known for his orchestral suite The Planets. Holst composed numerous works in various musical genres, but none achieved comparable success; a classical one-hit wonder.

Holt, Ronald: American sociologist.

Holtmann, Benedikt: German zoologist, interested in animal behavior, especially responses to environmental change.

Holtzman, David A.: American neurobiologist.

Holyoak, Keith J. (1950–): American cognitive psychologist, interested in human reasoning, learning, decision-making, and problem-solving.

Holyst, Robert: Polish chemist.

Holzer, Hans (1920–2009): Austrian-born American paranormal researcher, well known for his interest in ghosts.

“To the matterist and the skeptic – that is to say, people who do not wish their belief that death is the end of life as we know it to be disturbed – the notion of ghosts is unacceptable. No matter how much evidence is presented to support the phenomena, these people will argue against it, and ascribe it to any of several “natural” causes.” ~ Hans Hozler

Homer (~850 BCE): legendary Greek poet and author, best known for the epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, both about the Mycenaean civilization.

Honkanen, Anna: Finnish biophysicist.

Hood, Bruce: English developmental psychologist.

Hooke, Robert (1635–1703): English natural philosopher, architect, and polymath.

Hooke, Roger LeB.: American geologist.

Hooper, Dan: American theoretical astrophysicist.

Hooper, Ibrahim: Canadian American Islamic convert, spokesman for the Council on American-Islamic Relations, a Washington DC-based Muslim civil rights organization.

Hoover, Herbert (1874–1964): American politician (Republican), businessman, and mining engineer who became President with no elected office experience; 31st President of the United States (1929–1933). When the Wall Street crash of 1929 struck, Hoover attempted ineffective corrective measures that would be mimicked by his successor, Franklin Roosevelt, to the same result. Besides his failure to prevent or correct the Great Depression, Hoover became unpopular for supporting prohibition. Most folk figured that if the world was going to hell, you might as well have a drink.

Hopkins, Brian: American technology analyst.

Hopkins, William D.: American psychologist.

Hopper, Grace Murray (1906–1992): American mathematician, computer programmer, and military woman who invented the computer compiler, popularized the term debugging for fixing computer glitches, and was instrumental in the development of the COBOL programming language.

Horace (65–8 BCE): Roman lyric poet.

Horava, Petr: Czech string theorist who works on D-brane theory.

Horden, William D.: American author, artist, and spiritualist.

Hormats, Robert: American diplomat.

Horn, Henry S.: American natural historian and ecologist.

Horvath, Tamas L.: Hungarian neurobiologist, interested in cell signaling.

Hoscheit, Benjamin: American astrophysicist.

Hossenfelder, Sabine: German astrophysicist, interested in physics beyond the Standard Model, with a special emphasis on the phenomenology of quantum gravity.

Houghton, Jonathan D.R.: Irish marine biologist.

Houldcroft, Charlotte J.: English virologist.

Hout, Michael C.: American cognitive psychologist.

Howard, Albert (1873–1947): English botanist and agriculturalist. Howard was a pioneer in organic farming.

Howard, John (1726–1790): English sheriff who became a prison reformer.

Howard, Scarlett R.: Australian zoologist, interested in the numeric capabilities of honeybees.

Howarth, Robert: American environmental scientist.

Howe, Geoffrey (1926–2015): Welsh Conservative politician.

Howe, William (1729–1814): British army officer who became commander-in-chief of British forces during the American Revolutionary War.

Hoy, Ronald R.: American zoologist, interested in neurobiology and animal communication.

Hoyal Cuthill, Jennifer F.: English paleobiologist.

Hoyle, Fred (1915–2001): English astronomer, mathematician, and science fiction writer. One of Hoyle’s science-fiction beliefs was in a steady-state universe. Einstein shared that belief for a time.

Hoynes, Hilary: American economist, interested in welfare programs.

Hsu, Dennis Y.: Chinese American sociologist.

Hsu, Stephen S.: American investigative journalist.

Huang, Casey (aka KC): Chinese American bioengineer.

Huang, Chuan-Hsiang (Bear): Chinese cytologist.

Hubbard, Elbert (1856–1915): American writer, artist, and philosopher.

Hubbard, Ruth (1924–): Austrian American biologist.

Hubbert, M. King (1903–1989): American geologist and geophysicist, best known for his theory of peak oil: the date when the US would reach its maximal extraction of petroleum (from which production would inexorably decline). In the 21st century, fracking practically trashed the notion of peak oil.

Hubble, Edwin (1889–1953): American astronomer, often incorrectly credited with discovery of other galaxies and galactic Doppler shift (inaptly termed Hubble’s law). Hubble did devise the Hubble sequence: a simple way of classifying galaxies by how they look.

Huber, Patrick: American particle physicist who works on neutrinos.

Huchon, Dorothée: Israeli molecular phylogeneticist.

Huddy, Leonie: American political psychologist.

Huesmann, L. Rowell: American psychologist and communication scholar.

Hug, Laura A.: Canadian microbiologist.

Hughes, Brent B.: American ecologist and evolutionary biologist.

Hughes, Charles Evans Sr. (1862–1948): American politician (progressive Republican) and jurist.

Hughes, David P.: American entomologist.

Hughes, Terry P.: Australian marine ecologist.

Hugo, Victor (1802–1885): French poet, novelist, and dramatist.

Hulbert, A.J.: Australian biologist, interested in biogerontology.

Hulbert, Anya C.: American physicist, physiologist, cognitive scientist, and psychologist, interested in vision processing.

Hume, David (1711–1776): Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist; a logician known for empiricism and skepticism. In stark contrast to rationalists, such as Descartes, Hume believed that desire, not reason, drove human behavior.

Humphrey, Hubert H. (1911–1978): American politician (Democrat); US Vice President (1965–1969); US Senator from Minnesota (1949–1964, 1971–1978).

Huneker, James (1857–1921): American art, book, music, and theater critic.

Hunt, Stephen: English fantasy novelist.

Hurley, Rachel: English ecologist.

Hurt, Richard D.: American physician, interested in tobacco.

Hussain, Imran (1978–): English politician (Labour).

Hussak, Larisa J.: American psychologist.

Hutcheson, Francis (1694–1746): Scottish philosopher.

Hutchison, Bruce (1901–1992): Canadian author.

Hutton, James (1726–1797): Scottish geologist who concocted uniformitarianism.

Huxley, Aldous (1894–1963): English writer and philosopher.

Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–1895): English biologist and anatomist, known as “Darwin’s Bulldog” for his staunch advocacy of Darwinian evolution.

Huygens, Christiaan (1629–1695): Dutch mathematician and scientist, known particularly as an astronomer, physicist, probabilist, and horologist. Huygens was a leading scientist in his day. His papers on mechanics and optics were major contributions, and he did pioneering work in probability by studying games of chance.

Hunziker, Alexander: Hungarian geneticist.

Hunt, James H.: American zoologist.

Huppert, Julian L.: English chemist.

Hussein, Saddam (1937–2006): Iraqi revolutionary; dictator of Iraq (1979–2003). Executed for crimes against humanity.

Husson, Jon M.: American geologist.

Hutchison, Bruce (1901–1992): Canadian author.

Hutsemékers, Damien: Belgian cosmologist.

Hutter, Jacob (1500–1536): Austrian Anabaptist religious leader who founded the Hutterites.

Hutton, James (1726–1797): Scottish geologist who concocted uniformitarianism.

Hwa, Terence: American physicist and microbiologist.

Hyde-Smith, Cindy (1959–): American politician (Republican); US Senator from Mississippi (2018–).

Hyman, Anthony A. (1962–): English cytologist.

Ibba, Michael: English biochemist.

Icke, David V. (1952–): English writer.

Idso, Craig D.: American agronomist.

Ingham, Harrington: American psychologist who co-developed the Johari window with Joseph Luft.

Ignatius of Loyola (1491–1556): Spanish priest and theologian who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).

Igoshin, Oleg: Russian biologist interested in bacteria sociality.

Ijeoma, Justus: Nigerian human rights activist.

Ikegami, Takashi: Japanese archeologist.

Imhoff, Daniel: American environmental scientist.

Inge, William Ralph (aka Dean Inge) (1860–1954): English Anglican priest and author.

Ingenhousz, Jan (1730–1799): Dutch physiologist, credited with discovering photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Not credited for discovering Brownian motion.

Ingham, Karr: American economist.

Ingrouille, Martin J.: English botanist.

Ingwell, Laura L.: American biologist interested in plant viruses.

Innocent IV, Pope (1195–1554; Pope 1243–1254): the Pope who initially followed predecessor Pope Gregory IX’s order to burn all copies of the Talmud throughout European Christendom, but in 1247 relented and simply censored the Talmud, having bought the argument that the previous policy negated the Church’s traditional tolerance of Judaism. Innocent IV’s posture was continued by subsequent popes. Innocent IV is also remembered for issuing the papal bull Ad extirpanda (15 May 1252), which authorized torture by the Inquisition to elicit confessions from heretics, and property confiscation, a portion of which was conceded to the state, which assumed the burden of executing the bull in persecuting accused heretics.

Ioanitou, Angeliki: Greek home keeper.

Ioannidis, John P.A. (1965–): American epidemiologist, interested in the misuse of statistics by scientists.

Ioannou, Christos C.: English zoologist, interested in animal sociality.

Iovino, Nicola: Italian geneticist.

Irdell, James (1751–1799): American jurist.

Irenaeus (late 2nd century–202 CE): Gallic Christian bishop, best known for his 180 book Against Heresies, which attacked Gnostic Christian theology.

Irvine, William B.: American philosopher.

Isabella I of Castile (1451–1504): queen of Castile who married her 2nd cousin Ferdinand II in 1469, thus providing the basis for political unification of Spain under Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

Ishi, Hope: American cosmochemist.

Ishino, Yoshizumi: Japanese molecular biologist who accidently discovered pais in 1987, though he had no idea what it meant.

Isaiah (8th century BCE): Jewish self-proclaimed prophet.

Ising, Ernst (1900–1998): German physicist, known for developing the Ising model.

Isinger, Marcus: Swedish atomic physicist.

Ismail, Mohammed: Indian small business owner.

Isocrates (436–338 BCE): Greek rhetorician.

Itard, Jean-Marc-Gaspard (1774–1838): French physician who helped educate the deaf, and tried to socialize Victor of Aveyron.

Itano, Wayne M.: American physicist.

Itzkovitz, Shalev: Israeli systems biologist, interested in the design of mammalian tissues.

Ivanova, Natalia N.: Russian geneticist.

Ivanov, Yevgeny (1926–1994): Soviet naval attaché and spy at the Soviet Embassy in London in the early 1960s. Caught up in the Profumo affair, Ivanov was ordered back to the Soviet Union. His wife Maya left him because of his affair with Christine Keeler. Ivanov found what solace he could in vodka. He was found dead in his Moscow flat at age 68.

Iverson, F. Kenneth (1925–2002): American metallurgist and CEO of Nucor Corporation (1966–2000).

Iyengar, M.T. Narayana: Indian mathematician.

Jablonka, Eva (1952–): Polish-born Israeli geneticist, interested in epigenetics and evolution.

Jablonski, David (1953–): American geophysicist, interested in the evolutionary role of mass extinctions and other large-scale processes affecting the history of life.

Jack, Anthony I.: American psychologist, philosopher, and cognitive scientist.

Jackson, Andrew (1767–1845): American soldier, politician (founder of the Democratic Party), and statesman; 7th US President (1829–1837). Jackson won the most popular and electoral votes of the 3 major candidates in the 1824 presidential contest but lost to John Quincy Adams in the House of Representatives vote that decided the election. Jackson survived the 1st assassination attempt on a sitting president. As president, Jackson succored the “common man” against the “corrupt aristocracy.”

Jackson, Andrew: Irish zoologist.

Jackson, Joshua: American psychologist, interested in personality changes.

Jackson, Rob: American Earth scientist.

Jackson, Wes (1936–): American botanist and geneticist, interested in environmental preservation.

Jacob, François (1920–2013): French biologist.

Jacobs, A.J.: American writer.

Jakobsen, Lasse: Danish zoologist, interested in bat calls.

Jacobson, Jennifer Richard: American educator and writer.

Jaczko, Gregory (1970–): American nuclear power regulator and physicist.

Jaeggi, Adrian V.: Swiss anthropologist, interested in primate and human behavioral ecology.

Jäger, Peter: German taxonomist.

Jahme, Carole: English psychologist.

Jakob, Elizabeth M.: American arachnologist.

Jakšic, Ana Marija: Serbian geneticist.

Jakubczyk, Daniel: Polish physicist interested in physical chemistry.

Jakubowski, Kelly: American music psychologist.

James II (1633–1701): King of England (1685–1688), best known for his struggles with parliament, and his attempts to create religious liberty against the will of the Anglican establishment.

James, Harold (1956–): English economic historian.

James, William (1842–1910): American physician, psychologist, and philosopher.

Jami, Criss: American poet and philosopher.

Jameson, Robert (1774–1854): English naturalist and mineralogist; though a boring lecturer (according to Darwin), Jameson built a superb natural history museum collection.

Jamieson, Alan: English marine ecologist.

Jansen, Cornelius (1491–1556): Dutch theologian and Catholic bishop; father of Jansenism.

Jansen, David: Swiss zoologist.

Janssen, Colin: Belgian environmental biologist.

Janzen, Daniel H. (1939–): American evolutionary ecologist, biologist, and conservationist.

Jaramillo, Rafael: American solid-state physicist.

Järvensivu, Paavo: Finnish economist.

Jasny, Michael: American environmental scientist and lawyer, interested in underwater noise pollution, specifically sonar’s effect on cetaceans.

Jaspers, Karl T. (1883–1969): German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher, often viewed as an exponent of existentialism, though he spurned the label.

Javons, William Stanley (1835–1882): English mathematician, logician, economist, and philosopher who founded the marginalist school of economics and grounded economics in mathematics.

Jay, John (1745–1829): American politician (Federalist) and jurist.

Jaynes, E.T. (1922–1998): outspoken American physicist who worked on statistical mechanics.

Jeans, James (1877–1946): English physicist, astronomer, and mathematician, who was interested in quantum theory, radiation, and stellar evolution. In 1928, Jeans was first to concoct a steady-state cosmology, based upon the assumption that matter continually accreted in the cosmos. The hypothesis was disproved by the 1965 discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.

Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826): American farmer, slave owner, and politician (Democratic-Republican); principal author of the of the Declaration of Independence (1776); outspoken proponent of democracy; 3rd US President (1801–1809); consistently considered as one of the greatest US Presidents.

Jenkin, Henry Charles Fleeming (1833–1885): English engineer, economist, linguist, actor, dramatist, and artist.

Jenkins, Pegi Joy (1932–2014): American author of educational books.

Jenkins, Philip (1952–): American historian and religion scholar.

Jenness, Arthur: American social psychologist.

Jennings, David: English quantum physicist.

Jensen, Henrik (1961–): Dutch economist.

Jensen, Karin B.: American psychiatrist, interested in pain and placebos.

Jerome (347–420): Latin Christian priest, theologian and historian.

Jermey, Dominic (1967–): English diplomat, now head of the Zoological Society of London (2017–).

Jervis, Robert (1940–): American political scientist, interested in misperceptions in foreign-policy decision-making.

Jesus (of Nazareth) (aka Jesus Christ) (7–2 BCE–30–33 ce): Israeli Jewish carpenter and preacher who is regarded by Christians to have been the awaited Messiah (or Christ) referred to in the Old Testament. Jesus was crucified by Roman authorities for challenging societal order. (Crucifixion was reserved for crimes against the state by the lower classes, or for slaves who attacked their masters.) Though presumed literate, Jesus left no writings.

Jesus ben Ananias: Jewish farmer who went around Jerusalem correctly prophesying the city’s destruction 4 years before the First Jewish-Roman War began in 66 CE. Jesus himself was killed during the city’s siege.

Jetten, Jolanda: Australian social psychologist.

Jewell, John (1522–1571): English bishop who helped establish the legitimacy of the Anglican Church.

Jeyaloganathan, Vithu: Sri Lankan-born Canadian writer.

Ji Lian Li: Chinese entomologist.

Jianguo Liu: Chinese American environmental scientist.

Jiggins, C.D.: English zoologist.

Jintao Liu: Chinese microbiologist.

Joan of Arc (1412–1431): French visionary who supported Charles VII in his attempt to recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years’ War. Captured by a faction allied with the English, she was found guilty of false charges and burned at the stake on 30 May 1431.

Jobs, Steve (1955–2011): American computer marketeer.

Johansen, Bruce E. (1950–): American environmental scientist and sociologist, interested in the welfare of the indigenes of North America.

Johannsen, Wilhelm (1857–1927): Danish botanist who introduced the term gene in 1909, in opposition to Darwin’s multifaceted pangene hypothesis. Johannsen also coined the terms phenotype and genotype.

John I (1166–1216): King of England (1199–1216). John I’s 1215 charter with England’s barony – the Magna Carta – became a seminal document in the history of civil rights, and an early step in the evolution of constitutions.

John II of Portugal (1455–1495): King of Portugal (1481–1495), known for reclaiming the power of the Portuguese monarchy, reinvigorating the Portuguese economy, and renewing Portuguese exploration.

John XXII, Pope (born Jacques Duèze) (1244–1334): an activist Pope (1316–1334) that involved himself in the politics of many European countries in order to advance the interests of the Church. John centralized power and income in the papacy and lived a princely lifestyle. His opposition to the policies of Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV prompted Louis to invade Italy and set up an antipope (Nicholas V). John opposed the Franciscan understanding that Jesus and his apostles lived in poverty, owning nothing. To accept the proposition would condemn the Church’s right to property (as it would be righteous to follow Christ’s example).

John of Salisbury (1120–1180): English author, clergyman, and diplomat.

John the Baptist(late 1st century BCE–~33 CE): Jewish itinerant preacher who taught of an imminent apocalypse, fond of baptism as a ritual.

John the Evangelist (1st century): according to legend, the youngest apostle of Jesus and Christian evangelist, traditionally ascribed as one of the authors of the canonical New Testament gospels.

Johnsen, Sönke: American zoologist, interested in sensory ecology.

Johnson, Amanda H.: American psychologist.

Johnson, Andrew (1808–1875): American politician (Democrat) who ran with Abraham Lincoln in 1864 on a national union ticket and became President upon Lincoln’s assassination; 17th US President (1865–1869), and the 1st to face an impeachment trial on unmerited political charges, for which he was acquitted.

Johnson, Andrew D.: American biologist.

Johnson, Craig E.: American communication scholar.

Johnson, Dominic D.P.: English evolutionary biologist and political scientist.

Johnson, Dwayne (1972–): American football player, professional wrestler, and actor.

Johnson, G. David: American ichthyologist, interested in acanthomorphs.

Johnson, Gregory C.: American oceanographer.

Johnson, Jennifer A.: American astronomer.

Johnson, Lynda Bird (now Lynda Robb) (1944–): American social activist, interested in children’s literacy.

Johnson, Lyndon B. (aka LBJ) (1908–1973): American politician (Democrat); 36th US President (1963–1969).

Johnson, Mark A.: American cytologist.

Johnson, Richard: American nephrologist.

Johnson, Robert: American psychologist.

Johnson, Robert Everett: American civil rights attorney.

Johnson, Samuel (1709–1784): English writer; a distinguished man of letters. Johnson’s English dictionary (1755) was a splendid work of scholarship with far-reaching effect.

Johnson, Sönke: American zoologist, interested in vision.

Johnson-Laird, Philip N. (1936–): American psychologist.

Johnston, Christopher: American political scientist.

Johnston, Eric A. (1896–1963): American businessman.

Johnston, Lynn (1947–): Canadian cartoonist.

Johnston, Susan E.: English evolutionary biologist.

Johoda, Marie (1907–2001): Austrian British social psychologist.

Jones, Alex S.: American news media maven.

Jones, Isabel: English ecologist and environmental biologist.

Jones, Jason B.: American sociologist.

Jones, Kendall R.: Australian environmental scientist.

Jones, Owen R.: American evolutionary biologist.

Jonson, Ben (1572–1637): English playwright and poet.

Jorandby, Elisabeth: American psychologist and neurobiologist.

Jordan, Frank W. (1882–?): English physicist and electrician who invented the flip-flop circuit with William Eccles.

Jørgensen, Christian: Norwegian zoologist.

Joseph, Mel: American environmental scientist.

Josiah (aka Yoshiyahu) (657–609): Hebrew king (649–609) who took the throne at age 8, after his father, King Amon, was assassinated. The Bible describes Josiah as a deeply religious king.

Jost, John T.: American psychologist.

Joule, James Prescott (1818–1889): English physicist, mathematician, and brewer who studied the nature of heat, and discovered it as a form of energy (i.e., mechanical work), which led to the conservation of energy law.

Joy, Jeffrey B.: Canadian evolutionary biologist.

Joyce, James (1882–1941): Irish novelist and poet.

Juan, David de: Spanish biologist.

Judd, Naomi (1946–): American country music musician.

Judith, Anodea (1952–): American psychologist, somatic therapist, and yoga teacher.

Judt, Tony (1948–2010): English historian.

Juglar, Clément (1819–1905): French physician and statistician who identified in the 1850s periodic economic cycles in capitalism lasting 7–11 years, termed Juglar cycles. Compare Kitchin cycles, Kondratiev waves.

Julius, David: American physiologist.

Jun, Suckjoon: Korean Canadian molecular biologist and physicist.

Jung, Carl (1875–1961): Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist.

Juniper, Tony (1960–): English environmentalist and conservationist.

Junjie Li: Chinese physicist.

Juppé, Alain (1945–): French politician (Republican); French Prime Minister (1995–1997). While prime minister, Juppé faced labor strikes which paralyzed the country, costing Juppé his job.

Justice, Steve: American engineer and technologist.

Justinian I (Flavius Justinianus, born Petrus Sabbatius) (482–565): Byzantine emperor (527–565), best remembered for his codification of civil laws (Corpus Juris Civilis).

Kacelnik, Alex (1946–): Argentine-English ethologist and zoologist.

Kagan, Elena (1960–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (2010–).

Kahn, Alfred E. (1917 – 2010): American economist and deregulation enthusiast.

Kahn, Herman (1922–1983): American systems theorist, military strategist, and futurist.

Kahneman, Daniel (1934–): Israeli American psychologist, interested in decision-making and judgment.

Kaiguang Zhao: Chinese American Earth scientist, physicist, and statistician.

Kail, Robert V.: American psychologist, interested in human psychological development.

Kaiser, Dale: American developmental biologist.

Kaiser, Gary W.: Canadian evolutionary biologist, interested in birds.

Kalan, Ammie: Canadian primatologist.

Kalantry, Sundeep: American geneticist.

Kaldor, Nicholas (1908–1986): English economist who concocted 6 laws of economic growth based upon historical correlations. Overall, Kaldor hinged growth prospects on the manufacturing sector. Even the well-being of the non-manufacturing industries supposedly relied upon manufacturing’s vigor.

Kalejta, Robert F.: American virologist.

Kalish, Charles W.: American psychologist.

Kallmeyer, Jens: German oceanographer, geomicrobiologist, and geochemist.

Kaluza, Theodor (1885–1954): German mathematician and physicist who developed a model unifying electromagnetism and gravitation via a 5-dimensional space.

Kaminsky, Dan: American cybersecurity researcher.

Kamoun, Sophien (1965–): Tunisian botanist, interested in plant pathogens.

Kamppinen, Matti: Finnish psychologist and philosopher of mind.

Kamras, Jason: American public education administrator.

Kangxi, Emperor (born Xuanye) (1654–1722): Chinese emperor; one of the longest-reigning rulers in history (61 years), and considered one of China’s greatest emperors.

Kaniewski, David: French anthropologist.

Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804): influential German philosopher and rationalist.

“It always remains a scandal of philosophy and universal human reason that the existence of things outside us should have to be assumed merely on faith, and that if it occurs to anyone to doubt it, we should be unable to answer him with a satisfactory proof.” ~ Critique of Pure Reason (1781)

Yet Kant rejected positivism, warning of the seduction of perception as truth.

“Up to now it has been assumed that all our cognition must conform to the objects; but let us once try whether we do not get farther with the problems of metaphysics by assuming that the objects must conform to our cognition.”

Kant, Ravi: Indian civil rights lawyer.

Kappes, Andreas: German psychologist.

Kappeler, Victor E.: American criminal justice scholar.

Karabel, Jerome: American sociologist.

Karbstein, Katrin: American molecular biologist.

Karim, Reef: American psychiatrist.

Karlseder, Jan: Austrian cytologist, interested in telomeres.

Karnkowska, Anna: Polish molecular evolutionary biologist.

Kashina, Anna: Russian biochemist and fantasy novelist.

Kaspar, Rachael E.: American entomologist, interested in honeybees.

Kaspersky, Eugene V. (1965–): Russian cybersecurity specialist.

Kassem, Suzy (1975–): American author and philosopher.

Kassis, Judith A.: American epigeneticist.

Kastrup, Bernardo: Dutch philosopher and computer scientist.

Katajisto, Pekka: Finnish cytologist.

Kateb, George: American political scientist.

Katie, Bryon (aka Bryon Kathleen Mitchell) (1942–): American guru and author.

Katz, Michael B. (1939–2014): American historian and social theorist.

Kauffmann, Guinevere: American astrophysicist.

Kaufman, James H.: American psychologist.

Kaufman, Lloyd: American psychologist.

Kausche, Gustav: German biologist interested in viruses.

Kaushal, Sujay S.: American biochemist, interested in the environmental effects of human land use, and the effect of climate change on water resources.

Kavanaugh, Brett M. (1965–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (2018–). Kavanaugh was part of the legal team that worked to stop the ballot recount in Florida in the 2000 presidential election, in which SCOTUS unconstitutionally selected George W. Bush as president.

Kavanagh, Patrick H.: New Zealander biologist.

Kawamoto, Shimpei: Japanese immunologist.

Kay, Alan (1940–): American programmer who co-developed the Smalltalk language.

Kazantzakis, Nikos (1883–1957): Greek writer and philosopher, best known for his novel Zorba the Greek.

Kazi, Faraaz (1987–): Indian author.

Kaznatcheev, Artem: Canadian psychologist and computer scientist.

Keefe, Richard C.: American psychologist.

Keeler, Christine (1942–): English model and showgirl whose claim to fame was being the femme fatale in the Profumo affair.

Keeley, Lawrence H.: English anthropologist.

Keeling, Patrick J.: Canadian microbiologist and botanist.

Keen, Steve (1953–): Australian economist.

Kees, Weldon (1914–1955): American poet, painter, novelist, playwright, jazz pianist, and filmmaker.

Keestra, A. Marijke: Dutch immunologist.

Keen, Steve (1953–): Australian economist.

Kefauver, Estes (1903–1963): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Tennessee (1949–1963).

Kelber, Almut: German zoologist, interested in color vision and its evolution.

Kelleher, Herb (1931–): American businessman who co-founded Southwest Airlines with Rollin King.

Keller, Helen (1880–1968): American author who was blind and deaf through illness at 19 months old.

Kelley, Lee Charles: American novelist and dog trainer.

Kellogg, Vernon Lyman (1867–1937): American entomologist and evolutionary biologist.

Kelly, Edward F.: American cognitive scientist.

Kelman, Herbert C. (1927–): American social psychologist and ethicist.

Keltner, Dacher: American social psychologist.

Kelvin, Lord (William Thomson) (1837–1907): English mathematical physicist and engineer, best known for suggesting that there is an absolute lower limit to temperature: whence the Kelvin temperature scale.

Kemmler, William (1860–1890): American peddler and alcoholic, legendary for his drinking binges, who murdered his common-law wife with a hatchet. Kemmler was the first man executed by electrocution.

Kemp, Charles: American psychologist.

Kennedy, John F. (JFK) (1917–1963): American politician (Democrat); 35th US President (1961–1963). Kennedy was killed by sniper fire while riding at 11 mph in a motorcade in downtown Dallas, Texas. In 1979, a US House committee concluded that Kennedy was assassinated from a conspiracy.

Kennedy, Patrick: English evolutionary biologist.

Kennedy, Paul M. (1945–): English historian, interested in international relations and economic power.

Kenrick, Douglas T.: American psychologist.

Kenrick, Paul: English paleobotanist.

Kepler, Johannes (1571–1630): German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer; known for his law of planetary motion.

Kern, David: American epidemiologist.

Kernighan, Brian W. (1942–): Canadian programmer.

Kerr, Richard A.: American science writer.

Kettering, Charles F. (1876–1958): American mechanical engineer and inventor who invented the electrical starting motor for vehicles.

Keyes, Frances Parkinson (1885–1970): American novelist.

Keynes, John Maynard (1883–1946): English macroeconomist who opposed Britain’s return to the gold standard after World War 1 (in 1925), and who proposed that governments spend their way out of the Great Depression by printing money to stimulate demand.

Keys, Ancel B. (1904–2004): American physiologist who successfully perpetrated the myth that heart disease was a matter of saturated-fat consumption.

Keys, Patrick W.: American ecologist and climatologist, interested in freshwater resources.

Khaldun, Ibn (1332–1406): Tunisian historian who was a founding father of sociology and economics.

Khan, Tahira Shahid: Pakistani sociologist.

Khomeini, Ruhollah (aka Ayatollah Khomeini (to the Western world)) (1902–1989). Iranian Shia Muslim religious leader, revolutionary, and politician who became Iran’s Supreme Leader after the 1979 Iranian Revolution.

Khrushchev, Nikita (1984–1971): erratic Russian-born Soviet politician; leader of the Soviet Union (1958–1964).

Kidd, Celeste: American psychologist, interested in developmental psychology.

Kierkegaard, Søren (1813–1855): Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, and social critic.

Kilby, Jack (1923–2005): American electrical engineer who created the first integrated circuit.

Kilcher, Jewel (1974–): American singer-songwriter, actress, author, and poet.

Killewald, Alexandra (1953–): American sociologist, educator, and demographer.

Killworth, Peter D. (1946–2008): English oceanographer and social network researcher.

Kilner, Rebecca: English zoologist.

Kim, Seohyun (Chris): Korean American chemist.

Kimbrell, Andrew: American ecologist, technologist, and attorney, interested in sustainable agriculture and healthsome food.

Kimera, Kamoya: Kenyan fossil hunter.

Kindleberger, Charles P. (1910–2003): American economic historian.

King, Jean-Rémi: cognitive neurobiologist.

King, Nicole: American cytologist and molecular biologist.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. (1929–1968): American Baptist minister and civil rights leader. King was 1 of 3 assassinations of liberal American political leaders in the 1960s (the other 2 were John Kennedy (1963) and his younger brother Robert Kennedy (1968)).

King, Rollin (1931–2014): American businessman who co-founded Southwest Airlines with Herb Kelleher.

King, Ryan S.: American biologist.

King, Scott D.: American geophysicist.

Kipling, Rudyard (1865–1936): British poet and writer.

Kirca, Ahmet H.: Turkish-American marketing professor.

Kirchhoff, Gustav (1824–1887): German physicist who contributed to understanding electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and black-body radiation.

Kirkman, Thomas P. (1806–1895): English mathematician and Anglican minister.

Kirkpatrick, Jeane J. (1926–2006): American diplomat and ardent anti-communist.

Kirnberger, Johann (1721–1783): German composer.

Kirschvink, Joseph L. (Joe): American geobiologist, interested in magnetism.

Kisdi, Éva: Finnish evolutionary biologist and mathematician, interested in evolutionary adaptive dynamics.

Kish, Daniel (1966–): American psychologist who is expert in human echolocation.

Kissinger, Henry (1923–): American diplomat.

Kitchin, Joseph (1861–1932): English businessman and statistician who identified in 1923 short periodic economic cycles in capitalism lasting ~40 months, termed Kitchin cycles. Compare Juglar cycles, Kondratiev waves.

Kitzhaber, John (1947–): American physician and politician (Democrat); Governor of Oregon (1995–2003, 2011–2015).

Kiyomori, Taira (1118–1181): 1st Japanese samurai dictator (1160–1181).

Kleiber, Max (1893 –1976): Swiss agricultural biologist who studied animal metabolism.

Klein, Linda: American lawyer.

Klein, Melanie (1882–1960): Austrian British psychoanalyst, interested in child psychology.

Klein, Oskar (1894 –1977): Swedish physicist, credited with originating the notion that extra dimensions exist compacted (smaller than a Planck length). This insight was an adjunct to work by Theodor Kaluza; hence the Kaluza–Klein theory, which became the fountainhead of follow-on HD theories.

Klein, Tamir: Swiss botanist.

Kleinhappel, Tanja K.: Austrian ethologist.

Kleinteich, Thomas: German biomechanist interested in vertebrate functional morphology, especially in amphibians.

Klemer, Katerina S.: Bulgarian writer and software developer.

Kliff, Sarah: American journalist, interested in public health care.

Knapp, Mark L. (1938–): American communication scholar.

Knobe, Joshua: American ethicist and experimental philosopher.

Knowles, Eric: American social psychologist.

Knowlton, Charles (1800–1850): American physician and writer.

Knuth, Donald E. (1938–): American software scientist and mathematician.

Koç, Ibrahim: Turkish geneticist, interested in the origin of life.

Koch, Christof (1956–): American neurobiologist, known for his ridiculous work on the neural bases of consciousness.

Koelsch, Stefan: German psychologist.

Koenig, Walter D.: American ethologist.

Koester, Jolene: American communication scholar.

Koffka, Kurt (1886–1941): German Gestalt psychologist.

Koga, Mineichi (1885–1944): Japanese naval commander.

Kohlberg, Lawrence (1927–1987): American psychologist, interested in moral development.

Kohler, Tim A.: American evolutionary anthropologist and archeologist.

Köhler, Wolfgang (1887 – 1967): Estonian Gestalt psychologist.

Kohn, Marek: English science scholar on evolution, biology, and society.

Kokko, Hanna: Australian mathematical ecologist.

Kolata, Gina Bari: American science journalist.

Kolesnikov, Alexander I.: Russian nuclear physicist.

Kollmeier, Juna A.: American astronomer.

Köllner, Martin G.: German psychologist.

Kolodrubetz, Michael: American physicist.

Kolsek, Mitja: Slovenian software security specialist.

Komargodski, Zohar: Israeli physicist.

Komdeur, Jan: Dutch ornithologist.

Kondratiev, Nikolai (1892–1938): Russian economist who in 1922 identified long-term economic cycles in capitalism of 50–60 years, termed Kondratiev waves. Compare Kitchin cycles, Juglar cycles.

Koonin, Eugene (1956–): Russian American biologist who works in evolutionary and computational biology.

Koontz, Dean (1945–): American author.

Kopps, Anna M.: Swiss evolutionary geneticist.

Kornblum, William: American sociologist, interested in urban sociology and human ecology.

Kornell, Nate: American psychologist, interested in learning.

Körner, Christian: Swiss botanist.

Koroidov, Sergey: Swedish biochemist.

Koroma, Alimamy Petito: Sierra Leonean diplomat.

Kost, Christian: German microbiologist.

Koga, Mineichi (1885–1944): Japanese naval commander.

Kovac, John M.: American cosmologist interested in the cosmic microwave background.

Kovalevsky, Alexander O. (1840–1901): Russian biologist who discovered primary cilium.

Kowalewski, Michal: invertebrate paleontologist.

Kozinski, Alex (1950–): American jurist.

Kozo-Polyansky, Boris M. (1890–1957): Russian botanist and evolutionary biologist who posited symbiogenesis in a Darwinian context.

Kraft, Thomas S.: American ethnologist.

Kramer, Adam D.I.: American data scientist and statistician.

Kramp-Karrenbauer, Annegret (1962–): German politician (Christian Democratic Union).

Kraska, Peter B.: American criminologist.

Krasnow, Max M.: American evolutionary psychologist.

Kraus, Michael W.: American sociologist.

Krauss, Stefan: German mathematician.

Kray, Laura J.: American psychologist.

Krech, David (1909–1977): American psychologist.

Kret, Mariska E.: Dutch cognitive psychologist.

Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan: Indian organic chemist, interested in the origin of life.

Kristiansen, Kristian (1948–): Danish archaeologist, interested in Bronze Age Europe.

Kristoufek, Ladislav: Czech economist.

Krkošek, Martin: Canadian ecologist.

Kroc, Raymond A. (Ray) (1902–1984): American businessman who turned MacDonald’s into a worldwide company.

Krog, Jens: Danish physicist.

Kroger, Bernard (1860–1938): American grocer who founded Kroger.

Kröger, Roland: physicist and physical chemist.

Kronauer, Daniel: American evolutionary biologist.

Kronecker, Leopold (1823–1891): German mathematician.

Kroodsma, David A.: American ecologist, interested in climate change.

Krueger, Joachim I.: American social psychologist.

Krupp, Fred: American environmentalist and lawyer.

Kruse, Kai: English molecular biologist.

Kruspe, Nicole: Swedish linguist.

Krutch, Joseph Wood (1893–1970): American naturalist.

Krützen, Michael: zoologist studying the social evolution of primates and cetaceans.

Krystal, John H.: American psychiatrist, interested in alcoholism, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Kubarych, Kevin: Canadian chemist.

Kubas, Daniel (1974–): German astronomer.

Kubic, Micah W.: American civil rights activist.

Kuhlmann, Meinard: German philosopher and physicist.

Kuhn, Jeff: American astronomer.

Kuhn, Thomas S. (1922–1996): American physicist, historian, and philosopher of science.

Kühne, Wilhelm (1837–1900): German physiologist, known for coining the term enzyme.

Kulahchi, Ipek G.: American zoologist, interested in animal cognition, social behavior, communication, and personality.

Künzler, Markus: Swiss microbiologist.

Kuriyama, Takeo: Japanese zoologist.

Kuroda, Kumi O.: Japanese social behaviorist.

Kurths, Jürgen (1953–): German physicist and mathematician.

Kuryla, Juan M.: American bureaucrat in charge of Port Miami.

Kushmaro, Ariel: Israeli microbiologist.

Kustin, Mary Ellen: American biologist and ecologist.

Kutsukake, Mayako: Japanese biologist.

Kuwada, Nathan: American microbiologist and physicist.

Kuzawa, Christopher W.: American anthropologist and evolutionary zoologist.

Kuznets, Simon (1901–1985): Belarusian-American economist, interested in economics, economic growth, and inequality.

Kvavilashvili, Lia: Georgian psychologist.

Kwon, Diana: Korean-born Canadian cognitive scientist and science writer, interested in psychology.

La Follette Jr., Robert M. (1895–1953): American politician (Republican); US Senator from Wisconsin (1925–1947).

L’Engle, Madeleine (1918–2007): American writer, best known for young-adult fiction, particularly A Wrinkle in Time (1963).

Labrie, Simon J.: Canadian microbiologist.

Laeng, Bruno: Norwegian cognitive psychologist.

Lafayette, Marquis de (Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier de Lafayette) (1757–1834): liberal French aristocrat and military officer.

Lagrange, Joseph-Louis (1736–1813): Italian French mathematician and astronomer.

Lähde, Ville: Finnish environmentalist.

Lahr, Marta Mirazón (1965–): Argentinian paleoanthropologist.

Laidre, Mark E.: American biologist, interested in behavior, ecology, and evolution.

Laing, R.D. (1927–1989): Scottish psychiatrist.

Lajevardi, Nazita: American political scientist and lawyer.

Lake, Anthony (1939–): English diplomat.

Lake, James A. (1941–): American evolutionary biologist.

Lakoff, George (1941–): American linguist and philosopher, interested in how metaphors affect worldview.

Lakoff, Robin T. (1942–): American linguist.

Lakshmi, K.V.: Indian molecular biologist.

Laland, Kevin: English evolutionary biologist.

Laliberté, Etienne: Canadian plant ecologist.

Lama, Dalai (1935–): Tibetan Buddhist leader.

Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste (1744–1829): insightful French naturalist who developed an evolutionary theory with 2 axioms: 1) evolutionary adaptation is based upon biological need, and its corollary, depreciation by disuse; and 2) variations are heritable, a concept which anticipated epigenetics.

Lamb, Joleah B.: American marine biologist, interested in coral reef health.

Lamb, Marion J. (1939–): English evolutionary biologist.

Lamb, Willis (1913–2008): American physicist who contributed to understanding the magnetic moment of the electron.

Lambert, Alan J.: American psychologist.

Lampson, Michael A.: American cytologist.

Landau, Lev (1908–1968): Azerbaijanian quantum physicist who made important contributions to many areas of theoretical physics.

Landes, David S. (1924–2013): American historian and economist.

Landy, Arthur: American molecular biologist, cytologist, and biochemist.

Landman, Janet: American psychologist.

Landsberger, Henry A. (1927–2017): German-born American sociologist, interested in social problems.

Landsburg, Steven E. (1954–): American economist.

Landweber, Laura: American evolutionary biologist.

Lane, Nick: English biochemist, interested in evolutionary biology and the origin of life.

Lanfear, Robert: English evolutionary biologist, interested in developmental biology, molecular evolution, and phylogenetics.

Langacker, Paul G. (1946–): American particle physicist, interested in unified field theories.

Lange, Halvard M.: Norwegian diplomat and politician.

Langer, Ellen J.: American psychologist, interested in illusion of control, decision-making, aging, and mindfulness.

Langer, Fabian: German physicist.

Langin, Kathryn M.: American evolutionary biologist.

Lanier, Lewis L.: American immunologist.

Lankester, Ray (1847–1929): English zoologist who posited reverse evolution.

Lanou, Dr. Amy Joy: American nutritionist.

Lany, Jill: American psychologist.

Lao Tzu (aka Laozi, Lao-Tsu, Lao-Tze) (6th or 5th century BCE): Legendary Chinese scholar and philosopher; inadvertent founder of Daoism, which teaches reverence of Nature, the value of patience, and a path to judicious existence. His name is an honorary title. It is not known when, or even whether, Lao Tzu lived. Consensus opinion among 20th century scholars is that Lao Tzu’s most famous work – Tao Te Ching (Daodejing) – was a compilation by many authors. Ursula Le Guin noted that the work has a stylistic consistency which suggests a single primary author, with a few subsequent additions.

Lapiedra, Oriol: Spanish evolutionary biologist.

Laplace, Pierre-Simon (1749–1827): French mathematician and astronomer who made important contributions to mathematical astronomy, physics, and statistics.

LaPoint, Scott: American zoologist.

Lapointe, Ugo: Canadian ecologist.

Larson, Gregor: English evolutionary biologist.

Lashley. Karl S. (1890–1958): American psychologist and behaviorist.

Lassell, William (1799–1880): English beer brewer and astronomer who discovered Triton, Neptune’s largest moon, in 1846, and 2 moons of Uranus in 1851. Lassell started the tradition of naming all Uranus’ moons after characters in the works of William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope. In his honor, craters on the Moon and Mars have been named after Lassell, and a ring of Neptune as well.

Lässig, Michael: German statistical physicist, interested in biophysics and molecular evolution.

Latané, Bib (1937–): American social psychologist.

Latreille, Pierre André (1762–1833): French zoologist, specializing in arthropods. Latreille was considered the foremost entomologist of his day.

Lau, Jennifer A.: American botanist.

Laudet, Vincent: French biologist, interested in biochemistry, molecular biology, and development.

Laurance, William F. (Bill): American Australian ecologist and conservation biologist.

Laurent, Yves Saint (1936–2008): French fashion designer.

Laustsen, Lasse: Danish political scientist.

Laval, Gustaf de (1845–1913): Swedish engineer who contributed to the development of steam turbines and dairy machinery.

Lavater, Johann Kaspar (1741–1801): Swiss poet who popularized physiognomy.

Lavers, Jennifer L.: Australian marine ecologist.

Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent (1743–1794): French nobleman and first-rate scientist. Lavoisier is considered the father of modern chemistry, in part by demonstrating the value of methodology in experimentation. He put together the first extensive list of elements; named oxygen and hydrogen; established that sulfur was an element, not a compound as previously supposed; introduced the concept of chemical species. Lavoisier contributed to biology by explaining oxygen’s role in plant and animal respiration, and the nature of metabolism. Lavoisier helped develop the metric system.

Law, (Andrew) Bonar (1858–1923): Scottish politician (Conservative); Prime Minister just 211 days (November 1922–May 1923); the only prime minister to have been born outside the British Isles.

Law, John (1671–1729): Scottish economist and gambler.

Law, Joy: English physician.

Lawes, John (1814–1900): English farmer.

Lawless, Robert M.: American law professor, interested in bankruptcy, consumer finance, and business law.

Lawrence, David (1888–1973): American newspaperman.

Lázaro, Javier: zoologist, interested in ornithology (birds).

Le Guin, Ursula K. (1929–): American author, best known for her fantasy and science fiction novels.

Le Roux, Johannes J.: South African evolutionary biologist, botanist, and geneticist.

Le Roy, Pierre (1717–1785): French clockmaker.

Leach, John: English psychologist, interested in the will to live.

Leakey, Lewis (1903–1972): English paleoanthropologist.

Leakey, Richard (1944–): English paleoanthropologist; son of Lewis Leakey.

Leal, Manuel: American zoologist.

Leander, Brian: Canadian marine cytologist.

Leavens, David A.: English psychologist.

Leavitt, Keith: American management academic.

Leblanc, Nicholas (1742 –1806): French chemist and surgeon who discovered how to make soda ash.

Lebow, Richard Ned: American psychologist.

Lederberg, Joshua (1925–2008): American molecular biologist who discovered horizontal gene transfer among bacteria.

Lederman, Leon M. (1922–): American experimental physicist.

Ledgerwood, Alison: American social psychologist, interested in groups.

Lee, Ann (1736–1784) (aka Mother Ann Lee): the leader of a group of Shakers which emigrated from England to New York in 1774.

Lee, Daniel H.: American psychologist.

Lee, Dung-Hai: Taiwanese American physicist, interested in strongly correlated many-particle systems.

Lee, Jeannie T.: Chinese American geneticist and molecular biologist.

Lee, Michael S.Y.: Australian evolutionary zoologist, interested in reptiles.

Lee, Robert E. (1807–1870): American Confederate general during the Civil War.

Lee, William (1563–1614): English clergyman who invented the stocking frame knitting machine in 1589.

Lees, Alexander C. (1979–): English ecologist, interested in ornithology.

Leetaru, Kalev H.: American internet entrepreneur and academic.

Leeuwenhoek, Antonie Philips van (1632–1723): Dutch tradesman and microscope maker; discoverer of microbes.

Lehnmann, Ruth: American cytologist and molecular biologist, interested in germ cells and embryogenesis.

Lei Dai: Chinese American biological physicist.

Leiber, Fritz Jr. (1910–1992): American writer of fantasy, science fiction, and horror.

Leibniz, Gottfried (1646–1716): German mathematician who discovered calculus and philosopher and who believed in reincarnation.

Leibowitz, Kenneth: American communication scholar.

Leland, Henry M. (1843–1932): American machinist, engineer, inventor, and automotive entrepreneur who founded 2 American luxury automotive marques: Cadillac and Lincoln.

Lemaître, Georges (1894–1966): Belgian Roman Catholic priest and astrophysicist who conceived the Big Bang origin of the universe and discovered Hubble’s law.

Lemeshko, Mikhail: Russian physicist, studying atomic and molecular interactions and ultracold quantum gases.

Lenhossek, Mihály (1863–1937): Hungarian anatomist who coined the term astrocyte.

Lenin, Vladimir (Vladimir Ulyanov) (1870–1924): Russian political theorist, communist revolutionary, and ruler of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union (1917–1924).

Lennon, John (1940–1980): English musician who co-founded the popular music group The Beatles (1960–1970).

Lennox, Annie (1954–): Scottish singer-songwriter.

Lenoir, Brandon W.: American political scientist.

Lenoir, Étienne (1822–1900): Belgian engineer who in 1858 built the first internal combustion engine to become commercially successful.

Lenski, Richard E. (1956–): American evolutionary biologist.

Lentink, David: Dutch American mechanical engineer, interested in biomechanics.

Lenton, Timothy M. (1973–): English Earth scientist, interested in climate change.

Lenzen, Manfred: Australian environmentalist, interested in renewable energy.

Leonardo, Anthony: American zoologist.

Leong, Victoria: Singaporean psychologist.

Leucippus (early 5th century BCE): Greek rationalist philosopher who developed a theory of atomism.

Lenton, Timothy M. (1973–): English Earth scientist, interested in climate change.

Leonard, Anne F.C.: English environmental epidemiologist and microbiologist.

Leonard, Mark (1974–): English political scientist.

LeRoux, Kelly: American public administration academic.

Leslie, Ian (1972–): English writer.

Levene, Phoebus Aaron Theodore (1869–1940): Russian American biochemist who first identified the components of DNA and RNA and coined the term nucleotide.

Levey, Douglas J.: American evolutionary ecologist.

Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1908–2009): French anthropologist and ethologist.

Levin, Petra A.: American microbiologist.

Levin, Carl (1934–): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Michigan (1979–2015).

Levin, Simon A.: American evolutionary biologist.

Levine, Timothy R.: American communications scholar.

Levitan, Don R.: American marine biologist.

Levy, Benjamin J.: American psychologist.

Levy, Emmanuel D.: French structural biologist.

Lévy, Paul (1886–1971): French mathematician, interested in probability theory.

Lewandowsky, Stephan (1958–): Australian psychologist interested in the public’s understanding of science, and why people belief in falsity.

Lewejohann, Lars: German behavioral zoologist.

Lewin, Kurt (1890–1947): German American psychologist who answered the hoary question of “Nature versus nurture” by suggesting that both interact to shape each person.

Lewin, Roger: English anthropologist.

Lewis, David M.G.: American psychologist.

Lewis, Gilbert N. (1875–1946): American physical chemist, known for his discovery of the covalent bond, and his concept of electron pairs. His valence bond theory shaped current theories of chemical bonding. Lewis also contributed to thermodynamics, photochemistry, isotope separation, and an electronic theory of acid-base reaction.

Lewis, Sinclair (aka Harry Sinclair Lewis) (1885–1951): American novelist, writer, and playwright.

Li Ganjie: Chinese environmental bureaucrat.

Li Laiyin: Chinese farmer.

Li, Rong: American molecular biologist.

Liang Lingzan: Chinese scholar, military engineer, and government official.

Libby, Eric: American evolutionary biologist, interested in the evolution of multicellularity.

Liberman, Nira: Israeli psychologist, interested in cognition and motivation.

Libeskind, Daniel (1946–): Polish-American architect and artist.

Libeskind, Noam I.: German cosmologist.

Libet, Benjamin: American physiologist.

Licausi, Francesco: Italian botanist, interested in plant physiology.

Lieberman, Daniel (1964–): American paleoanthropologist.

Liebig, Justus von (1803–1873): German chemist, considered the founder of organic chemistry. Liebig was especially interested in agricultural and biological chemistry and has been credited as the “father of the fertilizer industry.”

Lifshitz, Evgeny: Russian physicist, interested in relativity and quantum electrodynamics.

Liker, András: Hungarian ornithologist.

Lim, Wendell A.: cytologist.

Lin Bian: Chinese American developmental psychologist.

Lincoln, Abraham (1809–1865): American politician (Republican); 16th US President (1860–1865). Lincoln’s election as president prompted the secession movement in the Old South that led to the Civil War. Just after the war ended, on 14 April 1865, Lincoln was shot in the head at point-black range by John Wilkes Boothe, a well-known actor from the south who had been a Confederate spy during the war. Lincoln was attending the theater for a play. Lincoln’s bodyguard left him during intermission to go drink at the saloon next door, whereupon Boothe did his dirty deed. Lincoln has consistently been considered one of the 3 greatest US presidents, by scholars and the public alike.

Lincoln, Mary A.T. (1809–1865): socialite; wife of Abraham Lincoln.

Linde-Domingo, Juan: Spanish psychologist, interested in memory.

Linden, Eugene (1947–): American writer.

Lindner, Isabel: German psychologist.

Ling Li: Chinese materials scientist.

Linnaeus, Carl (1707–1778): Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who is widely considered the father of taxonomy, despite numerous wrong guesses, including lumping amphibians and reptiles together as a single class.

Lippmann, Walter (1889–1974): American journalist and political commentator.

Liqun Luo: Chinese developmental neurobiologist.

Lis, Halina: Israeli biochemist.

Lisi, Antony Garrett (1968–): American theoretical physicist and adventure sports enthusiast.

Liske, Jochen: German astronomer.

Lister, Adrian M.: English paleontologist.

Liszt, Franz (1811–1886): Hungarian composer, conductor, and considered by some the greatest pianist of all time.

Little, Kim: American, history professor.

Littlefield, Andrew: American psychologist.

Littler, Jo: English sociologist.

Littman, Dan R.: American pathologist.

Litvinyuk, Igor V.: Russian physicist, interested in physical chemistry.

Liu Bang (256–195 BCE): Chinese warlord who founded the Han dynasty, reigning as 1st emperor (Emperor Gaozu of Han) (202–195 BCE).

Livio, Mario (1945–): Israeli astrophysicist and author.

Livshultz, Tatyana: American botanist, interested in the chemical defenses of Apocynaceae (milkweeds and dogbane).

Lloyd, Karen G.: American microbiologist.

Lo, Andrew (1960–): American finance professor.

Lobachevsky, Nikolai I. (1802–1860): Russian mathematician, early developer of non-Euclidean geometry, known primarily for his work in hyperbolic geometry.

Locke, John (1632–1704): English philosopher and physician.

Loeb, Avi: Israeli American astrophysicist.

Loevinger, Lee (1913–2004): American jurist.

Lollar, Barbara Sherwood: Canadian biochemist, interested in deep crustal fluids and life therein.

Lombroso, Cesare (1835–1909): Italian criminologist and physician who believed in physiognomy.

London, Fritz (1900–1954): German American physicist who made fundamental contributions in understanding chemical bonding and intermolecular forces (London dispersion forces).

Long, Hannah K.: English geneticist, interested in epigenetics.

Long, Russell B. (1918–2003): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Louisiana (1948–1987).

Long, Timothy W.: American financial analyst and bank examiner.

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth (1807–1882): American poet, fond of mythological lyric poems.

Looman Mary D.: American criminologist.

Lopez, Régis: French psychiatrist.

López-Uribe, Margarita M.: Columbian entomologist, interested in bees.

Lord, Kathryn: American zoologist, interested in dogs.

Lorenz, Edward (1917–2008): American meteorologist who coined the term butterfly effect.

Lorentz, Hendrik (1853–1928): Dutch physicist who derived the transformation equations which Einstein’s special relativity theory was based upon.

Lorenz, Konrad (1903–1989): Austrian zoologist and ethologist.

Lorenz, Ralph D.: American astrophysicist, interested in planets and moons.

Lorenzini, Stefano (1652–?): Italian physician and marine researcher.

Losick, Richard: American molecular and cytologist.

Louca, Stilianos: microbiologist, interested in microbe sociality.

Louis IV (aka the Bavarian) (1282–1347): German-born royalty; Holy Roman Emperor (1328–1347).

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné, aka Louis the Great, Sun King) (1638–1715): King of France (1643–1715). An inveterate warmonger, Louis was an adherent of the divine right of kings.

Louis XVI (born Louis-Auguste) (1754–1793): King of France (1774–1791) until being overthrown by the French Revolution.

Lovell, P. George: English zoologist.

Lovelock, James (1919–): English naturalist and inventor, known for his Gaia theory.

Løvtrup, Søren (1922–2002): Danish embryologist.

Lowe, Christopher D.: English ecologist.

Lowell, Percival (1855–1916): American astronomer who fueled speculation about life on Mars. Percival wrote extensively of the “non-natural features” on the planet’s surface. From peering through his telescope at Mars for 15 years, Percival convinced himself that the planet sustained an advanced alien civilization.

Loewenstein, George (1955–): American educator and economist, interested in behavioral economics.

Loftus, Elizabeth F.: American psychologist.

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth (1807–1882): American poet and educator.

Longworth, Alice Roosevelt (1884–1980): American writer and socialite.

Lord, Charles G.: American psychologist.

Lorenz, Konrad (1903–1989): Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist who studied instinctive behavior in animals, especially birds.

Lovecraft, H.P. (1890–1937): American author.

Lowry, Thomas Martin (1874–1936): English physical chemist who developed a protonic theory of acid-base reactions in 1923 (as did Johannes Brønsted).

Lozano, Diego Villar: Spanish molecular biologist, interested in gene regulation.

Lubbers, Ingird M.: Dutch soil scientist.

Lubbock, John (1934–1913): English banker, Liberal politician, and archeologist; one of the first to bifurcate the Stone Age, delineating the Neolithic.

“We may sit in our library and yet be in all quarters of the Earth.” ~ John Lubbock

Lucas, George (1944–): American filmmaker.

Lucas, Robert E. Jr. (1937–): American economist.

Luckmann, Thomas (1927–2016): Austrian American sociologist.

Lucretius (99–55 BCE): Roman philosopher and poet who noted Brownian motion 2 millennium before Robert Brown got his named pinned to jiggling bits (Brownian motion).

Ludwig, Carl F.W. (1816–1895): German physiologist and surgeon.

Luft, Joseph (1916–2014): American psychologist who co-developed the Johari window with Harrington Ingram.

Luisi, Pier Luigi (1938–): Italian chemistry professor.

Lukas, Dieter: English ethologist.

Łukasiewicz, Ignacy (1822–1882): Polish pharmacist and petroleum industry pioneer who invented the modern kerosene lamp and street lamp (both 1853) and built the first modern oil well (1854) and oil refinery (1856).

Luke the Evangelist (1st century): Greek physician and Christian evangelist, traditionally ascribed as one of the authors of the canonical New Testament gospels. The compositional quality of the gospel of Luke indicates the author as erudite.

Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.: Russian zoologist.

Lundberg, George D.: American pathologist.

Lunt, Paul S.: American sociologist.

Lupyan, Gary: American psychologist, interested in linguistics.

Luria, Alexander R. (1902–1977): Russian psychologist

Lustig, Myron W.: American communication scholar.

Luther, Martin (1483–1546): German friar and Catholic priest who founded Protestantism after being excommunicated from the Catholic Church.

Lyell, Charles (1779–1875): Scottish lawyer and geologist. Lyell coined the term Neolithic, and popularized James Hutton’s notions of uniformitarianism. Based upon geological anomalies, Lyell was one of the first to believe the Earth older than 300 million years. Lyell was a close friend of Darwin and significantly influenced Darwin’s views on evolution.

Lynch, Heather J.: American ecologist, evolutionary biologist, and physicist.

Lynch, Loretta E. (1959–): American attorney; US Attorney General (1999–2001; 2010–2017).

Lyons, S. Kathleen: American paleobiologist.

Lytle, Sarah Roseberry: American psychologist, interested in early childhood learning.

Ma Jun: Chinese environmental scientist.

Maa, Anandamayi (born Nirmala Sundari) (1896–1982): Indian saint.

MacArthur, Douglas (1880–1964): American military leader.

MacDonald, Angus III: American psychologist.

MacDonald, Pat (1952–): American musician.

MacDonald, Richard (1909–1998) & Maurice (1902–1971): American restaurateurs who started MacDonald’s.

MacDougall, A.S.: Canadian biologist.

MacGregor, Gregor (1786–1845): Scottish soldier who fought in the South American struggle for independence. MacGregor went on to pirate Spanish ships before stepping up to massive fraud by claiming title as Prince of the Principality of Poyais, an imaginary land. MacGregor suckered British and French investors and settlers, thereby making a major contribution to the financial Panic of 1825.

MacGregor, Neil: English art historian.

Mach, Ernst (1838–1916): Austrian physicist and philosopher.

Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469–1527): Italian historian, politician, diplomat, and philosopher; one of the founders of modern political science.

“Of mankind we may say in general they are fickle, hypocritical, and greedy of gain.” ~ Niccolò Machiavelli

Macionis, John J.: American sociologist.

Mack, John J. (1944–): American investment banker; former head of Morgan Stanley (1993–2001, 2005–2010).

Mack, Michelle (1972–): American data entry clerk.

Mackay, Charles (1812–1889): Scottish journalist and author, best known for his book on social psychology and psychopathology: Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds (1841).

MacKay, Harvey (1932–): American businessman and best-selling business writer, including such succinct titles as Swim with the Sharks Without Being Eaten Alive (1988) and Beware the Naked Man Who Offers You His Shirt (1996).

Mackessy, Stephen: American zoologist, interested in snakes.

Macknik, Stephen L.: American neurobiologist.

MacLean, Paul D. (1913–2007): American physician and neurobiologist who invented the limbic system and the triune brain hypothesis.

Macleod, Iain (1913–1970): English politician (Conservative).

Macleod, Norman (1953–): American paleontologist.

Madders, Tom: English mental health social worker.

Madison, James Jr. (1751–1836): American political theorist; 4th US President (1809–1817).

Madison, Dorothea (Dolley) (1768–1849): wife of James Madison. Dolley was noted for her social graces, which boosted her husband’s popularity as President. Dolley had earlier assisted in “first lady” duties the widowed Thomas Jefferson during his presidency. In widowhood, Dolley suffered poverty, partly relieved by the sale of James’ papers.

Maduro, Nicolás M. (1962–): Venezuelan politician; President (2013–).

Maestas, Nicole: American sociologist and economist.

Maffetone, Philip B.: American health enthusiast.

Magallón, Susana: Mexican botanist.

Mahadeeswara, Mandiyam Y.: Indian-born Australian biologist, interested in cognition.

Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan: Indian scientist and mathematician, interested in the organization and dynamics of matter in spacetime.

Mahaffey, James: American research scientist, interested in nuclear technology.

MacLean, Paul (1913–2007): American physician and neurobiologist who proposed triune brain tripe.

MacLeod, Norman (1953–): American paleontologist.

Madesh, Muniswamy: Indian biochemist.

Maeder, André: Swiss theoretical astrophysicist.

Magnol, Pierre (1638–1715): French botanist.

Mahadeeswara, Mandiyam Y.: Indian-born Australian biologist, interested in cognition.

Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan: Indian scientist and mathematician, interested in the organization and dynamics of matter in spacetime.

Maharaj, Nisargadatta (born Maruti Shivrampant Kambli) (1897–1981): lucent Indian guru.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (born Mahesh Prasad Varma) (1917–2008): Indian guru who brought Transcendental Meditation® to the world.

“Whatever we put our attention on will grow stronger in our life.” ~ Maharishi Mahesh Yogi

Maharshi, Ramana (1879–1950) (born Venkataraman Iyer): Indian guru.

Mahasaya, Lahiri (1828–1895): Indian yogi.

Mahavira: 9th-century Hindu mathematician.

Mahler, Gustav (1860–1911): Austrian composer of 9 complete symphonies (with another left unfinished upon his passing), and numerous songs. Mahler’s exquisite symphonies often exhibit a temporal fractal quality.

Mai, Robert: German marketing academic.

Maimon, Gaby: American neurobiologist.

Majorana, Ettore (1906–?): gifted Italian physicist who first predicted the neutron and Majorana fermions. Majorana’s life ended mysteriously. On 27 March 1938, he took a boat trip from Palermo to Naples. Majorana disappeared. His body was never found. Majorana had emptied his bank account prior to the trip. 2 days before he left, Majorana wrote a note to the Director of the Naples Physics Institute, apologizing for the inconvenience that his disappearance would cause.

Majava, Antti: Finnish environmentalist.

Majid, Asifa: Dutch psycholinguist.

Major, John (1943–): English politician (Conservative); Prime Minister (1990–1997).

Malkiel, Burton G. (1932–): American economist.

Makin, Simon J.: English auditory perception researcher, psychologist, and science journalist.

Malamuth, Neil M.: American psychologist.

Malebranche, Nicolas (1638–1715): French philosopher who sought to synthesize the philosophies of Augustine of Hippo and Descartes.

Malinowski, Bronisław (1884–1942): Polish anthropologist.

Malkiel, Burton G. (1932–): American economist.

Malle, Bertram F.: Austrian American psychologist, philosopher, and linguist, interested in social cognition.

Malloch, Douglas (1877–1938): American poet and writer.

Mallock, William H. (1849–1923): English novelist and economics writer.

Malraux, André (1901–1976): French novelist, art theorist, and nihilist.

“The greatest mystery is not that we have been flung at random between this profusion of matter and the stars, but that within this prison we can draw from ourselves images powerful enough to deny our nothingness.” ~ André Malraux

Maldacena, Juan (1968–): Argentinian theoretical physicist who works on the holographic principle.

Malebranche, Nicolas (1638–1715): French philosopher who sought to synthesize the philosophies of Augustine of Hippo and Descartes.

Mallamace, Francesco: Italian physicist fascinated by water.

Mallory-Smith, Carol: American botanist, interested in weeds.

Malraux, André (1901–1976): French novelist.

Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766–1834): English parson who fretted that human population growth would eventually be checked by famine, disease and “vice.” Malthus opposed the optimistic perspective popular in Europe during the mid-18th century that society was perfectible. He instead viewed “the lower classes” such avid breeders that they could not overcome their destitution. Malthus’ own optimistic solution was “moral restraint” by the masses.

Maltz, Maxwell (1889–1975): American cosmetic surgeon.

Malyutin, Sergey Vasilyevich (1859–1937): Russian painter, architect, and stage designer, who designed the first Russian Matryoshka doll.

Mandela, Nelson (1918–2013): South African politician.

Mandelbrot, Benoît B. (1924–2010): Polish-born French American mathematician, known for his work in fractal geometry.

Mander, Bryce: American neurobiologist interested in sleep.

Mandeville, Bernard (1670–1733): Dutch political economist and philosopher; known for the 1705 poem The Fable of the Bees, which analogously (via a bee colony) argued that the materialist greed of the rich was a public benefit. Mandeville’s praise of economic stratification was adored by Friedrich Hayek. More productively, Adam Smith appropriated Mandeville’s observation about the economic value of labor specialization.

Mangel, Marc: American zoologist.

Mani, Anandi: Indian behavioral economist.

Manis, Jean D.: American psychologist.

Mank, Judith: English evolutionary geneticist.

Mankowski, Guy (1983–): English writer.

Mann, Adam: American science writer, interested in cosmology.

Mann, Leon: Australian psychologist.

Mann, Thomas (1875–1955): German writer and social critic.

Manning, Aubrey (1930–): English zoologist and broadcaster.

Manning, Gerard: American geneticist who studies pseudoenzymes.

Manning, John: English experimental psychologist.

Mansuy, Isabelle M.: Swiss behavioral zoologist.

Mantell, Gideon (1790–1852): English obstetrician, geologist, and paleontologist.

Manzarek, Ray (1939–2013): American musician, best known as keyboardist of the musical group The Doors.

Mao Zedong (aka Mao Tse-tung) (1893–1976): Chinese revolutionary and dictator (1949–1976).

Maraboli, Steve (1975–): American author and public speaker.

Marais, Eugène (1871–1936): South African lawyer, naturalist, and writer who investigated extra-dimensional termite communication in the 1920s.

Marbury, William (1762–1835): American businessman and one of the “Midnight Judges” appointed by outgoing President John Adams; the plaintiff in Marbury v. Madison.

Marcum, Anthony: American attorney and political scientist.

Marcy, William Learned (1786–1857): American politician.

Margulis, Lynn (1938–2011): American evolutionary theorist, science writer, and educator who emphasized the importance of symbiosis in biological evolution.

Marino, Lori: American behavioral zoologist, neuroscientist, and psychologist.

Marsden, Katrina: British ecologist.

Maritan, Amos: Italian physicist.

Mark the Evangelist (1st century): Christian evangelist, traditionally ascribed as one of the authors of the canonical New Testament gospels.

Markham, Edwin (1852–1940): American poet.

Markman, Keith D.: American psychologist, interested in counterfactual thinking, regret, and mental simulation.

Markov, Andrey (1856–1922): Russian mathematician who studied stochastic process and developed the Markov chain.

Marlowe, Christopher (1564–1593): English playwright, poet, and translator who greatly influenced Shakespeare, who was born in the same year.

Marno, Hanna: Hungarian psychologist.

Marsh, George Perkins (1801–1882): American diplomat, philologist, and conservationist.

Marsh, Henry (1950–): English neurosurgeon.

Marsh, Peter (1946–2014): English social psychologist.

Marshall, Alfred (1842–1924): English economist.

Marshall, Charles R.: American paleobiologist.

Marshall, George (1880–1959): American soldier and diplomat. Army chief of staff (1939–1945); US envoy to China (1945–1947); US Secretary of State (1947–1949); US Secretary of Defense (1950–1951).

Marshall, Gideon: English paleontologist.

Marshall, John (1755–1835): American jurist; 4th SCOTUS Chief Justice (1801–1835).

Marshall, Thurgood (1908–1993): jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1967–1991).

Marsilio of Padua (aka Marsiglio de Padova, Marsilius of Padua, born Marsilio Mainardini) (1275–1342): Italian scholar who promoted unlimited monarchial power.

Martel, Charles (688–741): Frankish military leader and ruler of Francia (718–741).

Marti, Mollie Weighner: American psychologist.

Martial, Charlotte: Belgian neuropsychologist, interested in near-death experiences and altered states of consciousness.

Martin, Christopher H.: American evolutionary biologist.

Martin, Henry: Swiss chemist who discovered glyphosate.

Martin, Patrick: American biochemist.

Martin, Paul: American biologist.

Martin, Rod A.: Canadian psychologist.

Martin, Steve (1945–): American comedian and banjo player, known for being “a wild and crazy guy.”

Martín-Duque, José F.: Spanish geologist.

Martincorena, Iñigo: Spanish evolutionary biologist.

Martineau, Harriet (1802–1876): English sociologist, commonly credited as the first woman in the occupation.

Martinez, Todd J. (1968–): American chemist.

Martinez-Conde, Susana: American neurobiologist.

Martínez-González, José A.: Mexican biochemist.

Martins, Zita: English geologist, interested in abiogenesis.

Marugán-Lobón, Jesús: Spanish paleobiologist.

Marulić, Marko (1450–1524): Croatian humanist and poet who coined the term psychology in 1506.

Marx, Groucho (born Julian Henry Marx) (1890–1977): American comedian.

Marx, Karl (1818–1883): Prussian German historian, sociologist, and economist, known as a proponent of scientific socialism: social ownership and cooperative economic management.

Marz, Robert E.: American physician.

Marzluff, John: American ornithologist and ethologist.

Mashour, George A.: American neurobiologist and anesthesiologist, interested in consciousness.

Maslin, Mark: English climatologist.

Maslow, Abraham (1908–1970): American psychologist, best known for his proposed human hierarchy of needs.

Mason, George (1725–1792): American delegate to the Constitutional Convention who suggested that the constitution should have a bill of rights and refused to sign the document when it did not.

Mason, Lilliana: American political scientist.

Mason, Malia: American psychologist.

Mason, Marilyn J.: American psychologist.

Massen, Jorg J.M.: Dutch zoologist.

Mathern, Gary: American neurosurgeon.

Mathur, Harsh: Indian theoretical physicist, studying condensed matter theory, particularly superconductivity, with interest in theoretical particle astrophysics and cosmology.

Maturana, Humberto: Chilean biologist.

Mather, Cotton (1663–1728): New England Puritan minister and prolific author (over 450 books and pamphlets), best known for his involvement in the Salem witch trials.

Mather, Jennifer: Canadian zoologist and psychologist, interested in the behavior of octopuses and squid.

Matten, Glen: English nutritionist.

Matthew the Apostle (aka Levi) (1st century): apostle of Jesus and Christian evangelist, traditionally ascribed as one of the authors of the canonical New Testament gospels.

Mattick, John S.: Australian molecular biologist.

Mattila, Tuomas: Finnish economist.

Mattson, Mark P.: American neurobiologist.

Maturana, Humberto: Chilean biologist.

Mauchly, John W. (1907–1980): American physicist who was instrumental in designing and building the first general-purpose electronic digital computer (ENIAC).

Mauer, Marc: American criminal justice advocate.

Maupertuis, Pierre Louis (1698–1759): French mathematician and philosopher who worked in classical mechanics, heredity, and natural ecology. Maupertuis made the first known suggestion that all life had a common ancestor.

Maurya, Chandragupta (340–298 BCE): founder of the Mauryan Empire.

Maus, Gerrit: American psychologist.

Maxwell, James Clerk (1831–1879): Scottish physicist, most famous for formulating classical electromagnetic theory in 1865. Maxwell is widely considered the 19th-century physicist most influential on 20th-century physics. In 1861, Maxwell invented the first durable color photograph.

Maxwell, John C. (1947–): American author and pastor, interested in management.

May, Theresa (1956–): English politician (Conservative); UK Prime Minister (2016–2019).

Mayer, August Franz (1787–1865): German physiologist.

Mayer, Julius Robert von (1814–1878): German physician, chemist and physicist who was one of the founders of thermodynamics.

Mayer, Marissa (1975–): American business executive and computer scientist who failed to turn Yahoo! around, and so sold it off.

Mayer, Matt A.: American government bureaucrat.

Mayer, William E. (1923–2015): American psychologist who served in the US military.

Mayne, Susan: American epidemiologist.

Mayo, George Elton (1880–1949): Australian psychologist, industrial researcher, and organizational theorist.

Mayr, Ernst (1904–2005): influential German-born American ornithologist, evolutionary biologist, biology philosopher, and science historian.

McAlpin, Steve: Australian zoologist.

McCain, John (1936–2018): American politician (Republican); US Senator from Arizona (1987–2018).

McCann, Vivian: American psychologist.

McCarthy, John (1927–2011): American computer scientist who coined the term artificial intelligence.

McCarthy, Cormac (1933–): American writer.

McCarthy, Randy J.: American psychologist.

McCartney, Paul (1942–): English musician who co-founded the popular music group The Beatles (1960–1970).

McCauley, Douglas J.>: American marine biologist.

McClellan, George (1826–1885): American soldier, civil engineer, railroad executive and politician (Democrat). McClellan’s poor performance as a battlefield general set back the North’s effort during the 1st phase of the Civil War. McClellan unsuccessfully ran for President against Abraham Lincoln in 1864.

McCrea, Sean M.: American social psychologist.

McHugen, Alan: American plant geneticist.

McClelland, David C. (1917–1998): American psychologist, interested in motivation.

McClintock, Barbara (1902–1992): American cytogeneticist and botanist.

McConnell, Richard: Canadian geological surveyor who discovered the Burgess Shale in 1866.

McConville, Seán: English penologist.

McCormick, Cheryl M.: Canadian psychologist.

McCoy, Dakota E: American evolutionary biologist.

McDonald, Michael (1952–): American singer, songwriter, keyboardist, and music producer.

McDonnell, Robert F. (Bob) (1954–): American politician (Republican), let off the hook for bribery by SCOTUS in 2016.

McDougall, William (1871–1938): English psychologist, interested in instinct and social psychology; an opponent of behaviorism, and so outside the mainstream of thought at the time.

McFarland, Cathy: Canadian psychologist.

McFarland, David: English zoologist.

McGaugh, James L.: American neurobiologist.

McGaugh, Stacy: American astrophysicist.

McGovern, James P. (Jim) (1959–): American politician (Democrat).

McGuire, Jimmy A.: American zoologist, interested in herpetology and the evolution of diversity.

McKinley, William (1843–1901): American politician (Republican); 25th US President (1987–1901). McKinley was shot twice in the gut by an anarchist. He rallied for a few days, but the attending doctor was unable to find and remove the 2nd bullet. Gangrene in the stomach did McKinley in.

Meade, James (1907–1995): English economist, interested in international trade.

Means, Gardiner (1896–1988): American economist.

Mehmed II (aka Muhammad al-Fatih the Conqueror) (1432–1481): Ottoman sultan who brought an end to the Eastern Roman Empire.

Mehta, Devang: Indian geneticist, interested in synthetic biology.

McInnes, Julie: Australian marine biologist.

McIsaac, R. Scott: American molecular biologist.

McKenna, Terence (1946–2000): American ethnobotanist.

McKenzie, Craig R.M.: American psychologist.

McMahon, Sean: British cosmologist.

McNally, Francis J.: American biochemist, interested in cell division.

McNamara, Paul W. (1973–): Scottish astrophysicist.

McNutt, Marcia (1952–): American geophysicist.

McPhaden, Michael J.: American physical oceanographer.

McRae, Cynthia: American psychologist, interested in the placebo effect.

McSally, Martha (1966–): American politician (Republican).

McShea, Daniel W.: American evolutionary biologist.

Mead, George H. (1863–1931): American social psychologist and philosopher.

Mead, Margaret (1901–1978): American cultural anthropologist. Mead championed broader sexual mores than those accepted in her society at the time. Mead was a lesbian and an Anglican Christian.

Medawar, Peter Brian (1915–1987): Brazilian-born British biologist, interested in immunology.

Meder, Amanda Linette: American spiritualist.

Mee, Michael T.: American microbiologist.

Meehan, Christopher J.: American biologist.

Mehta, Vinita: American psychologist.

Meiji (Emperor) (1852–1912): Japanese emperor (1867–1912).

Meiklejoh, Colin D.: American geneticist.

Meissner, Carl F.W. (1800–1874): Swiss chemist.

Meissner, Fritz Walther (1882–1974): German technical physicist who contributed to superconductivity. Working with Robert Ochsenfeld, Meissner discovered the Meissner effect in 1933.

Mekonnen, Mesfin M.: Ethiopian hydrologist.

Mekouar, Merouan: Canadian sociologist, interested in authoritarianism and democratization.

Melander, A.L.: American entomologist, interested in insecticides.

Melcher, David: American psychologist.

Méline, Jules (1838–1925): French politician; Prime Minister (1896–1898).

Melis, Alicia P.: English psychologist, sociologist, and primatologist.

Mellon, Andrew (1855–1937): American banker; US Treasury Secretary (1921–1932).

Meltzoff, Andrew N. (1950–): American developmental psychologist.

Melucci, Nancy J.: American psychologist.

Menander (341–290 BCE): Greek dramatist.

Menarndt, Aubrey: American international elections monitor.

Mencken, H.L. (1880–1956): American journalist, satirist, cultural critic, and American English scholar; an influential American writer in the 1st half of the 20th century.

Mendel, Gregor (1822–1884): Austrian monk and botanist, interested in heredity.

Mendeleyev, Dmitry (aka Dmitri Mendeleev) (1834–1907): Russian chemist who created the modern table of periodic elements.

Mendl, Michael: English zoologist.

Mencken, H.L. (1880–1956): American satirist and scholar.

Menninger, Charles (1862–1952): American physician.

Menon, Vinod: Indian American psychiatrist, interested in autism.

Menzies, Allan (1845–1916): English religion scholar.

Mereschkowski, Konstantin (1855–1921): Russian biologist and botanist who first proposed symbiogenesis.

Merkel, Angela (1954–): German politician (Christian Democratic Union) with a disciplined and patient leadership style; the longest-serving Chancellor (2005–2020) and de facto leader of the European Union.

Mersenne, Marin (1588–1648): French theologian, natural philosopher, and mathematician.

Merton, Thomas (1915–1968): Anglo American Catholic writer and mystic.

Merzenich, Michael M. (1942–): American neurobiologist.

Meshkati, Najmedin: Iranian American systems engineer.

Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike: American mathematician.

Metts, Sandra: American psychologist.

Meurer, Gerhardt R.: American astrophysicist.

Meyer, Bertrand (1950–): French software scientist.

Meyer, Georg Friedrich: English psychologist, interested in human language evolution.

Meyer, Justin R.: American biologist, interested in evolutionary biology, ecology, zoology, and system biology.

Meyer, Leonard B. (1918–2007): American composer and musicologist.

Meyer, S.N.: Swiss molecular biologist.

Mica, John L. (1943–): American businessman and politician (Republican).

Michell, John (1724–1793): English clergyman, natural philosopher, and geologist who made contributions in various sciences, including astronomy, geology, optics, and gravitation.

Michod, Richard E.: American evolutionary biologist, interested in cooperation and conflict.

Midgley, Thomas Jr. (1889–1944): American mechanical and chemical engineer.

Miesenböck, Gero: Austrian neurobiologist.

Michelson, Albert (1852–1931): American physicist who worked on measuring the speed of light; best known for the failed Michelson-Morley experiment, which sought the presumed “aether wind,” which does not exist.

Michener, Charles D. (1918–2015): American entomologist, expert about bees. Michener influenced Edward O. Wilson on his sociobiology theories.

Miescher, Friedrich (1844–1895): Swiss physician and biologist who first identified nucleic acid.

Mijs, Jonathan J.B.: Dutch economist and sociologist, interested in economic inequality.

Milanković, Milutin (1879–1958): Serbian geophysicist who suggested long-term climatic changes based upon Earth’s cosmological movements, known as Milankovitch cycles. Milanković was also a mathematician, astronomer, climatologist, civil engineer, and popularizer of science.

Miles, Rosalind (1943–): English author.

Miles, Walter R. (1885–1978): American experimental psychologist, interested in physiology.

Milgram, Stanley (1933–1984): influential American social psychologist.

Milito, Erik: American soldier, attorney, and lobbyist for the American Petroleum Institute.

Milius, Susan: American life sciences writer.

Milks, Annemieke: English archeologist.

Mill, Henry (1683–1771): English inventor who first patented a typewriter in 1714, though it was of no practical use.

Mill, John Stuart (1806–1873): English philosopher, political economist, and civil servant; proponent of individual liberty, in opposition to unlimited state control; adherent to utilitarianism, an ethical precept of right action by maximizing overall “happiness”; contributed to the scientific method via the premise of falsification.

Millar, Margaret (1915–1994): American Canadian novelist.

Millay, Edna St. Vincent (1892–1950): American poet and playwright.

Miller, Arthur (1915–2005): American playwright.

Miller, Edgar R.: American medical researcher.

Miller, George A. (1920–2012): American psychologist; one of the founders of cognitive psychology.

Miller, Henry (1891–1980): American writer.

Miller, Nathan G.: American biologist.

Miller, Phillip (1691–1771): English botanist of Scottish descent, best known for his gardening books.

Miller, Robert T.: American law professor, specializing in corporate law.

Miller, Roger (1936–1992): American musician, best known for the mid-1960s country/pop hits “King of the Road,” “Dang Me,” and “England Swings.”

Miller, Stanley L. (1930–2007): American chemist who made landmark experiments in prebiotic chemistry aimed at understanding the chemical origin of life.

Millikan, Robert Andrews (1868–1953): American experimental physicist who measured the electric charge in 1909, and in 1914 verified the photoelectric effect stated in Einstein’s 1905 equation.

Millman, Dan (1946–): American athletic coach turned self-help book author and lecturer.

Mills, Charles Wright (1916–1962): American sociologist.

Mills, Paul J.: American physician.

Milner, Robin (1934–2010): English computer scientist.

Milo, Ron: Israeli biologist and environmental scientist.

Milton, John (1608–1674): English polemicist, man of letters, civil servant, and poet.

“No man who knows aught, can be so stupid to deny that all men naturally were born free.” ~ John Milton

Min Wang: Chinese vertebrate paleontologist, interested in the evolution of vertebrate flight.

Minai, Utako: Japanese linguist.

Minkowski, Hermann (1864–1909): Lithuanian mathematician who created and developed the geometry of numbers. By 1907, Minkowski realized that Einstein’s 1905 special theory of relativity could best be understood in a 4-dimensional spacetime, where space and time are integrated. Einstein was a former student of Minkowski, of whom Minkowski thought at the time would never amount to anything.

Minsky, Hyman (1919–1996): American economist, interested in financial crises.

Minsky, Marvin (1927–2016): American cognitive scientist, interested in artificial intelligence.

Miranda, Ernesto A. (1941–1976): American manual laborer and chronic criminal.

Mirwan, Hamida B.: Canadian zoologist.

Mishra, Arul: Indian psychologist, interested in marketing and decision-making.

Mishra, Himanshu: Indian psychologist, interested in marketing and decision-making.

Misner, Charles W. (1932–): American physicist, interested in general relativity and cosmology.

Misra, Baidyanath (1937–): Indian physicist and mathematician.

Mitchel, Kieren J.: Australian evolutionary biologist, interested in macroevolutionary processes.

Mitchell, David (1969–): English novelist.

Mitchell, Joni (1943–): Canadian singer, songwriter, and musician.

Mitchell, Tom M. (1951–): American computer scientist, interested in artificial intelligence.

Mithen, Steven: English archeologist.

Miyagawa, Shigeru: Japanese linguist.

Miyagi, Lowell: Japanese American geologist.

Miyagishima, Kazuaki: Japanese physician who works in public health.

Miyata, Yo: Japanese psychologist.

Moctezuma II (aka Montezuma) (1466–1520): 9th ruler of Tenochtitlán (1502–1520). Moctezuma enlarged the Aztec Empire through warfare before losing his kingdom and life to conquistador Hernán Cortés.

Moffat, Steven (1961–): Scottish television writer and producer.

Mohammed VI (1952–): King of Morocco (1999–).

Mohorovičić Andrija (1857–1936): Croatian seismologist and meteorologist who discovered the Moho discontinuity. Mohorovičić was a founder of modern seismology.

Moineau, Sylvain: French virologist.

Molaro, Antoine: French geneticist, interested in embryogenesis and heredity.

Molina, Mario J. (1943–): Mexican chemist who co-discovered the Antarctic ozone hole with Sherwood Rowland.

Molm, Linda D.: American sociologist.

Molofsky, Anna V.: American cytologist and psychiatrist.

Molyneux, William (1656–1698): Irish philosopher with diverse interests.

Monaghan, Dominic (1976–): English actor.

Mondrian, Piet (1872–1944): Dutch abstract painter, famous for his linear but asymmetrical abstract works employing only primary colors.

Moneti, Francesca: Italian humanitarian.

Monnet, Jean (1888–1979): French political economist and diplomat who was an influential supporter of European unity; considered one of the founding fathers of the European Union.

Monod, Jacques (1910–1976): French molecular biologist, interested in the genetics of enzymes.

Moncrieff, R.W.: English physiologist interested in olfaction.

Montagu, Ashley (born Israel Ehrenberg) (1905–1999): English American anthropologist, interested in race and gender.

Montell, Denise J.: American biochemist and cytologist.

Montesquieu (aka Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu) (1689–1755): French lawyer and political philosopher who advocated a separation of powers in government.

“No kingdom has shed more blood than the kingdom of Christ.” ~ Montesquieu

Montoya, Jose Antonio Barba: Mexican evolutionary biologist, interested in molecular evidence of evolution.

Montoya, José M.: Spanish biologist.

Moon, Christine M.: American psychologist, interested in development of sound and voice perception in humans.

Moore, Janice: American biologist.

Moore, Monica: American pesticide maven.

Moore, Stanford (1913–1982): American biochemist who worked on ribonuclease and protein sequencing.

Moore, Thomas: American physicist.

Moran, Mary Ann: American marine biologist.

Moran, Nancy A. (1954–): American evolutionary biologist, interested in insect microbiomes.

More, Henry (1614–1687): English Platonist philosopher and rationalist theologian. Rejecting Cartesian dualism while accepting Descartes’ mechanistic view of Nature, More embraced monism and argued that souls and an extradimensional spirit plane existed.

More, Thomas (1478–1535): English lawyer, statesman, social philosopher, and Renaissance humanist. More was a councilor to King Henry VII, but then the relationship soured. A conservative Catholic, More refused Henry’s moves to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon by separating the Church of England from the Catholic Church. More’s steadfast refusal to Henry’s desires led to More being convicted of treason, for which More was beheaded.

Morewedge, Carey K.: American social psychologist.

Morgan, Bethan: English zoologist.

Morgan, Hugh (1530–1613): English apothecary, serving Queen Elizabeth from 1583. Morgan introduced vanilla as a desirable flavoring in of itself; previously, vanilla was, in Europe, always combined with chocolate or coffee.

Morgan, John Pierpont Sr. (J.P.) (1837–1913): American financier and tycoon who specialized in turning around troubled companies by reorganization, a process then known as Morganization.

Morgan, Thomas H.J.: American paleoanthropologist.

Morgan, Thomas Hunt (1866–1945): American evolutionary biologist, known for his discoveries relating chromosomes to heredity.

Morgenstern, Oskar (1902–1977): German economist who developed mathematical game theory.

Morin, Edgar (1921–): French philosopher and sociologist

Moroz, Leonid: Russian biologist.

Morr, Dirk K.: German American physicist.

Morris, Desmond (1928–): English zoologist and ethologist.

Morris, Ian (1960–): English historian.

Morris, Norval (1923–2004): New Zealander criminologist and law professor.

Morris, Robert T. (1965–): American programmer who stupidly wrote and released malware on the Internet in November 1988, leading to nationwide publicity regarding the lack of security of the Internet.

Morris, Simon Conway (1951–): English paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and astrobiologist, interested in Cambrian life. Conway is a Christian who argues that evolution is compatible with theism.

Morris, William (1834–1896): English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator (Greek, Icelandic, Danish, French), and socialist activist, interested in environmentalism.

Morrison, Jim (1943–1971): American singer/songwriter in the musical group The Doors (1965–1973).

Morrison, Sara E.: American neurobiologist.

Morse, Samuel (1791–1872): American portrait painter and inventor who created a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs. Morse developed Morse code, and fostered commercial telegraphy.

Mortimer, Beth: English zoologist.

Morton, A. Jennifer: English zoologist.

Mosca, Americo: Italian chemist.

Mosca, Gaetano (1858–1941): Italian jurist and political theorist.

Moseley, J. Bruce: American physician.

Moser, Jason S.: American psychologist.

Moser, Petra: American economist, interested in innovation.

Mosman, Michael W. (1956–): American jurist.

Moss, Cynthia: American neuroethologist.

Moss-Racusin, Corrine A.: American psychologist.

Motlagh, Hesam N.: American molecular biophysicist and financial economist.

Moskalenko, Andrey S.: Russian quantum physicist.

Motley, Willard (1912–1965): American novelist.

Mouchout, Auguste (1825–1911): French inventor who made the first solar-powered steam engine.

Mountcastle, Vernon (1915–2015): American neurobiologist.

Moya, Horacio Castellanos (1957–): Salvadoran novelist.

Moynihan, Brian (1959–): American lawyer and financial business executive; CEO of Bank of America (2010–).

Moyo, Dambisa (1969–): Zambian-born American economist.

Moyroud, Edwige: French botanist, cytologist, and molecular biologist.

Mpemba, Erasto (1950–): Tanzanian scientist who, as a hasty childhood ice cream maker, serendipitously rediscovered that hot water freezes faster than cold water. Mpemba had the good fortune to have the oddity named after him (the Mpemba effect). Others throughout history, including Aristotle, Francis Bacon, and René Descartes, had noted this phenomenon.

MuBarack, Hosni (1928–): Egyptian military and political leader who ruled Egypt (1981–2011).

Muchnik, Lev: Israeli social statistician.

Mueller, Holger M.: Swiss economist.

Mueller, Robert (1944–): American lawyer; FBI director (2001–2013).

Muenke, Max: American pediatric brain defect specialist.

Muennig, Peter: American public health analyst.

Mugabe, Robert (1924–): Zimbabwean politician; Prime Minister (1980–1987), President (1987–2017).

Mugford, Simon T.: English biologist.

Muhammad (570–632): Arabian religious and political leader who founded the Islamic religion; believed by Muslims to be the prophet of Allāh.

Muijres, Florian: Dutch biomechanist.

Muir, John (1838–1914): Scottish American naturalist who wanted to nature preserves.

Mulder, Bela M.: Dutch atomic and molecular physicist.

Mulholland, William (1855–1935): Irish American hydrologist who headed the Los Angeles water department (1911–1929), and enthusiastically built aqueducts to distant water sources so as supply. On 12 March 1928, the newly constructed St. Francis Dam, intended to create a reservoir for LA, failed just 12 hours after Mulholland had inspected it and declared it sturdy. The dam collapse killed 600. Mulholland took responsibility and resigned.

Mullainathan, Sendhil (1973–): Indian economist, interested in behavioral economics.

Müller, Fritz (1821–1897): German biologist who studied mimicry. See Müllerian mimicry.

Müller, Henrich (1820–1864): German anatomist who discovered retinal glia cells.

Müller, Johannes Peter (1801–1858): German physiologist, most impressively known for his ability to synthesize knowledge. Müller’s book Elements of Physiology initiated a new phase in the study of physiology, drawing from several previously distinct disciplines.

Müller, Paul Hermann (1899–1965): Swiss chemist who won the Nobel Prize in 1948 for having discovered the insecticidal power of DDT (in 1939).

Müller, Ralph-Axel: neurobiologist.

Müller, Rolf: German biologist.

Muller, Jerry Z.: American historian, interested in capitalism and the history of social, political, economic, and religious thought.

Müller-Lyer, Franz Carl (1857–1916): German psychologist and sociologist.

Mulrow, Cynthia (1953–): American physician.

Mulvaney, Dustin: American environmental scientist.

Mumford, Lewis (1895–1990): American historian, sociologist, philosopher of technology, and critic of literature, architecture, and art, interested in urban life.

Mun, Thomas (1571–1641): English merchant and economics writer who advocated mercantilism. Unsurprisingly, Mun was born into a wealthy merchant family, and enjoyed the advantages of his social stratum.

Muñoz, Martha M.: American evolutionary biologist.

Munshi-South, Jason: American zoologist, interested in the environmental impact of humans.

Murayama, Hitoshi: Japanese physicist who works on supersymmetry.

Murdoch, Iris (1919–1999): Irish author and philosopher.

Murdoch, Rupert (1931–): Australian media mogul.

Murray, Christopher J.L.: American physician and health economist, interested in obesity.

Murray, Henry A. (1893–1988): American psychologist, interested in personality. While at Harvard University, 1959–1962, Murray was responsible for unethical experiments on unwitting subjects as part of the US government’s research in mind control.

Murray, Sandra L.: American social psychologist.

Murrow, Edward R. (1908–1965): American broadcast journalist and war correspondent.

Murphy, Mike: American Republican political strategist.

Murphy, William Francis (Frank) (1890–1949): American politician and jurist.

Murthy, Mala: American molecular biologist.

Muscat, Joseph (1974–): Maltese politician; Prime Minister of Malta (2013–).

Mushet, Robert Forest (1811–1891): English metallurgist who made the Bessmer process practicable.

Musiba, Charles: American paleoanthropologist.

Musilova, Zuzana: Czech evolutionary zoologist.

Mussolini, Benito (1883–1945): Italian politician and journalist; prime minister from 1922 to 1943, when ousted. Mussolini ruled constitutionally until 1925, when he established his dictatorship. Known as Il Duce (the leader), Mussolini was a leading practitioner of fascism.

Mussweiler, Thomas: German psychologist.

Mutch, Robert E.: American political election researcher.

Muto, Nick: American fisherman.

Myers, David G.: American psychologist.

Myers, Isabel Briggs (1897–1980): American author and co-creator of the Myers-Briggs personality type test.

Myers, Ransom A.: Canadian zoologist.

Myhrvold, Nathan (1959–): American technologist, scientist, and businessman.

Myrdal, K. Gunnar (1898–1987): Swedish economist, sociologist, and politician.

Nabokov, Vladimir (1899–1977): Russian-American novelist.

Nader, Ralph (1934–): American lawyer and political activist; best known for his work in the 1950s–1960s exposing the unsafe cars built by American manufacturers.

Nagel, Thomas (1937–): Yugoslavian-born American philosopher.

Nagata, Takashi: Japanese biologist.

Nagaoka, Hantaro (1865–1950): Japanese physicist who contributed to atomic theory and radio wave communication.

Nagel, Thomas (1937–): Yugoslavian-American philosopher.

Nagpaul, Chaand: English physician.

Nagy, László G.: Hungarian evolutionary geneticist.

Nahm, Michael: German American neurobiologist.

Naik, Shruti: Indian immunologist.

Naiqi Xio Gabriel): Chinese psychologist.

Nair, Gautham: American geneticist.

Nakayama, Shinnosuke: Japanese biologist, interested in behavioral and evolutionary ecology, especially how social environments affect behavior.

Nakanishi, Koji (1925–): Japanese organic chemist.

Nakayama, Sohei: Japanese molecular biologist.

Nanavati, Kawas Manekshaw (1916–2003): Indian naval commander.

Napier, John (1550–1617): Scottish mathematician, physicist, and astronomer.

Nasir, Arshan: Pakistani virologist.

Näsvall, Joakim: Swedish microbiologist and geneticist.

Natland, James H.: American marine.

Navalón, Guillermo: Spanish paleobiologist.

Nawrot, Rafał: paleontologist.

Naylor, Rebecca: American marketing professor.

Naylor, Rosamond L.: American ecologist and economist.

Nealson, Kenneth: American microbiologist.

Neave, Nick: English psychologist.

Nebuchadnezzar II: king of Babylon (605–562 BCE).

Nedelec, Sophie: English zoologist, interested in marine biology.

Nedergaard, Maiken: Danish neurobiologist who discovered the glymphatic system.

Nefertiti (1370–1330 BCE): wife of Akhenaten and Egyptian queen.

Neher, Richard A.: German evolutionary microbiologist.

Nehru, Jawaharlal (1889–1964): Indian politician; India’s 1st prime minister (1947–1964).

Neidell, Matthew: American public health maven.

Neill, Charles: American physicist.

Neira, Maria: Spanish doctor and surgeon, interested in public health, endocrinology, metabolic diseases, and nutrition. Neira is the director of public health and the environment at the World Health Organization.

Neisser, Ulric (1928–2012): German-born American psychologist who coined and popularized the term cognitive psychology.

Nelson, David C.: American botanist.

Nelson, Dean E.: American journalist.

Nelxon, Ximena: New Zealander zoologist and physiologist, interested in animal behavior.

Nemenman, Ilya: Russian-American theoretical biophysicist, interested in neuroscience, biological communication, learning and evolutionary adaptation.

Nenes, Athanasios: American ecologist, interested in ecological interactions between the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

Nernst, Walther (1864–1941): German physicist and chemist who is best known for developing the 3rd law of thermodynamics.

Nero (37–68): Roman Emperor from 54 to 68. Not in line for ascension, Nero climbed to his position, and maintained his grip on power, by repeated assassinations, including his own mother. Nero was a murderous megalomaniacal sociopath. He had Christians captured and burned in his garden for illumination.

Nestle, Marion: American molecular biologist and nutritionist.

Neumann, John von (1903–1957): Hungarian-American mathematician and physicist who made major contributions to mathematics, physics, computing, and statistics.

Neumann, Peter G. (1932–): American software scientist.

Nevo, Omer: Israeli evolutionary ecologist, interested in chemical communication between plants and animals, especially fruit odor.

Newby-Clark, Ian R.: Canadian psychologist.

Newcomb, Simon (1835–1909): self-taught Canadian astronomer, mathematician, economist, and author (science books, and 1 science fiction novel). Newcomb spoke French, German, Italian, and Swedish.

Newcombe, Nora: American psychologist.

Newcomen, Thomas (1664–1729): English ironmonger who developed the first practical steam engine for pumping water.

Newman, James R. (1907–1966): American mathematician and mathematics historian.

Newman, Katherine S.: American sociologist and educator.

Newmaster, Steven G.: Canadian botanist.

Newton, Isaac (1642–1727): English physicist, astronomer, alchemist, mathematician, natural philosopher, and theologian; widely considered to be one of the greatest and most influential scientists. Classical mechanics are typically termed Newtonian physics.

Neyman, Jerzy (1894–1981): Polish mathematician and statistician who introduced the confidence interval into statistics in 1937.

Nicholas II of Russia (Nikolai Alexandrovich Romanov) (1868–1918): last Emperor of Russia (Tsar), Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland. Nicknamed Nicholas the Bloody because of his ruthless elimination of political opponents and pursuit of military campaigns on an unprecedented scale.

Nicholas V (1397–1455): Italian clergyman and Pope (1447–1455). Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks during the pontificate of Nicholas, as well as the end of the Hundred Years War. Nicholas issued decrees which effectively sanctioned slavery.

Nichols, Shaun: American philosopher.

Nicholson, Jeremy K.: English molecular biologist.

Nicolia, Alessandro: Italian biotechnologist.

Nicolis, Alberto: Italian physicist, interested in theoretical high -energy physics.

Nieder, Andreas: German zoologist and neurobiologist.

Nielson, Lindsay: American political scientist.

Nietz, Kerry: American author.

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900): German philosopher, philogist, composer, and poet that embraced existentialism and nihilism. Existentialism embraces individual experience as the proper path to understanding. Nihilism posits that life is subjectively valuated.

Niklas, Karl J. (1948–): American botanist.

Nin, Anaïs (1903–1977): American author.

Nisbett, Richard E. (1941–): American social psychologist.

Nishimura, Marc T.: American biologist.

Niven, Jeremy E.: English zoologist and evolutionary biologist, interested in animal behavior.

Nixon, Richard (1913–1994): American politician (Republican); 37th US President (1969–1974); the only President to resign from office, over a scandal involving illicit surveillance of political opponents (the Watergate scandal).

Nobel, Alfred (1833–1896): Swedish inventor (dynamite and other explosives), arms dealer, and major polluter through oil exploration. Fondly remembered for his philanthropy in establishing annual international prize competitions.

Noble, Charles C.: American soldier.

Nobu, Ishi (1955–): American prophet.

Noel, Alexis C.: American mechanical engineer.

Noffke, Nora: American geomicrobiologist.

Nolan, Tom: American criminologist.

Noor, Elad: Israeli biologist.

Nora, Elphege: American geneticist.

Nordenfelt, Pontus: Swedish engineer.

Nordhaus, Ted: American political consultant.

Norenzayan, Ara: Lebanese Canadian psychologist.

Noriega, Manuel (1934–): Panamanian politician and soldier; military dictator of Panama (1983–1989).

Norman, Eric B.: American nuclear physicist.

Norman, Mildred L. (1908–1981): American guru, known as the “Peace Pilgrim.”

Norris, Ryan: Canadian ecologist.

Norris, Vic: French molecular biologist and biochemist.

Norsworthy, Jason: American agronomist.

North, Adrian: English music psychologist.

North, Emily J.: American environmental scientist and chemical engineer.

Northen Trent R.: American microbiologist.

Novello, Mario: Brazilian astrophysicist.

Noyce, Robert (1927–1990): American physicist who pioneered the development of integrated circuits.

Nozick, Robert (1938–2002): American philosopher.

Nuallain, Sean O.: Irish psychologist and musician.

Nuismer, Scott L.: American evolutionary biologist.

Nunn, Nathan (1974–): Canadian economist and economic historian.

Nyffeler, Martin: Swiss zoologist.

Nygaard, Kristen (1926–2002): Norwegian software scientist who fathered the Simula programming language with Ole-Johan Dahl.

O’Brien, Rourke L.: American sociologist.

O’Connor, David E.: American economist.

O’Donnell, Eugene: American policing scholar; former policeman.

O’Donoghue, John: English astronomer.

O’Keeffe, Ciarán: English psychologist.

O’Keefe, Richard A.: American computer scientist.

O’Regan, Fred: American environmental scientist.

O’Sullivan, Suzanne: Irish neurobiologist.

Oakley, David A.: English psychologist.

Obama, Barak (1961–): American politician (Democrat); 44th US President (2009–2016).

Oberheim, Nancy Ann: American neurobiologist.

Obuchowski, Pat: American leadership coach.

Ochsenfeld, Robert (1901–1993): German physicist who worked with Fritz Meissner on superconductivity, co-discoverer of the Meissner effect.

Octavian (aka Augustus) (63 BCE–14 ce): Roman military leader and 1st Roman Emperor.

Ödeen, Anders: Swedish zoological ecologist.

Odoacer, Flavius (433–493) (aka Odovacar): a soldier who became the 1st King of Italy (476–793). His reign marked the end of the Western Roman Empire.

Odom, Gary (1955–): American economist, technologist, software developer, inventor, polymath, painter, and graphic artist.

Offa: king of Mercia (758–796). Mercia was a kingdom in central Anglo-Saxon England from the late 6th century to the end of the 9th century.

Ogletree, Charles (1952–): American law professor and legal scholar.

Oh, Kevin P.: American evolutionary biologist, studying sexual selection.

Ohm, Georg Simon (1789–1854): German physicist and mathematician, interested in electrochemical cells.

Ohno, Susumu (1928–2000): Japanese American geneticist and evolutionary biologist who helped popularize the wrong-headed notion that most human DNA was useless (“junk”).

Oka, Yuki: Japanese biologist.

Olberg, Robert M.: American entomologist who specializes in dragonfly vision.

Oller, D. Kimbrough: American psycholinguist, interested in infant vocalization.

Olivarius, Ann: American attorney and solicitor of England Wales.

Olsen, Ken (1926–2011): American engineer who co-founded Digital Equipment Corporation with Harlan Anderson.

Olson, Kristina R.: American psychologist.

Olson, Nina E.: American tax maven.

Omori, Yasuko: Japanese psychologist.

Onnes, Heike Kamerlingh (1853–1926): Dutch physicist who contributed to refrigeration; first to liquefy helium; discovered superconductivity in 1911.

Ono, Ken (1968–): Japanese American mathematician who specializes in number theory.

Onsager, Lars (1903–1976): Norwegian-born American physical chemist and theoretical physicist.

Onuchic, José: biological physicist.

Onyango, Paul: Congolese naturalist.

Oort, Jan (1900–1992): Dutch astronomer who was a pioneer in radio astronomy. The Oort cloud of comets in the deep solar system bears his name.

Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.: Italian psychologist, interested in how humans form first impressions of others.

Oparin, Alexander (1894–1980): Russian biochemist, best known for his book: The Origin of Life (1936).

Opie, Christopher: English anthropologist.

Oppenheimer, J. Robert (1904–1967): American theoretical physicist who worked alongside Enrico Fermi in developing the first nuclear weapons. After helping let the thermonuclear cat out of the bag, Oppenheimer later lobbied for arms control. Whatever analytic intelligence he possessed, Oppenheimer was naïve in the ways of the world.

Orbán, Viktor (1963–): Hungarian politician (Fidesz); Hungary Prime Minister (2010–).

Oresme, Nicole (~1325–1382): French philosopher who wrote influential works on a variety of subjects, including mathematics, physics, astronomy, astrology, economics, philosophy, and theology; one of the most original thinkers of the 14th century. Oresme was a Roman Catholic bishop, a translator, and a counselor to French King Charles V.

Ormsby-Gore, William David (1918–1985): English politician (Conservative).

Orr, H. Allen: American biologist.

Orrock, John L.: American biologist.

Orwell, George (pseudonym of Eric Arthur Blair) (1903–1950): English novelist, best known for the allegorical novella Animal Farm (1945) and the dystopian political novel 1984 (1949). Orwell was keenly aware of social injustice, committed to democratic socialism, and opposed to totalitarianism.

Osborn, Henry Fairfield (1857–1935): American geologist, paleontologist, and eugenicist who advocated orthogenesis.

Osmon I (aka Osman Gazi) (1258–1326): leader of the Ottoman Turks and founder of the Ottoman dynasty (1299–1922).

Ossendrijver, Mathieu: German astroarchaeologist.

Otten, Marte: Dutch psychologist.

Ottesen, Elizabeth A.: American microbiologist.

Otto the Great (aka Otto I) (912–973): German king (from 936) who became Holy Roman Emperor (962–973).

Otto, Nikolaus A. (1832–1891): German engineer who invented the first internal combustion engine to efficiently burn fuel in a piston chamber. Though Alphonse Beau de Rochas invented and patented the technology, Otto made it practical.

Otto, Sarah P. (1967–): American theoretical evolutionary biologist, interested in the evolution of sex.

Oughtred, William (1574–1660): English mathematician and Anglican minister.

Ouimet, Paige: American economist.

Ouspensky, P.D. (1878–1947): Russian esotericist.

Overell, Stephen: English labor-market maven.

Ovid (43 BCE–17 ce): Roman poet who greatly influenced Western art and literature.

Owen, Richard (1804–1892): English naturalist, comparative anatomist, and paleontologist who first identified dinosaurs, coining the term Dinosauria (meaning “terrible reptile”). Owen criticized contemporary Charles Darwin for his simplistic hypotheses of evolution. Owen’s approach anticipated modern evolutionary developmental biology.

Owens, Robert (1771–1858): Welsh entrepreneur and social reformer; the founder of childcare in Britain.

Oxenstierna, Axel Gustafsson (1583–1654): Swedish statesman; widely considered one of the most influential men in Swedish history.

Ozzie, Ray (1955–): American software entrepreneur.

Packel, Edward W.: American mathematician.

Packer, Dominic J.: American psychologist.

Packham, Christopher G. (1961–): English naturalist.

Padover, Saul K. (1905–1981): American historian.

Page, Larry (1973–): American computer scientist and co-founder of Google.

Pagel, Lauren: American chemist.

Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza (1919–1980): Iranian dictator who was the Shah of Iran (1941–1979); overthrown in the 1979 Iranian Revolution.

Paig-Tran, Misty: American marine zoologist.

Paige, Ken N.: American biologist.

Paine, Robert: Canadian psychologist.

Paine, Thomas (1737–1809): English American political theorist and activist; called by American historian Saul Padover “a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, and a propagandist by inclination.”

Palagi, Elisabetta: Italian primatologist.

Palahniuk, Chuck (1962–): American writer, best known for his novels Fight Club and Choke.

Paley, William (1743–1805): English philosopher, clergyman, and Christian apologist, best known for his theological argument for the existence of God as a natural force, using the watchmaker analogy.

Palidda, Salvatore: Italian anthropologist.

Palihapitiya, Chamath: Indian American social media maven and former Facebook executive.

Palmer, Benjamin A.: Israeli biologist.

Palmer, Douglas: English educator and author.

Palmer, Paul: English climatologist.

Palumbi, Stephen R.: American marine ecologist.

Pan Yue: Chinese bureaucrat; deputy minister for environmental protection.

Panda, Satchindananda: Indian biologist.

Pandolfi, John M.: Australian marine biologist.

Paolicelli, Rosa C.: Italian molecular biologist.

Papandreou, George (1952–): Greek politician; Prime Minister of Greece (2009–2011).

Papazian, Stefano: Swedish botanist, interested in plant physiology.

Papke, R. Thane: microbiologist, interested in the evolution of prokaryotes.

Papin, Denis (1647–1712): French physicist, mathematician, and inventor who invented the steam digester, a forerunner of the pressure cooker.

Paracelsus (1493–1541): Swiss German physician, botanist, alchemist, and occultist.

Parfrey, Laura Wegener: Canadian bioscientist.

Paris, Matthew (~1200–1259): English Benedictine monk and chronicler of his times. Paris was also an illustrator and cartographer.

Park, Soyoung Q.: Korean cognitive psychologist.

Parker, Andrew: English biologist.

Parker, Dorothy (1893–1967): American poet.

Parker, Gordon: Australian psychiatrist.

Parker, Joe: English biologist.

Parker, Joseph: American entomologist.

Parker, Julie: American police apologist.

Parkinson, Brian: English psychologist.

Parkinson, Gareth S. (1981–): English physicist, interested in the atomic-scale processes underlying metal-oxide surface chemistry.

Parkinson, James (1755–1824): English surgeon, apothecary, geologist, paleontologist, and liberal political activist who described symptoms of Parkinson’s disease in 1817.

Parmalee, David D.: American inventor who constructed the first arithmetic calculator with a keyboard in 1849.

Parmenides of Elea (late 6th or early 5th century BCE): Greek philosopher. The single known work of Parmenides is a poem – On Nature – which presents 2 views of reality. One, “the “way of truth,” posits reality as eternal, necessary, uniform, and unchanging. The other, “the way of opinion,” is the world of appearances, in which one’s senses lead to conceptions which are deceptive and false.

Parmer, Candace (1960–): American massage therapist.

Parr, Catherine L. (Kate): English ecologist, entomologist, and zoologist.

Parry, Andrew O.: English physicist.

Parsons, Charles A. (1854–1931): Anglo Irish engineer who invented the modern compound steam turbine.

Parsons, Talcott (1902–1979): American sociologist.

Partensky, Frédéric: French virologist.

Pasari, Jae R.: American environmental biologist.

Pascal, Blaise (1623–1662): French mathematician, physicist, inventor, and Christian philosopher.

Pascual-Leone, Alvaro (1961–): German neurologist.

Pasquale, Frank: American law professor, interested in technological changes in society, including healthcare, the Internet, and finance.

Pasteur, Louis (1822–1895): French chemist and microbiologist, renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, fermentation, and pasteurization. Pasteur is credited with breakthroughs in understanding the causes and prevention of infectious diseases. Pasteur’s experiments supported the germ theory of disease: that pathogenic microorganisms cause many diseases. Pasteur created the first vaccines for anthrax and rabies. Pasteur is famous for inventing pasteurization: heating liquid food to retard spoilage. Unlike sterilization, which adversely affects food quality by killing all microbes, pasteurization aims to reduce the pathogen population, not eliminate it.

Patañjali (~250 BCE): Indian yogi.

Patek, Sheila: American evolutionary biomechanist and biologist.

Patel, Vikram (1964–): Indian psychologist.

Patrut, Adrian: Romanian ecologist.

Patterson, Francine (1947–): American psychologist who taught Koko sign language.

Patterson, Richard: American social psychologist.

Patzelt, Annika: German cognitive ethologist.

Paul, Elizabeth S.: English zoologist.

Paul, Rand (1963–): American politician (Republican) and ophthalmologist; US Senator from Kentucky (2011–).

Pauli, Wolfgang (1900–1958): sharp-tongued and sharp-witted Austrian theoretical physicist; a pioneer of quantum physics.

Pauling, Linus (1901–1994): American chemist, peace activist, and admirer of vitamin C.

Paulsen, Torbjørn Rage: Norwegian evolutionary ecologist, interested in plant-animal interactions, especially seed dispersal.

Paulsson, Johan: Swedish systems biologist and mathematician.

Pavlov, Ivan (1849–1936): Russian physiologist known for his work in classical conditioning.

Paxton, Robert (1932–): American political scientist and historian, especially interested in Europe during the 2nd World War.

Paz-Alonso, Pedro M.: Spanish cognitive scientist.

Payne, Jonathan: American paleontologist.

Peale, Norman Vincent (1898–1993): wildly optimistic American Christian preacher.

Pearl, Raymond (1879–1940): American biologist who proposed the rate-of-living hypothesis. Pearl was not beyond self-deception. An inveterate drinker, he believed the moderate alcohol consumption granted longer life than abstinence.

Pearlstein, Steven: American journalist and columnist, interested in economics and business.

Pearson, Joel: Australian psychologist and neurobiologist.

Pearson, Karl (1857–1936): English mathematician, credited with establishing mathematical statistics. Pearson contributed to biometrics and meteorology. Pearson was a proponent of social Darwinism and favored eugenics.

Pedanius Dioscorides (40–90): ancient Greek pharmacologist who authored De Materia Medica, a 5-volume pharmacopeia featuring 600 medicinal plants. This encyclopedia was widely read for 1,500 years.

Peek, Laurence Kim (1951–2009): American brain-damaged savant.

Pekny, Milos: Swedish neurobiologist.

Peleg, Oren: American mechanical engineer.

Penfield, Wilder Graves (1891–1976): Canadian neurosurgeon who drafted brain maps.

Penrose, Roger (1931–): English mathematical physicist, mathematician, and philosopher of science.

Penzias, Arno A. (1933–): American astrophysicist who co-discovered cosmic background radiation with Robert Wilson in 1964.

Pérez-García, David: Spanish mathematician.

Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah: Australian climatologist, interested in heatwaves.

Perl, Craig D.: English biologist.

Perlin, John: American physicist and energy scholar.

Perls, Fritz: German psychiatrist who co-developed Gestalt therapy with Laura Perls and Paul Goodman.

Perls, Laura (1905–1990): German psychiatrist who co-developed Gestalt therapy with Fritz Perls and Paul Goodman.

Perrett, David Ian: Scottish psychologist.

Perrin, Jean (1870–1942): French physicist who worked on atomic theory and the nature of matter. Perrin explained cathode rays as negatively charged corpuscles, and solar energy as thermonuclear hydrogen reactions.

Perry, Clint J.: Australian zoologist.

Perry, Mark J.: American pro-capitalist economist.

Perry, Matthew (1794 –1858): American naval commander who led an expedition to Japan (1852–1854) to force open Japanese ports to American trade.

Perry, Susan: American primatologist.

Pert, Candace (1946–2013): American pharmacologist and cognitive scientist.

Peruzzo, Alberto: Italian physicist, interested in quantum information.

Peter the Great (aka Peter Alexeyevich) (1672–1725): Russian ruler (tsar) (1682–1725).

Peter, Laurence J. (1919–1990): Canadian educator, known for the Peter principle.

Peter, Simon (aka Saint Peter, Simon) (30–64/68 ce): Galilean fisherman; one of Jesus’ 12 apostles. According to Christian legend, Peter was crucified upside-down in Rome under the aegis of Emperor Nero. Peter requested that he be crucified upside-down, as he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus.

Peters, B. Guy: American political scientist.

Peters, Edgar E. (1952–): American investor.

Peters, J.M.: American evolutionary biologist.

Peters, Shanan E.: American geologist and paleobiologist.

Peterson, Garry D.: Swedish ecologist, climatologist, environmental economist, and geographer.

Peterson, George: American economist.

Peterson, Jordan B.: Canadian psychologist.

Petit, Jean-Pierre (1937–): French astrophysicist, interested in fluid mechanics (particularly magnetohydrodynamics), plasma physics, kinetic theory of gases, and topology.

Petkova, Valeria: Swedish neurobiologist.

Petrarch (Petrarca), Francesco (1304–1374): Italian poet and scholar who coined the term Dark Ages; one of the earliest humanists.

Petrie, Cameron A.: English archeologist.

Petroski, Henry (1942–): American engineer, interested in engineering failure.

Pettersson, Lars G.M.: Swedish physiochemist.

Pettigrew, Thomas F.: American sociologist.

Pettus-Davis, Carrie: American criminal justice professor.

Petty, William (1623–1687): English economist, statistician, scientist, philosopher, and politician.

Pfankuch, Edgar: German biologist interested in viruses.

Pfanzelte, Julia: Austrian cytologist.

Pfeffer, Fabian T.: American sociologist, interested in inequality.

Pfeiffer, Dale Allen: American geologist and writer.

Pfennig, David W.: American biologist, interested in ecology, ethology, and evolution.

Pfiefer, Marion: English ecologist.

Phadnis, Nitin: Indian microbiologist.

Phelps, Elizabeth A.: American psychologist, interested in memory, learning, and emotion.

Philip II (Philip Augustus) (1165–1223): king of France (1180–1223). Philip’s predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks; but from 1190 onward, Philip styled himself King of France.

Philippon, Thomas: French American financial economist.

Philipp, Sebastian T.: German neurobiologist.

Phillips, Helen: English science writer.

Philo of Byzantium (aka Philo Mechanicus) (280–220 BCE): Greek engineer who lived in Alexandria, Egypt.

Piaget, Jean (1896–1980): Swiss developmental psychologist.

“Only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent or gradual.” ~ Jean Piaget in 1934

Piatt, John F.: American wildlife biologist.

Picasso, Pablo (1881–1973): Spanish painter, visual artist, poet, playwright, and stage designer.

Piccareta, Michael: American criminal defense attorney.

Pickens, T. Boone (1928–): American business magnate and financier.

Pickering, Charles W. (1937–): American jurist.

Pierce, Franklin (1804–1869): American politician (Democrat); 14th US President (1853–1857). Pierce was a doughface: a Northerner with Southern sympathy toward slavery. Pierce, widely considered one of the worst Presidents, was abandoned by his own party, and not renominated to run in the 1856 election. Pierce declared his support for the Confederacy during the Civil War.

Pierson, Paul (1959–): American political scientist.

Pierson, Victoria: American educator.

Pieters, Rik: Dutch marketing academic.

Pietschnig, Jakob: Austrian psychologist.

Piketty, Thomas (1971–): French economist, interested in economic inequality.

Pilbeam, David (1940–): American paleoanthropologist.

Pilon, Juliana Geran: sociologist.

Pimm, Stuart L.: American ecologist.

Pinchot, Gifford (1865–1946): American forester and politician. Pinchot wanted Nature conservation to serve the needs of human exploitation.

Pinker, Steven (1954–): Canadian experimental cognitive psychologist; considered by some to currently be one of the world’s most influential intellectuals, which is a sad statement of how momentous misinformation can be.

Pinkerton, Allen (1819–1884): Scottish American detective and spy, best known for creating a namesake detective agency which became notorious after Pinkerton’s death for thuggery against the nascent labor union movement in the US and Canada.

Pinochet, Augusto (1915–2006): Chilean military leader who took political power in a 1973 coup; dictator of Chile (1973–1990). Pinochet is remembered for torturing and killing tens of thousands of perceived political opponents.

Pinsky, Malin L.: American biologist.

Pinter, Harold (1930–2008): English dramatist, movie director, and actor.

Pirnot, Thomas L.: American mathematician.

Pisani, Davide: Italian evolutionary biologist.

Pisano, Gary P.: American business academic and economist.

Pius, Antoninus (86–151): Roman Emperor (138–151); 4th of 5 good emperors who guided the empire through an 84-year period of peace and prosperity.

Pizarro, David A.: American psychologist, interested in moral judgment and the impact of emotions on cognition.

Pizarro, Francisco (1476–1541): Spanish conquistador.

Planavsky, Noah: American biogeochemist.

Planck, Max (1858–1947): German physicist who founded quantum field theory, then rejected it out of philosophic revulsion, owing to the indeterminate nature of wave/particle duality (Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle). Planck philosophically preferred determinism.

Plato (~427–347 BCE): influential Greek philosopher and mathematician, including through influence on his student Aristotle. Plato espoused knowledge as received wisdom, and of a dichotomy between the appearance of reality (actuality) and reality itself.

Pliny the Elder (23–79): Roman author and natural philosopher.

Pliny the Younger (Gaius Caecillius) (61–113): Roman lawyer and author; nephew of Pliny the Elder.

Plutarch (of Chaeronea) (46–120): Greek historian, essayist, and biographer.

Pocock, Michael J.O.: English ecologist.

Poe, Edgar Allen (1809–1849): American writer.

Poelman, Erik H.: Dutch entomologist.

Pohl, Randolf: German physicist.

Pohnert, Georg: German biologist and biochemist, interested in plankton.

Poincaré, Henri (1854–1912): brilliant French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.

Poland, David: American physicist.

Polanyi, Michael (1891–1976): Hungarian–English polymath who made contributions in philosophy, chemistry, and economics. Polanyi argued that positivism gives an incomplete account of the knowledge of reality.

Polchinski, Joseph (1942–): American string theorist working on D-brane theory and interested in wormholes.

Polimann, Frank: German physicist, interested in quasiparticles and solid-state physics.

Polkinghorne, John (1930–): English theoretical physicist.

Polkovnikov, Anatoli: Russian-American physicist.

Pollan, Michael: American journalist.

Pollick, Frank: English psychologist.

Pollock, David: American geneticist.

Polo, Marco (1254–1324): itinerant Italian merchant who documented his travels, introducing Europeans to central Asia and China.

Polyakov, Alexander M. (1945–): Russian theoretical physicist.

Polybius (200–118 BCE): Greek historian who studied the institutional dynamics of Roman polity.

Ponting, Clive: English historian.

Ponzi, Charles (1882–1949): Italian businessman and con artist, best known for his trademark swindle of paying early investors off using funds from later investors: a Ponzi scheme.

Ponzo, Mario (1882–1960): Italian psychologist who discovered the Ponzo illusion.

Poon, Connie S.K.: Canadian psychologist.

Pope, Alexander (1688–1744): English poet, best known for his satirical verse, and for his translation of Homer.

Popkin, Barry (1944–): American nutritionist.

Popkin, Susan J.: American sociologist.

Popper, Karl (1902–1994): Austrian philosopher who rejected the classical scientific method of inductivism in favor of empirical falsification (falsifiability).

Popper, Karl (1902–1994): Austrian British philosopher, interested in the philosophy of science. Popper rejected the classical inductivist view on the scientific method (attributed to Francis Bacon) in favor of inductive (empirical) falsifiability. See falsifiability, inductivism.

Porter, Cole (1891–1964): American songwriter, particularly fond of musical theater.

Porter, Mason A.: English mathematician.

Portier, Paul: French scientist who theorized that mitochondria are an evolutionary symbiotic outcome.

Portman, Natalie (1981–): Israeli American actress and movie maker.

Postgate, John: English microbiologist.

Poti, Jennifer M.: American nutritionist, interested in public nutrition policy.

Potts, Richard: American paleoanthropologist.

Powell, Brian J.: American zoologist.

Powers, Francis Gary (1929–1977): American pilot whose U-2 spy plane was shot down while overflying the Soviet Union on 1 May 1960.

Powles, Stephen B.: Australian herbicide researcher.

Powner, Matthew (1982–): English organic chemist, interested in abiogenesis.

Prasad, Alka: American immunologist and physician.

Pratchett, Terry (1948–2015): English fantasy novelist.

Prather, Kimberly: American biochemist.

Pratt, Stephen: American biologist.

Pratto, Felicia: American social psychologist.

Presley, Elvis (1935–1977): American singer.

Presti, David: American cognitive scientist and cytologist.

Preston, Jesse: American social psychologist, interested in the conflict between science and religion.

Price, David E. (1940–): American politician (Democrat) and political scientist.

Price, T. Douglas: American archeologist.

Price, Trevor D.: American evolutionary biologist, interested in avian speciation.

Priestley, Joseph (1733–1804): English political theorist, Unitarian minister, and theologian who is often credited with discovering oxygen. Best known for his advocacy of utilitarianism: an ethical precept that right action maximizes holistic happiness.

Prigozhin, Yevgeniy Viktorovich: Russian propagandist.

Pringle, Robert: American ecologist and evolutionary biologist.

Proctor, Lita M.: American microbial ecologist and geneticist.

Proffitt, Dennis R.: American psychologist.

Profumo, John (1915–2006): English politician (Conservative).

Progoff, Ira (1921–1998): American psychotherapist, interested in Jungian psychology. Progoff was particularly interested in depth psychology, which supposedly takes the unconscious into account.

Pronin, Emily: American psychologist.

Propper, Carol: English economist.

Prospero, Joseph M.: American meteorologist.

Pross, Addy: Israeli chemist.

Prost, Jacques (1946–): French physicist.

Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1809–1865): French philosopher who politically was a libertarian socialist.

Proulx, Travis: American psychologist, interested in mental anomalies.

Proust, Marcel (1871–1922): French writer. Proust is best remembered for the 7-volume novel In Search of Lost Time (aka Remembrance of Things Past), thematically concerned with involuntary memory. Proust paid for publication of the 1st volume after it was turned down by publishers of the day. Influential to 20th-century literature, the work ran to 1.5 million words: one of the longest novels in history.

Prugh, Laura R.: American biologist.

Prum, Richard O. (1961–):

Pruitt, Jonathan N.: American ecologist, interested in species variation.

Psaltis, Demetri: Greek American electrical engineer.

Ptacek, Margaret B.: American biologist, interested in behavioral ecology, population genetics, and speciation.

Ptahhotep (2414–2375): Egyptian vizier, remembered for authoring the Maxims of Ptahhotep, which was moral and practical advice on human relations, ostensibly directed to Ptahhotep’s son.

Ptashne, Mark (1940–): American molecular biologist and violinist; first to demonstrate specific binding between protein and DNA.

Ptolemy, Claudius (90–168): Egyptian mathematician, astronomer, geographer, and astrologer. His lasting fame owed to 3 treatises: 1 on astronomy, 1 on geography, and 1 on astrology, which was based upon Aristotelian natural philosophy.

Pucheu, Pierre (1899–1944): French industrialist, fascist, and member of the Vichy government.

Puleston, William D. (1881–1968): American naval officer and author.

Pulitzer, Joseph (1847–1911): American Hungarian newspaper publisher who introduced yellow journalism to the newspapers he acquired.

Pulleyblank, David E.: Canadian geneticist.

Punnett, Reginald (1875–1967): English geneticist who co-founded the Journal of Genetics with William Bateson in 1910. Punnett’s 1905 book Mendelism introduced genetics to the general public.

Purkynĕ, Jan Evangelista (1787–1869): Czech anatomist and physiologist, who coined the term protoplasm in 1839 for the fluid inside a cell. Purkynĕ became so famous that mail was delivered to him from anywhere if simply addressed “Purkynĕ, Europe.”

Purzycki, Benjamin Grant: American sociocultural anthropologist.

Pusey, Matthew F.: English particle physicist.

Putin, Vladimir V. (1952–): Russian spy and politician; Russian President (2000–2008, 2012–).

Putnam, Hilary (1926–2016): American philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist.

Puttick Mark N.: English evolutionary biologist.

Pynchon, Thomas (1937–): American novelist, noted for his densely woven, complex novels.

Pythagoras (570–495 BCE): Ionian Greek mathematician and philosopher, best known for the Pythagorean theorem, which was previously known by the Babylonians and Indians. Pythagoras believed in transmigration of the soul: reincarnation into various life forms. Pythagoras reputedly recalled 4 previous lives and heard the cry of a deceased friend in the bark of a dog.

Qian, Nancy: Chinese American economist, interested in economic development, political economy, and economic history.

Qiang He: Chinese botanist.

Qimron, Udi: Israeli microbiologist.

Qing-yu Cai: Chinese physicist, interested in quantum cosmology theory.

Qingdi Wang: Chinese physicist.

Quayle, Dan (1944–): American politician (Republican); 44th Vice President (1989–1993); US Senator from Indiana (1981–1989).

Queller: David C.: American evolutionary biologist.

Quesnay, François (1694–1774): French physician and economist of the physiocratic school. Quesnay’s peasant rural roots go a long way in explaining his idyllic economic ideas.

Queste, Bastien Y.: English marine biogeochemist.

Quetelet, Adolphe (1796–1874): Belgian mathematician, statistician, astronomer, and sociologist.

Quinon, Paula: Swedish philosopher, interested in natural numbers, social media, and the effects on computerization on people.

Rabi, Isidor (1898–1988): Polish-born American physicist.

Rabin, Trevor (1954–): South African musician.

Rader, Randall R. (1949–): disgraced American jurist; chief judge of the CAFC who resigned over a scandal involving bias.

Radford, Andrew: English ethologist, interested in the vocalizations of social animals, and in the impact of human noise.

Raffles, Stamford (1781–1826): British imperialist.

Rahmstorf, Stefan: German ocean physicist.

Raihani, Nichola J.: English zoologist.

Raine, Nigel E.: English animal ecologist.

Raisman, Aly (1994–): American gymnast.

Raj, Arjun: Indian American molecular biologist, cytologist, and bioengineer.

Rajneesh (born Chandra Mohan Jain; aka Osho, Shree Rajneesh, Acharya Rajneesh) (1931–1990): Indian guru.

Ralph, Timothy C.: Australian quantum physicist.

Ramachandran, Vilayanur S. (1951–): Indian cognitive scientist, interested in behavioral neurology and visual psychophysics.

Ramadan, Tariq (1962–): Swiss academic and philosopher.

Ramankutty, Navin (1977–): Indian agricultural geographer.

Ramanujan, Srinivasa (1887–1920): brilliant Indian mathematical savant.

Ramdas, Samarth (1608–1681): Indian guru.

Rameses II (aka Rameses the Great) (1303–2013 BCE): Egyptian pharaoh who ruled 1279–1213 BCE; regarded as the most powerful pharaoh of ancient Egyptian civilization.

Ramirez, Francisco: Spanish marine ecologist.

Ramond, Pierre (1943–): French physicist working on superstring theory.

Ramsey, James B. (1937–): Canadian econometrician.

Rand, Ayn (1905–1982): Russian American novelist and philosopher; adamant proponent of laissez-faire capitalism.

Rand, David G.: American psychologist.

Randall, Lisa (1962–): American theoretical physicist who works on string theory; best known for the Randall–Sundrum braneworld models (developed with Raman Sundrum).

Randeria, Mohit: Indian American physicist.

Rank, Mark R.: American social welfare scholar.

Ranvier, Louis-Antoine (1835–1922): French physician, pathologist, anatomist, and histologist who discovered the nodes of Ranvier.

Ranjan, Sukrit: Indian astrophysicist and astronomer, interested in the evolution of rocky planets and the origin of life on Earth.

Rankine, William J.M. (1820–1872): Scottish mechanical engineer who made contributions to civil engineering, physics, and mathematics.

Rapley Chris G. (1947–): English climatologist.

Rapley, John: English sociologist, interested in globalization and governance.

Rapp, David N.: American psychologist.

Rascón, Carlos: Spanish mathematician.

Rasmus, Jack: American political economist.

Raspail, François-Vincent (1794–1878): French chemist, naturalist, physiologist, and socialist politician; one of the founders of cytology.

Ratcliff, William C.: American evolutionary biologist.

Ratcliffe, Caroline: American economist, interested in social justice.

Ratliff, Richard L.: American author.

Ratnieks, Francis: English entomologist, interested in honeybee behavior.

Rawlinson, Nicholas: Australian geophysicist.

Rawls, John: American molecular geneticist.

Rawls, John (1921–2002): American moral and political philosopher.

Rawson, Peter: English paleontologist.

Ray, John (1627–1705): English naturalist, botanist, and Anglican parson.

Ray, Michael W.: American experimental physicist.

Raymo, Maureen E.: American paleoceanographer and marine geologist.

Raymond, Ben: English microbiologist, interested in microbial evolution, cooperation, and microbe-host interactions.

Raymond, Jennifer: American neurobiologist and academic.

Raymond, Paula: American social psychologist.

Raymond, Percy E.: American paleontologist, interested in the Burgess Shale.

Razin, Stenka (1630–1671): Cossack revolutionary.

Reagan, Maureen (1941–2001): American actress and political activist (Republican); daughter of Ronald Reagan.

Reagan, Ronald (1911–2004): American actor and politician (Republican); 40th US President (1981–1989).

Rechav, Oded: Israeli neurobiologist.

Redfield, Robert (1897–1958): American anthropologist.

Redi, Francesco (1621–1697): Italian physician, naturalist, and poet. Redi was the first scientist to challenge the spurious surmise of spontaneous generation.

Rees, Martin J.: English astrophysicist.

Rees, Nicholas: English political economist.

Reeves, Richard V.: British-American economist.

Regan, Pamela C.: American psychologist.

Rehnquist, William H. (1924–2005): American jurist; SCOTUS Chief Justice (1994–2005).

Reich, Peter B.: American plant and forest ecologist, interested in the impacts of global environmental change on terrestrial ecosystems.

Reid, Chris R.: Australian ethologist.

Reid, Harry (1939–): American politician (Democrat).

Reid, Noah M.: American evolutionary geneticist.

Reid, Thomas (1710–1796): Scottish philosopher who played an integral role in the Scottish Enlightenment.

Rein, Guillermo: Spanish fire scientist.

Reinhardt, Stephen R. (1931–2018): American jurist.

Reisert, Johannes: English physiologist, interested in olfaction.

Reisner, Marc (1948–2000): American environmentalist.

Reisz, Robert R. (1947–): Romanian paleontologist, interested in early amniote and tetrapod evolution.

Rekdal, Ole Bjørn: Norwegian sociologist, interested in education.

Relman, Arnold S. (1923–2014): American internist and professor of medicine.

Relman, David A.: American microbiologist and immunologist.

Remland, Martin S.: American communication scholar.

Relyea, Rick A.: American biologist.

Ren Xianliang: Chinese bureaucrat.

Renfrew, Colin (1937–): English archeologist.

Renner, Renato: Swiss theoretical physicist.

Resplandy, Laure: American geoscientist.

Reston, James (1909–1995): American journalist, associated with the New York Times for decades.

Retallack, Gregory J.: American geologist who contends that life encroached on land by the end of the Ediacaran.

Reuveni, Shlomi: Israeli systems biologist.

Revelle, Roger (1909–1991): American oceanographer and climatologist.

Revonsuo, Antti: Finnish psychologist, cognitive neurobiologist, and philosopher of mind.

Rey, Felix: French virologist.

Reynolds, Tammy: American psychologist, interested in autism.

Reznikov, Natalie: structural biologist.

Rhodes, Frank H.T. (1926–): American geologist.

Ribicoff, Abraham (1910–1998): British-born American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Connecticut (1963–1981).

Rice, Terry L.: American hydrologist.

Rich, Adrienne (1929–2012): American feminist, poet, and essayist.

Rich, Alexander (1924–2015): American biologist and biophysicist who first suggested the RNA-world hypothesis in 1962.

Richards, Martin (1940–): English programmer.

Richards, Paul W.: English ecologist.

Richardson, Anthony J.: Australian ecologist, interested in marine climate change.

Richardson, Deborah R.: American psychologist.

Richens, Jonathan G.: English quantum physicist.

Richeson, Jennifer: American social psychologist.

Rico-Guevara, Alejandro: Columbian evolutionary zoologist, interested in ornithology.

Rickers-Ovsiankina, Maria (1898–1993): Russian psychologist.

Riemann, Bernhard (1826–1866): German mathematician who contributed to number theory, differential geometry, and analysis. Riemann’s pioneering contributions to differential geometry laid the foundations for the mathematical treatment of general relativity.

Riemer, Kristina: American wildlife ecologist.

Riess, Adam G. (1969–): American astrophysicist.

Rifkin, Jeremy (1945–): American economic and social theorist.

Rilke, Rainer Maria (1875–1926): Bohemian Austrian poet and novelist.

Rinaldo, Andrea: Italian hydrologist.

Rindfleisch, Aric (1965–): American marketing professor.

Ringer, Sydney (1836–1910): English clinician and pharmacologist.

Rippon, Isla: English gerontologist.

Ritchie, Dennis (1941–2011): American programmer who created the C language.

Ritts, Vicki: American psychologist.

Ritzer, George (1940–): American sociologist.

Rivera, Maria C.: American molecular biologist.

Rivers, Johnny (1942–): American singer and songwriter.

Rivinus, Augustus Quirinus (1652–1723): German physician and botanist who evolved botanical classification.

Robbins, Justin: American software support specialist.

Robbins, Lionel (1898–1984): English economist.

Robbins, Tom (1932–): American novelist with a poetic bent.

Robbins, Tony (1960–): American life coach.

Roberts, Edward: American electronics engineer.

Robert, Christopher (Chris): American business management professor, interested in social psychology.

Robert, Théo: English zoologist.

Roberts, John G., Jr. (1955–): American jurist; SCOTUS Chief Justice (2005–).

Roberts, John M. (1928–2003): English historian.

Roberts, Nicholas W.: English physicist, interested in animal bio-optics.

Roberts, William: Canadian psychologist.

Robertson, Brant: American astronomer.

Robertson, Bruce: American ecologist.

Robertson, Robbie (1943–): Canadian musician and songwriter, best known for his work as lead guitarist and primary songwriter for The Band (1967–1976 in its original incarnation).

Robertson, William (1721–1793): Scottish historian, minister, and educator.

Robespierre, Maximilien (1758–1794): French lawyer and politician.

Robinson, Daniel N.: American psychologist.

Robinson, Douglas: American cytologist.

Robinson, Gene E.: American systems biologist and genomist.

Robinson, James A.: English political scientist and economist.

Robinson, Jo: American nutritionist.

Robinson, Ken (1950–): English consultant on arts education.

Robinson, Marilynne (1943–): American novelist and essayist.

Robinson, Richard: American science writer, interested in neurobiology.

Robinson, Robert J.: American psychologist.

Rocha, Luiz: American ichthyologist, zoologist, and evolutionary biologist.

Rockefeller, John D. (1839–1937): American oil industry magnate and industrialist. Rather than investing in the riskier aspects of prospecting and drilling, Rockefeller concentrated on oil refining. Rockefeller became the richest person in modern times. His Stanford Oil grew to control 90% of the US oil supply. The US Supreme Court broke the monopoly in 1911, forcing Rockefeller to split Standard Oil into 34 companies.

Rockström, Johan: Swedish environmentalist.

Roddenberry, Gene (1921–1991): American television screenwriter.

Rodejohann, Werner: German physicist.

Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.: American ecological zoologist.

Rodrik, Dani (1957–): Turkish economist.

Roebuck, John (1718–1794): English industrialist and chemist.

Roediger, Brendan: American civil rights lawyer.

Roese, Neal J.: American psychologist.

Roethke, Theodore (1908–1963): American poet.

Roger, Andrew J.: English evolutionary biologist.

Rogers, Carl (1902–1987): American psychologist who was a leading light of humanistic psychology.

Rogers, Lesley J.: Australian zoologist and neurobiologist.

Rogers, Mike (1963–): American politician (Republican).

Rogers, Todd: American behavioral scientist, interested in public policy.

Rogers, Will (1879–1935): American cowboy, actor, and humorist.

Rohn, Jennifer L. (Jenny): American British scientist, interested in cytology and infectious diseases.

Rohwer, Forest: American virologist.

Roll, Barbara Honeyman Heath (1910–1998): American physical anthropologist, interested in somatyping.

Rollin, Bernard E.: American bioethicist and philosopher.

Romanes, George (1848–1894): Canadian Scot evolutionary biologist and physiologist who coined the term neo-Darwinism to apply to hypotheses which updated Darwinism.

Romano, Angelo: Italian psychologist, interested in cooperation.

Rømer, Ole (1644–1710): Danish astronomer who made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.

Römer, Thomas: French Bible scholar.

Romero, Aldemaro Jr. (1951–): Venezuelan American biologist.

Romero, Jacquiline: Australian quantum physicist, interested in photons.

Romero, Teresa: American zoologist.

Römling, Ute: Swedish microbiologist.

Romulus (?–753 BCE): the mythical founder of Rome. According to legend, twin brothers, Romulus and Remus, were borne by Rhea Silvia, daughter of Numitor, King of Alba Longa.

Before the brothers’ conception, Numitor’s brother Amulius seized power. Amulius slaughtered Numitor’s male heirs and forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, sworn to chastity.

Mars (the god) fathered the twins which Rhea Silvia conceived. Once born, Amulius had them tossed into the Tiber river to die. The twins survived through a series of miraculous interventions: the river portered them to safety; a she-wolf discovered and suckled them; and a woodpecker fed them.

A shepherd and his wife found the twins and fostered them to manhood. Ignorant of their origin, they became simple shepherds. But they were natural leaders, acquiring many followers.

Upon discovering their birthright, the brothers killed Amulius and restored Numitor to the throne. Rather than wait to inherit Alba Longa, they chose to found a new city.

The brothers agreed to determine the city’s site through augury. They quarreled about the outcome, and Romulus killed Remus; whereupon Romulus founded the new city, naming it Rome after himself.

Rome grew rapidly, swelling with landless refugees. As most of these were male and unmarried, Romulus arranged the abduction of women from the neighboring Sabines tribe.

The ensuing war ended with the Sabines joining the Romans as one people. Rome became a dominant regional force while Romulus grew increasingly autocratic. The circumstances of Romulus’ death remain a mystery.

Röntgen, Wilhelm (1845–1923): German physicist who first accidentally generated X-rays.

Roosevelt, Eleanor (1884–1962): American social activist and diplomat; wife of Franklin Roosevelt. As First Lady, Roosevelt was controversial for her outspoken support of universal civil and human rights.

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (FDR) (1882–1945): American politician (Democrat); 32nd US President (1932–1945), winning a record 4 elections for the office; a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the US during the Great Depression and World War 2.

Roosevelt, Theodore Jr. (Teddy) (1858–1919): American politician (Republican), adventurer, and killer of wild animals (“naturalist” would be too kind an attribution, as Roosevelt enjoyed slaughter much more than study); 26th US President (1901–1909).

Roosevelt, Theodore (1858–1919): American politician (Republican); 26th US President (1901–1909).

Roots, Clive: English zoologist and science writer.

Rosati, Alexandra G.: American psychologist.

Roscher, Wilhelm (1817–1894): German historian.

Rosen, Evan: American biologist.

Rosen, Nathan (1909–1995): American Israeli physicist.

Rosenblum, Erica Bree: American evolutionary biologist.

Rosenblum, Lawrence D.: American psychologist.

Rosenthal, Joshua: American neurobiologist, interested in cephalopod self-genic editing.

Rosenthal, Robert (1933–): American psychologist, interested in self-fulfilling prophecies.

Rosenzweig, Michael L.: American evolutionary biologist.

Ross, Michael: Canadian psychologist.

Ross, Stephen: American primatologist.

Rosset, Peter: American agricultural ecologist.

Rossini, Gioachino (1792–1868): Italian composer of 39 operas, as well as a variety of other music.

Rotberg, Robert I. (1935–): American historian and political scientist.

Roth, V. Louise: American evolutionary biologist.

Rothbart, Scott B.: American epigeneticist.

Rothman, David J.: American social historian, interested in health care.

Rothmann, Christoph (~1555–1605): German mathematician and astronomer who was a convinced follower of Copernican heliocentricity. This early stargazer fell into oblivion compared to his contemporaries, notably correspondent Tycho Brahe, who was skeptical of Earth moving about.

Rothwell, Jonathan: American economist.

Rotman, Edgardo: Argentinian criminologist and lawyer.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–1778): Genevan philosopher and composer.

Rout, Marnie E.: American botanist.

Rovelli, Carlo: Italian theoretical physicist.

Rousseau, Yannick: Australian marine ecologist.

Roux, Joseph (1834–1905): French Catholic parish priest, poet, and philologist.

Rowe, Harry: American mortician.

Rowland, F. Sherwood (1927–2012): American chemist, interested in chemical kinetics and atmospheric chemistry.

Rowland, Mark: American biologist.

Rowley, David B.: American geophysicist.

Rowling, J.K. (1965–): pen name of Joanne “Jo” Rowling; best known for her Harry Potter young-adult fantasy novels.

Røy, Hans: Danish aquatic microbiologist.

Royer, Sarah-Jeanne: Canadian biological oceanographer, interested in the marine carbon cycle.

Rubi, Tricia: American ethologist, interested in ecological epigenetics.

Rubin, Edgar (1886–1951): Danish psychologist. Though Rubin’s theories were influential to Gestalt psychology, he is not typically considered a cornerstone of Gestalt; nor did he consider himself a Gestalt psychologist, as he was “skeptical of their attempts to construct wide-ranging theories.” Nonetheless, Kurt Koffka retained Rubin’s terminology in his book: Principles of Gestalt Psychology (1935).

Rubin, Marty (1930–1994): American novelist.

Rubinoff, Daniel: American entomologist and ecologist.

Rubner, Max (1854–1932): German physiologist and hygienist who studied the relative rate of metabolism and its relation to life-history variables in animals. Rubner proposed the surface hypothesis: the metabolic rate of endotherms being roughly proportional to body surface area.

Ruddiman, William F.: American paleoclimatologist.

Rudman, Laurie A.: American psychologist.

Rudolph, Terry: English particle physicist.

Ruesch, Jurgen (1910–1995): American psychiatrist.

Ruggiero, Michael A.: American taxonomist.

Rui Fan: Chinese sociologist.

Ruiz, Don Miguel (1952–): Mexican author of spiritualist texts.

Rumsfeld, Donald (1932–): American politician, bureaucrat, and businessman; US defense secretary (2001–2006). Once popular for his candor, admiration wore thin as the wars he helped conduct in Iraq and Afghanistan slogged on to no positive outcome.

Rupprecht, Jean-Francois: French biophysicist.

Rush, Benjamin (1746–1813): American physician, politician, social reformer, educator, civic leader, and humanitarian; a signer of the Declaration of Independence.

Rushkoff, Douglas: American technologist.

Rushworth, Stuart: English cytologist, interested in immunology and hematology.

Ruska, Helmut (1908–1973): German physician and biologist, interested in viruses. Ruska invented the electron microscope.

Ruskin, John (1819–1900): leading English art critic of the Victorian era, also interested in environmentalism.

Russell, Bertrand (1872–1970): English philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, social critic, and political activist.

Russell, Eric M.: American psychologist.

Russell, Joellen L.: American oceanographer.

Russell, John Scott (1808–1882): Scottish engineer who discovered solitons. Russell was a naval architect and shipbuilder.

Russell, Leon (1942–): American musician and songwriter.

Russell, Michael J.: American geochemist.

Russell, Peter: English physicist.

Rutherford, Daniel (1749–1819): Scottish physician, chemist, and botanist; known for isolating atmospheric nitrogen in 1772 without really appreciating what he was doing.

Rutherford, Ernest (1871–1937): English physicist and chemist, known as the father of nuclear physics.

Rutledge, John (1739–1800): American politician and jurist.

Ryan, Alan (1940–): English political theorist and historian of political thought.

Ryan, Paul D. (1970–): American politician (Republican).

Rychkov, Slava: Russian theoretical physicist.

Sabatini, David: American biologist.

Sabina, María (1894–1985): Mazatec curandero.

Sadanandom, Ari: Indian-British botanist.

Saffran, Jenny R.: American psychologist.

Sagan, Carl E. (1934–1996): American astronomer and science writer, interested in extraterrestrial life.

Sagan, Dorion (1959–): American science theorist.

Sahai, Erik: English cell pathologist.

Sahgal, Gita (1956–): Indian journalist.

Sahl, Ibn (940–1000): Persian physicist and mathematician.

Saint Laurent, Yves (1936–2008): Algerian-born French fashion designer.

Saint-Hilaire, Étienne Geoffroy (1772–1844): French naturalist who established the principle of unity of composition: that organisms holistically evolve. Saint-Hilaire defended Lamarck’s idea of evolution via environmental influences.

Saint-Simon, Henri: see de Saint-Simon.

Sakai, Hideaki: Japanese physicist.

Saks, Michael J.: American lawyer and psychologist.

Salam, Abdus (1926–1996): Pakistani theoretical physicist who worked on the unification of electromagnetic and weak forces (electroweak unification).

Salas, Rachel E.: American neurobiologist, interested in sleep disorders.

Salk, Jonas (1914–1995): American medical researcher and virologist, known for developing one of the first successful polio vaccines.

Sallan, Lauren: American evolutionary biologist, interested in macroevolutionary processes.

Salovey, Peter (1958–): American social psychologist.

Saltz, Julia: American evolutionary biologist.

Salzman, C. Daniel: American neurobiologist.

Sambyal, Singh: Indian urban environmental ecologist.

Samet, Jonathan M.: American physician.

Samson (aka Sampson, Shamshoun): legendary Biblical figure, given supernatural strength by God to combat his enemies, and incidentally perform heroic feats. Samson had 2 weaknesses: attraction to untrustworthy women, and his hair, without which he was powerless. These vulnerabilities ultimately proved fatal.

Samson, Alain: American economist, interested in behavioral economics.

Samuelson, Paul (1915–2009): American economist.

Samuelson, Robert J. (1945–): American economic journalist.

Sana, Hughes: Dutch astronomer.

Sanbonmatsu, Karissa: American epigeneticist.

Sanchez, Diana T.: American social psychologist.

Sánchez, Emilia Huerta: American evolutionary biologist.

Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia: Columbian biologist, interested in how cyanobacteria contributed to global nutrient cycles on early Earth.

Sánchez-Bayo, Franciso: ecologist and ecotoxicologist.

Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar: Mexican ornithologist.

Sandage, Allan (1926–2010): American astronomer.

Sanders, Bernard (Bernie) (1941–): American democratic socialist politician.

Sanders, Joseph: American lawyer and legal scholar.

Sanders, Laura: American microbiologist.

Sanders, Mark D. (1950–): American songwriter.

Sanders, Scott R.: American sociologist.

Sanderson, Ivan T. (1911–1973): Scottish biologist.

Sandys, Edwin (1519–1588): English Anglican bishop.

Sandford, Scott: American astrophysicist.

Sanger, Margaret (1879–1966): American social reformer and birth control activist.

Sankara (aka Sri Sankara, Adi Shankara) (8th century?): Indian guru and prolific author who established the main currents of thought in Hinduism.

Sankey, Joel: American geologist.

Santayana, George (1863–1952): Spanish American philosopher.

Sapatakis, Stefanos: Greek environmentalist.

Sapir, Edward (1884–1939): American anthropologist-linguist.

Sarabian, Cecile: French Iranian primatologist.

Saraswatī, Brahmānanda (1868–1953): Indian guru.

Saraswatī, Sivananda (1887–1963): Indian guru.

Sarkar, Subir: Indian theoretical physicist.

Sarno, John E. (1923–): American physician, interested in psychosomatic illness.

Sarnoff, David (1891–1971): Russian-born American radio and television pioneer, leading Radio Corporation of America (RCA) from shortly after its 1919 founding until his retirement in 1970. Sarnoff turned RCA into a telecommunications and media empire that included RCA and NBC, becoming one of the largest companies in the world.

Saroglou, Vassilis: Walloon psychologist, interested in religiosity.

Sartre, Jean-Paul (1905–1980): French philosopher.

Sassone-Corsi, Paolo: Italian biochemist.

Sata, Michael (1937–2014): Zambian politician (Patriotic Front); Zambia President (2011–2014).

Sato, Takuya: Japanese zoologist.

Satyarthi, Kailash (1954–): Indian children’s rights advocate.

Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue: American primatologist and psychologist.

Savery, Thomas (1650–1715): English engineer who invented the first commercial steam engine.

Sawhill, Isabel V.: American political scientist and economist.

Saxe, John Godfrey (1816–1887): mercurial American poet.

Saxe, Rebecca: American psychologist.

Say, Jean-Baptiste (1767–1832): French businessman and economist who observed the wasteful production proclivity of capitalism.

Scahill, Jeremy (1974–): American national security scholar and journalist.

Scalenghe, Riccardo: Italian pedologist.

Scalia, Antonin (1936–2016): conservative American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1986–2016).

Scarman, Leslie (1911–2004): English judge and barrister.

Schacter, Daniel L.: American psychologist.

Schaller, Mark (1962–): American psychologist.

Scharlemann, Jörn P.W.: English ecologist and zoologist.

Schaschl, Helmut: Austrian evolutionary biologist.

Scanlan, David: English marine microbiologist.

Scheck, Marcus: Scottish nuclear physicist.

Scheele, Carl Wilhelm (1742–1786): Swedish pharmaceutical chemist; called “hard-luck Scheele” for making numerous unaccredited chemical discoveries, including oxygen, hydrogen, chlorine, barium, tungsten, and molybdenum. Scheele was a tad slow to publish.

Scheidel, Walter: American historian.

Scheindlin, Shira A.: American jurist.

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von (1775–1854): German philosopher who coined the term unconscious in 1800.

Scheres, Ben: Dutch biologist.

Scheu, S.: German evolutionary zoologist.

Scheuerlein, Alexander: German demographer.

Schiavo, Mary F.: American attorney, interested in airline flight safety; Inspector General of the US Department of Transportation (1990–1997).

Schickard, Wilhelm (1592–1635): German polymath who invented the mechanical calculator.

Schiestl, Florian P.: Swiss botanist.

Schiller, Daniela: American cognitive scientist and psychiatrist.

Schimper, Andreas F.W. (1856–1901): German botanist and phytogeographer (botanical geographer) who contributed to histology, ecology, and plant geography. Schimper first suggested symbiogenesis: that eukaryotic cells arose via symbiosis between prokaryotes.

Schkade, David A.: American psychologist.

Schlegel, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (1772–1829): German poet, philosopher, literary critic, philologist, and Indologist.

Schleich, Carl Ludwig (1859–1922): German surgeon, interested in local anesthesia and hysteria.

Schleich, Wolfgang P. (1957–): German theoretical physicist, interested in the foundations of quantum mechanics.

Schleicher, Andreas: German statistician.

Schleuning, Matthias: German evolutionary ecologist, interested in mutualism.

Schluter, Jonas: English biologist.

Schmaderer, Todd: American police chief of Omaha, Nebraska.

Schmidt, Karen L.: American psychologist.

Schmidt, Matthew: American geological oceanographer.

Schmitz, Ingo: German microbiologist.

Schneier, Bruce (1963–): American cryptographer, privacy and security analyst.

Schnitzer, Stefan A.: American ecologist.

Schoen, Alan H. (1924–): American physicist and computer scientist, known for his discovery of the gyroid.

Schoeman, David S.: South African ecologist, interested in climate change.

Schoenemann, Brigitte: German zoologist.

Schoggins, John W.: American virologist.

Schon, Eric A.: American cytologist, biochemist, and neurologist, interested in mitochondria.

Schooler, Jonathan W.: American psychologist.

Schopenhauer, Arthur (1788–1860): German philosopher who believed that humans were driven through life by a continually dissatisfied will.

Schor, Nina: American biochemist, neurologist, and pediatrician.

Schrenk, Matthew O.: American geomicrobiologist, interested in subsurface ecosystems.

Schroder, Hans S.: American psychologist.

Schrödinger, Erwin (1887–1961): Austrian physicist and theoretical biologist who was one of the fathers of quantum field theory, and later disowned it. Best known for Schrödinger’s equation, regarding the dynamics of quantum systems.

Schudson, Michael (1946–): American sociologist and journalism scholar.

Schultheiss, Oliver C.: German psychologist.

Schuetz, Robert: Swiss microbiologist.

Schulz, Jonathan F.: American economist, interested in cultural norms.

Schulz, Laura: American cognitive scientist, interested in early childhood learning.

Schulz, Richard: American psychologist and gerontologist.

Schulz, Thomas: German economist.

Schulze-Lefert, Paul: German botanist.

Schumacher, E.F. (Ernst Friedrich, Fritz) (1911–1977): German-born British economist, statistician, and humanist.

Schumacher, Ferdinand (1822–1908): German American entrepreneur who developed quick-cooking rolled oats.

Schuman, Robert (1866–1963): Luxembourg-born French politician (Christian Democrat); Prime Minister of France (November 1947–July 1948 and August–September 1948), as well as other ministerial roles in the French government.

Schumpeter, Joseph (1883–1950): Austrian American economist.

Schuster, Arthur (1851–1934): German-born British physicist who worked on electrochemistry, optics, spectroscopy, and X-radiography.

Schuur, Edward A.G.: American ecologist.

Schwägerl, Christian: German biologist and journalist.

Schwann, Theodore (1810–1882): German physiologist who discovered Schwann glia cells.

Schwarz, Dominik J.: astrophysicist.

Schwartz, Gary E.: American psychologist.

Schwarz, Melvin (1932–2006): American physicist.

Schwarz, Norbert: German American psychologist, interested in social psychology and consumer psychology, particularly how people form opinions and make decisions.

Schwarzenegger, Arnold (1947–): Austrian-born American bodybuilder, movie actor, and American politician (Republican).

Schwarzschild, Karl (1873–1916): German physicist, best known for deriving the first exact solution to the Einstein field equations of general relativity. Einstein was only able to produce an approximate solution.

Schweighofer, Nicolas: French cognitive scientist.

Schweitzer, Albert (1875–1965): French German theologian, philosopher, and physician.

Schönrogge, Karsten: English entomologist.

Schürch, Roger: Swiss ethologist.

Schuster, Stefan: German marine biologist.

Sciama, Dennis W. (1926–1999): English physicist, interested in cosmology.

Scoboria, Alan: Canadian psychologist.

Scott, Catherine: Canadian zoologist.

Scott, James C. (1936–): American anthropologist and political scientist.

Scott, Ridley (1937–): English filmmaker.

Scott, Walter (1771–1832): Scottish historical novelist, playwright, and poet, many of whose works remain literary classics. Though remembered as a writer, Scott worked as a lawyer and jurist.

Scrope, Poulet (1797–1876): English geologist, political economist, and jurist.

Searle, John R. (1932–): American philosopher.

Seattle (an anglicization of Si’ahl) (1786–1866): Native American chief of the Suquamish and Duwamish tribes in present-day US Washington state. Seattle pursued a path of accommodation with white settlers. The city of Seattle is named after the chief.

Seeley, Harry G. (1839–1909): English paleontologist who divided dinosaurs into 2 orders based upon pelvic bones: ornithischians and saurischians.

Segal, Alan F. (1945–2011): American religion scholar.

Segal, Mady W.: American sociologist.

Segal, Sabrina: American psychologist, interested in stress management.

Seger, Bob (1945–): American singer/songwriter and roots rock musician who ascended to the UMC.

Seagle, William: English legal scholar and historian.

Seiberg, Nathan (1956–): Israeli theoretical physicist who works on string theory.

Seidel, Marc-David L.: American business management maven.

Seidman, L. William (1921–2009): American economist who headed the US Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and then the Resolution Trust Corporation during the country’s savings and loan crisis (1986–1995).

Seife, Charles: American author and journalist, interested in science and mathematics.

Seifert, Colleen M.: American psychologist.

Sell, Aaron: Australian criminologist.

Seneca (Lucius Annaeus Seneca, aka Seneca the Younger) (4 BCE–65): Roman philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and humorist.

Sentenská, Lenka: Czech arachnologist.

Sereno, Paul C.: American paleontologist.

Sertürner, Friedrich (1783–1841): German pharmacist who discovered morphine.

Sethupathy, Praveen: Indian geneticist.

Seurat, Georges-Pierre (1859–1891): French painter and draftsman.

Severinov, Konstantin: Russian geneticist, interested in the mechanics of gene expression in bacteria, and development of new antibiotics.

Severus Alexander (208–235): Roman Emperor (222–235).

Sewell, Abigail A.: American sociologist.

Seyfarth, Robert M.: American psychologist.

Seymour, Jane (1508–1537): 3rd wife of English King Henry VIII. Jane was not as highly educated as Henry’s 1st 2 wives but was more adept at household management and needlework – both skills that Henry prized.

Seymour, Thomas (1508–1549): English country gentry; brother of Jane Seymour, 3rd wife of Henry VIII, and husband of Catherine Parr, Henry VIII’s 6th and last wife.

Shabala, Stanislav: Australian astrophysicist, best known for his work on black holes.

Shadmehr, Reza: Iranian cognitive scientist.

Shafir, Eldar: American behavioral scientist.

Shackelford, Laura: American anthropologist.

Shah, Anuj K.: American psychologist, interested in the psychology of scarcity.

Shah, James: American psychologist.

Shah of Iran (Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi) (1919–1980): Shah (king) of Iran (1941–1979). The Shah was overthrown after losing the support of the Shia clergy and the working class, due to his policy of secular modernization, conflicts with the traditional merchant class, corruption, and civil suppression.

Shakespeare, William (1564–1616): English playwright and poet, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language. Shakespeare wrote 38 plays, 2 long narrative poems, and 154 sonnets.

Shaku, Soyen (1860 –1919): Japanese Zen monk; the first Zen Buddhist master to teach in the United States.

Shalm, Lynden K.: American physicist.

Shalvi, Shaul: Dutch social psychologist.

Shams, Ladan: American psychologist, interested in multisensory perception.

Shamsi, Hina: American lawyer, interested in national security.

Shannon, Claude E. (1916–2001): American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer, interested in implementing symbolic logic via machinery. Shannon founded circuit design theory (1937) and information theory (1948).

Shannon, Erica K.: American cytologist.

Shapira, Yoash: Israeli economist.

Shapiro, B. Jesse: American organismic and evolutionary biologist.

Shapiro, Carl (1955–): American economist.

Shapiro, James A.: American molecular biologist and bacterial genetics maven.

Shapley, Harlow (1885–1972): American astronomer who discovered the nearby galactic supercluster, now named the Shapley Supercluster.

Shariff, Azim F.: Canadian psychologist.

Sharon, Nathan (1925–2011): Israeli biochemist.

Sharpe, George H. (1828–1900): American lawyer, soldier, spy, diplomat, and civil servant.

Shattuck, Lemuel (1793–1859): American politician, historian, bookseller, and publisher.

Shaver, Daniel: American pest controller.

Shaw, George Bernard (1856–1950): Irish playwright and polemicist, angered by the exploitation of the working class; an ardent socialist.

Sheehan, Michael J.: American zoologist.

Sheldon, Ben C.: English zoologist.

Sheldon, William H. (1898–1977): American psychologist who hypothesized a correlation between body type (somatotype) and personality.

Sheldrake, Rupert: English biologist.

Shellenberger, Michael: American political consultant.

Shelley, Mary (1797–1851): English writer.

Shelling, Thomas C. (1921–): American economist.

Sheng Yang He: Chinese botanist.

Shénnóng: fabled Chinese emperor who supposedly lived ~2,800 BCE (attributed life dates vary by source). Known as the Emperor of the Five Grains, Shénnóng reputedly taught the Chinese basic agriculture and the use of medicinal plants.

Sher, Shlomi: American psychologist.

Shereshevsky, Solomon (1886–1958): Russian journalist and mnemonist.

Sherif, Muzafer (1906–1988): Turkish American social psychologist; a seminal founder of modern social psychology.

Sherman, Jeremy E.: American psychologist, interested in public policy.

Sherman, Lawrence W.: American criminologist.

Sherman, Paul W.: American biologist, interested in the social and reproductive behaviors of animals.

Sherman, William Tecumseh (1820–1891): American soldier (in the North’s Union Army), businessman, educator, and author, remembered for his total-war tactics during the Civil War. English military historian Liddell Hart declared Sherman “the first modern general.”

Sheridan, Jennifer A.: American environmental scientist.

Sherwood, Steven: Australian climatologist.

Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara: Canadian geologist.

Shibutani, Shusaku T.: Japanese cytologist.

Shiffrin, Richard M.: American cognitive scientist.

Shih, Willy C.: American businessman and business academic, with expertise in technology and manufacturing.

Shiller, Robert J. (1946–): American economist.

Shillington, Donna J.: American Earth scientist, interested in tectonics.

Shindell, Drew: American climatologist.

Shipton, Ceri: Australian archeologist.

Shiqiu Liu: Chinese paleontologist.

Shirazi, Saadi (1184–1291): Persian poet.

Shiva, Vandana (1952–): Indian scholar and environmental scientist.

Shivley, Phillips: American political scientist.

Shockley, William Jr. (1910–1989): American physicist who invented semiconductor transistors.

Sholes, Christopher Latham (1819–1890): American inventor who invented the first semi-practical typewriter and devised the querty keyboard layout.

Short, Lester L. (1933–): American ornithologist.

Shoseki, Gido (1814–1865): Japanese Zen Buddhist monk.

Shovelton, Heather: English psychologist.

Shrestha, Mani: Australian evolutionary ecologist, interested in pollination.

Shropshire, J. Dylan: American biologist.

Shtudiner, Ze’ev: Israeli economist.

Shtulman, Andrew: American psychologist.

Shuman, Frank (1862–1918): American inventor and engineer who pioneered solar engines.

Sibley, Nick T.: English investment banker.

Sicotte, Pascale: Canadian primatologist, interested in social dynamics, especially in colobus monkeys.

Sidanius, Jim: English psychologist.

Sidney, Algernon (1623–1683): English politician.

“Liberty cannot be preserved if the manners of the people are corrupted.” ~ Algernon Sidney

Siegel, Bertram: American psychologist.

Sifré, David: French geophysicist.

Signac, Paul (1863–1935): French painter and art theorist.

Silesius, Angelus (1624–1677): German Catholic priest, physician, and poet.

Silk, Wendy Kuhn: American botanist.

Sillers, Tia: American songwriter.

Silva, Isabela A.: Brazilian physicist.

Silver, Roxane Cohen: American social psychologist.

Silverstein, Rachel: American environmental scientist, interested in preserving coral reefs.

Silvertown, Jonathan: English ecologist.

Simcoe, Robert A.: American astrophysicist.

Simmel, Georg (1858–1918): German sociologist.

Simmons, Leigh W.: Australian evolutionary biologist.

Simmons-Duffin, David: American physicist, interested in strongly coupled quantum field theories, with especial interest in conformal field theories.

Simões, Patrício M.V.: Brazilian biologist.

Simons, Kai (1938–): Finnish biochemist.

Simon, Herbert A. (1916–2001): American political scientist, sociologist, psychologist, economist, and computer scientist. Simon was one of the most influential sociologists of the 20th century.

Simon, Paul (1941–): American musician.

Simon, Théodore (1872–1961): French psychologist who, in collaboration with Théodore Simon, developed the first intelligence tests which met widespread acceptance.

Simon-Delso, Noa: Dutch entomologist and ecologist interested in pesticides.

Simplicius of Cilicia (490–560): Greek philosopher; one of the last Neoplatonists who wrote extensively on Aristotle; a pagan persecuted by Justinian in the early 6th century.

Simpson, Alastair G.B.: English evolutionary biologist.

Simpson, Bartholomew JoJo (Bart): son of Homer Simpson in the American cartoon TV series The Simpsons.

Simpson, George Gaylord (1902–1984): American paleontologist, influential in evolutionary theory.

Simpson, Homer: a character in the American cartoon TV series (1989–) about the Simpson family, entitled The Simpsons.

Simpson, O.J. (nicknamed the Juice) (1947–): retired American football player, broadcaster, actor, and convicted felon. Simpson managed to escape criminal, but not civil, prosecution for killing his wife in 1994. Owing to his sociopathy and arrogant stupidity, Simpson’s luck did not hold. Simpson was convicted in 2008 for several felonies – including armed robbery and kidnapping – and sentenced to 33 years in prison.

Simpson, Wallis (1896–1986): English Duchess of Windsor.

Simons, Elwyn: American paleoanthropologist.

Simons, Daniel J.: American psychologist.

Sims, Chris R.: American cognitive scientist.

Sismondi, Jean: see de Sismondi.

Siviter, Harry: English biologist.

Skelton, Alice E.: English psychologist.

Skenderis, Kostas: Dutch theoretical physicist and mathematician.

Skinner, B.F. (1904–1990): American behaviorist psychologist.

Skinner, Brian: American physicist, interested in condensed matter.

Skowronski, John J.: American psychologist.

Skupin, Alexander: Luxembourger biologist.

Skyttner, Lars: Swedish systems theorist.

Slessarev, Eric W.: American soil ecologist.

Slipher, Vesto (1875–1969): American astronomer, discoverer of galaxies beyond the Milky Way.

Sloterdijk, Peter: German philosopher.

Sloutsky, Vladimir: Russian psychologist.

Slovic, Paul (1938–): American psychologist.

Sluse, Dominique: Belgian astrophysicist.

Small, Albion W. (1854–1926): American sociologist.

Smeeding, Timothy M. (Tim): American political economist, interested in inequality and poverty.

Smil, Vaclav: Czech Canadian environmental scientist.

Smith, Adam (1723–1790): Scottish moral philosopher who advocated laissez-faire capitalism.

Smith, Ashley (1978–): American author.

Smith, Alison M.: English botanist.

Smith Brian Tilston: American ornithologist.

Smith, D. Eric: American chemical physicist.

Smith, David: American attorney.

Smith, David H.: American ecologist.

Smith, David J.: American biologist.

Smith, David Livingstone: English philosopher.

Smith, Edward J. (1850–1912): English naval reserve officer who captained the ship Titanic.

Smith, Gregory A.: American immunologist and microbiologist.

Smith, John Maynard (1920–2004): English theoretical evolutionary biologist and geneticist. Smith applied game theory to evolution and studied the evolution of sex and the nature of communication.

Smith, Joseph (1805–1844): American religious leader, founder of the Mormon church (Mormonism) (aka Latter-Day Saints).

Smith, Rick: American CEO of Axon (formerly Taser International), taser manufacturer.

Smith, Stevie (born Florence Margaret Smith) (1902–1971): English poet and novelist.

Smith, Tiffany Watt: English philosopher.

Smithers, Andrew: English economist.

Smolin, Lee: Canadian theoretical physicist.

Snell, William: American cytologist.

Snellius, Willebrord (known in the English-speaking world as Snell) (1580–1626): Dutch astronomer and mathematician.

Snively, Eric: American evolutionary biologist.

Snow, Jacqueline: American psychologist.

Snow, John (1913–1858): English physician; advocate of anesthesia and medical hygiene; considered one of the fathers of modern epidemiology.

Sobel, Noam: Israeli neurobiologist.

Socrates (469–399 BCE): Athenian Greek philosopher, interested in ethics.

“He is richest who is content with the least, for contentment is the wealth of Nature.” ~ Socrates

Soddy, Frederick (1877–1956): English radiochemist and monetary economist who contributed to understanding radioactivity. In understanding the inherent folly of finance and the limits to growth, Soddy anticipated ecological economics.

Söderberg, Patrik: Finnish sociologist.

Sokołowska, Katarzyna: Polish botanist.

Soll, David R.: American hydrologist.

Söll, Dieter: German biochemist.

Solnit, Rebecca (1961–): American writer.

Solomon, Andrew (1963–): American writer on psychology, politics, and culture.

Solomon, Susan (1956–): American atmospheric chemist.

Solow, Robert (1924–): American economist, interested in economic growth.

Solzhenitsyn, Alexander (1918–2008): Russian novelist and historian.

Sommerfeld, Arnold (1868–1951): German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics.

Sommerfeld, Ralf D.: German evolutionary ecologist.

Somvanshi, Vishal S.: Indian bacteriologist and geneticist.

Sophocles (~497–406 BCE): Greek playwright (tragedian) who wrote over 120 plays.

Sorek, Rotem: Israeli molecular geneticist, interested in bacteriophage strategies and epigenetic regulation in microbes.

Sorel, Georges (1847–1922): French political philosopher who advocated revolutionary syndicalism.

Sorg, Martin: German entomologist.

Soros, George (1930–): Hungarian American business magnate and political activist.

Sotomayor, Sonia (1954–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (2009–).

Soulsbury, Carl D.: English zoologist.

Souter, David H. (1939–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1990–2009).

Southwell, Robert: 16th-century English landowner.

Southworth, Darlene: American botanist.

Sowell, Thomas (1930–): American economist, social theorist, and political philosopher.

Spalding, Douglas (1841–1877): English biologist who discovered imprinting and the Baldwin effect in the early 1870s.

Spatz, Joachim: German cytologist.

Speakman, John R.: Scottish biologist, interested in biogerontology.

Spearman, Charles (1863–1945): English psychologist, known for his work in statistics as a pioneer in factor analysis. Spearman did seminal work on measuring human intelligence, notably his theory of general intelligence, which may be gleaned through disparate cognitive test scores.

Speer, Albert (1905–1981): Adolf Hitler’s chief architect who accepted moral responsibility for the Nazi regime at the post-war Nuremberg war crimes trials, though incredibly insisted that he was ignorant of the Holocaust.

Spelke, Elizabeth S.: American psychologist.

Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903): English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and liberal political theorist.

Sperry, Roger (1913–1994): American neurobiologist who won a Nobel prize for brain butchery on epileptics and concocting overstated rubbish about mental processing from his physical experiments.

“Each brain hemisphere is indeed a conscious system in its own right, perceiving, thinking, remembering, reasoning, willing, and emoting, all at a characteristically human level, and both the left and the right hemisphere may be conscious simultaneously in different, even in mutually conflicting, mental experiences that run along in parallel.” ~ Roger Sperry in 1974

Spevak, Christopher: American doctor who works with military personnel and veterans in pain.

Spicer, Andrew: American international business professor.

Spielberg, Ben: American labor maven, mathematician, and computational scientist.

Spillane, Katelyn M.: English immunologist.

Spinoza, Baruch (born Benedito de Espinosa, aka Benedict de Spinoza) (1632–1677): Dutch rationalist philosopher who laid the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment. Spinoza believed that personal well-being was the primary driver of behavior, an idea that anticipated evolutionary psychology. In viewing pain, pleasure, and desire as indicators of well-being, Spinoza anticipated Freud’s pleasure principle. Spinoza thought that appraisal of a situation determines emotional response and that we change our emotions by changing our thoughts, which is the basic principle of cognitive therapy.

Spira, Rupert (1960–): English philosopher.

Sponberg, Simon: American biologist and physicist.

Spoor, Fred: English evolutionary anthropologist.

Spottiswoode, Claire N.: English ethologist.

Sprecher, Susan: American psychologist.

Sprigg, Reginald C. (1919–1994): Australian geologist and conservationist who discovered fossils of Ediacaran biota in 1946 in the Ediacara Hills of south Australia.

Spruzheim, Johann Gaspar (1766–1832): German physician who popularized phrenology.

Srinivasan, Mandyam V.: Indian-born Australian biologist, interested in the visual systems of bees and birds.

Srour, Marc: German paleontologist and entomologist.

Stadler, Josef: Swiss economist.

Stahl, Georg Ernst (1659–1734): German chemist and physician who hypothesized biological vitalism.

Stairs, Shaun: English organic chemist, interested in abiogenesis.

Stampfer, Meir: American epidemiologist.

Standing, Guy: English social economist.

Stanley, Kenneth O.: American computer scientist, interested in evolution.

Stalin, Joseph (1878–1953): Georgian-born Soviet politician; leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death. Stalin replaced Lenin’s capitalist-oriented economic policy with a highly centralized command economy, geared to industrialization, with forced collectivism on the farm. By ruthless policies that created mass starvation, along with outright massacres, Stalin killed 20 million of his own people, and imprisoned millions more in labor camps. Yet, in the post-Soviet era, Russian public opinion polls rank him as one of the greatest leaders in history. Russians don’t know their country’s history any better than Americans do.

Standish, Arthur: English writer on agriculture.

Stanovich, Keith E.: Canadian psychologist, interested in the psychologies of reasoning and reading.

Stark, Alyssa Y.: American zoologist, interested in the functional morphology of animals.

Stark, Jay T.: English paleoanthropologist.

Stark, Johannes (1874–1957): German physicist and enthusiastic Nazi who agitated against the “Jewish physics” of Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg (who was not Jewish).

Stark, John M.: American biologist and ecologist.

Starkman, Glenn D.: astrophysicist.

Stasinos (776–580 BCE): Greek poet.

Stefan, Jožef (1835–1893): Austrian physicist and mathematician, best known for stating in 1879 the physical power law that the total radiation from a black body is proportional to the 4th power of its temperature.

Stefani, Frank: German physicist.

Steffen, Will (1947–): American chemist, interested in climate change.

Stegemann, Sandra: Belgian biochemist.

Steinbeck, John (1902–1968): American novelist.

Steinberg, Peter: American physicist.

Steiner, Rudolf (1861–1925): Austrian philosopher, social reformer, esotericist, and architect.

Steinhardt, Paul J.: American theoretical physicist. Steinhardt helped develop the notion of cosmic inflation, but later rejected it, instead embracing cyclic cosmology.

Steinsaltz, Adin (1937–): Talmudic scholar.

Stenger, Victor J. (1935–2014): American particle physicist, atomist philosopher, and godless heathen who advocated science and reason.

Stenhammar, Joakim: Swedish physical chemist.

Stenmark, Harald: Norwegian cytologist.

Stenner, Karen: American political psychologist and behavioral economist.

Stephens, James (1800–1950): Irish novelist and poet.

Steptoe, Andrew: English psychologist.

Stergachis, Andrew B.: American geneticist.

Stern, Andy (1950–): American labor leader; former head of the Service Employees International Union (1996–2010).

Stern, Fritz (1926–2016): German-born American historian.

Stern, Peter: American science writer.

Stern, William (1871–1938): German psychologist and philosopher, interested in personality and intelligence. Stern coined the term intelligence quotient (IQ).

Sternberg, Robert J. (1949–): American psychologist.

Steuart, James (1713–1780): Scottish mercantilist economist.

Stevens, Ann Huff: American economist.

Stevens, Anthony (1933–): English psychologist and psychiatrist.

Stevens, John Paul (1920–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1975–2010).

Stevens, Martin: English zoologist, interested in sensory ecology and evolution, especially vision and adaptive coloration.

Stevenson, Adlai (II) (1900–1965): thoughtful and eloquent American liberal politician (Democrat); 31st Governor of Illinois (1949–1953). Twice defeated (1952 & 1956) in his quest for the US presidency by the popular war hero: Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Stevenson, Betsey (1971–): American political economist, interested in labor.

Stevenson, Ian P. (1918–2007): Canadian-born American psychiatrist, interested in reincarnation.

Stevenson, Sean R.: English botanist.

Stewart, Balfour (1828–1887): Scottish physicist, interested in solar dynamics.

Stewart, Mark: Australian civil engineer and security analyst.

Stewart, Martha (1941–): American businesswoman, writer, and TV personality.

Stewart, Potter (1915–1985): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1959–1981).

Stier, Haya: Israeli sociologist.

Stinnett, Suzanna Beth: American author and feminist.

Stinson, Philip: American criminologist and policing expert.

Stirner, Max (aka Johann Kaspar Schmidt) (1806–1856): German antistatist philosopher. Stirner is known for his book The Ego and Its Own (1844).

Stöckl, Anna Lisa: Swedish neurobiologist, interested in animal nocturnal vision.

Stradler, Lewis J. (1896-1954): American geneticist, interested in the mutagenic effects of radiation.

Stibitz, George (1904–1995): American mathematical physicist who tinkered with electromechanical calculators.

Stiglitz, Joseph E. (1943–): American economist.

Striker, Gustavo Gabriel: Argentinian botanist.

Stocker, Roman: American microbial ecologist.

Stoddard, Mary Caswell: American evolutionary biologist and ethologist, interested in birds.

Stoeckle, Mark: American ethologist.

Stoll, Arthur (1887–1971): Swiss biochemist.

Stolypin, Pyotr (1862–1911): Russian Prime Minister (1906–1911). During his tenure, Stolypin tried to counter revolutionary groups, and implemented agrarian reforms, which aimed to stem peasant unrest by creating a class of market-oriented landowners. Stolypin was one of the last major statesmen of Imperial Russia with clearly defined policies and a determination to undertake major reforms.

Stopes, Marie (1880–1958): English author, paleobotanist, eugenicist, and women’s rights advocate, most notably as a pioneer in birth control.

Storr, Anthony (1920–2001): English psychoanalyst and psychiatrist.

Stotsky, Sandra: American educator.

Stout, Martha: American psychologist.

Stow, Adam: Australian zoologist.

Strack, Fritz: German psychologist.

Stranges, Saverio: American epidemiologist.

Strassmann, Joan E.: American evolutionary biologist.

Strauss, Lewis L. (1896–1974): American businessman and bureaucrat.

Strauss-Kahn, Dominique (1949–): French politician and diplomat.

Streep, Meryl (1949–): American actress.

Strelkowa, Natalja: geneticist, interested in microbial evolution.

Stringer, Chris (1947–): English anthropologist.

Strohminger, Nina: American psychologist.

Strömberg, Caroline: Swedish botanist and paleobiologist.

Strona, Giovanni: Italian ecologist and biogeographer.

Strong, Barrett (1941–): American singer and songwriter.

Strong, Josiah (1847–1916): American Protestant clergyman who called for social justice.

Stroustrup, Bjarne (1950–): Danish programmer who developed C++.

Strycker, Noah: American ornithologist.

Stuart, John (1740–1811): English clergyman and educator.

Stuart, Tristram (1977–): English environmental scientist, interested in food waste.

Stuart, Yoel E.: American evolutionary biologist.

Stump, Christopher: American fishing observer.

Stumpf, John G. (1953–): American banker; chief of Wells Fargo who resigned in disgrace over fraud committed by the bank.

Su-Yang Xu: Chinese physicist.

Sudarshan, E.C. George (1931–): Indian theoretical physicist, interested in various quantum phenomena.

Süel, Gürol M.: American biologist, interested in biofilms.

Suess, Eduard (1831–1914): English geologist who was a pioneer in appreciating ecology.

Suess, Hans E. (1909–1993): Austrian-born American physical chemist and nuclear physicist.

Suez, Jotham: Israeli nutritionist.

Sugita, Yoichi: Japanese psychologist, interested in sensation.

Suleiman the Magnificent (aka Suleiman I, Kanunî Sultan Süleyman (“The Lawgiver Suleiman”)) (1494–1566): 10th and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1520–1566). Suleiman presided over the apex of the Ottoman Empire, personally leading his armies in conquering Christian strongholds in Hungary, Serbia, and Greece before being checked at Vienna in 1529. Suleiman annexed much of the Levant. The Ottoman fleet dominated the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf. Suleiman instituted major changes in educational, social, criminal, and taxation law. Suleiman, himself a distinguished poet and goldsmith, was a great patron of culture, overseeing a golden age of Turkish art, literature, and architecture.

Sullivan, J.W.N. (1886–1937): English science writer and literary journalist.

Sullivan, John: American programmer.

Sulutvedt, Unni: Norwegian cognitive psychologist.

Summers, Lawrence (1954–): American economist.

Sumner, William G. (1840–1910): American sociologist, historian, political theorist, and anthropologist. A classical liberal, Sumner supported laissez-faire economics. An opponent of imperialism, Sumner employed the term ethnocentrism to explain its roots. Sumner had a lasting influence on conservative thought in the United States.

Sun, Joseph C.: American immunologist.

Sun Tzu (6th century BCE): legendary Chinese military general, strategist and philosopher, famous for the war strategy book The Art of War, though the book was completed well after his time. Sun Tzu probably provided the core strategic concepts.

Sunday, Billy (1862–1935): American athlete and evangelical Christian preacher.

Sundrum, Raman: American theoretical particle physicist, known for the Randall–Sundrum braneworld models (developed with Lisa Randall).

Sunstein, Cass R. (1954–): American behavioral economist and legal scholar.

Sundström, Liselotte (1955–): Finnish evolutionary zoologist, interested in the social evolution of ants.

Suntzeff, Nicholas B. (1952–): American astronomer.

Superbus, Lucius Tarquinius (aka Tarquin the Proud) (?–495 BCE): 7th and last King of Rome (535–509 BCE); a usurper and tyrant, overthrown by popular revolt.

Superman (1938–): fictional superhero appearing in American comic books.

Susskind, Leonard (1940–): American theoretical physicist; a pioneer in string theory who also works in quantum field theory, quantum statistical mechanics, and quantum cosmology.

Sussman, Dafna: Canadian physicist.

Sutherland, John D.: English biochemist.

Suttle, Curtis A.: American biochemist.

Sutton, Gregory: English zoologist.

Swaab, Roderick I.: Dutch communication scientist.

Swaab, Dick F. (1944–): Dutch neurobiologist and physician.

Swami, Viren: Malaysian psychologist.

Swammerdam, Jan (1637-1680): Dutch biologist and microscopist. Swammerdam sought to disprove metamorphosis, so studied the life stages of insects under the microscope (egg, larva, pupa, adult). He denied what he observed. After 5 intense years of beekeeping, Swammerdam concluded that male and female bees do not copulate.

Swan, Joseph (1828–1917): British physicist and chemist who invented the incandescent light bulb.

Swann, Ingo D. (1933–2013): American painter, capable of remote viewing.

Swarts, Frédéric (1866–1940): Belgian chemist who synthesized the first CFC.

Swartz, Luke: American software analyst.

Swartz, Sharon M.: American evolutionary biologist, interested in mammalian limb evolution, especially bats.

Sweatt, J. David: American biochemist.

Swedenborg, Emanuel (1688–1772): Swedish scientist, theologian, and Christian mystic who developed the nebular hypothesis: that the solar system formed by gyral matter accretion.

Sweeney, Lora B.: American developmental neurobiologist.

Sweetman, Andrew K.: English marine ecologist.

Swenson, David X.: American systems analyst, interested in forensic psychology.

Swindoll, Charles R. (1934–): American evangelical Christian pastor and author.

Sylvester, James Joseph (1814–1897): English mathematician.

Symonds, Matthew R.E.: Australian evolutionary biologist.

Symons, Donald (1942–): American anthropologist, interested in evolutionary psychology.

Synder, Charles R. (1944–2006): American psychologist.

Synder, Timothy: American historian.

Synolakis, Costas: Turkish civil and environmental engineer.

Syrus, Publilius (85–43 BCE): Latin writer who began as a Syrian slave taken to Italy. Freed by his master because of his wit and then educated, Syrus secured for himself a place in history.

Szent-Györgyi, Albert (1893–1986): Hungarian physiologist who discovered vitamin C.

Szücs, Marianna: American entomologist, interested in evolution.

Sztarker, Julieta: Argentinian neurobiologist.

‘t Hooft, Gerard (1946–): Dutch theoretical physicist, interested in quantum gravity, black holes, gauge theory, holistic dimensionality, and the holographic principle.

Tacitus (Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus) (56–117): Roman senator and historian; by his sharp insight, considered one of the greatest Roman historians.

Taga, Michiko E.: American botanist and microbiologist.

Tagliazucchi, Enzo: Argentinean neurobiologist.

Tajfel, Henri (1919–1982): Polish social psychologist, interested in social judgment.

Tait, Peter (1831–1901): Scottish mathematical physicist, best known for his work on knot theory.

Takakazu, Seki (aka Seki Kōwa) (1642–1708): Japanese mathematician who laid the foundation for the Japanese school of mathematics (wasan).

Talaro, Kathleen Park: American molecular biologist.

Tamm, Igor (1895–1971): Russian physicist who conceptualized phonons in 1932.

Tanaka, Hajime: Japanese physicist.

Taney, Roger B. (177–1864): American jurist; 5th SCOTUS Chief Justice (1836–1864).

Tantaros, Andrea (1978–): American political analyst and commentator.

Tanurdžić, Miloš: geneticist and molecular biologist, interested in plant development and epigenetics.

Targ, Russell (1934 –): American physicist and parapsychologist, interested in remote viewing.

Taroni, Andrea: English physicist.

Tarpy, David R.: American entomologist.

Tarr, Bronwyn: English psychologist and dancer.

Tart, Charles T.: American psychologist.

Tattersall, Ian (1945–): British-born American paleoanthropologist.

Tatum, Edward L. (1909–1975): American geneticist who discovered bacterial conjugation with Josua Lederberg.

Taub, Amanda: American attorney and journalist, interested in human rights, foreign policy, and Shetland ponies.

Tawney, Richard Henry (R.H.) (1880–1962): English economic historian and social critic.

Taylor, Alex H.: English corvid researcher.

Taylor, Elizabeth (1932–2011): English American actress.

Taylor, Frederick Winslow (1856–1915): American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial productivity. Taylor was one of the first management consultants.

Taylor, Howard F.: American sociologist.

Taylor, John B. (1946–): American economist.

Taylor, John R.: English physicist.

Taylor, Shelley E. (1946–): American psychologist.

Taylor, Robert W. (Bob) (1932–): American computer scientist.

Taylor, Zachary (1784–1850): American military leader; 12th US President (1849–1850). Taylor became a national hero from his victories in the Mexican American War (1846–1848), allowing him to win the Presidency despite his vague political beliefs. Taylor died of an intestinal ailment, possibly food poisoning, after 17 months in office.

Taymiyyah, Ibn (1263–1328): Mesopotamian Islamic scholar.

Tegmark, Max (1967–): Swedish American cosmologist.

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre (1881–1955): French energyist philosopher, Jesuit priest, paleontologist, and geologist. Although the Catholic Church censored many of Teilhard’s writings during his lifetime, he has been posthumously praised by eminent Catholic figures, including popes.

Teixeira, Ruy: American political and demographic analyst.

Temple, William (1881–1944): English Anglican clergyman and theologist who favored socialism.

ten Brink, Hanna: Dutch evolutionary biologist.

Tenenbaum, Joshua B.: American cognitive scientist.

Terence (aka Publius Terentius Afer) (195/185–159? BCE): North African-born Roman playwright.

Teresa, Mother (1910–1997): Albanian Catholic sister. Though widely admired for devoting her life to helping others, Mother Teresa was criticized for her opposition to contraception, and for the substandard conditions of the hospices which she was responsible for.

Terman, Lewis (1877–1956): American psychologist, interested in intelligence tests.

Tertullian (Quintus Septimus Florens Tertullianus) (155–240): North African Roman Christian theologian. Unlike many Catholic church founders, Tertullian was never favored, as his teachings were unorthodox to later church leaders.

Tesla, Nikola (1856–1943): Serbian-American electrical and mechanical engineer and physicist, interested in telephony and electricity. Tesla contributed to the design of electrical supply using alternating current (AC).

Tetlock, Philip E.: American psychologist.

Tetu, Sasha G.: Australian biochemist and molecular biologist.

Tetzel, Johann (1465–1519): German Catholic friar.

Teufel. Christoph: English psychologist.

Thagard, Paul: Canadian cognition philosopher.

Thaler, Lore: Canadian psychologist.

Thaler, Richard H. (1945–): American economist.

Thales of Miletus (624–546 BCE): Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer who first suggested the scientific method. Thales believed in a material monism (matterism), thereby establishing the religion that poses as modern science. To Thales, water was the primordial substance, as it is essential to life, can move and flow, and change form.

Tharp, Twyla (1941–): American dancer, choreographer, and author.

Thatcher, Margaret (1925–2013): English politician (Conservative); UK Prime Minister (1975–1990).

Thaxton, Charles B. (1939–): American physical chemist and creationism advocate.

Theißen, Günter: German evolutionary biologist.

Theis, Kevin R.: American behavioral, microbial, community, and evolutionary ecologist.

Theobald, Douglas: American biochemist who believes in universal common ancestry.

Theodosius of Bithynia (160–100 BCE): Greek astronomer and mathematician.

Theodosius I (aka Theodosius the Great) (347–395): Roman Emperor (379–395); the last emperor to rule over an undivided the Roman Empire. Theodosius made Christianity the official state religion.

Theoharis, Liz: American urbanologist.

Theophrastus (371–287 BCE): Greek botanist.

Thisted, Ronald A.: American statistician.

Thomas, Bryan: American climatologist.

Thomas, Clarence (1948–): American jurist; SCOTUS Justice (1991–).

Thomas, Dorothy Swaine (1899–1977): American sociologist and economist.

Thomas, Helen (1920–2013): American political reporter; famed White House correspondent. Thomas was the only member of the White House press corps to have her own seat in the White House briefing room. All other seats were assigned to media companies.

Thomas, Lewis (1913–1993): American physician and writer.

Thomas, Lynne H.: English physiochemist.

Thomas, Manoj: Indian American psychologist and marketing academic, interested in consumer behavior.

Thomas, Mridul K.: marine ecologist.

Thomas, Pierre: American news correspondent.

Thomas, Roger K.: American psychologist.

Thomas, William Isaac (1863–1947): American sociologist, interested in migration.

Thompson, Benjamin (aka Count Rumford) (1753–1814): American-born English physicist, inventor, and military man who helped shape the modern understanding of thermodynamics.

Thompson, Dorothy (1893–1961): American journalist and radio broadcaster.

Thompson, Dawn A.: American geneticist.

Thompson, Edmund R. (1930–): American military commander.

Thompson, Faye: English zoologist.

Thompson, M.J.: English zoologist.

Thompson, Suzanne C.: American psychologist.

Thomsen, Christian Jürgensen (1788–1865): Danish antiquarian who created the 3-age system.

Thomson, George P. (1892–1975): English physicist.

Thompson, John N.: American evolutionary biologist, interested in coevolution.

Thompson, Kenneth L. (Ken) (1943–): American programmer who wrote the Unix operating system.

Thomson, Joseph John (J.J.)(1856–1940): English physicist, credited with discovering electrons and isotopes.

Thomson, William (1837–1907) (better known as Lord Kelvin): English mathematical physicist and engineer, best known for suggesting that there is an absolute lower limit to temperature; hence the Kelvin temperature scale.

Thompson, Kenneth P.: American lawyer and district attorney.

Thoreau, Henry David (1817–1862): American author, poet, philosopher, and historian.

Thorndike, Edward (1879–1955): American psychologist, interested in learning.

Thorne, Deborah: American sociologist, interested in economic inequality.

Thorogood, Rose: English zoologist, interested in behavioral ecology.

Thorstein, Veblen (1857 – 1929): American economist and sociologist who viewed economics from an evolutionary perspective, especially how institutions shaped economic behavior. Veblen pioneered institutional economics.

Thorton, Joel A.: American atmospheric scientist.

Thorton, Joseph W.: American evolutionary biologist.

Thrall, Thomas: American financial analyst.

Three Stooges, The (1928–1975): American vaudeville and comedy act. Beginning as a raucous foursome vaudeville act Ted Healy and His Stooges in 1928, Larry, Curly and Moe officially adopted the moniker The Three Stooges in 1934.

Thurber, James (1894–1961): American humorist.

Thrasher, James F.: American public health researcher.

Thurber, Andrew R.: American oceanographer.

Thurber, James (1894–1961): American author, cartoonist, playwright, and journalist.

Thurber, Rebecca Vega: American virologist.

Thuy, Ben: biologist, interested in deep-sea creatures.

Tibbetts, Elizabeth A.: American evolutionary biologist.

Tiedemann, Friedrich (1781–1861): German physiologist and anatomist.

Tietmeyer, Hans (1931–): German economist.

Tieu, Lyn: Canadian Chinese linguist.

Tilden, Samuel J. (1814–1886): American politician (Democrat); governor of New York (1875–1876).

Tilman, G. David (1949–): American ecologist.

Timmermans, Marja: German plant geneticist.

Tinbergen, Jan (1903–1994): Dutch economist.

Tinbergen, Nikolaas (1907–1988): Dutch ethologist and ornithologist.

Ting Wang: Chinese geneticist.

Tingley, Morgan W.: American ornithologist, conservation biologist, and quantitative ecologist.

Titchener, Edward B. (1867–1927): English psychologist, best known for describing the structure of the mind like a chemist describes a chemical compound. Titchener was an autocrat, and thoroughly sexist, as demonstrated by his ironclad ban on women from the psychologists’ association he founded (The Experimentalists). Titchener’s school of structuralism, experimentally discerned via introspection, and held together by his own force of will, died with him. But he was influential, by those who expanded on some of his lines of thought, and by opponents to his notions, who founded functionalism.

Tito, Josip Broz (aka Tito) (1892–1980): Yugoslav communist revolutionary and well-regarded dictator of Yugoslavia (1944–1980).

Tizo-Pedroso, Everton: Brazilian ecologist.

Tobin, James (1918–2002): American economist who advocated government intervention to stabilize the economy, and so avoid recessions.

Toch, Hans: American social psychologist who studied violent people.

Todd, Rebecca M.: American psychologist, interested in memory.

Todorov, Alexander: Russian psychologist, interested in how humans form first impressions of others.

Toivanen, Tero: Finnish political economist.

Tōjō, Hideki (1884–1948): Japanese army leader, simultaneously serving as military commander-in-chief and prime minister during the war with the US (1941–1944).

Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543–1616): Japanese founder of the Tokugawa shogunate; the 1st Shogun (1600–1616).

Tolle, Eckhart (1948–): German guru.

Tolkien, J.R.R. (1892–1973): English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor; best known for his fantasy novels The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings.

Tolman, Edward C. (1886–1959): American psychologist; a behaviorist who studied how rats learn to navigate mazes.

Tolman, Richard C. (1881–1948): American mathematical physicist and physical chemist, interested in statistical mechanics.

Tolstoy, Leo (1828–1910): Russian writer, philosopher, and political thinker.

Tomasello, Michael (1950–): American developmental and comparative psychologist.

Tomkins, Gordon M. (1926–1975): American biochemist.

Tomsic, Daniel: Argentinian neurobiologist.

Tongda Xu: Chinese botanist.

Tönnies, Ferdinand (1855–1936): German sociologist and philosopher who studied societal adhesion.

Tooby, John: American anthropologist, interested in evolutionary psychology.

Tooker, John: American entomologist.

Toon, Owen (1947–): American atmospheric and oceanic scientist, interested in the atmospheric effects of the Yucatán big bang.

Topsell, Edward (~1572–1625): English cleric who first used the term species referring to life, whereas earlier references of the term were to wine varieties.

Torbert, Roy B.: American astrophysicist.

Torquato, Salvatore: Italian American theoretical scientist who has contributed to physics, chemistry, mathematics, materials science, engineering, and biological physics.

Torvalds, Linus (1969–): Finnish American programmer who developed Linux.

Toschi, Alessandro: Italian physicist.

Tostevin, Rosalie: English geochemist.

Tourette, George: see de la Tourette, George.

Townshend, Pete (1945–): English musician who founded the musical group The Who (1964–1983, 1989, 1996–).

Toynbee, Arnold (1852–1883): English economic historian, known for his desire to improving the living conditions of the working class.

Toyooka, Kiminori: Japanese botanist.

Toyota, Masatsugu: Japanese molecular biologist.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537–1598): Japanese daimyō, samurai, and politician who unified the country in 1590.

Tracy, Brian (1944–): Canadian entrepreneur.

Trakhtenbrot, Benny: Israeli astronomer, interested in the evolution of black holes.

Travers, Russell E.: American spy.

Traynor, Kirsten S.: American entomologist.

Trefil, James (1938–): American physicist and science writer. Trefil argued that human intelligence is special in his book Are We Unique? (1997).

Trevanian (pseudonym of Rodney William Whitaker) (1931–2005): American novelist and film scholar.

Trevithick, Richard (1771 –1833): English mining engineer who made the first high-pressure steam engine in 1799.

Trewavas, Anthony J. (1939–): English botanist and molecular biologist, interested in plant behavior and intelligence.

Trigger, Bruce G. (1937–2006): Canadian anthropologist and archeologist.

Trilling, Lionel (1905–1975): American author, literary critic, and teacher.

Trivers, Robert L. (1943–): American evolutionary biologist and sociobiologist.

Trope, Yaacov: Israeli psychologist, interested in judgment and decision-making.

Trost, Michael J.: American attorney.

Trotsky, Leon (1879–1940): Ukrainian revolutionary and politician.

Truman, Harry S. (1884–1972): American jurist and politician (Democrat); 33rd US President (1945–1953). Truman allowing atomic bombs to be dropped on Japan ranks as one of history’s most horrific war crimes, alongside Hitler’s attempted extermination of Jews. (The Japanese were already defeated by the time the US dropped the 1st atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Instead of a nuclear holocaust, the Americans could have provided evidence to the Japanese of their atomic weaponry. Further, the US atomically bombed Nagasaki just 3 days after Hiroshima, before the Japanese had a chance to appreciate the magnitude of destruction they were facing and surrender. Truman allowed the 2nd bomb to satisfy scientists who wanted to see the improved design and firepower they had come up with for the Nagasaki bomb, not for any military reason.)

Trump, Donald (1946–): American real estate magnate, con artist, and plutocrat who disguised himself as a populist politician (Republican) to barely become the 45th US President (2017–), thanks to Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election and a corrupt electoral system.

Tryon, Edward P. (1940–): American physicist.

Tryon, Thomas (1634–1703): English hatter, environmentalist, author of popular self-help books, and advocate of vegetarianism. As a child, Tryon was forced to work spinning wool, receiving no education. In his teens, Tryon taught himself to read in his spare time while working as a shepherd. In 1657 Tryon followed his inner voice to become a vegetarian and lived frugally. In 1682 his inner voice instructed Tryon to write books that encouraged a healthy lifestyle. His most popular book was The Way to Health (1691), which inspired Benjamin Franklin to become a vegetarian.

Tsai, Claire I.: Taiwanese behavioral economist, interested in decision-making.

Tsakalotos, Euclid (1960–): Greek politician and economist.

Tsalikoglou, Fotini: Greek psychologist.

Tsuchiya, Tokuji: Japanese plant cytologist.

Tuchman, Barbara W. (1912–1989): American historian.

Tucker, Abraham E.: American biologist.

Tucker, Marlee A.: German ecologist, interested in animal behavior and movement patterns.

Tuff, Kika: American ecologist.

Tufte, Edward R. (1942–): American statistician.

Tullius, Servius: legendary, popular 6th King of Rome (575–535 BCE).

Tully, R. Brent (1943–): Canadian astronomer.

Turberville, Sarah: American attorney and political activist.

Turchin, Peter (1957–): Russian American scientist, interested in societal evolution.

Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques (1727–1781): French statesman and economist of the physiocracy school, remembered as an early advocate of a laissez-faire market system.

Turin, Luca (1953–): Lebanese biophysicist.

Turing, Alan (1912–1954): influential English logician, mathematician, computer scientist, cryptanalyst, and theoretical biologist; influential in the conceptualization of computer science; persecuted by the British government for homosexuality to the point of suicide (torture which Queen Elizabeth called “appalling” in 2009).

Turkheimer, Eric: American behavioral geneticist.

Turner, J. Scott: American zoologist.

Turner, Jennifer: American human rights scholar.

Turner, Michael S. (1949–): American theoretical cosmologist and physicist. Turner coined the term dark energy.

Turquet, Pierre (1913–1975): English psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, interested in group relations.

Tūsī, Nasīr al-Dīn (1201–1274): Persian polymath who proposed a hierarchical theory of evolution.

Tusk, Donald (1957–): Polish diplomat, politician, and historian.

Tusser, Thomas (1524–1580): English poet and farmer.

Tutankhamun (1332– 1323 BCE): an Egyptian pharaoh from the age of 9 who reigned for a decade; the son of Akhenaten.

Tuveson, David A.: American oncologist.

Tversky, Amos (1937–1996): Israeli American psychologist.

Twain, Mark (pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens) (1835–1910): talented American author, prized for his satire and wit. Best known for the novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885).

Twenge, Jean M. (1971–): American psychologist, interested in the psychological differences between generations of Americans.

Twombly, Saran: American environmental biologist.

Tyler, George R.: American economist.

Tyler-Smith, Chris: English paleoanthropologist, interested in the evolutionary genetics of humans.

Tyndall, John (1820–1893): Irish physicist who studied diamagnetism, infrared radiation, and the properties of air.

Tyutchev, Fyodor (1803–1873): Russian poet.

Udall, Stewart L. (1920–2010): American politician (Democrat), US Secretary of the Interior (1961–1969), and environmentalist.

Udell, Monique A.R.: American zoologist.

Ujvari, Beata: Australian evolutionary ecologist, biologist, geneticist, and immunologist.

Ulpian (170–223): Roman jurist who became chief advisor to Emperor Severus Alexander. Ulpian’s curtailment of the privileges granted to the Praetorian Guard by the previous emperor, Elagabalus, provoked their enmity. As vengeance, Ulpian was murdered in the palace by officers in his command.

Underwood, Peter (1923–2014): English paranormal researcher.

Unger, Nadine: English mathematician and chemist, interested in climate change, especially the atmosphere.

Unruh, William G. (Bill) (1945–): Canadian physicist, interested in gravity. Among other eccentricities, Unruh thinks that quantum nonlocality is actually local, as quantum bits need not subscribe to Bell’s theorem.

Uomini, Natalie Thaïs: English anthropologist, interested in the origin of hominin language and stone tool technologies.

Ur-Nammu: founder of the 3rd Sumerian dynasty (aka the Sumerian Renaissance), which he ruled 2047–2030 BCE.

Uyeda, Josef C.: American evolutionary biologist and zoologist.

Vadén, Tere: Finnish energy scholar and philosopher.

Vahidassr, Djamil: Indian elderly care physician.

Vail, Alexander L.: English zoologist.

Valencia, Alfonso: Spanish biologist.

Vaillant, George E. (1934–): American psychiatrist.

Valéry, Paul (1871–1945): French poet, essayist, and philosopher. While best known as a poet, he published fewer than 100 poems and none of them drew much attention.

Valla, Lorenzo (1406–1457): Italian humanist, best known for his textual analysis proving that the Donation of Constantine was a forgery. The Donation of Constantine was a document purportedly by emperor Constantine I that transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope. The forgery was composed in the 8th century, and used, especially in the 13th century, to support claims of political authority by the papacy.

Vallacher, Robin R.: American psychologist.

Vallortigara, Giorgio: Italian cognitive psychologist.

Van Aken, Olivier: Australian botanist, molecular biologist, and geneticist.

Van Allen, James A. (1914–2006): American astrophysicist who discovered the radiation belt surrounding Earth in 1958.

Van Bavel, Jay J.: American social psychologist, interested in ethics and values.

van Dam, Nicole: Dutch botanist.

van der Heijden, Marcel G.A. (1931–): Swiss evolutionary biologist.

van der Kooi, Casper J.: Dutch evolutionary biologist, interested in reproductive modes and pollination biology.

van der Marel, Dirk: Dutch physicist.

van der Putten, Wim H.: Dutch terrestrial ecologist.

van der Waals, Johannes Diderik (1837–1923): Dutch theoretical physicist and thermodynamicist, famous for his work modeling gases and liquids.

van der Wal, Casper H. (1971–): Dutch quantum physicist.

van Dokkum, Pieter: Dutch astronomer.

van Dyke, Henry Jackson (1852–1933): American author, educator, and clergyman.

van Eeden, Frederik (1860–1932): Dutch psychiatrist and prolific writer.

Van Gogh, Vincent (1853–1890): exceptional and influential Dutch post-impressionist painter.

van Helmont, Jan Baptist (1579–1644): Belgian chemist, physiologist, and physician, best remembered for his advocacy of spontaneous generation, which turned out to be rot. van Helmont is considered the father of pneumatic chemistry and credited with introducing the term gas (from the Greek word for chaos) into scientific nomenclature.

van Kleef, Gerben A.: Dutch social psychologist.

van Leeuwen, Edwin J.C.: Dutch primatologist, interested in the social relationships and behavioral flexibility of non-human primates.

van Leeuwenhoek, Antonie (1632–1723): Dutch lens-grinder, microscopist, and the first microbiologist.

van Lexmond, Maarten Bijleveld: Dutch biologist and conservationist, interested in pesticides.

Van Oystaeyen, Annette: Belgian evolutionary biologist.

Van Raamsdonk, Mark: Canadian theoretical physicist, working on wormhole entanglement, which is a unified field theory.

van Schaik, Carel P. (1953–): Dutch primatologist.

Van Valen, Leigh (1935–2010): American evolutionary biologist.

Van Vleet, Russ: American political scientist, interested in prison public policy.

Vander Elst, Tinne: Belgian psychologist.

Vanderbilt, Cornelius (1794–1877): American business magnate who diligently built his wealth in shipping and railroads.

Vanderschuren, Hervé: Swiss botanist, interested in crop production and plant biotechnology.

Varela, Francisco: Chilean biologist.

Vasistha (aka Vashistha): ancient Indian guru; credited as the chief author of the 7th mandala (book) of Rig Veda, comprising 104 hymns.

Vaudo, Anthony: American entomologist, interested in bumblebees.

Vaughan, William E. (Bill) (1917–1977): American columnist.

Veblen, Thorstein (1857–1929): American economist and sociologist.

Vecera, Shaun P.: American psychologist, interested in visual cognition.

Vedral, Vlatko: Serbian-born British physicist, working on theories of entanglement and quantum information theory.

Veech, Richard L.: American physician.

Veit, Lena: German neurobiologist.

Veits, Marine: Israeli botanist.

Velasco, Rodrigo Guerrero: Columbian politician.

Veldkamp, Ted I.E.: Dutch Earth scientist and hydrologist.

Veneziani, Alessandro: Italian mathematician.

Veneziano, Gabriele (1942–): Italian string theorist.

Venkataraman, Vivek V.: Indian primatologist.

Venkataraman, Vivek V.: American evolutionary anthropologist and ethologist, interested in the evolution of the human diet and its implications.

Venn, John (1834–1923): English logician and philosopher who invented Venn (set) diagrams.

Venter, Oscar: Canadian Australian South African forest scientist.

Ventura, Jesse (1951–): American professional wrestler, actor, and politician.

Venuti, Lorenzo Campos: Italian theoretical physicist.

Verduyn, Philippe: Dutch psychologist.

Verhofstadt, Guy (1953–): Belgian politician and EU parliamentarian.

Verlinde, Erik P.: Dutch theoretical physicist.

Vermeij, Geerat J. (1946–): Dutch evolutionary biologist and paleontologist.

Verresen, Ruben: German quantum physicist.

Versace, Elisabetta: Italian evolutionary biologist.

Vespasian (9–79): Roman Emperor (69–79).

Vespucci, Amerigo (1454–1512): Florence-born Italian explorer, navigator, cartographer, and financier. ~1502, Vespucci demonstrated that the New World was not Asia’s eastern outskirts as Columbus advertised. The hemisphere came to be called the Americas, derived from the Latin for Vespucci’s first name (Americus).

Victor of Aveyron: a feral French boy taken in human custody at the age of 12 years, in 1800, and eventually adopted by Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard.

Victoria, Queen (1819–1901): Queen of the United Kingdom (1837–1901). From 1876, Victoria also held the title of Empress of India. Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert, in 1840, by whom she bore 9 children. The offspring married into royal houses and noble families across the continent, earning her the sobriquet “the grandmother of Europe.”

Vidal, Gore (1925–2012): American writer. As a novelist, Gore explored the nature of corruption, both public and private.

Viète, François (1540–1603): French mathematician who introduced the use of letters as symbols for variables in algebraic equations.

Vignal, Clémentine: French zoologist.

Vilenkin, Alexander: Ukrainian American physicist, interested in cosmology.

Villa, Paola: Italian anthropologist and naturalist.

Villarreal, Luis P.: American virologist, biochemist, and molecular biologist, interested in the role of viruses in evolution.

Villion, Manuela: French virologist.

Villmoare, Brian A.: American anthropologist.

Vine, David: American anthropologist.

Vinggaard Christensen, Anne: Danish public health scholar.

Virchow, Rudolf (1821–1902): German doctor and biologist; generally acknowledged as the father of modern pathology, known for his advocating public health.

Vitale, Alex S.: American sociologist, expert on US policing practices.

Vitruvius (31 BCE–14): Roman engineer who wrote a 10-volume treatise on all aspects of Roman engineering.

Vivanco, Jorge M.: biologist, interested in the rhizosphere.

Vives, Juan Luis (aka Johannes Ludovicus Vives) (1493–1540): Valencian (eastern Spain) scholar and humanist.

Voelkl, Bernhard: Austrian zoologist.

Vogel, David: American biologist.

Vogel, Steven (1940–2015): American zoologist and biomechanist.

Vohs, Kathleen D.: American psychologist.

Voliotis, Margaritis: English computational biologist.

Volta, Alessandro (1745–1827): Italian physicist who invented the battery.

Voltaire (1694–1778): nom de plume of French philosopher and historian François-Marie Arouet, famous for his wit, for his attacks on Christianity, and for his advocacy of separation of church and state.

von Bayern, Auguste M.P.: German zoologist.

von Bezold, Wilhelm J.F. (1837–1907): German physicist and meteorologist, interested in the physics of the atmosphere, especially atmospheric thermodynamics and electrical storms.

von Bismarck, Otto (1815–1898): Prussian politician.

von Blücher, Gebhard (1742–1819): fiery Prussian field marshal who earned his greatest recognition in leading his army against Napoléon at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813 and the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

von Brücke, Ernst Wilhelm (1819–1892): German physician and physiologist.

von Frisch, Karl (1886 –1982): Austrian ethologist who was interested in honeybee perception.

von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang (1749–1832): German writer, artist, and politician.

von Haller, Albrecht (1708–1777): Swiss physiologist, anatomist, naturalist, and poet. Haller was the inspirational father of homeopathy, with his observation that a tiny dose to a healthy person is the place to begin in determining the effects of a potential remedy, before trials on a sick body.

von Helmholtz, Hermann (1821–1894): German physician, physicist, and philosopher; known for his contributions in understanding vision and thermodynamics. von Helmholtz’s philosophy of science considered the relation between laws of Nature and perception.

von Humboldt, Wilhelm (1767–1835): Prussian philologist, linguist, and diplomat.

von Jolly, Philipp (1809–1884): German physicist and mathematician.

von Liebig, Justus: German chemist.

von Neumann, John (1903–1957): Hungarian American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

von Rueden, Christopher R.: American anthropologist, interested in leadership.

von Shelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph (1775–1854): German philosopher.

von Siemens, Werner (1816–1892): German inventor and industrialist who founded the eponymous company Siemens.

von Wirén, Nicolaus: German botanist.

Vonnegut, Kurt (1922–2007): American writer.

Vono, Maria: Italian medical biologist.

Vorauer, Jacquie D.: Canadian psychologist.

Voss, Joel L.: American cognitive scientist.

Vouloumanos, Athena: American psychologist, interested in the childhood acquisition of spoken language.

Vrba, Elisabeth (1942–): American paleontologist and evolutionary theorist.

Vultaggio, Janelle: American microbiologist, interested in microbiomes and microbial relationships.

Vyas, Ajai: Singaporean biologist.

Vygotsky, Lev S. (1896–1934): Russian psychologist, interested in how culture impacts childhood psychological development. See sociocultural theory.

Wächtershäuser, Günter (1938–): German organic chemist and patent lawyer who developed the iron-sulfur origin of life theory: that life originated in seafloor hydrothermal vents, nestled in pyrite.

Wackett, Adrian: American soil scientist.

Wade, Lizzie: American science writer, interested in anthropology, archeology, “and all things Latin America.”

Wade, Michael J.: American biologist.

Waddington, Conrad H. (1905–1975): English geneticist, developmental biologist, paleontologist, embryologist, and philosopher. Waddington laid the foundation for systems biology.

Wagner, Andreas: Austrian evolutionary biologist.

Wagner, Doris: American microbiologist, interested in floral development regimes.

Wainwright, Peter C.: American evolutionary biologist, interested in vertebrate biomechanics.

Waits, Tom (1949–): American musician.

Walby, Sylvia (1953–): English sociologist.

Walcott, Charles Doolittle (1850–1927): American invertebrate paleontologist and administrator of the Smithsonian Institution (1907–1927). Walcott is best known for his survey of the Burgess Shale, the specimens of which he blithely misinterpreted.

Walker, Alice (1944–): American author and social activist.

Walker, Gilbert T. (1868–1958): English physicist and statistician who discovered the meteorological gyre called the Walker circulation.

Walker, Matthew P.: American psychologist, interested in sleep.

Wall, Diana H.: American ecologist.

Wall, Larry (1954–): American programmer who developed the Perl programming language.

Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913): English naturalist and explorer who contemplated evolution contemporaneously with Darwin.

Wallach, Lori (1965–): American trade analyst.

Wallberg, Andreas: Swedish geneticist.

Wallis, John (1616–1703): English mathematician.

Walker, Sarah Imari: American astrobiologist.

Walpole, Horace (1717–1797): English historian.

Walsh, Debbie: American political scientist and activist.

Walsh, Carolyn: Canadian psychologist and ethologist.

Walras, Léon (1834–1910): French mathematical economist who pioneered the development of macroeconomic equilibrium theory.

Walster, Elaine: American sociologist.

Walter, Heinrich (1898–1989): German ecologist who developed a terrestrial biome scheme in 1976.

Walters, Charles, Jr. (1926–2009): American agriculturist, economist, and journalist.

Walton, Stuart: English cultural historian.

Wang Yangliang: Chinese agricultural bureaucrat.

Wang Yangming (1472–1529): Chinese philosopher, scholar, bureaucrat, and general.

Wang Zhen (1290–1333): Chinese agronomist, technologist, and inventor who reinvented printing using movable wooden blocks in 1298.

Warburg, Paul M. (1868–1932): German-born American and early advocate of the US Federal Reserve System.

Ward, Peter: American marine biologist and paleontologist.

Ward, William Arthur (1921–1994): American writer, best known for his inspirational maxims.

Wardill, Trevor J.: English neurobiologist.

Warner, Charles Dudley (1829–1900): American writer.

Warner, Mark (1949–): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Virginia (2009–).

Warner, W. Lloyd (1898 -1970): American socio-anthropologist.

Warrant, Eric: Australian zoologist, entomologist, and physicist, interested an animal nocturnal vision.

Warren, Caleb: American marketing academic.

Warren, Elizabeth A. (1949–): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Massachusetts (2013–).

Warren, Rachel: English climate change scientist, interested in the biological effects.

Washington, George (1732–1799): American farmer, soldier, politician; 1st US President (1789–1797).

Wass, Sam: English psychologist.

Wasserman, David: American philosopher.

Wasserman, Ed: American psychologist.

Wasserman, Ryan: American philosopher.

Watanabe, Haruki (1986–): Japanese physicist who works on spontaneous symmetry breaking and Nambu-Goldstone bosons.

Waters, Roger (1943–): English musician who co-founded the progressive popular music group Pink Floyd (1965–1995, 2005, 2012–2014).

Waterton, Charles (1782–1865): English naturalist.

Watkins, Bruce: American biochemist and nutritionist.

Watson, David M.: Australian ecologist, interested in biodiversity.

Watson, James: Australian conservation scientist.

Watson, James D. (1928–): American molecular biologist, known as the 1953 co-discoverer of the structure of DNA, with Francis Crick.

Watson, John B. (1878–1958): American psychologist, generally credited with founding behaviorism.

Watson, Kelly: American geoscientist.

Watson, Laurel: American psychologist, interested in gender and ethnic discrimination.

Watson, Mark: English tourism official.

Watson, Richard A.: English evolutionary biologist.

Watson, Robert (1948–): English chemist, interested in the present atmospheric climate change and mass extinction event.

Watt, James (1736–1819): Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who advanced steam engine technology and developed the concept of horsepower as a measure of mechanical power.

Watts, Danièle: American actress, best known for her roles in the movie Django Unchained (2012) and the TV series Weeds (2005–2014).

Watzlawick, Paul: American communication scholar.

Waugh, Darryn W.: American mathematician and climatologist, interested in dynamics and transport in the atmosphere and oceans.

Way, Michael: English cytologist, interested in how pathogens work.

Wayman, Erin: American anthropologist and science writer.

Waytz, Adam: American psychologist.

Weatherall, James O.: American physicist and mathematician.

Weaver, Connie: American nutritionist.

Weaver, Valerie M.: American biologist and biochemist, interested in oncology (tumors).

Webb, Jim: American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Virginia (2007–2013).

Weber, Elke U.: American psychologist, interested in risk-taking.

Weber, Jesse N.: American biologist.

Weber, Max (1864–1920): German sociologist, political economist, jurist, and philosopher who influenced sociology theories.

Weber, Michael: French geneticist.

Webster, Joanne P.: English parasite epidemiologist.

Webster, John (1580–1634): English dramatist.

Webster, Matthew T.: evolutionary biologist.

Webster, Pelatiah (1726–1795): American merchant and economist.

Wechsler, David (1896–1981): American psychologist, interested in intelligence tests.

Weeks, Jeffrey (1945–): Welsh sociologist and history, interested in sexuality.

Wegner, Daniel M. (1948–2013): American social psychologist.

Wegner, Gary A. (1944–): American astronomer; one of the discoverers of The Great Attractor: a massive gravity anomaly in deep space.

Wehner, Peter: American Republican political strategist.

Wei-Jun Cai: Chinese marine chemist, interested in marine carbon cycling.

Weiditz, Hans (1495–1537): German woodcut artist, best known for his lively portrayals of ordinary people.

Weierstrass, Karl (1815–1897): German mathematician.

Weigert, Carl (1845–1904): German pathologist.

Weiguo Yin: Chinese quantum physicist.

Weil, Simone (1909–1943): French philosopher, political activist, and mystic.

Weiler, Edward J.: American astrophysicist and NASA space program administrator.

Weiler, Jonathan: American political scientist.

Weimer, Hendrik: German quantum physicist.

Weinberg, Marc S. (Marco): South African geneticist.

Weinberg, Steven (1933–): American theoretical physicist who contributed to electroweak theory.

Weinstein, Brent M.: American developmental biologist.

Weinstein, Jack B. (1921–): American jurist.

Weintraub, E. Roy(1943–): American mathematician and economist.

Weisbecker, Vera: Australian evolutionary zoologist, interested in vertebrate diversity.

Weisbuch, Max: American social psychologist.

Weissman, Joel S.: American surgeon.

Weismann, August (1834–1914): German evolutionary biologist who denounced Lamarckism, and who proposed the germ plasm theory: that the only carriers of inheritance are germ cells (eggs and sperm).

Weiss, Alexander: English psychologist.

Weiss-Lehman, Christopher: American environmental biologist.

Weitz, Charles: American neurobiologist, interested in circadian clocks.

Weitz, Joshua S.: American viral ecologist.

Weitzman, Jonathan B.: French geneticist interested in epigenetics.

Welch, Jack (1935–): American business executive and chemist; chairman and CEO of General Electric (1981–2001).

Welles, Orson (1915–1985): American actor, writer, director, and producer who worked in theater, radio, and movies.

Wellesley, Arthur (1769–1852): Anglo Irish soldier and statesman who defeated Napoléon at the battle of Waterloo in 1815; 1st Duke of Wellington.

Wells, Gary L.: American psychologist.

Wells, H.G. (1866–1946): English biologist, historian, political analyst, and prolific English author, best known for his science fiction works, including The Time Machine, The Invisible Man, and The War of the Worlds. Wells was a socialist, and a proponent of world government. Wells advocated improving the human breeding stock (eugenics).

Wells, Robert (1922–1998): American songwriter, composer, and scriptwriter.

Wells, William D.: American psychologist.

Wenbin Deng: Chinese molecular biochemist.

Wennersten, Lena: Swedish evolutionary biologist.

Wert, Sarah R.: American social psychologist.

Wertheimer, Max (1880–1943): Prague-born (Austro-Hungarian) Gestalt psychologist.

Wessel, Caspar (1745–1818): Norwegian surveyor who first represented complex numbers geometrically.

Wesson, Paul S. (1949–2015): English theoretical physicist and astrophysicist.

West, Mae (1893–1980): American actress and sex symbol.

“I used to be Snow White, but I drifted.” ~ Mae West

West, Stuart A.: English microbiologist.

Westfall, Corey: American microbiologist.

Westinghouse, George (1846–1914): American entrepreneur and engineer who invented the rotary steam engine, the railway air brake, and was a pioneer in the electrical power industry.

Westneat, Mark W.: American evolutionary biologist.

Westerhoff, Jan C.: German British philosopher.

Weston, Eleanor M.: English paleontologist.

Westwood, James H.: American plant pathologist.

Wexler, Chuck: American criminologist and policing expert; executive director of the Police Executive Research Forum.

Weyl, Hermann (1885–1955): German mathematician and theoretical physicist; one of the first to conceive of combining electromagnetism with general relativity.

Whalen, Grover A. (1886–1962): American politician and businessman.

Wheatley, Margaret J. (Meg) (1941–): American writer and management consultant.

Wheelan, Charles: American economist.

Wheeler, John A. (1911–2008): American theoretical physicist who worked on the principles behind nuclear fission. Wheeler collaborated with Albert Einstein on a relativity-based unified field theory which came to naught. Wheeler later bought into the idea that information is fundamental to physics. Wheeler coined the terms black hole, wormhole, and quantum foam.

Whewell, William (1794–1866): English polymath, scientist, science historian, economist, philosopher, theologian, and Anglican priest. Whewell’s legacy was wordsmithing: he coined the terms scientist, physicist, linguistics, catastrophism, and uniformism, among others. To Michael Faraday, Whewell suggested: ion, dielectric, anode, and cathode. Whewell coined the term consilience to characterize the unification of knowledge between different branches of learning.

Whitaker, Rachel: American microbiologist.

White, James F. Jr.: American botanist.

White, Stuart: Australian resource scientist.

White, Tim: American paleontologist.

Whitehead, Alfred North (1861–1947): English mathematician and philosopher.

Whitehead, Hal: Canadian zoologist, enthusiastic about marine biology.

Whitehead, John W.: American attorney, interested in constitutional law and human rights.

Whitehouse, Harvey: English anthropologist, interested in the evolution of social complexity.

Whitesides, George M. (1939–): American chemist.

Whitfield, Norman J. (1940–2008): American songwriter and producer who helped create the Motown Sound in the 1960s.

Whitham, Thomas G.: American biologist.

Whitman, Christine Todd (1946–): American politician (Republican) and grossly incompetent head of the EPA (2001–2003).

Whittemore, Flora: American author.

Whittington, Harry B. (1916–2010): English paleontologist, interested in trilobites. Whittington reinterpreted specimens from the Burgess Shale as constituting an explosion in diversity of life during the Cambrian period.

Whittaker, Robert H. (1920–1980): American plant ecologist who developed a terrestrial biome scheme in the late 1950s.

Whorf, Benjamin L. (1897–1941): American linguist.

Whorton, James (1942–): American chemist.

Wick, Lukas Y.: Swiss environmental microbiologist.

Wicksell, Knut (1851–1926): Swedish economist and social reformer.

Wicksteed, Philip H. (1844–1927): English economist.

Wienert, Beeke: Australian geneticist and molecular biologist.

Wiens, John J.: American ecologist.

Wieseltier, Leon (1952–): American writer and philosopher.

Wiesmann, Charlotte Grosse: German cognitive scientist, interested in cognitive development, neuropsychology, particle physics, epistemology, and philosophy of science.

Wigmore, Ann (1909–1994): Lithuanian holistic health practitioner.

Wigner, Eugene P. (1902–1995): Hungarian American theoretical physicist and mathematician.

Wikholm, Catherine: English psychologist, interested in debunking paranormal phenomena.

Wilber, Ken (1949–): American author interested in mysticism, philosophy, ecology, and developmental psychology. One of Wilber’s key promotions is the holon: that every entity or concept has a dualism of autonomy and ecological integration. The idea is vacuous conceptualization.

Wilcox, Chris: Australian marine and atmospheric researcher.

Wilcox, Rand: American psychologist and statistician.

Wilczek, Frank (1951–): American theoretical physicist.

Wilde, Oscar (1854–1900): Irish writer and poet.

Wiles, Andrew (1953–): English mathematician, best known for proving Fermat’s last theorem in 1994.

Wilkes, Donald E. (1944–): American law professor.

Willard, Frances (1839–1898): American educator, temperance reformer, and women’s suffragist.

Wilhelmina, Helena P.M. (1880–1962): Queen of the Netherlands (1890–1948).

Wilkins, Adam S.: English biologist.

Wilkins, John S.: Australian historian and science philosopher.

Wilkinson, Miles F.: American obstetrician and gynecologist.

Willbanks, Amber: American geneticist and cytologist.

William I (aka William the Conqueror, William the Bastard) (1028–1087): the 1st Norman King of England (1066–1087); a descendant of Viking raiders; the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy, and his mistress Herleva.

William of Ockham (~1287–1347): English Franciscan friar, theologian, and scholastic philosopher; one of the major figures in medieval thought.

William of Orange (aka William III of England) (1650–1702): Dutch-born King of England (1689–1702).

William of Rubruck (aka Willem van Ruysbroeck, Guillaume de Rubrouck, Willielmus de Rubruquis) (1220–1293): Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer who traveled through the Levant, Asia Minor, and to northern China and back.

William the Conqueror: see William I.

Williams, David: American cytologist.

Williams, George C. (1926–2010): American evolutionary biologist who posited the grandmother hypothesis for menopause in 1957.

Williams, Loren D.: American biochemist.

Williams, Michael: English geographer.

Williams, Mike: American spokesman for Nutrien, American agrichemical manufacturer.

Williams, Robley C. (1908–1995): American virologist and biophysicist.

Williamson, Marianne (1952–): American author and spiritual teacher.

Willis, Charles G.: American evolutionary ecologist.

Willis, Thomas (1621–1675): English physician who pioneered the neurological school of psychology.

Wilson, A.N. (1950–): English writer.

Wilson, Anne E.: Canadian psychologist.

Wilson, Barbara J.: American communication scholar.

Wilson, Christo: American computer scientist.

Wilson, Daniel (1816–1892): Scottish-born Canadian archeologist who coined the term prehistory.

Wilson, David Sloan (1949–): American evolutionary biologist.

Wilson, Earl (1907–1987): American journalist.

Wilson, Edward O. (1929–): American zoologist, interested in ants (myrmecology), who developed sociobiology in his book Sociobiology: A New Synthesis (1979).

Wilson, James (1742–1798): American founding father, politician, and jurist; SCOTUS justice (1789–1798).

Wilson, James (1805–1860): Scottish businessman, economist, and Liberal politician.

Wilson, John (1943–): English cytologist.

Wilson, John Paul: American social psychologist.

Wilson, Robert Anton (1932–2007): American psychologist, playwright, and poet. Anton was an adherent of discordianism.

Wilson, Robert W. (1936–): American astrophysicist who co-discovered cosmic background radiation with Arno Penzias in 1964.

Wilson, Timothy D.: American social psychologist.

Wilson, Woodrow (1856–1924): American politician (Democrat); 28th US President (1913–1921).

Wiltshire, David L.: New Zealander astrophysicist.

Wineburg, Sam: American educator.

Wines, Enoch C.: American penologist.

Winfrey, Oprah (1954–): American talk show host, interested in self-improvement.

Wingreen, Ned S.: American molecular biologist.

Winkel, Brenda S.J.: American biochemist and geneticist.

Winkler, Adam (1967–): American constitutional law professor.

Winkler, Henry (1945–): American actor.

Winner, Reality (1991–): American intelligence specialist who leaked a secret US government intelligence report about Russian interference in the 2016 US elections. Arrested on 3 June 2017, Winner was held until she pled guilty a year later, and then sentenced to an additional 5.25 years in prison.

Winstock, Adam: English psychiatrist.

Winston, Mark L.: Canadian entomologist, interested in honeybees.

Winter, York: American neurobiologist.

Winterson, Jeanette (1959–): English writer.

Wirth, Niklaus (1934–): Swiss computer scientist who developed the Pascal programming language.

Wirthlin, Joseph B. (1917–2008): American businessman and Mormon religious leader.

Wiseman, Richard J. (1966–): English psychologist.

Wisenden, Brian: American ichthyologist.

Wisner, Brent R.: American attorney specializing in complex litigation, interested in social justice.

Witham, Larry: American author and journalist.

Withrow, James M.: American entomologist.

Witten, Ed (1951–): American theoretical physicist who developed M-theory.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1889–1951): Austrian philosopher and logician, interested in mathematics, language, and the mind.

“The world is the totality of facts, not of things.” ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein

Wittman, Marc: German psychologist.

Wittstein, Ilan S.: American cardiologist, interested in broken heart syndrome.

Wlodarsk, Rafael: English experimental psychologist.

Woese, Carl (1928–2012): American microbiologist and physicist who declared in 1977 archaea a new domain of life (distinct from bacteria).

Wöhler, Friedrich (1800–1882): German chemist who initiated modern organic chemistry with his synthesis of urea. Wöhler was also the first to isolate several chemical elements, including aluminum, beryllium, silicon, titanium, and yttrium.

Wohlstetter, Roberta (1912–2007): American military intelligence historian.

Woit, Peter: American mathematician and theoretical physicist.

Wolf, Christian: Australian astronomer.

Wolf, Michael M.: German mathematician.

Wolf, Sarah (1960–): American lawyer; former deputy district attorney, now practicing inheritance law.

Wolf, Yuri I.: Russian American cytologist and geneticist.

Wolfe, Scott: American criminologist.

Wolfe, Tom (1930–2018): American author.

Wolfers, Justin: American economist.

Wolff, Suzanne: American cytologist.

Wollstonecraft, Mary (1759–1797): English political philosopher and writer.

Wolpert, David H.: American mathematician, physicist, and computer scientist.

Wolman, Benjamin B.: American psychologist.

Wolpoff, Milford H. (1942–): American anthropologist who argued that human descent was always of single species: for example, humans descended from Neanderthals.

Womack, Lee Ann (1966–): American country music singer and songwriter.

Wonder, Stevie (born Stevland Hardaway Judkins) (1950–): American musical maven; a musical child prodigy who has been blind since shortly after birth.

Wonder Woman (1941–): fictional superheroine appearing in American comic books.

Wood, Bernard: American paleontologist.

Wood, Edward Frederick Lindley (aka Lord Halifax) (1881–1959): English politician (Conservative) who served as Viceroy of India (1925–1929), leader of the House of Lords (1935–1938), Foreign Secretary (1938–1940), and British ambassador to the United States (1941–1946). Wood inherited the title of Viscount Halifax from his father.

Wood, Rachel: Australian archeologist.

Wood, Rachel: English paleobiologist.

Wood, Rachel A.: American paleontologist and geologist.

Woodgate, Joseph: English ethologist, interested in cognition.

Woodroffe, Rosie: English zoologist.

Woodsworth, William (1770–1850): English Romantic poet.

Woodward, Alexander: English archeologist.

Wootters, William K.: American theoretical physicist, interested in quantum entanglement; one of the founders of quantum information theory.

Wordsworth, Robin: American geologist.

Worm, Boris: Canadian marine biologist.

Worthen, Molly: American historian, interested in North American religious and intellectual history, particularly the ideas and culture of conservative Christianity.

Wozniak, Steve (Woz) (1950–): American electronics engineer and computer programmer who co-founded Apple Computer with Steve Jobs.

Wrangham, Richard (1948–): English primatologist.

Wright, Addison V.: American molecular biologist.

Wright Colin M.: American ethologist.

Wright, Jason T.: American astronomer.

Wright, Judith (1951–): American author.

Wright, Peter E.: American molecular biologist.

Wright, Rita P.: American anthropologist.

Wright, Robert H. (1906–1985): Canadian chemist.

Wright, Steven (1955–): American comedian.

Wu Yang: Chinese American environmental scientist.

Wundt, Wilhelm (1832–1920): German physician, generally credited as one of the founders of modern psychology.

Wyden, Ron (1949–): American politician (Democrat); US Senator from Oregon (1996–).

Wyatt, Sarah E.: American botanist.

Wyatt, Thomas: English rebel who one of the 4 leaders of a 1554 attempt to dethrone Queen Mary I, out of concern that she would marry Catholic King Phillip of Spain.

Wynn, Thomas: American anthropologist.

Xi Jinping (1953–): Chinese politician who became China’s supreme political leader in 2013.

Xia Zhang: Chinese neurobiologist.

Xianfeng Morgan Xu: Chinese molecular biologist.

Xianrui Cheng: Chinese cytologist.

Xiao-yu Zheng: Chinese botanist.

Yael, Zahar: Israeli neurobiologist.

Yaish, Meir: Israeli sociologist.

Yalom, Marilyn (1932–): American historian and feminist.

Yamamoto, Isoroku (1884–1943): Japanese naval military commander.

Yang Zili: Chinese civics scholar.

Yang, Jerry (1968–): Taiwanese-born American entrepreneur and co-founder of Yahoo!.

Yanoviak, Steven P.: American biologist.

Yanqing Xia: Chinese economist.

Yap, Jeff: evolutionary physiologist.

Yates, Sally (1960–): American lawyer.

Yau, Joanna: American psychologist.

Yau, Sheree: microbiologist.

Yeates, David: Australian entomologist.

Yeboah, Ernest Agyemang: Ghanaian writer.

Yellen, Janet (1946–): American economist; chair of the US central bank (Federal Reserve) (2014–2018).

Yellow Emperor: a legendary Chinese sovereign who reputedly reigned 2697–2597 BCE.

Yerkes, Richard W.: American anthropologist.

Yi Li: Chinese botanist, interested in genetic modification.

Yick Wo: Chinese laundry owner who instigated the SCOTUS anti-discrimination case Yick Wo v. Hopkins.

Ying-xiu Zhang: Chinese physician.

Yogananda, Paramahansa (born Mukunda Lal Ghosh) (1893–1952): Indian yogi and guru, best known for his book Autobiography of a Yogi (1946).

Yogaswami (given name: Sadasivan) (1872–1964): Sri Lankan guru.

Yokum, David: American sociologist.

Yorburg, Betty: American sociologist.

Yosef, Ido: Israeli microbiologist.

Yoshida, Saiko: Japanese botanist.

Yoshimori, Tamotsu: Japanese cytologist and geneticist.

Youk, Hyun: Korean cytologist.

Young, Arthur (1741–1820): English writer on agriculture, economics, and social statistics.

Young, Bruce: American biologist, physical therapist, and biomedical engineer, interested in snakes.

Young, James (1811–1883): Scottish chemist with a will to distill: distilling kerosene from petroleum and paraffin from coal.

Young, Nevin: American plant pathologist.

Young, Ross D.: Australian physicist.

Young, Thomas (1773–1829): English polymath and physician who contributed to understanding energy, light, vision, solid mechanics, physiology, language, musical harmony, and Egyptology.

Younger, Irving (1932–1988): American jurist and law professor.

Yousef, Ramzi (1968–): Kuwaiti electrical engineer and Islamic terrorist.

Yudkin, John (1910–1995): English physiologist who found sugar as a source of coronary heart disease and type-2 diabetes.

Yun-ui, Choe: Korean civil minister who invented printing via metal movable type in 1234.

Yukteswar, Sri (born Priya Nath Karar) (1855–1936): Indian guru, yogi, astronomer, Vedic astrologer, and scholar of the Bhagavad Gita and The Bible.

Yun-ui, Choe: Korean civil minister who invented printing via metal movable type in 1234.

Zaccarelli, Chris: American financial analyst.

Zacks, Jeffrey M.: American psychologist.

Zahn, Laura M.: American geneticist.

Zajonc, Robert B. (1923–2008): Polish-American social psychologist.

Zaki, Jamil: American psychologist.

Zalman, Marvin: American professor of criminal justice.

Zamore, Phillip: American biochemical geneticist.

Zanardi, Paolo: Italian theoretical physicist, interested in quantum entanglement and quantum information theory.

Zanden, Jake Vander: American limnologist and ecologist.

Zanni, Marco (1986–): Italian politician.

Zeebe, Richard E.: American oceanographer, interested in global warming.

Zeeman, Pieter (1865–1943): Dutch physicist who discovered the Zeeman effect in 1896.

Zeidner, Moshe: Israeli psychologist, interested in human emotions, personality, and individual differences.

Zeigarnik, Bluma (1901–1988): Lithuanian psychologist who discovered the Zeigarnik effect.

Zeilder, Othmar (1850–1911): Austrian chemist who first synthesized DDT.

Zeller, Dirk: Australian marine conservationist.

Zenklusen, Daniel: Canadian geneticist.

Zeno of Citium (334–262 BCE): Hellenist philosopher who founded Stoicism.

Zeno of Elea (495–430 BCE): Greek philosopher and mathematician whom Aristotle credited with inventing dialectic. Zeno is best known for his paradoxes, which contributed to the development of logical and mathematical rigor and were insoluble until precise notions of continuity and infinity developed. None of Zeno’s writings are extant intact. The main sources on Zeno are Aristotle and Simplicius of Cilicia.

Zentall, Thomas: American zoologist and psychologist.

Zeqing Ma: Chinese botanist.

Zerkle, Aubrey L.: Scottish biogeochemist.

Zhang Heng (78–139): Chinese mathematician, scientist, astronomer, engineer, inventor, geographer, cartographer, artist, poet, statesman, and literary scholar.

Zhang Jiyao: Chinese hydrologist.

Zhang Lifan: Chinese historian and political analyst.

Zhang Xiaoyan: Wenzhou business advisor.

Zhao-Qing Luo Chinese biologist.

Zheng-Hui He: Chinese botanist.

Zhou Shengxian: Chinese environmental protection minister.

Zhu Huaxin: Chinese bureaucrat.

Zhu, Pearl: Chinese American technologist.

Zink, Andrew G.: American ethologist.

Zhong Zhichun: Chinese worker.

Zhou Shengxian: Chinese environmental protection minister.

Zickfield, Kirsten: Canadian geologist, interested in the effects of greenhouse gases on climate.

Zielinski, Sarah: American biologist, interested in marine biology.

Zimbardo, Philip G. (1933–): American psychologist.

Zink, Andrew G.: American ethologist.

Zink, Katherine D.: American evolutionary biologist.

Zipfel, Cyril: French botanist.

Zitterbart, Daniel P.: German physicist.

Zliobaite, Indre: Finnish evolutionary biologist.

Zola, Émile (1840–1902): French novelist, playwright, and journalist, best known for practicing literary naturalism: clinical observation in the fictional portrayal of reality.

Zoroaster (aka Zarathustra): ancient Iranian prophet who may have lived as early as the 2nd millennium BCE, but who teachings did not jell into a religion until the 7th–6th century BCE.

Zorn, Eric (1958–): American columnist.

Zöttl, Markus: Austrian zoologist.

Zuckerberg, Mark (1984–): American social media entrepreneur who co-founded Facebook.

Zuk, Marlene: American evolutionary zoologist, interested in sexual selection, animal communication, the evolutionary effect of parasites on hosts.

Zukav, Gary (1942–): American spiritual teacher.

Zuma, Jacob G. (1942–): South African politician; President (2009–2018).

Zumin Shi: Chinese physician and nutritionist.

Zuse, Konrad (1910–1995): German civil engineer and inventor who created the first programmable computer.

Zvyozdochkin, Vasily Petrovich (1876–1956): Russian craftsman who carved the Matryoshka dolls designed by Sergey Vasilyevich Malyutin.

Zwaka, Hanna: German entomologist, interested in honeybees.

Zwaka, Thomas P.: American cytologist and geneticist.

Zweig, George (1937–): Russian American particle physicist who proposed a quark model of atomic nuclei in 1964, contemporaneous with Murray Gell-Mann. Zweig called quarks aces.

Zwicker, David: American physicist, interested in the physical principles of active droplets and olfaction.

Zwicky, Fritz (1898–1974): Swiss astronomer who termed dark matter.