There are 2 paradigms of philosophical thought about reality. The one which is apparent is dualism.
You experience life as a duality. Your mind-body engages with an outside world. Or so it seems.
Dualism has always been, and still is, the majority opinion about reality; mostly because most people aren’t philosophers about ontology, which is the philosophy of reality.
The other paradigm argues that dualism is a deception. The paradigm of monism is that reality stems from a singular source, either material or ethereal.
Because a physical world is ostensible, the obvious monism is matterism. Under matterism, matter is the root of all that is. To matterists, either the mind does not exist or is an illusion created by the brain.
The other monism doubles down on deception. Energyism claims that not only is duality a duplicity, but that matter is also a mirage. Under energyism, the mind is all that matters.
To be credible, a monistic philosophy must explain how dualism arises. The obstacle of accuracy for any ontology is higher.
The proof of a holistic philosophy is that it can account for all that is known. An ontology which cannot elucidate the core mechanics of existence, or which dismisses known phenomena, cannot possibly be correct.
Your perceptions are entirely your own. Perception is always a subjective interpretation. But because the world reliably appears, and others often agree with you about events, you learned to take for granted that what you experience is objective, at least in the sense of there being an outside world. Experience taught you dualism.
Dualism has always had a serious philosophical dilemma, called the “mind-body problem.” Certainly, the mind-body is entangled, as the mind affects the body and vice versa. But in all of history, no one has offered a credible explanation of how the body interfaces with the mind.
Scientists gave up on dualism, preferring a simpler story. The modern, scientific view is matterism. Under this dogma, the mind is a figment of the brain, morality an artifact of evolution, and we are all sacks of meat: nothing but bodies that are born, live, and die. There is no spiritual essence: no soul.
Philosophers call this “naïve realism.” Modern science axiomatically presupposes the naïve realism of matterism. This naivete is ironic because physicists have expressly disproven naïve realism.
Most conclusions which scientists make are false, partly because they confuse correlation for causality. Modern scientists are typically incompetent theoreticians, as they readily make false matterist assumptions.
Matterism has been scientifically shown to be false. Despite marshaling mountains of facts, modern science is theoretically, philosophically, and spiritually bankrupt.
Modern science is just another religion. The conventional dogmas of astrophysics, genetics, evolutionary biology, neurobiology, and psychology are baloney, all based upon false premises. My Spokes of the Wheel books extensively document these scientific follies.
The damnation of matterism is simple, and everywhere you look, as my Spokes books expansively expose.
Life itself is a disproof of matterism. You can’t explain the origin of life merely by molecular combination. The many thousands of attempts to replicate the origin of life all ended up with beakers of organic muck, with nothing alive inside.
Further, you can’t talk about living without referring to intelligence. All animals, plants, cells, even proteins and viruses, must be aware of their environment and make decisions. Viruses, for instance, must figure out how to infect specific cells. Infection is not a mindless job.
All life must possess intelligence, and therefore must have minds. Most life forms have no intelligence physiology. A cell does not have a brain. Matterism has no answer when called upon to explain how life originates or operates.
No one doubts that there is an order to Nature. Explaining the nature of Nature is a critical facet of any plausible ontology. Beyond the observation that the universe is full of matter, shoved about energetically, matterists make no claim of coherence to explain the order in Nature. As with life, matterism cannot explain the existential order which defines existence.
Besides being flat-Earth wrong, scientific matterism is lousy because it always just scratches the surface and then insists that it has dug deep. Matterism cannot explain perception, cannot explain evolution, cannot explain how consciousness is possible. How exactly do molecules or cells become aware? Matterism has no answer.
As to purpose – what existence is ultimately about – matterism is mute.
Matterism is a sophistic idea: a philosophy that basically claims, “what you see is what you get,” but doesn’t really explain anything. Matterism is baseless, rootless, and superficial.
The reason that matterism has such a hold is 2-fold. Matterism tells a simple story: what you see is all that is going on. People strongly prefer simple, clear stories, even if based upon weak facts; which is exactly the situation with matterism. Posing as artists, scientists laud simplistic theories as elegant.
Scientists like matterism because it makes their job easy: everything can be explained by physical evidence. To matterist theorists, any deficiencies of matterism can chalked up to not having accumulated enough evidence.
In stark contrast to matterism, energyism necessarily involves unseen actors and has inherent complexity. By analogy, energyism is to matterism what quantum physics is to Newtonian mechanics. Billiard balls are infinitely easier to understand than quantization from localized fields, which is just the beginning of the quantum mechanics saga.
Theoretical physicists regularly grouse about quantum field theories being incomprehensible. Many quantum physicists stick with the facile matterist fiction that quanta are just particles, studiously ignoring the obvious implications of what their models tell them.
Nature has no problem with complexity. But the human mind prefers simplicity. Whence matterism.
Atomic bombs demonstrate what physicists all agree on: that matter is made of energy. Yet energy is nothing but an idea; a label which hand-waves at matter moving about. Does that mean that Nature is just concepts in the mind? That is exactly what it means.
Before explaining energyism, and the nature of reality, a brief exposition of the mind.