Spokes 1: Notes

Spokes 1: The Science of Existence   Research References   (Table of Contents)

Common knowledge for Spokes obtained from various encyclopedias and dictionaries, including Encyclopedia Britannica, Everipedia, New World Encyclopedia, Wikipedia, World Book Encyclopedia, Scholarpedia, Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary, Dictionary.com, and a plethora of Internet sites. (General information found on the Internet is cross-referenced for veracity.)

The Universe
John Gribbin, Before the Big Bang, Amazon Kindle (2015).
Roger Penrose, The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, Vintage Books (2004).
Edward Dolnick, The Clockwork Universe, Harper Collins (2011).
AFP, “Universe has two trillion more galaxies than previously thought,” The Guardian (13 October 2016).
Christopher J. Conselice et al, “The evolution of galaxy number density at z < 8 and its implications," The Astrophysical Journal, (14 October 2016).
Henry Fountain, “Two trillion galaxies, at the very least,” The New York Times (17 October 2016).
Ron Cowen, “Billions, billions and more billions,” Science News 179(1): 10 (1 January 2011).
J.R. Gott III et al, “A map of the universe,” Astrophysical Journal 624 (2): 463–484 (2005).
Antonio Lamua (editor), Secrets of Infinity, Firefly (2013).
The Big Bang
Niayesh Afshordi et al, “The black hole that birthed the big bang,” Scientific American (15 July 2014).
Charles H. Lineweaver and Tamara M. Davis, “Misconceptions about the Big Bang,” Scientific American 292(3): 36–45 (March 2005).
Helge Kragh, “Big Bang: the etymology of a name,” Astronomy & Geophysics 54(2): 2.28-2.30 (April 2013).
Lisa Grossman, “Medieval multiverse heralded modern cosmic conundrums,” New Scientist (13 March 2014).
Cormac O Raifeartaigh et al, “A steady-state model of the universe by Albert Einstein,” arXiv:1402.0132 (26 February 2014).
Davide Castelvecchi, “Einstein’s lost theory uncovered,” Nature (24 February 2014).
Georges Lemaître, “The beginning of the world from the point of view of quantum theory,” Nature 127: 706 (9 May 1931).
“The state of the early universe: the beginning was fluid,” ScienceDaily (15 October 2018).
ALICE Collaboration, “Anisotropic flow in Xe–Xe collisions at sNN=5.44 TeV,” Physics Letters B 784: 82-95 (10 September 2018).
Mark Peplow, “Planck snaps infant universe,” Nature 495: 417–418 (28 March 2013).
Andrew Grant, “Universe is a teeny bit older than thought,” Science News (21 March 2013).
Tom Siegfried, “Cosmic questions, answers pending,” Science News 179(9): 20–21 (23 April 2011).
Ron Cowen, “New study gives dark energy a boost,” Science News (16 March 2011).
Glenn G. Kacprzak, “The pristine universe,” Science 334 (6060): 1216–1217 (2 December 2011).
Brian Stauffer, “Have dark forces been messing with the cosmos?,” The New York Times (25 February 2019).
“What happened before the Big Bang?,” Phys.org (26 March 2019).
“Revamping the size of the universe,” Science News (15 May 2014).
Ivan Agullo et al, “Quantum gravity extension of the inflationary scenario,” Physical Review Letters 109(25): 1301–1306 (17 December 2012).
Michael S. Turner, “Cosmology: a story of cosmic proportions,” Nature 526: 40–41 (01 October 2015).
John H. Wise et al, “Formation of massive black holes in rapidly growing pre-galactic gas clouds,” Nature (23 January 2019).
Eduardo Banados et al, “An 800-million-solar-mass black hole in a significantly neutral Universe at a redshift of 7.5,” Nature (6 December 2017).
Nell Greenfieldboyce, “Massive black hole reveals when the first stars blinked on,” NPR (6 December 2017).
Ana Paulino-Afonso et al, “On the UV compactness and morphologies of typical Lyman-a emitters from z~2 to z~6,” arXiv.org:1709.04470 (8 March 2018).
“Astrophysicists map the infant universe in 3-D and discover 4,000 early galaxies,” Phys.org (3 April 2018).
Cosmic Inflation
Xingang Chen et al, “Unique fingerprints of alternatives to inflation in the primordial power spectrum,” arXiv:1809.02603 [astro-ph.CO] (17 February 2019).
Adrian Cho, “Universe’s high-def baby picture confirms standard theory,” Science 339: 1513 (29 March 2013).
Alan H. Guth, “The inflationary universe: a possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems,” Physical Review D 23: 347 (1981).
Alan Guth, The Inflationary Universe, Basic Books (1998).
Paul Steinhardt, “Big Bang blunder bursts the multiverse bubble,” Nature (3 June 2014).
Paul J. Steinhardt, “The inflation debate,” Scientific American 36–43 (April 2011).
Brian Clegg, Before The Big Bang, St. Martin’s Press (2009).
Amanda Gefter, “Infinity’s end: time to ditch the never-ending story?,” New Scientist 2930 (15 August 2013).
Maggie McKee, “Big bang, no boom: did Plank pop inflation’s bubble?,” New Scientist (7 October 2013).
Alexandra Witze, “Inflation on trial,” Science News 182 (2): 20–21 (28 July 2012).
“Bicep2 2014 I: detection of ß-mode polarization at degree angular scales,” arXiv:submit/0934323 (17 March 2014).
Adrian Cho & Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, “First wrinkles in spacetime confirm cosmic inflation,” Science 343(6177): 1296–1297 (21 March 2014).
Raphael Flauger et al, “Toward an understanding of foreground emission in the BICEP2 region,” arXiv:1405.7351 (28 May 2014).
“BICEP unflexed,” The Economist (7 February 2015).
Michael J. Mortonson & Uroš Seljak, “A joint analysis of Planck and BICEP2 B modes including dust polarization uncertainty,” arXiv:1405.5857 (22 May 2014).
Ron Cowen, “No evidence for or against gravitational waves,” Nature (29 May 2014).
Maggie McKee, “Cosmic inflation’s ‘smoking gun’ goes up in smoke,” New Scientist (7 February 2015).
Adrian Cho, “Blockbuster claim could collapse in a cloud of dust,” Science 344(6186): 790 (23 May 2014).
Adrian Cho, “Evidence for cosmic inflation wanes,” Science 345(6204): 1547 (26 September 2014).
“First direct evidence of cosmic inflation,” ScienceDaily (17 March 2014).
Michael Slezak, “Cosmic inflation is dead, long live cosmic inflation!,” New Scientist (30 September 2014).
Ron Cowen, “Big Bang finding challenged,” Nature (3 June 2014).
Ron Cowen, “Universe may be curved, not flat,” Nature (20 September 2013).
Andrew R. Liddle & Marina Cortês, “Cosmic microwave background anomalies in an open universe,” Physical Review Letters 111: 111302–111306 (9 September 2013).
Glenn D. Starkman & Dominik J. Schwarz, “Is the universe out of tune?,” Scientific American 293(2): 49–55 (August 2005).
Martin Bojowald, “Follow the bouncing universe,” Scientific American 299(4): 44–51 (October 2008).
Michael S. Turner, “Origin of the universe,” Scientific American 301(3): 36–43 (September 2009).
Adam Mann, “How to picture the size of the universe,” Wired (6 December 2011).
Brent Tully, “How big is the universe?,” Nova (November 2011).
“What is the size of the universe?” DimensionsInfo (26 September 2014).
Nola Taylor Redd, “How big is the universe?,” Space.com (6 June 2017).
The Standard Cosmological Model
Joel Smoller, “An instability of the standard model of cosmology creates the anomalous acceleration without dark energy,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A (22 November 2017).
Andy Fell, “Doing without dark energy: mathematicians propose alternative explanation for cosmic acceleration,” Phys.org (14 December 2017).
David N. Spergel, “The dark side of cosmology: dark matter and dark energy,” Science 347(6226): 1100-1102 (6 March 2015).
“The dark side of the universe,” The Economist (18 February 2012).
P. Hamilton et al, “Atom-interferometry constraints on dark energy,” Science 349(6250): 849–851 (21 August 2015).
Alessandro Bettini, Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics, 383, Cambridge University Press (2008).
Elizabeth Gibney, “Dark-matter hunt fails to find the elusive particles,” Nature (9 November 2017).
Hannah Devlin, “Astronomers find half of the missing matter in the universe,” The Guardian (12 October 2017).
“A persistent claim to have detected dark matter looks wrong,” The Economist (6 December 2018).
Jonathan L. Ouellet et al, “First results from ABRACADABRA-10 cm: a search for sub-µeV axion dark matter,” Physical Review Letters (29 March 2019).
Emily Connover, “Dark matter particles elude scientists in the biggest search of its kind,” Science News (28 May 2018).
Adrian Cho, “How hot is dark matter?,” Science 336(6085): 1091–1092 (1 June 2012).
Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, “Where are the missing baryons?,” Science 336(6085): 1093–1094 (1 June 2012).
Ron Cowen, “Ordinary matter: Lost and found,” Science News 163(11): 174 (15 March 2003).
Liz Kruesi, “Have black holes hurled half the universe into the wilderness?,” New Scientist (3 August 2016).
Emily Conover, “Dark matter still missing,” Science News (2 February 2017).
Emily Conover, “Latest dark matter searches leave scientists empty-handed,” Science News (25 October 2016).
“Dark energy survey reveals most accurate measurement of universe’s dark matter,” ScienceDaily (3 August 2017).
Leila Battison, “Dwarf galaxies suggest dark matter theory may be wrong,” BBC News (16 September 2011).
Leo Blitz, “The dark side of the Milky Way,” Scientific American 305(4): 36–45 (October 2011).
Ron Cowen, “Gamma rays may signal detection of dark matter in Milky Way’s core,” Science News 178(11): 11 (20 November 2010).
Stacy McGaugh, Federico Lelli, Jim Schombert, “The radial acceleration relation in rotationally supported galaxies,” arXiv:1609.05917 [astro-ph.GA] (19 September 2016).
Jon Butterworth, “Dark matter: did we just hear the most exciting phrase in science?,” The Guardian (2 October 2016).
“Dark matter mystery deepens,” ScienceDaily (17 October 2011).
Amina Khan, “LUX: world’s most sensitive detector finds no dark matter. What’s next?,” Los Angeles Times (22 July 2016).
Nadia Drake, “New maps of the cosmic dark,” Science News 181(3): 8 (11 February 2012).
Govert Schilling, “A guide to the dark side,” Science (9 January 2012).
Brian Stallard, “Evidence of ‘starquakes’ on neutron star,” Nature World News (23 October 2014).
Y. V. Stadnik & V. V. Flambaum, “Searches for topological defect dark matter via non-gravitational signatures,” arXiv.org (3 August 2014).
Hal Hodson, “Dark matter could be seen in GPS time glitches,” New Scientist (17 November 2014).
Xiaodong Huang & Wuliang Huang, “Dark matter, quasars, and superstructures in the universe,” arXiv.org (3 July 2012).
Damien Hutsemékers et al, “Alignment of quasar polarizations with large-scale structures,” arXiv.org (22 September 2014).
“Spooky alignment of quasars across billions of light-years,” Phys.org (19 November 2014).
Sarah Lewin, “Dark matter stays dark,” Scientific American (22 July 2016).
Olena Shmahalo, “Scientists unveil a new inventory of the universe’s dark contents,” Quanta Magazine (24 August 2017).
Elizabeth Howell, “We live in a cosmic void, another study confirms,” Space.com (14 June 2017).
Lisa Grossman, “Milky Way’s loner status is upheld,” Science News (7 June 2017).
J.T. Nielsen et al, “Marginal evidence for cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae,” Scientific Reports (21 October 2016).
Peter A. Milne et al, “The changing fractions of type IA supernova NUV–optical subclasses with redshift,” The Astrophysical Journal (9 April 2015).
“Accelerating universe? Not so fast,” ScienceDaily (11 April 2015).
“The universe is expanding at an accelerating rate, or is it?,” ScienceDaily (21 October 2016).
Gabor Racz et al, “Concordance cosmology without dark energy,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (11 February 2017).
“Explaining the accelerating expansion of the universe without dark energy,” ScienceDaily (30 March 2017).
Dennis Overbye, “Cosmos controversy: the universe is expanding, but how fast?,” The New York Times (20 February 2017).
Anil Ananthaswamy, “Dark energy must die – these rebel physicists can take it down,” New Scientist (21 June 2016).
S. Perlmutter et al, “Measurements of omega and lambda from 42 high-redshift supernovae,” arXiv:astro-ph/9812133 (8 December 1998).
Eric J. Lerner, “UV surface brightness of galaxies from the local universe to z ~ 5,” International Journal of Modern Physics D (2 May 2014).
“Universe is not expanding after all, scientists say,” Sci-News.com (23 May 2014).
Ron Cowen, “Data from galaxy clusters suggest dark energy is constant over time,” Science News 175(1): 9 (3 January 2009).
Paul Rincon, “New method ‘confirms dark energy’,” BBC News (19 May 2011).
Adrian Cho, “A recipe for the cosmos,” Science 330: 1615 (17 December 2010).
Elizabeth Quill, “Einstein passes acceleration test,” Science News 181(9): 17 (5 May 2012).
Ron Cowen, “Dark energy constantly with us,” Science News 175(1): 9, (3 January 2009).
Adrian Cho, “What is dark energy?,” Science 336(6085): 1090–1091 (1 June 2012).
Sean Carroll, From Eternity To Here, Penguin Group (2010).
Jia You et al, “A cosmic controversy,” Science 355(6239) (10 March 2017).
Joshua Sokol, “Hubble trouble,” Science 355(6239): 1010-1014 (10 March 2017).
Hannah Devlin, “The answer to life, the universe and everything might be 73. Or 67,” The Guardian (10 May 2018).
Tom Siegfried, “Cosmic question mark,” Science News (21 March 2014).
Edwin Hubble, “A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae,” PNAS 15(3): 168–173 (15 March 1929).
Allan Sandage, “Current problems in the extragalactic distance scale,” Astrophysical Journal 127: 513 (May 1958).
Emily Conover, “Debate accelerates on universe’s expansion speed,” Science News (22 July 2016).
Pierre Fleury et al, “Can all cosmological observations be accurately interpreted with a unique geometry?,” Physical Review Letters 111: 091302 (29 August 2013).
André A. Costa et al, “Testing the interaction between dark energy and dark matter with Planck data,” arXiv:1311.7380 (28 November 2013).
Origination Date
“Astronomers discover 83 supermassive black holes in the early universe,” Phys.org (13 March 2019).
Yoshiki Matsuoka et al, “Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs). V. quasar luminosity function and contribution to cosmic reionization at z = 6,” The Astrophysical Journal (13 March 2019).
Too Bright
“Astronomers measure total starlight emitted over 13.7bn years,” The Guardian (29 November 2018).
The Fermi-LAT Collaboration, “A gamma-ray determination of the Universe’s star formation history,” Science 362(6418): 1031-1034 (30 November 2018).
Emily Conover, “Debate over the universe’s expansion rate may unravel physics. Is it a crisis?,” Science News (30 July 2019).
Lisa Grossman, “Strange dark stuff is making the universe too bright,” New Scientist (17 July 2014).
Chalres W. Danforth et al, “An HST/COS survey of the low-redshift IGM. I. Survey, methodology, & overall results,” arXiv:1402.2655 (11 February 2014).
Cyclic Cosmology
Paul J. Steinhardt & Neil Turok, Endless Universe, Doubleday (2007).
Mario Novello & S.E. Perez Bergliaffa, “Bouncing cosmologies,” arXiv:0802.1634 (12 February 2008).
Ahmed Farag Ali & Saurya Das, “Cosmology from quantum potential,” arXiv:1404.3093 [gr-qc] (29 December 2014).
“No Big Bang? Quantum equation predicts universe has no beginning,” Phys.org (9 February 2015).
BingKan Xue et al, “Nonperturbative analysis of the evolution of cosmological perturbations through a nonsingular bounce,” Physical Review Letters D 88: 083509 (10 October 2013).
Robert H. Brandenberger, “The matter bounce alternative to inflationary cosmology,” arXiv:1206.4196 (19 June 2012).
J.C.S. Neves, “Bouncing cosmology inspired by regular black holes,” arXiv:1607.08610 (29 August 2017).
Jean-Luc Lehners, “Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology,” arXiv:0806.1245v2 (2 June 2009).
Paul J. Steinhardt, “The endless universe: brief introduction to the cyclic universe,” Princeton University (7 November 2001).
Scale-Invariant Cosmology
Mikhail Shaposhnikov & Andrey Shkerin, “Gravity, scale invariance and the hierarchy problem,” arXiv:1804.06376 [hep-th] (17 April 2018).
Andre Maeder, “Scale invariant cosmology I: the vacuum and the cosmological constant,” arXiv:1605.06315 (19 May 2016).
Andre Maeder, “Scale invariant cosmology II: model equations and properties,” arXiv:1605.06316 (19 May 2016).
Andre Maeder, “Scale invariant cosmology III: dynamical models and comparisons with observations,” arXiv:1605.06314 (19 May 2016).
Andre Maeder, “An alternative to the LCDM model: the case of scale invariance,” arXiv:1701.03964v1 (14 January 2017).
Andre Maeder, “Dynamical effects of the scale invariance of the empty space: the fall of dark matter?,” arXiv:1710.11425 (31 October 2017).
Yu Nakayama, “Scale invariance vs conformal invariance,” arXiv:1302.0884 (28 February 2014).
Julian Barbour, “Scale-invariant gravity: paricle dynamics,” IOP Science (31 March 2003).
Gravitational Waves
Dennis Overbye, “Gravitational waves detected, confirming Einstein’s theory,” The New York Times (11 February 2016).
Adrian Cho, “Gravitational waves, Einstein’s ripples in spacetime, spotted for first time,” Science (11 February 2016).
“Gravitational waves have been detected for the first time,” The Economist (13 February 2016).
Stuart Clark, “What are gravitational waves?,” The Guardian (17 March 2014).
George F.R. Ellis, “Does the multiverse really exist?,” Scientific American 305(2): 38–43 (August 2011).
Lauris Baum & Paul H. Frampton, “Turnaround in cyclic cosmology,” Physical Review Letters 98(7): 071301 (16 February 2007).
Stuart Clark, “Embrace the lumpiverse: how mess kills dark energy,” New Scientist (25 June 2014).
“Better to see the beautiful, ugly truth of the cosmos,” New Scientist (26 June 2014).
Luke McKinney, “The “great wall” of space: galactic superclusters a billion light years away extend for 5% of observable universe,” The Daily Galaxy (28 August 2009).
R. Gavazzi et al, “Mass and light in the supercluster of galaxies MS0302+17,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 422(2): 407–422 (1 August 2004).
A.J. Connolly et al, “Superclustering at Redshift Z=0.54,” arXiv:astro-ph/9610047 (7 October 1996).
Ichi Tanaka et al, “Superclustering of Faint Galaxies in the Field of a QSO Concentration at z~1.1,” arXiv:astro-ph/0009229 (14 September 2000).
Fumiaki Nakata et al, “Discovery of a large-scale clumpy structure around the Lynx supercluster at z ? 1.27,” Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 2004(195): 29–33 (March 2004).
Takashi Hasegawa et al, “Large-scale structure of galaxies in the Ophiuchus region,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 316 (2): 326–344 (2000).
Hannah Devlin, “Astronomers discover largest known structure in the universe is … a big hole,” The Guardian (20 April 2015).
István Szapudi et al, “Detection of a supervoid aligned with the cold spot of the cosmic microwave background,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 450 (1): 288–294 (11 June 2015).
Emily Conover, “Debate persists on cosmic expansion,” Science News (6 August 2016).
Cosmic Matter
“‘Green pea’ galaxy provides insights to early universe evolution,” ScienceDaily (13 January 2016).
Richard B. Larson & Volker Bromm, “The first stars in the universe,” Scientific American (19 January 2009).
“How the first stars in the universe came into existence,” ScienceDaily (1 August 2008).
Rennan Barkana, “The first stars in the universe and cosmic reionization,” Science 313(5789: 931-934 (18 August 2006).
Joseph Silk, “Cosmic conundrums,” New Scientist 221(2959): 26–27 (8 March 2014).
Michele Fumagalli et al, “Detection of pristine gas two billion years after the Big Bang,” Science (10 November 2011).
Michael D. Lemonick, “The first stars in the universe,” Scientific American (18 March 2014).
Voker Bromm, Embers of the distant past,” Science 338: 1160–1661 (30 November 2012).
Rennan Barkana, “The first stars in the universe and cosmic reionization,” Science 313: 931-934 (18 August 2006).
Edwin Cartlidge, “What reionized the universe?,” Science 336(6085): 1095–1096 (1 June 2012).
Christopher Crockett, “Early universe’s overhaul clarified,” Science News 186(10): 9 (15 November 2014).
“Within 180 million years of the Big Bang, stars were born,” ScienceDaily (28 February 2018).
Judd D. Bowman et al, “An absorption profile centred at 78 megahertz in the sky-averaged spectrum,” Nature (28 February 2018).
“Planck reveals first stars were born late,” Plank ESA (5 February 2015).
“Oldest stars lit up universe later than thought,” Nature World News (6 February 2015).
Ron Cowen, “Lighting the universe,” Science News 180(3): 26–28 (30 July 2011).
Glenn G. Kacprzak, “The pristine universe,” Science 334: 1216–1217 (2 December 2011).
Alexander L. DeSouza & Shantanu Basu, “The luminosity of population iii star clusters,” arXiv:1503.02030 [astro-ph.GA] (6 March 2015).
“Baby galaxies grew up quickly,” ScienceDaily (16 May 2012).
Omer Blaes, “A universe of disks,” Scientific American 291(4): 47–57 (October 2004).
Oleg N. Kirillov & Frank Stefani, “Extending the range of inductionless manetorotational instability,” Physical Review Letters 111(6) (7 August 2013).
Katia Moskvitch, “Forgotten force: the other great cosmic attractor,” New Scientist 2942 (7 November 2013).
Norbert Werner et al, “A uniform metal distribution in the intergalactic medium of the Perseus cluster of galaxies,” Nature 502: 656–658 (31 October 2013).
Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, “Earliest known galaxy formed stars at breakneck pace,” Science 342: 411 (25 October 2013).
Erik M. Leitch, “What is the cosmic microwave background radiation?,” Scientific American (13 October 2003).
Aylin Woodward, “Half the atoms inside your body came from across the universe,” New Scientist (27 July 2017).
Christopher F. McKee, “Let there be dust,” Nature 333: 1227–1228 (2 September 2011).
M. Matsuura et al, “Herschel detects a massive dust reservoir in supernova 1987A,” Nature 333: 1258–1261 (2 September 2011).
Dennis Overbye, “Our universe’s very dusty early, early beginnings,” The New York Times (8 March 2017).
N. Laporte et al, “Dust in the reionization era: observations of a Z=8.38 gravitationally-lensed galaxy,” Astrophysical Journal Letters (March 2017).
Dan Coe, “Back in time,” Scientific American 319(5): 40-47 (November 2018).
Lisa Grossman, “The ecosystem that controls a galaxy’s future is coming into focus,” Science News (12 July 2018).
Rychard Bouwens, “Distant galaxy formed stars only 250 million years after the Big Bang,” Nature (16 May 2018).
Takuya Hashimoto et al, “The onset of star formation 250 million years after the Big Bang,” Nature (16 May 2018).
Leopoldo et al, “Young galaxy candidates in the Hubble frontier fields. II. Mac J0416-2403,” The Astrophysical Journal 815(1) (2 December 2015).
“NASA finds direct proof of dark matter,” NASA (21 August 2006).
R. Genzel et al, “Strongly baryon-dominated disk galaxies at the peak of galaxy formation ten billion years ago,” Nature 543: 397-401 (16 March 2017).
Mark Swinbank, “Distant galaxies lack dark matter,” Nature 543: 318-319 (16 March 2017).
Mariska Kriek et al, “A massive, quiescent, population II galaxy at a redshift of 2.1,” Nature (7 December 2016).
Ken Croswell, “Galaxy’s rapid growth spurt may have spawed 3000 suns per year,” New Scientist (7 December 2016).
Dennis Overbye, “Findings on mysterious haze at galaxy’s center,” The New York Times (31 October 2009).
Martin J. Rees, “The universe at z > 5: When and how did the “dark age” end?,” PNAS 95(1): 47–52 (6 January 1998).
“Seven primitive galaxies at the dawn of time,” ScienceDaily (12 December 2012).
Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, “Warped light reveals infant galaxy on the brink of the ‘cosmic dawn’,” Science 337: 1142 (21 September 2012).
Wei Zheng et al, “A magnified young galaxy from about 500 million years after the Big Bang,” Nature 489: 406–408 (20 September 2012).
“New mass estimate for Milky Way galaxy: 1.54 trillion suns,” Sci News (7 March 2019).
Lisa Grossman, “Milky Way galaxy is even lighter than thought,” New Scientist (14 August 2013).
Bomee Lee et al, “CANDELS: The correlation between galaxy morphol-ogy and star formation activity at z ~ 2,” The Astrophysical Journal (15 August 2013).
Darach Watson et al, “A dusty, normal galaxy in the epoch of reionization,” European Southern Observatory (4 March 2015).
Caroline M. S. Straatman et al, “A substantial population of massive quiescent galaxies at z ~ 4 from ZFOURGE,” The Astrophysical Jour-nal Letters 783(1) (1 March 2014).
Jörg P. Dietrich et al, “A filament of dark matter between two clusters of galaxies,” Nature 487: 202–204 (12 July 2012).
Mehmet Alpaslan et al, “Galaxy and mass assembly (GAMA): fine filaments of galaxies detected within voids,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (9 March 2014).
Pieter van Dokkum et al, “A high stellar velocity dispersion and ~100 globular clusters for the ultra-diffuse galaxy Dragonfly 44,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters, (25 August 2016).
Christopher Crockett, “Star-starved galaxies fill the cosmos,” Science News (29 November 2016).
Shannon Hall, “Ghost galaxy is 99.99 per cent dark matter with almost no stars,” New Scientist (25 August 2016).
Christopher Crockett, “Stellar vomiting produces dark galaxies, simulations suggest,” Science News (2 December 2016).
Xaq Rzetelny, “Huge population of ‘ultra-dark galaxies’ discovered,” Ars Technica (11 July 2015).
Ann Finkbeiner, “The mystery of the dead galaxies,” Science 346(6212): 905–907 (21 November 2014).
“First direct detection sheds light on dark galaxies,” ScienceDaily (30 October 2012).
Christopher Crockett, “Some galaxies are short on stars,” Science News (186)12: 9 (13 December 2014).
Andrew Fazekas, “Dark galaxies discovered – may be cosmic ‘missing links’,” National Geographic (13 July 2012).
Pierre Magain et al, “Discovery of a bright quasar without a massive host galaxy,” arXiv:astro-ph/0509433 (15 September 2005).
Black Holes
Dennis Overbye, “Black hole image revealed for first time ever,” The New York Times (10 April 2019).
Marlowe Hood, “Scientists set to unveil first picture of a black hole,” Phys.org (6 April 2019).
John H. Wise et al, “Formation of massive black holes in rapidly growing pre-galactic gas clouds,” Nature (23 January 2019).
“Birth of massive black holes in the early universe,” ScienceDaily (23 January 2019).
“Researchers discover black hole in our galaxy spinning rapidly around itself,” Phys.org (16 January 2019).
Mayukh Pahari et al, “AstroSat and Chandra view of the high soft state of 4U 1630–47 (4U 1630–472): evidence of the disk wind and a rapidly spinning black hole,” The Astrophysical Journal (2 November 2018).
“Billions of black holes,” The Week (17 May 2019).
Christian Wolf et al, “Discovery of the most ultra-luminous QSO using Gaia, SkyMapper and WISE,” arXiv:1805.04317v1 [astro-ph.GA] (11 May 2018).
Dennis Overbye, “A very hungry black hole is found, gorging on stars,” The New York Times (17 May 2018).
Charles J. Hailey et al, “A density cusp of quiescent X-ray binaries in the central parsec of the Galaxy,” Nature 556: 70–73 (5 April 2018).
Adam Mann, “The centre of our galaxy may be swarming with 10,000 black holes,” New Scientist (4 April 2018).
“New study suggests tens of thousands of black holes exist in Milky Way’s center,” Phys.org (4 April 2018).
Priyamvada Natarajan, “The first monster black holes,” Scientific American (February 2018).
Andrew King, “How big can a black hole grow?,” arXiv:1511.08502v2 [astro-ph.GA] (9 December 2015).
“UCI celestial census indicates that black holes pervade the universe,” University of California, Irvine (7 August 2017).
Joshua Sokol, “Observations hint at a new recipe for giant black holes,” Science 355(6321): 13 (13 January 2017).
Benny Trakhtenbrot et al, “An over-massive black hole in a typical star-forming galaxy, 2 billion years after the Big Bang,” Science 349(6244): 168–171 (10 July 2015).
“Black hole affecting galactic climate identified,” ScienceDaily (5 January 2016).
N. Cappelluti et al, “Cross-correlating cosmic infrared and X-ray background fluctuations: evidence of significant black hole populations among the cib sources,” The Astrophysical Journal (6 May 2013).
M. Volonteri, “The formation and evolution of massive black holes,” Science 337: 544–547 (3 August 2012).
Marc Sarzi, “How black holes restrain old galaxies,” Nature (26 May 2016).
“Black holes could grow as large as 50 billion suns before their food crumbles into stars according to research,” ScienceDaily (18 December 2015).
Jens Thomas et al, “A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core,” Nature (6 April 2016).
Ákos Bodán & Andy D. Goulding, “Connecting dark matter halos with the galaxy center and the supermassive black hole,” The Astrophysical Journal (18 February 2015).
Charles Q. Choi, “Dark side of black holes,” Scientific American 302(3): 22 (March 2010).
Christopher Crockett, “Black hole born without stellar parent,” Science News (6 August 2016).
Jay Strader et al, “Two stellar-mass black holes in the globular cluster M22,” Nature 490: 71–73 (4 October 2012).
Ananda Hota et al, “Discovery of a spiral-host episodic radio galaxy,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters (9 August 2011).
Chris Willot, “A monster in the early universe,” Nature 474: 583–584 (30 June 2011).
Xue-Bing Wu et al, “An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30,” Nature (25 February 2015).
Remco C. E. van den Bosch et al, “An over-massive black hole in the compact lenticular galaxy NGC 1277,” Nature 491: 729–731 (29 No-vember 2012).
Q.D. Wang et al, “Dissecting X-ray–emitting gas around the center of our galaxy,” Science 341(6149): 981–983 (30 August 2013).
F. Tombesi et al, “Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy,” Nature 519: 436–438 (26 March 2015).
R. Cowen, “Ray tracing,” Science News 172: 291–292 (10 November 2007).
“‘Nearby’ supermassive black hole rotates at close to the speed of light,” The Guardian (27 February 2013).
Christopher Crockett, “Black holes may shut down stellar factories,” Science News (5 March 2014).
Timothy M. Heckman & Guinevere Kauffmann, “The coevolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes: a local perspective,” Science 333: 182–185 (8 July 2011).
James E. Geach, “The lost galaxies,” Scientific American 304(5): 46–53 (May 2011).
M. R. Schreiber, “One good measure,” Science 340(6135): 932–933 (24 May 2013).
Robert Antonucci, “Quasars still defy explanation,” Nature 495: 165–167 (14 March 2013).
P.B. Hall et al, “Broad absorption line quasars with redshifted troughs: high-velocity infall or rotationally dominated outflows?,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (12 July 2013).
Ron Cowen, “Galaxy bulges in its middle,” Science News 175(5): 9 (28 February 2009).
“X-ray pulses create ‘molecular black hole,'” ScienceDaily (31 May 2017).
Light Speed
Kenneth S. Mendelson, “The story of c,” American Journal of Physics 74(11): 995-997 (November 2006).
The Horizon Problem
Niayesh Afshordi & Joao Magueijo, “The critical geometry of a thermal big bang,” arXiv:1603.03312 [gr-qc] (8 November 2016).
Michael Brooks, “Gravity may have chased light in the early universe,” New Scientist, (23 November 2016).
Michael Brooks, “13 things that do not make sense,” New Scientist, (16 March 2005).
Galaxy Classification
“Fat or flat: Getting galaxies into shape,” Phys.org (27 February 2014).
Elena D’Onghia et al, “Self-perpetuating spiral arms in disk galaxies,” The Astrophysical Journal (20 March 2013).
Pieter van Dokkum et al, “A high stellar velocity dispersion and ~100 globular clusters for the ultra-diffuse galaxy Dragonfly 44,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters 828(1) (25 August 2016).
Pieter van Dokkum et al, “A high stellar velocity dispersion and ~100 globular clusters for the ultra-diffuse galaxy Dragonfly 44,” arXiv:1606.06291 [astro-ph.GA] (20 June 2016).
Jim Shelton, “Scientists discover a ‘dark’ Milky Way: Massive galaxy consists almost entirely of dark matter,” Phys.org (25 August 2016).
Rachel Feltman, “A new class of galaxy has been discovered, one made almost entirely of dark matter,” The Washington Post (25 August 2016).
Françoise Combes, “Ripples in a galactic pond,” Scientific American 293(4): 43–49 (October 2005).
“Unveiling the secret of a Virgo dwarf galaxy,” European Southern Observatory (3 May 2000).
G. Bertin & C. Lin, Spiral Structure in Galaxies: a Density Wave Theory, MIT Press (1996).
Galaxy Dynamics
Gerhardt R. Meurer et al, “Cosmic clocks: a tight radius–velocity relationship for H?i-selected galaxies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 476(2): 1624–1636 (11 May 2018).
“Astronomers discover galaxies spin like clockwork,” ScienceDaily (13 March 2018).
“Universe likes to form galaxies similar to the Milky Way,” Science-Daily (12 October 2012).
Sarah Brough et al, “The SAMI galaxy survey: Mass as the driver of the kinematic morphology–density relation in clusters,” The Astrophysical Journal (21 July 2017).
S.A. Mao et al, “Detection of microgauss coherent magnetic fields in a galaxy five billion years ago,” Nature Astronomy (28 August 2017).
“Why massive galaxies don’t dance in crowds,” ScienceDaily (10 August 2017).
Gail Wilson, “Four new galaxy clusters take researchers further back in time,” Imperial College of London (12 February 2014).
“Early galaxies grew massive through collisions,” Niels Bohr Institute (29 January 2014).
“Massive galaxies formed early on through collision,” Nature World News (30 January 2014).
“Vigorous star birth without galactic collisions: Herschel paints new story of galaxy evolution,” ScienceDaily (14 September 2011).
Hua-bai Li & Thomas Henning, “The alignment of molecular cloud magnetic fields with the spiral arms in M33,” Nature 479: 499–501 (24 November 2011).
“When galaxies eat galaxies: gravity lenses suggest big collisions make galaxies denser,” ScienceDaily (12 October 2012).
Nick Hand et al, “Detection of Galaxy Cluster Motions with the Kinematic Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Effect,” arXiv:1203.4219v1 [astro-ph.CO] (19 March 2012).
Adam S. Bolton et al, “The Boss emission-line lens survey. II. investi-gating mass-density profile evolution in the SLACS+BELLS strong gravitational lens sample,” The Astrophysical Journal 757(1) (20 September 2012).
C. Papvich et al, “Large molecular gas reservoirs in ancestors of Milky Way-mass galaxies nine billion years ago,” Nature Astronomy (19 December 2016).
A.S.G. Robotham et al, “Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): galaxy close pairs, mergers and the future fate of stellar mass,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (18 September 2014).
Michael A. Beasley et al, “A single population of red globular clusters around the massive compact galaxy NGC 1277,” Nature 555: 483–486 (22 March 2018).
“Interacting galaxies,” Swinburne University Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing (2001).
J. Squire & A. Bhattacharjee, “Generation of large—scale magnetic fields by small—scale dynamo in shear flows,” Physical Review Letters (20 October 2015).
“Clue to formation of magnetic fields around stars and galaxies,” ScienceDaily (9 November 2015).
Rodrigo Ibata & Brad Gibson, “The ghosts of galaxies past,” Scientific American 296(4): 39–45 (April 2007).
Govert Schilling, “Hydrogen ‘bridge’ connects two galaxies,” Science (12 June 2012).
Jenny E. Greene, “Goldilocks black holes,” Scientific American 306(1): 40–47 (January 2012).
“Dwarf galaxy harbors supermassive black hole,” ScienceDaily (9 January 2011).
S.A. Farrell et al, “A young massive stellar population around the intermediate mass black hole ESO 243-49 HLX-1,” Astrophysical Journal Letters (February 2012).
“Hundreds of rogue black holes may roam the Milky Way, swallowing anything that gets too close,” ScienceDaily (29 April 2009).
The Milky Way
J.M. Diederik Kruijssen et al, “The formation and assembly history of the Milky Way revealed by its globular cluster population,” arXiv::1806.05680 [astro-ph.GA] (14 June 2018).
“The cosmic drama that helped to build the Milky Way,” Nature (16 April 2019).
“The Milky Way has devoured 15 other galaxies since it formed,” New Scientist (27 June 2018).
M. Lopez-Corredoira et al, “Disk stars in the Milky Way detected beyond 25 kpc from its center,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 612 (April 2018).
“The disc of the Milky Way is bigger than we thought,” ScienceDaily (7 June 2018).
Noam I. Libeskind & R. Brent Tully, “Our place in the cosmos,” Scientific American (July 2016).
Alexandra Witze, “At home in the universe,” Science News 181(12): 22– 25 (16 June 2012).
Ann Finkbeiner, “The new Milky Way,” Nature 490: 24-27 (4 October 2012).
Ashley Yeager, “Half of the Milky Way comes from other galaxies,” Science News (26 July 2017).
“A galactic vampire,” The Economist (21 February 2015).
Tim Radford, “Milky weigh: our galaxy has the mass of 700bn suns, say scientists,” The Guardian (31 may 2016).
“Galactic snack time: stream of stars slowly being ingested by the Milky Way,” ScienceDaily (25 October 2012).
Bart P Wakker & Philipp Richter, “Our growing, breathing galaxy,” Scientific American 290(1): 38–47 (January 2004).
Renée C. Kraan-Korteweg & Ofer Lahav, “Galaxies behind the Milky Way,” Scientific American 279(4): 50–57 (October 1998).
Jenna Iacurci, “Milky Way is much bigger than previously thought,” Nature World News (11 March 2015).
Yan Xu et al, “Rings and radial waves in the disk of the Milky Way,” The Astrophysical Journal 801(2) (April 2015).
Amina Helmi et al, “A box full of chocolates: The rich structure of the nearby stellar halo revealed by Gaia and RAVE,” Astronomy & Astrophysics (February 2017).
Ian Sample, “Nearby galaxy set to collide with Milky Way, say scientists,” The Guardian (4 January 2019).
“Stars in the halo of the Milky Way often travel in groups,” Phys.org (31 January 2017).
Nadia Drake, “Planets common as stars in galaxy,” Science News 12 (25 February 2012).
Ron Cowen, “Milky Way puts on weight,” Science News 175(3): 8 (31 January 2009).
William F. Welsh et al, “Transiting circumbinary planets Kepler-34 b and Kepler-35 b,” Nature 481: 475–479 (26 January 2012).
“Planet population is plentiful: planets around stars are the rule rather than the exception,” ScienceDaily (11 January 2012).
A. Cassan et al, “One or more bound planets per Milky Way star from microlensing observations,” Nature 481, 167–169 (12 January 2012).
“Astronomers get closest look yet at Milky Way’s mysterious core,” National Radio Astronomy Observatory (2 November 2005).
Nicholos Wethington, “The Milky Way’s black hole,” Universe Today (5 January 2009).
Ron Cowen, “Beast at galaxy’s core lacks spin,” Science News 179(1): 11 (1 January 2011).
Ron Cowen, “Decade of the monster,” Science 339: 1514–1516 (29 March 2013).
R.P. Eatough et al, “A strong magnetic field around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Galaxy,” Nature 501: 391–394 (19 Sep-tember 2013).
“A strong magnetic field around the Milky Way’s black hole,” Phys.org (14 August 2013).
S. Mutch et al, “The mid-life crisis of the Milky Way and M31,” The Astrophysical Journal 736: 84 (1 August, 2011).
“Milky Way amidst a ‘Council of Giants’,” ScienceDaily (11 March 2014).
Marshall L. McCall, “A council of giants,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (10 March 2014).
Anja von der Linden et al, “Weighing the giants – i. weak-lensing masses for 51 massive galaxy clusters: project overview, data analysis methods and cluster images,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (4 February 2010).
Patrick L. Kelly et al, “Weighing the giants – ii. improved calibration of photometry from stellar colours and accurate photometric red-shifts,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (4 February 2010).
Douglas E. Applegate et al, “Weighing the giants – iii. methods and measurements of accurate galaxy cluster weak-lensing masses,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (4 February 2010).
N. Lehner & J.C. Howk, “A reservoir of ionized gas in the galactic halo to sustain star formation in the Milky Way,” Science, (25 August 2011).
“Clue to origin of Milky Way gas clouds discovered,” ScienceDaily (29 May 2010).
“Bursting ‘bubbles’ the origin of galactic gas clouds,” ScienceDaily (28 May 2010).
“Massive gas cloud speeding toward collision with Milky Way,” ScienceDaily (13 January 2008).
Duncan A. Forbes &Terry Bridges, “Accreted versus in situ milky way globular clusters,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (25 January 2010).
Curtis Struck, “Astrophysics: rough times in the galactic countryside,” Nature 477: 286–287 (15 September 2011).
John Matson, “Star-crossed: Milky Way’s spiral shape may result from a smaller galaxy’s impact,” Scientific American (11 September 2011).
Leo Blitz, “The dark side of the Milky Way,” Scientific American 37–45 (October 2011).
M.E.K. Williams et al, “The wobbly Galaxy: kinematics north and south with RAVE red-clump giants,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (3 October 2013).
Michael Slezak, “Milky Way galaxy is fluttering like a flag,” New Scientist (24 October 2013).
Lawrence M. Widrow et al, “Galactoseismology: discovery of vertical waves in the galactic disk,” The Astrophysical Journal 750(2) (10 May 2012).
T.M. Dame & P. Thaddeus, “A molecular spiral arm in the far outer galaxy,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters (10 June 2011).
Ron Cowen, “Galaxy gets an arm extension,” Science News 179(13): 14 (18 June 2011).
Ian Sample, “Milky Way being pushed through space by cosmic dead zone, say scientists,” The Guardian (30 January 2017).
Yehuda Hoffman et al, “The dipole repeller,” Nature Astronomy (30 January 2017).
Galactic Webs
“It’s filamentary: how galaxies evolve in the cosmic web,” ScienceDaily (20 November 2014).
B. Darvish et al, “Cosmic web and star formation activity in galaxies at z ~ 1,” The Astrophysical Journal (4 November 2014).
Roger G. Clowes et al, “A structure in the early Universe at z ~ 1.3 that exceeds the homogeneity scale of the R-W concordance cosmology,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (11 January 2013).
Javiera Guedes et al, “Forming realistic late-type spirals in a LCDM universe: the Eris simulation,” Astrophysical Journal (2011).
Ananda Hota et al, “Discovery of a spiral-host episodic radio galaxy,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, 2011).
“Cambridge cosmology: galaxies galaxy clusters and large-scale structure,” University of Cambridge (undated).
Noam I. Libeskind & R. Brent Tully, “Our place in the cosmos,” Scientific American (July 2017).
R. Brent Tully et al, “The Laniakea supercluster of galaxies,” Nature 513: 71–73 (4 September 2014).
Ollie Gillman, “Pathways between Milky Way and 100,000 other galaxies mapped,” Daily Mail (14 March 2015).
Cosmological Principle
“Five billion light years across: the largest feature in the universe,” ScienceDaily (4 August 2015).
Roger G. Clowes et al, “A structure in the early Universe at z ~ 1.3 that exceeds the homogeneity scale of the R-W concordance cosmology,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (11 January 2013).
Michael D. Lemonick, “The first stars in the universe,” Scientific American (1 April 2014).
Nate Bastian, “Astrophysics: stars throw their weight in old galaxies,” Nature 848: 462–463 (25 April 2012).
“Elisabetta Caffau et al, “An extremely primitive star in the Galactic halo,” Nature 477: 67–69 (1 September 2011).
“The star that should not exist,” ScienceDaily (1 September 2011).
Michael Marks et al, “Evidence for top-heavy stellar initial mass functions with increasing density and decreasing metallicity,” arXiv:1202.4755 (21 February 2012).
Michele Cappellari et al, “Systematic variation of the stellar initial mass function in early-type galaxies,” Nature 484: 485–488 (25 April 2012).
Michael Marks & Pavel Kroupa, “Dynamical population synthesis: constructing the stellar single and binary contents of galactic field populations,” arXiv:1109.2896 (13 September 2011).
“Galactic clouds swathed in fog,” Nature 504: 334 (19/26 December 2013).
“Planet ‘reared’ by four parent stars,” ScienceDaily (4 March 2015).
Robert Braun et al, “Molecular gas in intermediate-redshift ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (1 October 2011).
“Galaxies are running out of gas: why the lights are going out in the universe,” ScienceDaily (22 August 2011).
Ramin Skibba, “Ageing Milky Way stopped making stars before it ran out of gas,” New Scientist (2 March 2016).
E. Valenti et al, “Stellar density profile and mass of the Milky Way bulge from VVV data,” Astronomy & Astrophysics (1 March 2016).
Alexandra Witze, “A new phase for hydrogen found,” Science News 13 (7 April 2012).
Zeeya Merali, “Stars draw atoms closer together,” Nature (19 July 2012).
Nadia Drake, “For white dwarfs, Earth for dinner,” Science News 180(7): 10 (24 September 2011).
Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, “How do stars explode?,” Science 336(6085): 1094–1095 (1 June 2012).
Massive Stars
H. Sana et al, “Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars,” Science 337(6093): 444–446 (27 July 2012).
“Brightest stars don’t live alone: most stellar heavyweights come in interacting pairs, VLT finds,” ScienceDaily (26 July 2012).
John F. Cherry et al, “Neutrino scattering and flavor transformation in supernovae,” Physical Review Letters 108(26): 261104–261109 (26 June 2012).
Neutron & Quark Stars
P. Kaaret et al, “Evidence of 1122 Hz X-ray burst oscillations from the neutron star X-ray transient XTE J1739-285,” The Astrophysical Journal, 657: L97–L100 (10 March 2007).
Edward Witten, “Cosmic separation of phases,” Physical Review D 30(2): 272–285 (15 July 1984).
“Double blasts may have birthed exotic quark stars”, New Scientist (31 August 2013).
Rachid Ouyed et al, “SN 2009ip and SN 2010mc as dual-shock quark-novae,” arXiv (14 September 2013).
Anil Ananthaswamy, “Quark stars: how can a supernova explode twice?,” New Scientist (9 December 2013).
Avishay Gal-Yam, “Super supernovae,” Scientific American 45–49 (June 2012).
Michael Moyer, “The biggest bang theory,” Scientific American 303(4): 18 (October 2010).
Jonathan C. Tan, “A dark cloud unveils its secrets,” Nature 500: 537–538 (29 August 2013).
Daniel Clery, “Hints of young planets puzzle theorists,” 362(6421): 1337 (21 December 2018).
Lisa Grossman, “Solar system birthed Jupiter early on,” Science News (8 July 2017).
Nadia Drake, “Planet search finds lots of little guys,” Science News (13 September 2011).
Simon Casassus et al, “Flows of gas through a protoplanetary gap,” Nature 493: 191–194 (10 January 2013).
David R. Ardila, “The hidden members of planetary systems,” Scientific American 290(4): 61–69 (April 2004).
“Star dines on young planet,” Nature (9 August 2012).
Lars A. Buchhave et al, “An abundance of small exoplanets around stars with a wide range of metallicities,” Nature 486: 375–377 (12 June 2012).
Christopher Crockett, “Overweight planet shake up theory,” Science News (12 July 2014).
James F. Kasting & Chester E. Harman, “Inner edge of the habitable zone,” Nature 504: 221–222 (12 December 2013).
Ravi Kumar Kopparapu, “A revised estimate of the occurrence rate of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones around kepler m-dwarfs,” arXiv:1303.2649 (11 March 2013).
“In praise of moons,” The Economist (10 November 2012).
“Planets can form around different types of stars,” ScienceDaily (13 June 2012).
“New research suggest Pluto should be reclassified as a planet,” Phys.org (7 September 2018).
Starless Planets
G.F. Gahm et al, “Mass and motion of globulettes in the Rosette Nebula,” Astronomy & Astrophysics (1 July 2013).
“Free-floating planets may be born free,” ScienceDaily (20 August 2013).
The Solar System
Alan P. Boss & Sandra A. Keiser, “Triggering collapse of the presolar dense cloud core and injecting short-lived radioisotopes with a shock wave. IV. Efects of rotational axis orientation,” arXiv:1507.03956v1 (14 July 2015).
“Fingering the culprit that polluted the solar system,” ScienceDaily (2 August 2012).
“Home away from home,” The Economist (10 December 2011).
Ann Finkbeiner, “Planets in chaos,” Nature 511: 22–25 (3 July 2014).
W. Benz et al, “Planet population synthesis,” arXiv:1402.7086 [astro-ph.EP] (11 March 2014).
Dennis Danielson & Christopher M. Graney, “The case against Copernicus,” Scientific American 310(1): 72–77 (January 2014).
Solar System History
“Our solar system is not quite as special as once believed, new research suggests,” ScienceDaily (2 November 2012).
Silvia Garbari et al, “A new determination of the local dark matter density from the kinematics of K dwarfs,” Monthly Notice of the Royal Astronomical Society (9 August 2012).
Brad Plumer, “This is the most detailed map yet of our place in the universe,” Vox (11 February 2015).
The Sun
Layers of the Sun image courtesy of NASA.
Leah Crane, “The sun shrinks and grows again by 2 kilometres every 11 years,” New Scientist (25 July 2018).
Prabal Saxena et al, “Was the Sun a slow rotator? Sodium and potassium constraints from the lunar regolith,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters (3 May 2019).
Leah Crane, “The young sun spun slowly, which could explain why we are here,” New Scientist (22 May 2019).
Geraint Jones, “Sun is the most perfect sphere ever observed in nature,” The Guardian (16 August 2012).
J.R. Kuhn et al, “The precise solar shape and its variability,” Science Xpress (16 August 2012).
Rebecca Boyle, “The secret life of the Sun,” Scientific American 318(6): 27-33 (June 2018).
Douglas Gough, “How oblate is the Sun?,” Science 337: 1611–1612 (28 September 2012).
Ian Cunnyngham et al, “A Poynting-Robertson-like drag at the Sun’s surface,” arXiv:1612.00873 [astro-ph.SR] (2 December 2016).
Leah Crane, “Sun’s rotation is slowed down by its own photons,” New Scientist (3 February 2017).
E. Fossat et al, “Evidence for a rapid rotation of the solar core,” Astronomy & Astrophysics (August 2017).
Stuart Wolpert, “Sun’s core rotates four times faster than its surface,” Phys.org (1 August 2017).
Simon F. Portegies Zwart, “The long-lost siblings of the Sun,” Scientific American 301(5): 41–47 (November 2009).
Maria Lugaro et al, “Stellar origin of the 182Hf cosmochronometer and the presolar history of solar system matter,” Science 345(6197): 650–653 (8 August 2014).
Shin-nosuke Ishikawa et al, “Detection of nanoflare-heated plasma in the solar corona by the FOXSI-2 sounding rocket,” Nature Astronomy (9 October 2017).
“New theory on why the sun’s corona is hotter than its surface,” Phys.org (10 October 2017).
Camille M. Carlisle, “Magnetic waves bake the Sun’s corona,” Science News (27 July 2011).
C. Papovich et al, “Zfourge/Candels: on the evolution of M* galaxy progenitors from Z = 3 to 0.5*,” The Astrophysical Journal 803(1) (2015).
Peter F. Wyper et al, “A universal model for solar eruptions,” Nature (26 April 2017).
“Sun’s eruptions might all have same trigger,” Phys.org (26 April 2017).
“Tilted suns,” Phys.org (4 November 2013).
Richard A. Kerr, “Why is the Sun’s corona so hot?,” Science 336(6085): 1099 (1 June 2012).
David H. Hathaway et al, “Giant convection cells found on the Sun,” Science 342(6163): 1217–1219 (6 December 2013).
Jeffrey W. Brosius et al, “Pervasive faint fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with eunis-13: evidence for nanoflare heating,” The Astrophysical Journal (1 August 2014).
Solar corona photo courtesy of Alan Friedman.
John Matson, “Feeling the heat,” Scientific American 304(3): 18 (March 2011).
Stephen J. Bradshaw, “Solar physics: swirls in the corona,” Nature 486: 476–477 (28 June 2012).
Sven Wedemeyer-Böhm et al, “Magnetic tornadoes as energy channels into the solar corona,” Nature 486: 505–508 (28 June 2012).
“How to predict and prepare for space weather,” The Economist (25 February 2017).
Ron Cowen, “Solar conundrum may be cracked,” Science News 179(3): 12 (29 January 2011).
Rebecca Boyle, “Strangest star: 6 things we didn’t know about the sun,” New Scientist (18 September 2014).
P. Cargill et al, “Solar physics: waves galore,” Nature 475: 463–464, (28 July 2011).
Nadia Drake, “Sun’s shock wave goes missing,” Science News 181(12): 17 (16 June 2012).
Ron Cowen, “Solar system’s edge surprises astronomers,” Science News (15 October 2009).
D.J. McComas et al, “The heliosphere’s interstellar interaction: no bow shock,” Science (10 May 2012).
Richard A. Kerr, “Magnetic tornadoes rage on the Sun,” Science (27 June 2012).
Michael R. Rampino, “Disc dark matter in the Galaxy and potential cycles of extraterrestrial impacts, mass extinctions and geological events,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (18 February 2015).
F. Stefani et al, “Synchronized helicity oscillations: a link between planetary tides and the solar cycle?,” Solar Physics 291(8): 2197-2212 (October 2016).
“Are planets setting the sun’s pace?,” ScienceDaily (4 October 2016).
A. Strugarek et al, “Reconciling solar and stellar magnetic cycles with nonlinear dynamo simulations,” Science 357: 185-187 (14 July 2017).
“Does dark matter cause mass extinctions and geologic upheavals?,” New York University (19 February 2015).
Bruce Balick & Adam Frank, “The extraordinary deaths of ordinary stars,” Scientific American 291(1): 50–59 (May 2008).
The Planets
Douglas N.C. Lin, “The genesis of planets,” Scientific American 298(5): 50–59 (May 2008).
S. Pirani et al, “Consequences of planetary migration on the minor bodies of the early solar system,” Astronomy & Astrophysics (27 March 2019).
“Jupiter’s unknown journey revealed,” ScienceDaily (22 March 2019).
Konstantin Batygin & Greg Laughlin, “Jupiter’s decisive role in the inner Solar System’s early evolution,” PNAS (23 March 2015).
Pablo Benitez-Llambay et al, “Planet heating prevents inward migration of planetary cores,” Nature 520: 63-65 (2 April 2015).
“Evidence that Jupiter is the oldest planet in the solar system,” Phys.org (13 June 2017).
Thomas S. Kruijer et al, “Age of Jupiter inferred from the distinct genetics and formation times of meteorites,” PNAS (13 June 2017).
Lisa Grossman, “Jupiter’s precocious birth happened in the solar system’s first million years,” Science News (12 June 2017).
Kenneth Chang, “79 moons of Jupiter and counting,” The New York Times (18 July 2018).
“Jupiter’s moon count reaches 79, including tiny ‘oddball’,” ScienceDaily (17 July 2018).
Tim Elliott, “Speed metal,” Science 344(6188): 1086–1087 (6 June 2014).
T.S. Kruijer ea al, “Protracted core formation and rapid accretion of protoplanets,” Science 344(6188): 1150–1154 (6 June 2014).
Richard A. Kerr, “Why is the solar system so bizarre?,” Science 336 (6085): 1098 (1 June 2012).
Alexandra Witze, “Mercury shrinking more than thought,” Nature News (9 December 2013).
Stuart Gary, “Mercury was magnetic four billion years ago,” ABC Science (8 May 2015).
Jacob Aron, “Volcanic blasts hint that Mercury is a migrant planet,” New Scientist (7 April 2014).
Maggie McKee, “Stores of ice confirmed on Sun-scorched Mercury,” Nature News (29 November 2012).
Paul G. Lucey, “A wet and volatile Mercury,” Science 339(6117): 282-283 (18 January 2013).
David J. Lawrence et al, ” Evidence for water ice near Mercury’s north pole from Messenger neutron spectrometer measurements,” Science (29 November 2012).
James O’Donoghue et al, “Observations of the chemical and thermal response of ‘ring rain’ on Saturn’s ionosphere,” Icarus (6 November 2018).
Matthew S. Tiscareno et al, “Close-range remote sensing of Saturn’s rings during Cassini’s ring-grazing orbits and Grand Finale,” Science (14 June 2019).
Shigeru Ida, “The origin of Saturn’s rings and moons,” ScienceDaily (14 June 2019).
“Saturn’s rings are disappearing at rapid pace,” Sci-News (18 December 2018).
Alexandra Witze, “Dust reveals ancient origin for Saturn’s rings,” Nature (19 August 2014).
Martin A. Slade et al, “Mercury radar imaging: evidence for polar ice,” Science 258(5082): 635–640 (23 October 1992).
Stuart Clark, “Nasa’s Messenger finds water ice and organic molecules on Mercury,” The Guardian (1 December 2012).
Alan Brandon, “Planetary science: building a planet in record time,” Nature 473: 460–461 (26 May 2011).
N. Dauphas & A. Pourmand, “Hf–W–Th evidence for rapid growth of Mars and its status as a planetary embryo,” Nature 473: 489–492 (26 May 2011).
“New evidence of deep groundwater on Mars,” Phys.org (28 March 2019).
Abotalib Z. Abotalib & Essam Heggy, “A deep groundwater origin for recurring slope lineae on Mars,” Nature Geoscience 12: 235–241 (28 March 2019).
“Impact theory gets whacked,” Science 342: 183–184 (11 October 2013).
Robert Irion, “It all began in chaos,” National Geographic (July 2103).
R. Gomes et al, “Origin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrial planets,” Nature 435: 466–469 (26 May 2005).
Richard A. Kerr, “The young solar system took a one-two punch?,” Science 336 (6078): 151 (13 April 2012).
“Migrating planets sped up collisions,” Nature 495: 413 (28 March 2013).
Nadia Drake, “Probe visits a planetary also-ran,” Science News 181(12): 14 (3 December 2011).
Robin M. Canup, “Origin of Saturn’s rings and inner moons by mass removal from a lost Titan-sized satellite,” Nature 468: 943–926 (16 December 2010).
Ron Cowen, “Demise of a moon, rise of the rings,” Science News 179(1): 10 (1 January 2011).
A. Morbidelli et al, “Chaotic capture of Jupiter’s Trojan asteroids in the early solar system,” Nature 435: 462–465 (26 May 2005).
Alexandra Witze, “Elements under pressure reveal secrets of extreme chemistry,” Science News 181: 26–29 (14 January 2012).
Ken Croswell, “Is Jupiter eating its own heart?,” Science (16 December 2011).
Ron Cowen, “The solar system’s big bang,” Science News 175(4): 26–29 (14 February 2009).
Steven Soter, “What is a planet?,” Scientific American 296(1): 34–41 (January 2007).
Christopher Crockett, “A distant planet may lurk far beyond Neptune,” Science News (14 November 2014).
Benjamin C. Bromley, “Terrestrial planet formation: dynamical shake-up and the low mass of Mars,” arXiv:1703.10618v1 [astro-ph.EP] (30 March 2017).
Colin R.M. Jackson et al, “Early episodes of high-pressure core formation preserved in plume mantle,” Nature (24 January 2018).
Everett K. Gibson et al, “The case for relic life on Mars,” Scientific Amercian 58–65 (December 1997).
Levin Gilbert V. & Straat Patricia Ann, “The case for extant life on Mars and its possible detection by the Viking labeled release experiment,” Astrobiology 16(10): 798–810 (October 2016).
“Evidence of outburst flooding indicates plentiful water on early Mars,” ScienceDaily (5 November 2018).
Anja Diez, “Liquid water on Mars,” Science 361(6401): 448-449 (3 August 2018).
Paul Voosen, “NASA Curiosity rover hits organic pay dirt on Mars,” Science 360(6393): 1054-1055 (8 June 2018).
Monica Grady, “Rover detects ancient organic material on Mars – and it could be trace of past life,” The Conversation (7 June 2018).
Stuart Gary, “Picture perfect proof that Mars once had wet seasons,” ABC Science (15 December 2014).
Kenneth Chang, “Methane is found on Mars, raising hope of life there now,” The New York Times (16 December 2014).
Leah Crane, “Titan could host building blocks of alien cells,” New Scientist (5 August 2017).
Maggie McKee, “Caught in the act,” Nature 493: 592–596 (31 January 2013).
“Giant impact scenario may explain the unusual moons of Saturn,” ScienceDaily (17 October 2012).
Ralph Lorenz & Christophe Sotin, “Moon that would be a planet,” Scientific American 302(3): 36–43 (March 2010).
“Ice cloud heralds fall at Titan’s south pole,” ScienceDaily (11 April 2013).
“Saturn’s moon Titan shows surprising seasonal changes,” ScienceDai-ly (28 September 2012).
“Saturn’s moon Titan: Cassini finds Titan’s clouds hang on to summer,” ScienceDaily (3 June 2009).
Jonathan Amos, “Titan moon’s colossal methane seas,” BBC News (12 December 2013).
Caitlin A. Griffith et al, “Possible tropical lakes on Titan from observations of dark terrain,” Nature 486: 237–239 (14 June 2012).
“Lakes on Saturn’s moon Titan filled with liquid hydrocarbons like ethane and methane, not water,” ScienceDaily (21 September 2010).
Benjamin A. Black et al, “Estimating erosional exhumation on Titan from drainage network morphology,” Journal of Geophysical Research (15 August 2012).
Luciano Iess et al, “The tides of Titan,” Science 337: 457–459 (27 July 2012).
“Cassini finds likely subsurface ocean on Saturn’s moon Titan,” ScienceDaily (28 June 2012).
Giuseppe Mitri et al, “Shape, topography, gravity anomalies and tidal deformation of Titan,” Icarus 236: 169–177 (1 July 2014).
D. Hemingway et al, “A rigid and weathered ice shell on Titan,” Nature 500: 550–552 (29 August 2013).
Richard A. Kerr, “Taking the life out of Titan,” Science 341: 949-950 (30 August 2013).
Ron Cowen, “Titan may host prebiotic brew,” ScienceDaily (5 August 2009).
Ron Cowen, “Titan chemistry yields hint of life,” Science News 178(1): 10 (3 July 2010).
Andrew Clarke, “Evolution and low temperatures,” in Evolution on Planet Earth, Academic Press (2003).
Xianzhe Jia et al, “Evidence of a plume on Europa from Galileo magnetic and plasma wave signatures,” Nature Astronomy (14 May 2018).
Sarah Kaplan, “Scientists discover new evidence of plumes on Europa, a target in the search for life,” The Washington Post (14 May 2018).
Xianzhe Jia et al, “Evidence of a plume on Europa from Galileo magnetic and plasma wave signatures,” Nature Astronomy (14 May 2018).
Brandon C. Johnson et al, “Porosity and salt content determine if subduction can occur in Europa’s ice shell,” Journal of Physiological Research: Planets (4 December 2017).
“Possibility of plate tectonics on Jupiter’s moon Europa bolstered,” New Scientist (4 December 2017).
John Wenz, “Jupiter’s icy moon Europa has a hidden ‘conveyer belt’ of heat,” New Scientist (4 December 2017).
K. Retherford, “Jupiter moon Europa may have water geysers taller than Everest,” CBS News (12 December 2013).
Christopher Crockett, “Subsurface sea hides below ice of Saturn moon,” Science News (3 April 2014).
Margaret G. Kivelson et al, “Galileo magnetometer measurements: a stronger case for a subsurface ocean at Europa,” Science 289(5483): 1340–1343 (25 August 2000).
David Stevenson, ” Europa’s ocean – the case strengthens,” Science 289(5483): 1305–1307 (25 August 2000).
Alan Yuhas, “Jupiter’s moon Europa may expel water plumes from under icy shell, Nasa says,” The Guardian (26 September 2016).
Rachel Feltman, “NASA just saw Europa’s geysers erupting into space. Again.,” The Washington Post (26 September 2016)
Amina Khan, “Water geysers erupt on Europa! Could Jupiter’s icy moon host life?,” Los Angeles Times (12 December 2013).
Lisa Gorssman, “First water plume seen firing from Jupiter moon Europa,” New Scientist (12 December 2013).
Simon A. Kattenhorn & Louise M. Prockter, “Evidence for subduction in the ice shell of Europa,” Nature Geoscience (7 September 2014).
Alexandra Witze, “Plate tectonics found on Europa,” Nature (7 September 2014).
Nicola Guttridge, “Astrophile: Europa’s choppy ocean looks friendly to life,” New Scientist (1 December 2013).
K.M. Soderlund et al, “Ocean-driven heating of Europa’s icy shell at low latitudes,” Nature Geoscience (1 December 2013).
Nola Taylor Redd, “Life on Jupiter moon Europa may hide in depths to survive,” Space.com (4 April 2012).
Christopher F. Chyba & Cynthia B. Phillips, “Possible ecosystems and the search for life on Europa,” PNAS 98(3): 801–804 (30 January 2001).
Jennifer Chu, “Losing air,” MIT News (2 December 2014).
S. Marchi et al, “Widespread mixing and burial of Earth’s Hadean crust by asteroid impacts,” Nature 511: 578–582 (31 July 2014).
Elizabeth Gibney, “Asteroids wreaked havoc on early Earth,” Nature (30 July 2014).
Matthias Willbold et al, “The tungsten isotopic composition of the Earth’s mantle before the terminal bombardment,” Nature 477 (7363): 195 (7 September 2011).
Richard A. Kerr, “Asteroid model shows early life suffered a billion-year battering,” Science 332 (6027): 302–303 (15 April 2011).
William F. Bottke et al, “An Archaeon heavy bombardment from a destabilized extension of the asteroid belt,” Nature 485: 78–81 (3 May 2012).
Nadia Drake, “Earth’s beating lasted longer,” Science News 8 (2 June 2012).
Jun Wu et al, “Origin of Earth’s water: chondritic inheritance plus nebular ingassing and storage of hydrogen in the core,” Journal of Geophysical Research (9 November 2018).
William J. Broad, “Flecks of extraterrestrial dust, all over the roof,” The New York Times (10 March 2017).
“Oldest bit of crust firms up idea of cool early Earth,” ScienceDaily (23 February 2014).
John W. Valley et al, “Hadean age for a post-magma-ocean zircon confirmed by atom-probe tomography,” Nature Geoscience (23 February 2014).
Elizabeth A. Bell et al, “Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon,” PNAS (19 October 2015).
Julia Rosen, “Scientists may have found the earliest evidence of life on Earth,” Science (19 October 2015).
Erin Wayman, “Maybe Earth’s chlorine blew away,” Science News 183(11): 14 (1 June 2013).
The Moon
Natsuki Hosono et al, “Terrestrial magma ocean origin of the Moon,” Nature Geoscience (29 April 2019).
“Magma is the key to the Moon’s makeup,” Phys.org (29 April 2019).
Simon J. Lock et al, “The origin of the Moon within a terrestrial synestia,” Journal of Geophysical Research (28 February 2018).
“The moon formed inside a vaporized Earth synestia,” ScienceDaily (28 February 2018).
Andy Fell, “Synestia, a new type of planetary object,” UC Davis (22 May 2017).
Daniel Clery, “How did the Moon really form?,” Science (5 June 2014).
Arpita Roy et al, “Earthshine on a young Moon: explaining the lunar farside highlands,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters 788(2) (9 June 2014).
Edward D. Young et al, “Oxygen isotopic evidence for vigorous mixing during the Moon-forming giant impact,” Science 351(6272): 493-496 (29 January 2016).
“Moon was produced by a head-on collision between Earth and a forming planet,” ScienceDaily (29 January 2016).
Matija Cuk et al, “Tidal evolution of the Moon from a high-obliquity, high-angular-momentum Earth,” Nature (4 November 2016).
Kenneth Chang, “If a ‘big whack’ made the Moon, did it also knock the Earth on its side?,” The New York Times (4 November 2016).
Marcus Woo, “Part of infant Earth survived moon’s shocking birth,” New Scientist (10 June 2014).
Rebecca Boyle, “What made the moon? new ideas try to rescue a troubled theory,” Quanta Magazine (2 August 2017).
Pallab Ghosh, “Traces of another world found on the Moon,” BBC News (5 June 2014).
Daniel Herwartz et al, “Identification of the giant impactor Theia in lunar rocks,” Science 344: 1146-1150 (6 June 2014).
Thomas Sumner, “Competing ideas abound for how Earth got its Moon,” Science News (4 April 2017).
Melanie Barboni et al, “Early formation of the Moon 4.51 billion years ago,” Science Advances (11 January 2017).
“The Moon is older than scientists thought,” ScienceDaily (12 January 2017).
Maylis Landeau et al, “Core merging and stratification following giant impact,” Nature Geoscience (12 September 2016).
Matija Cuk et al,”Tidal evolution of the Moon from a high-obliquity, high-angular-momentum Earth,” Nature (31 October 2016).
“Scientists’ finding supports moon creation hypothesis,” ScienceDaily (26 September 2016).
Raluca Rufu et al, “A multiple-impact origin for the Moon,” Nature Geoscience (9 January 2017).
“Study crashes main Moon-formation theory,” Phys.org (9 January 2017).
Robin M. Camp, “Forming a Moon with an Earth-like composition via a giant impact,” Science 338(6110): 1052–1055 (23 November 2012).
Alessandra Mastrobuono-Battisti et al, “A primordial origin for the compositional similarity between the Earth and the Moon,” Nature 520: 212–215 (09 April 2015).
“How do you solve a problem like maria?,” The Economist (6 August 2011).
Robert M. Hazen, The Story of Earth, Viking (2012).
Matija Cuk & Sarah T. Stewart, “Making the moon from a fast-spinning Earth: a giant impact followed by resonant despinning,” Science 338(6110): 1047–1052 (23 November 2012).
Thomas Sumner, “Fast-spinning young Earth pulled the moon into a yo-yo orbit,” Science News (18 March 2015).
Emil Noordeh et al, “Simulating the phases of the Moon shortly after its formation,” arXiv:1503.03041 [physics.pop-ph] (10 March 2015).
Ian Garrick-Bethell et al, “The tidal–rotational shape of the Moon and evidence for polar wander,” Nature (30 July 2014).
Satoshi Ide et al, “Earthquake potential revealed by tidal influence on earthquake size–frequency statistics,” Nature Geoscience (12 Sep-tember 2016).
Rebecca Boyle, “More evidence that the moon contributes to earthquakes,” The Atlantic (12 September 2016).
M. Jutzi & E. Asphaug, “Forming the lunar farside highlands by accretion of a companion moon,” Nature 476: 69–72 (4 August 2011).
Nadia Drake, “A shadowed past,” Science News 180(9): 20–21 (22 October 2011).
Nicola Davis, “Moon wetter than previously thought, raising new manned mission possibilities,” The Guardian (24 July 2017).
Ron Cowen, “The damp moon: water found inside and out,” Science News 176(9): 10 (24 October 2009).
Yuji Harada et al, “Strong tidal heating in an ultralow-viscosity zone at the core–mantle boundary of the Moon,” Nature Geoscience (27 July 2014).
Thomas R. Watters et al, “Evidence of recent thrust faulting on the Moon revealed by the lunar reconnaissance orbiter camera,” Science 329(5994): 936–940 (20 August 2010).
Paul Scruton, “10 things you should know about the supermoon,” The Guardian (9 September 2014).
“Lunar volcanoes suggest the moon may still be warm,” New Scientist (15 October 2014).
“Death by moonlight? Not always,” Science Daily (22 October 2013).
Ralph E. Milliken & Shuai Li, “Remote detection of widespread indigenous water in lunar pyroclastic deposits,” Nature Geophysics (24 July 2017).
“Moon has a water-rich interior,” ScienceDaily (24 July 2017).
“Study suspects water reservoir under the Moon,” Pune Mirror (12 September 2017).
Life Under the Moon
Cameron Walker, “Moonstruck,” Aeon Magazine (22 April 2014).
Laura R. Prugh & Christopher D. Golden, “Does moonlight increase predation risk? Meta-analysis reveals divergent responses of nocturnal mammals to lunar cycles,” Journal of Animal Ecology 83(2): 504–514 (March 2014).
Helen Pearson, “Pull of the Moon,” Nature (1 September 2006).
Peter W. Barlow, “Leaf movements and their relationship with the lunisolar gravitational force,” Annals of Botany 116: 149-187 (2015).
Jacob Aron, “Moon’s gravity could govern plant movement like the tides,” New Scientist (17 August 2015).
Earth’s Final Formation
Curtis D. Williams & Sujoy Mukhopadhyay, “Capture of nebular gases during Earth’s accretion is preserved in deep-mantle neon,” Nature (5 December 2018).
“Mantle neon illuminates Earth’s formation,” ScienceDaily (5 December 2018).
Kevin R. Grazier, “Jupiter: cosmic Jekyll and Hyde,” Astrobiology 16(1): 23-38 (2016).
James F. Kasting, “Early Earth: faint young Sun redux,” Nature 464: 687-689 (1 April 2010).
Helen Thompson, “Ancient asteroids kept on coming,” Nature 484: 429 (26 April 2012).
Dennis Overbye, “Jupiter: our cosmic protector?,” The New York Times (26 July 20009).
William B. Moore & A. Alexander G. Webb, “Heat-pipe Earth,” Nature 501: 501–504 (26 September 2013).
Craig O’Neill et al, “The inception of plate tectonics: a record of failure,” Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical And Engineering Sciences (1 October 2018).
Tim E. Johnson et al, “Earth’s first stable continents did not form by subduction,” Nature (27 February 2017).
Stephan V. Sobolev & Michael Brown, “Surface erosion events controlled the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth,” Nature 570: 52–57 (5 June 2019).
Carolyn Gramling, “Soil eroded by glaciers may have kick-started plate tectonics,” Science News (5 June 2019).
Alexandra Witze, “Plate tectonics got a bumpy start,” Science News 11 (2 June 2012).
“The Nd of the innocence,” Science 340: 1142 (7 June 2013).
Steven B. Shirey & Stephen H. Richardson, “Star of the Wilson cycle at 3 Ga shown by diamonds from Subcontinental mantle,” Science 333: 434–436 (22 July 2011).
Martin J. Van Kranendonk, “Onset of plate tectonics,” Science 333: 413–414 (22 July 2011).
Dennis Höning et al, “Biotic vs. abiotic Earth: a model for mantle hydration and continental coverage,” Planetary and Space Science (October 2013).
Michael Slezak, “Early life built Earth’s continents,” New Scientist (25 November 2013).
“Mercury mineral evolution tied to supercontinent assembly over last 3 billion years,” ScienceDaily (25 June 2012).
“Earth’s mineral evolution,” Astrobiology Magazine (14 November 2008).
Sarah Simpson, “Violent origins of continents,” Scientific American 302(1): 32 (January 2010).
Thomas Sumner, “Earth’s mantle may be hotter than thought,” Science News (2 March 2017).
Tilt & Spin
Kim Krieger, “Garden gnome tests Earth’s gravity,” Science (21 March 2012).
Water Supply
Zdenek Futera et al, “Formation and properties of water from quartz and hydrogen at high pressure and temperature,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 461: 54-60 (1 March 2017).
Jamie Deasy, “Earth’s water may have originally been formed deep within its mantle, study shows,” Phys.org (3 February 2017).
L. Ilsedore Cleeves et al, “The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system,” Science 345(6204): 1590–1593 (26 September 2014).
“Why is Earth so dry? Planet formed from rocky debris in hotter region, inside of solar system’s ‘snow line’,” ScienceDaily (17 July 2012).
“Earth’s hot formation may solve water shortage mystery,” Space.com (17 July 2012).
Lydia J. Hallis et al, “Evidence for primordial water in Earth’s deep mantle,” Science 350(6262): 795–797 (13 November 2015).
“Origin of Earth’s water traced back to the birth of our planet,” New Scientist (12 November 2015).
“Study hints that ancient Earth made its own water – geologically,” Phys.org (17 December 2014).
Paul Hartogh et al, “Ocean-like water in the Jupiter-family comet 103P/Hartley 2,” Nature (5 October 2011).
Colin Barras, “Planet Earth was blue long before we knew,” New Scientist (30 August 2013).
Paul Hartogh et al, “Ocean-like water in the Jupiter-family comet 103P/Hartley 2,” Nature 478: 218–220 (13 October 2011).
“Solar system ice: source of Earth’s water,” ScienceDaily (12 July 2012).
C. M. O’D. Alexander et al, “The provenances of asteroids, and their contributions to the volatile inventories of the terrestrial planets,” Science (12 July 2012).
Henry H. Hsieh, “Asteroids: a frosty finding,” Nature 464: 1286–1287 (29 April 2010).
Ron Cowen, “Liquid acquisition,” Science News 179 (2): 26 (15 January 2011).
Alberto E. Saal et al, “Hydrogen isotopes in lunar volcanic glasses and melt inclusions reveal a carbonaceous chondrite heritage,” Science Xpress (9 May 2013).
Ron Cowen, “Common source for Earth and Moon water,” Nature (9 May 2013).
Christopher Crockett, “Quest to trace origin of Earth’s water is ‘a complete mess’,” Science News (5 August 2015).
Christina L. De La Rocha, “In hot water,” Nature 443(26): 920–921 (23 October 2006).
D.G. Pearson et al, “Hydrous mantle transition zone indicated by ringwoodite included within diamond,” Nature 507: 221–224 (13 March 2014).
Birger Schmitz, “Earth science: how a world came to be,” Nature 485: 39 (3 May 2012).
Whitney Clavin & Alan Buis, “Astronomers find largest, most distant reservoir of water,” NASA (22 July 2011).
Frank H.T. Rhodes, Earth: A Tenant’s Manual, Cornell University Press (2012).
Wenbo Wu et al, “Inferring Earth’s discontinuous chemical layering from the 660-kilometer boundary topography,” Science 363(6428): 736-740 (15 February 2019).
Don L. Anderson & Scott D. King, “Driving the Earth machine?,” Science 346(6214): 1184–1185 (5 December 2014).
“Experiments cast doubt on theory of how Earth was formed,” ScienceDaily (14 August 2017).
M.D. Jackson et al, “Chemical differentiation, cold storage and remobilization of magma in the Earth’s crust,” Nature 564: 405–409 (27 December 2018).
Kenneth Chang, “Earth’s core spins faster than the rest of the planet,” The New York Times (25 August 2005).
Kei Hirose et al, “Crystallization of silicon dioxide and compositional evolution of the Earth’s core,” Nature (22 February 2017).
Richard K. Bono et al, “Young inner core inferred from Ediacaran ultra-low geomagnetic field intensity,” Nature Geoscience 12: 143–147 (28 January 2019).
Carolyn Gramling, “Earth’s core may have hardened just in time to save its magnetic field,” Science News (28 January 2019).
“‘Quartz’ crystals at the Earth’s core power its magnetic field,” Phys.org (22 February 2017).
Natalie Angier, “The enigma 1,800 miles below us,” The New York Times (28 May 2012).
Kenneth C. Creager, “Earth science: solid evidence in the inner core,” Nature 454: 833–835 (14 August 2008).
James Wookey & George Helffrich, “Inner-core shear-wave anisotropy and texture from an observation of PKJKP waves,” Nature 454: 873–876 (14 August 2008).
Thomas Sumner, “Solid inner, inner core may be relic of Earth’s earliest day,” Science News (18 December 2015).
A.J. Biggin et al, “Palaeomagnetic field intensity variations suggest Mesoproterozoic inner-core nucleation,” Nature 526: 245–248 (8 October 2015).
Andrew John Biggin, “How we discovered that the Earth’s inner core is older than previously though,” Phys.org (9 October 2015).
Thomas Sumner, “Solid inner, inner core may be relic of Earth’s earliest days,” Science News 189(2): 8 (23 January 2016).
Kei Hirose et al, “Crystallization of silicon dioxide and compositional evolution of the Earth’s core,” Nature 543: 99-102 (2 March 2017).
Monica Pozzo et al, “Thermal and electrical conductivity of iron at Earth’s core conditions,” Nature 485: 355–358 (17 May 2012).
Benjamí Martorell et al, “Strong premelting effect in the elastic properties of hcp-Fe under inner-core conditions,” Science (10 October 2013).
Earth’s Magnetic Field
“Earth’s magnetic field ‘simpler than we thought’,” ScienceDaily (7 July 2017).
A. Hausoel et al, “Local magnetic moments in iron and nickel at ambient and Earth’s core conditions,” Nature Communications (12 July 2017).
“Nickel is crucial for Earth’s magnetic field,” Würzburg University (13 July 2017).
Richard A. Kerr, “Earth’s inner core is running a tad faster than the rest of the planet,” Science 309(5739): 1313 (26 August 2005).
Philip W. Livermore et al, “Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth’s core,” PNAS (16 September 2013).
Douglas Palmer, A History of Earth, Firefly Books (2011).
Thomas Sumner, “Mystery at the center of the Earth,” Science News (19 September 2015).
John A. Tarduno et al, “A Hadean to Paleoarchean geodynamo recorded by single zircon crystals,” Science 349(6247): 521–524 (31 July 2015).
Ancient crystals show Earth’s magnetic field switched on early,” New Scientist (31 July 2015).
Moira Jardine, “Sunscreen for the young Earth,” Science 327(5970): 1206–1207 (5 March 2010).
Julien Aubert et al, “Bottom-up control of geomagnetic secular variation by the Earth’s inner core,” Nature 502: 219-223 (15 October 2013).
“Magnetic field, mantle convection and tectonics,” ScienceDaily (27 July 2012).
J.M. Aurnou et al, “Rotating convective turbulence in Earth and planetary cores,” Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 246: 52–71 (September 2015).
A.J. Biggin et al, “Possible links between long-term geomagnetic variations and whole-mantle convection processes,” Nature Geoscience (29 July 2012).
John Matson, “Shields up,” Scientific American 302(5): 17–19 (May 2010).
Elizabeth Howell, “How did early Earth protect itself against the cold?,” Phys.org (7 February 2014).
Van Allen Belts
G.D. Reeves et al, “Electron acceleration in the heart of the Van Allen radiation belts,” Sciencexpress (25 July 2013).
Mary K. Hudson, “A fast lane in the magnetosphere,” Nature 504: 383–384 (19/26 December 2013).
R.M. Thorne et al, “Rapid local acceleration of relativistic radiation-belt electrons by magnetospheric chorus,” Nature 504: 411–414 (19/26 December 2013).
“Van Allen probes discover a new radiation belt,” Science@NASA (28 February 2013).
Ron Cowen, “Mystery of Earth’s radiation belts solved,” Nature News (25 July 2013).
D.N. Baker et al, “An impenetrable barrier to ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts,” Nature 515: 531–534 (27 November 2014).
“Star Trek-like invisible shield found thousands of miles above Earth,” Phys.org (26 November 2014).
Polarity Reversal
“Earth not due for a geomagnetic flip in the near future,” ScienceDaily (23 November 2015).
Alexandra Witze, “Earth’s magnetic field may flip fast,” Science News 178(7): 10 (25 September 2010).
Alexandra Witze, “Pole flips tied to plate tectonics,” Science News 180(11): 9 (19 November 2011).
Annie Sneed, “Earth’s impending magnetic flip,” Scientific American (16 September 2014).
Huapei Wang et al, “Weaker axially dipolar time-averaged paleomagnetic field based on multidomain-corrected paleointensities from Galapagos lavas,” PNAS (23 November 2015).
Kenneth Chang, “Ancient jars hold clues about Earth’S fluctuating magnetic fields,” The New York Times (14 February 2017).
Erez Ben-Yosef et al, “Six centuries of geomagnetic intensity variations recorded by royal Judean stamped jar handles,” PNAS (13 February 2017).
Eugene Robertson, “The interior of the earth,” USGS (2007).
Oliver Tschauner et al, “Discovery of bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in Earth, in a shocked meteorite,” Science 346(6213): 1100–1102 28 (November 2014).
Li Zhang et al, “Disproportionation of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite in Earth’s deep lower mantle,” Science 344(6186): 877–882 (23 May 2014).
P. Poli et al, “Body-wave imaging of Earth’s mantle discontinuities from ambient seismic noise,” Science 338: 1063–1065 (23 November 2013).
Christoph J. Sahle et al, “Microscopic structure of water at elevated pressures and temperatures,” PNAS (11 March 2013).
Richard A. Kerr, “The deep Earth machine is coming together,” Science 340(6128): 22–24 (4 April 2013).
Don L. Andersona & James H. Natland, “Mantle updrafts and mechanisms of oceanic volcanism,” PNAS (8 September 2014).
Sid Perkins, “Ancient crust rises from the deep,” Nature (24 April 2013).
Rita A. Cabral et al, “Anomalous sulphur isotopes in plume lavas reveal deep mantle storage of Archaean crust,” Nature 496: 490–493 (24 April 2013).
Day Length
“Earth’s core affects length of day,” ScienceDaily (11 July 2013).
R. Holme & O. de Viron, “Characterization and implications of intradecadal variations in length of day,” Nature 499: 202–205 (11 July 2013).
Mark Viney, “Stutters in Earth’s spin change day length,” New Scientist (10 July 2013).
The End
David T. Chuss, “Will the universe expand forever?,” NASA (2013).
Simon P. Driver et al, “Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): panchromatic data release (far-UV–far-IR) and the low-z energy budget,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (16 July 2015).
David Adam, “Universe is fading away, say astronomers,” The Guardian (18 August 2003).
Ian Sample, “Universe slowly dying as old stars fade faster than new ones are born,” The Guardian (10 August 2015).
Robert R. Caldwell et al, “Phantom energy: dark energy with ? <– 1 causes a cosmic doomsday," Physical Review Letters 91(7): 1301–1304 (13 August 2003).
Marcelo M. Disconzi et al, “New approach to cosmological bulk viscosity, Physical Review D (27 February 2015).
Hannah Devlin, “This is the way the world ends: not with a bang, but with a Big Rip,” The Guardian (3 July 2015).
“Collapse of the universe is closer than ever before,” ScienceDaily (12 December 2013).
Dennis Overbye, “Stalking the shadow universe,” The New York Times (16 July 2014).

David Halliday et al, Fundamentals of Physics, 10th Edition, Wiley (2013).
James S. Walker, Physics, Addison-Wesley (2009).
Carlo Rovelli, Seven Brief Lessons on Physics, Riverhead Books (2016).
R. Shankar, Fundamentals of Physics: Mechanics, Relativity, and Thermodynamics, Yale University Press (2014).
David Deutsch, The Fabric of Reality: The Science of Parallel Universes and Its Implications, Viking Adult (1997).
Tom Jackson, Physics, Shelter Harbor Press (2017).
Edward Dolnick, The Clockwork Universe Harper Collins (2011).
Ricardo Lopes Coelho, “On the concept of energy: History and philosophy for science teaching,” Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 1(1): 2648-2652 (18 March 2009).
Victor J. Stenger, God and the Atom, Prometheus Books (2013).
Lee Smolin, Einstein’s Unfinished Revolution: The Search for What Lies Beyond the Quantum, Penguin Press (2019).
Lisa Randall, Warped Passages, Echo (2005).
Anne Rooney, The Story of Physics, Arcturus (2015).
Michael Kolodrubetz, “Quenching our thirst for universality,” Nature (7 November 2018).
Steven Vogel, Life’s Devices, Princeton University Press (1988).
Isaac Newton
Sarah Dry, The Newton Papers: The Strange and True Odyssey of Isaac Newton’s Manuscripts, Oxford University Press (2014).
Joaquin Perez-Pariente, “The alchemy paradox,” National Geographic History (May/June 2018).
Laws of Thermodynamics
Anatoli Polkovnikov & Dries Sels, “Thermalization in small quantum systems,” Science 353(6301): 752–753 (19 August 2016).
Clara Moskwitz, “Fact or fiction?: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed,” Scientific American (5 August 2014).
Vacuum Genesis
Edward P. Tryon, “Is the universe a vacuum fluctuation?,” Nature 246: 396-397 (14 December 1973).
R. Brout et al, “Creation of the universe as a quantum phenomenon,” Annals of Physics 115:78-106 (1978).
Dongshan He et al, “Spontaneous creation of teh universe from nothing,” arXiv:1404.127v1 [gr-qc] (4 April 2014).
Alexander Vilenkin, “Creation of universes from nothing,” Physics Letters 117B(1-2) (4 November 1982).
Thermalization Thwarted
Kaonan Micadei et al, “Reversing the thermodynamic arrow of time using quantum correlations,” arXiv:1711.03323 (9 November 2017).
Bob Yirka, “Experiment shows that arrow of time is a relative concept, not an absolute one,” Phys.org (1 December 2017).
“Solid state physics: quantum matter stuck in unrest,” ScienceDaily (31 July 2015).
Mark G. Raizen, “Demons and the quest entropy for absolute zero,” Scientific American 304(3): 54–59 (June 2011).
Laura Sanders, “Nanoclusters battle second law,” Science News 13 (9 May 2009).
“How often do quantum systems violate the second law of thermodynamics?,” ScienceDaily (26 October 2016).
Álvaro M. Alhambra et al, “Fluctuating states: what is the probability of a thermodynamical transition?,” Physical Review X (24 October 2016).
Álvaro M. Alhambra et al, “Fluctuating work: from quantum thermodynamical identities to a second law equality,” Physical Review X (24 October 2016).
So Bitter Cold That It’s Hot
Lincoln D. Carr, “Negative temperatures?,” Science 339(42): 42–43 (4 January 2013).
S. Braun et al, “Negative absolute temperature for motional degrees of freedom,” Science 339(6115): 52–55 (4 January 2013).
Zeeya Merali, “Quantum gas goes below absolute zero,” Nature (3 January 2013).
Alexandra Witze, “Negative temperature, infinitely hot,” Science News (23 November 2010).
Tamara M. Davis, “Is the universe leaking energy?,” Scientific American 303(1): 38–43 (July 2010).
From Classical to Modern Physics
Victor J. Stenger, Timeless Reality, Prometheus Books (2000).
Simon Newcomb, “Modern mathematical thought,” Nature 49: 328–329 (1 February 1894).
Vlatko Vedral, “Living in a quantum world,” Scientific American 304(6): 38–44 (June 2011).
Lisa Randall, Knocking on Heaven’s Door, HarperCollins (2011).
Angela Herring, “Magic and symmetry in mathematics,” Phys.org (12 March 2014).
The Inscrutability of Infinity
Amanda Gefter, “Infinity’s end: Time to ditch the never-ending story?,” New Scientist (15 August 2013).
Frank Close, The Infinity Puzzle, Basic Books (2011).
Antoniya Aleksandrova et al, “Real-vector-space quantum theory with a universal quantum bit,” arXiv:1210.4535 [quant-ph].
The Imaginary Complexity of Reality
Paul Halpern, The Great Beyond, John Wiley & Sons (2004).
Matthew Chalmers, “From i to u: searching for the quantum master bit,” New Scientist (23 January 2014).
William K. Wootters, “Optimal information transfer and real-vector-space quantum theory,” arXiv:1301.2018 [quant-ph] (10 January 2013).
Albert Einstein
Walter Isaacson, Einstein, Simon & Schuster (2007).
Gary Stix, “The patent clerk’s legacy,” Scientific American 291(3): 44–49 (September 2004).
Special Relativity
Ryan T. Glasser et al, “Stimulated generation of superluminal light pulses via four-wave mixing,” Physical Review Letters 108(17): 173902–193906 (26 April 2012).
Daniel Giovannini et al, “Photons that travel in free space slower than the speed of light,” arXiv:1411.3987 [physics.optics] (14 November 2014).
Andrew Grant, “Speed of light not so constant after all,” Science News (17 January 2015).
C.W. Chou et al, “Optical clocks and relativity,” Science 329(24): 1630–1633 (24 September 2010).
David Z. Albert & Rivka Galchen, “A quantum threat,” Scientific American 32–39 (March 2009).
Hubert Schmidbaur et al, “Understanding gold chemistry through relativity,” Chemical Physics 311(1-2): 151-161 (25 April 2005).
Emily Conover, “Chemists strike gold, solve mystery about precious metal’s properties,” Science News (23 January 2017).
L.F. Pašteka et al, “Relativistic coupled cluster calculations with variational quantum electrodynamics resolve the discrepancy between experiment and theory concerning the electron affinity and ionization potential of gold,” Physical Review Letters 118: 023002 (10 January 2017).
John Walter, “What gives gold that mellow glow?,” Fourmilab.ch (March 2006).
Jesse Emspak, “8 Ways you can see Einstein’s theory of relativity in real life,” Live Science (26 November 2014).
“Relativistic quantum chemistry,” Wikipedia (undated).
Jesse Emspak, “9 cool facts about magnets,” Live Science (15 August 2014).
General Relativity
Franco Selleri (editor), Open Questions in Relativistic Physics, Apeiron (1998).
Mehr Un Nisa, “Relativistic effects in the global positioning system,” University of Colorado (2006).
Ulrik I. Uggerhoj et al, “The young centre of the Earth,” arXiv:1604.05507 [physics.ed-ph] (19 April 2016).
Jacob Aron, “Earth’s core is two-and-a-half years younger than its crust,” New Scientist (27 April 2016).
Corey S. Powell, “Relativity versus quantum mechanics: the battle for the universe,” The Guardian (4 November 2015).
Andrew Grant, “Gravity Probe B mission wraps up,” Science News (26 December 2015).
Dennis Overbye, “52 years and $750 million prove Einstein was right,” The New York Times (4 May 2011).
Gary Wegner, “Gravity tested on large scales,” Nature 477: 541–543 (29 September 2011).
George Musser, “Forces of the world, unite!,” Scientific American 291(3): 106–109 ( September 2004).
Lisa Grossman, “Light-bending by distant star seen,” Science News (8 & 22 July 2017).
Alexander Blum et al, “Editorial introduction to the special issue “The Renaissance of Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation”, The European Physical Journal H 42(2): 95-105 (June 2017).
Anne M. Archibald et al, “Universality of free fall from the orbital motion of a pulsar in a stellar triple system,” Nature 559: 73–76 (5 July 2018).
George Musser, “Could time end?,” Scientific American 303(3): 84–91 (September 2010).
Krzysztof Lorek et al, “Ideal clocks – a convenient fiction,” Classical and Quantum Gravity (4 August 2015).
Tom Siegfried, “It’s likely that times are changing,” Science News 174(6): 26–28 (13 September 2008).
Andreas Albrecht & Alberto Iglesias, “The clock ambiguity: implications and new developments,” arXiv:0805.4452v2 [hep-th] (26 January 2009).
Zeno Effect
Wayne M. Itano et al, “Quantum Zeno effect,” Physical Review A 41(5): 2295-2300 (1 March 1990).
B. Misra & E.C.G. Sudarshan, “The Zeon’s paradox in quantum theory,” Journal of Mathematical Physics 18(4): 756-763 (April 1977).
Bill Steele, “‘Zeno effect’ verified: atoms won’t move while you watch,” Cornell Chronicle (22 October 2015).
Y.S. Patil et al, “Measurement-induced localization of an ultracold lattice gas,” Physical Review Letters (2 October 2015).
Y.S. Patil et al, “Nondestructive imaging of an ultracold lattice gas,” Physical Review A (24 September 2014).
Jan Perina, “Quantum Zeno effect in cascaded parametric down-conversion with losses,” Physics Letters A 325(1): 16-20 (2004).
B. Kaulakys & V. Gontis et al, “Quantum anti-Zeno effect,” arXiv:quant-ph9708024 (13 August 1997).
Qing Ai et al, “Quantum anti-Zeno effect without wave function reduction,” Scientific Reports (8 May 2013).
Alfredo Luis, “Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in two-level systems,” Physical Review A (30 June 2003).
Adam Zaman Chaudhry, “The quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects with strong system-environment coupling,” arXiv:1701.07283 [quant-ph] (25 January 2017).
Black Holes & Quasars
Ignacio Martin-Navarro et al, “Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies,” Nature (1 January 2018).
Zeeya Merali, “Stephen Hawking: ‘there are no black holes’,” Nature (24 January 2014).
Ahmed Almheiri et al, “Black holes: complementarity or firewalls?,” arXiv:1207.3123 [hep-th] (13 April 2013).
Zeeya Merali, “Astrophysics: fire in the hole!,” Nature (5 April 2013).
S. W. Hawking, “Information preservation and weather forecasting for black holes,” arXiv:1401.5761 [hep-th] (22 January 2014).
J. S. Kaastra et al, “Multiwavelength campaign on Mrk 509: I. variability and spectral energy distribution,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 534: A36 (2011).
M.J. Page et al, “The suppression of star formation by powerful active galactic nuclei,” Nature 485: 213–216 (10 May 2012).
“Black holes don’t make a big splash,” Phys.org (7 November 2013).
R.M. Shannon et al, “Gravitational-wave limits from pulsar timing constrain supermassive black hole evolution,” Science 342(6156): 334–337 (18 October 2013).
“Gravitational waves help understand black hole weight gain,” Phys.org (17 October 2013).
Abhay Ashtekar et al, “Quantum extension of the Kruskal spacetime,” Physical Review D (10 December 2018).
“Beyond the black hole singularity,” Phys.org (20 December 2018).
Black-Body Radiation
M. Sonnleitner et al, “Attractive optical forces from blackbody radiation,” Physical Review Letters 111(2): 023601–023605 (2013).
“Blackbody radiation induces attractive force stronger than gravity” Phys.org (25 July 2013).
R. Mark Crockett et al, “Triggered star-formation in the inner filament of Centaurus A,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (January 2012).
“Black holes turn up the heat for the universe,” ScienceDaily (15 May 2012).
Wallace Tucker et al, “Black hole blowback,” Scientific American 296(3): 42-49 (March 2007).
G. Ghisellini et al, “The power of relativistic jets is larger than the luminosity of their accretion disks,” Nature 515: 376–378 (20 November 2014).
Galactic Gyres
Giuseppe Lodato, “Black holes: star ripped to shreds,” Nature 485: 183 (10 May 2012).
K.J. Inskip et al, “Resolving the dynamical mass of a z ~ 1.3 quasi-stellar object host galaxy using SINFONI and laser guide star as-sisted adaptive optics,” The Astrophysical Journal 739 (2): 90 (29 September 2011).
D. Neilsen et al, “Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes,” PNAS 108(31) (2 August 2011).
E. Treister et al, “Black hole growth in the early universe is self-regulated and largely hidden from view,” Nature 474: 293–294 (16 June 2011).
D.J. Mortlock et al, “A luminous quasar at a redshift of z = 7.085,” Nature 474: 616-619 (30 June 2011).
Charles Q. Choi, “Dark side of black holes,” Scientific American 302(3): 22–24 (February 2011).
“Ultra-fast outflows help monster black holes shape their galaxies,” ScienceDaily (27 February 2012).
“Hundreds of rogue black holes may roam the Milky Way, swallowing anything that gets too close,” ScienceDaily (29 April 2009).
Matryoshka Reality
“Letter details Einstein’s post-war passion,” Science 336: 1488 (22 June 2012).
Flaminia Giacomini et al, “Quantum mechanics and the covariance of physical laws in quantum reference frames,” Nature Communications (30 January 2019).
Quantum Mechanics
Daniela Frauchiger & Renato Renner, “Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself,” Nature Communications (18 September 2018).
Daniela Frauchiger & Renato Renner, “Single-world interpretations of quantum theory cannot be self-consistent,” arXiv:1604.07422 [quant-ph] (25 April 2016).
Daniela Frauchiger & Renato Renner, “A non-probabilistic substitute for the Born rule,” arXiv:1710.05033v1 [quant-ph] (13 October 2017).
Daniela Frauchiger, “A non-probabilistic framework for scientific theories,” PhD Thesis, ETH Zurich (2016).
“A skeptic of quantum theory explains his misgivings,” Science News 178(11): 36 (20 November 2010).
Martinus Veltman, Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics, World Scientific Publishing (2003).
Meinard Kuhlmann, “What is real?,” Scientific American (August 2013).
“Fundamental physics is frustrating physicists,” The Economist (13 January 2018).
Art Hobson, “There are no particles, there are only fields,” (2012).
Alberto Peruzzo et al, “A quantum delayed-choice experiment,” Science 338: 634–637 (2 November 2012).
Art Hobson, “Two-photon interferometry and quantum state collapse,” Physical Review A (8 August 2013).
Amir Kalev et al, “Choice of measurement as the signal,” Physical Review Letters (25 June 2013).
Paul Busch et al, “Proof of Heisenberg’s error-disturbance relation,” arXiv:1306.1565 [quant-ph] (24 September 2013).
Jacqueline Erhart et al, “Experimental demonstration of a universally valid error – disturbance uncertainty relation in spin measure-ments,” Nature Physics (15 January 2012).
M. Ringbauer et al, “Measurements on the reality of the wavefunction,” Nature Physics (2 February 2015).
Michael Slezak, “Wave function gets real in quantum experiment,” New Scientist (2 February 2015).
Peter Byrne, “The many worlds of Hugh Everett,” Scientific American 297(6): 98–105 (December 2007).
Hugh Everett III, “Relative state” formulation of quantum mechanics,” Reviews of Modern Physics 39(3) (1957).
Hugh Everett III, “The many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics,” PhD Thesis, Princeton University (1956).
George Musser, “Was Einstein right?,” Scientific American 291(3): 88–91 (September 2004).
E.S. Reich, “Quantum theorem shakes foundations,” Nature (17 November 2011).
Matthew F. Pusey, Jonathan Barrett, Terry Rudolph, “The quantum state cannot be interpreted statistically,” arXiv:1111.3328v1 (pre-publication from Cornell University) (14 November 2011).
Matthew F. Pusey, Jonathan Barrett, Terry Rudolph, “On the reality of the quantum state,” Nature Physics (6 May 8, 2012).
Tom Siegfried, “Clash of the quantum titans,” Science News 178(11): 15–20 (20 November 2010).
Wolfgang P. Schleich et al, “Schrödinger equation revisited,” PNAS 110(14): 5374–5379 (2 April 2013).
John W.M. Bush, “Pilot-wave hydrodynamics,” Fluid Mechanics (10 September 2014).
“Fluid mechanics suggests alternative to quantum orthodoxy,” Phys.org (12 September 2014).
David Bohm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, Routledge and Kegan Paul (1980).
Louis de Broglie, “The reinterpretation of wave mechanics,” Foundations of Physics 1(1): 5–15 (1970).
D.J. Bohm & B.J. Hiley, “The de Broglie pilot wave theory and the further development of new insights arising out of it,” Foundations of Physics 12(10): 1001–1016 (1982).
Cian O’Luanaigh, “LHCb confirms existence of exotic hadrons,” Cern (11 April 2014).
LHCb Collaboration, “Observation of the resonant character of the Z(4430)– state,” arXiv: 1404.1903v1 (7 April 2014).
“New form of matter: exotic hadron with two quarks, two anti-quarks confirmed,” ScienceDaily (11 April 2014).
Andrew Grant, “Exotic particle packs a foursome of quarks,” Science News (11 April 2014).
The Standard Model
“Study supports Standard Model of particle physics, excludes alternative models,” Phys.org (17 October 2018).
“‘Ghost particles’ could improve understanding the universe,” Phys.org (31 January 2017).
Gordon Kane, “The dawn of physics beyond the Standard Model,” Scientific American 68–75 (June 2003).
Francis J.M. Farley, “The magnetic moment of the muon worries theorists,” Europhysics News 32(5): 165–169 (2001).
The ACME Collaboration, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science (19 December 2013).
Philip Ball, “Nuclear masses calculated from scratch,” Nature (20 November 2008).
Mark A. Silver et al, “Electronic structure and properties of berkelium iodates,” Journal of the American Chemical Society (17 August 2017).
“Breaking the rules: Heavy chemical elements alter theory of quantum mechanics,” ScienceDaily (3 October 2017).
Emily Conover, “Three new physics experiments could revamp the standard model,” Science News (19 September 2018).
Fermions & Bosons
Palash B. Pal, “Dirac, Majorana and Weyl fermions,” arxiv:1006.1718v2 [hep-ph] (12 October 2010).
Ling Lu et al, “Experimental observation of Weyl points,” Science 349(6248): 622-624 (7 August 2015).
Pedro David Garcia et al, “Nonuniversal intensity correlations in 2D Anderson localizing random medium,” arXiv:1206.3428 (15 June 2012).
“Paths of photons are random, but coordinated,” ScienceDaily (20 December 2012).
Peter Skands, “Particle physics: the mass of a top,” Nature (8 October 2014).
Jan C. Bernauer & Randolf Pohl, “The proton radius puzzle,” Scientific American 310(2): 33–39 (February 2014).
Jenny Lauren Lee, “Mass mismatch leads to mystery,” Science News 176(3): 14 (1 August 2009).
“High-energy physicists predict new family of four-quark objects,” ScienceDaily (8 November 2013).
“Synopsis: four-quark state confirmed,” Physics (4 June 2014).
R. Aaij et al, “Observation of the resonant character of the Z(4430)– state,” Physical Review Letters (4 June 2014).
“Hawai’i physicists observe mysterious new particle in BESIII Experiment,” University of Hawaii (8 April 2013).
Andrew Grant, “First four-quark particle may have been spotted,” Science News (21 June 2013).
Eric Swanson, “New particle hints at four-quark matter,” APS Physics (17 June 2013).
Jonathan M.M. Hall et al, “Lattice QCD evidence that the Lambda (1405) resonance is an antikaon-nucleon molecule,” Physical Review Letters (1 April 2015).
Andrew Grant, “Exotic particle turns out to be quark molecule,” Science News (3 April 2015).
Ross D. Young, “Strangeness in the proton,” Nature 544: 419-420(27 April 2017).
Particle Demolition Derby
Dennis Overbye, “Giant particle collider struggles,” The New York Times (4 August 2009).
Jonathan Butterworth, “A reminder of the beauty we know,” Nature 485: 455–486 (24 May 2012).
Emily Conover, “Neutrinos seen scattering off an atom’s nucleus for the first time,” Science News (3 September 2017).
Jon Butterworth, “How the particle that led Bohr to think energy might not be conserved could lead the next revolution in physics,” The Guardian (18 October 2015).
J. Bahcall et al, “New solar opacities, abundances, helioseismology, and neutrino fluxes,” The Astrophysical Journal 621: L85–L88 (2005).
Wolfgang Pauli photo courtesy of Bettina Katzenstein.
C.L Cowan Jr. et al, “Detection of the free neutrino: a confirmation,” Science 124 (3212): 103–104 (20 July 1956).
Devin Powell, “Particle physicists chasing ghosts,” Science News 180(6): 9 (10 September 2011).
“Neutrinos: ghostly particles with unstable egos,” ScienceDaily (6 September 2011).
“Digging deep,” The Economist (1 February 2014).
Richard A. Battye, “Evidence for massive neutrinos from cosmic microwave background and lensing observations,” Physical Review Letters 112(5): 051303–051307 (February 2014).
Calla Cofield, “IceCube catches high-energy neutrino oscillations,” Nature (6 June 2012).
Adrian Cho, “The sterile neutrino: fertile concept or dead end?,” Science 334 (6054): 304-306 (21 October 2011).
Eugenie Samuel Reich, “Neutrino oscillations measured with record precision,” Nature (8 March 2012).
The Daya Bay Collaboration, “Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay” (8 March 2012).
Edwin Cartiledge, “Are neutrinos their own antiparticles?,” Science (16 July 2013).
William C. Louis, “Particle physics: sterile neutrinos,” Nature 478, 328–329 (19 October 2011).
Michael Moyer, “A whole lot of nothing,” Scientific American 304(1): 16 (January 2011).
Higgs Boson
“Quark matter’s connection with the Higgs: heavy ion collisions delve deeper into the origin of (visible) mass,” ScienceDaily (14 August 2012).
Amir D. Aczel, “Particles that flock,” Scientific American 304(2): 30 (February 2011).
Davide Castelvecchi, “Is supersymmetry dead?” Scientific American 306(5): 18 (May 2012).
Adrian Cho, “At long last, physicists discover famed Higgs boson,” Science (4 July 2012).
“CERN experiments observe particle consistent with long-sought Higgs boson,” ScienceDaily (4 July 2012).
Ofer Firstenberg et al, “Attractive photons in a quantum nonlinear medium,” Nature 502: 71–75 (3 October 2013).
Rolf Ent et al, “The mysteries of the world’s tiniest bits of matter,” Scientific American (14 April 2015).
The CMS Collaboration, “Evidence for the direct decay of the 125 GeV Higgs boson to fermions,” Nature Physics (22 June 2014).
“Evidence found for the Higgs boson direct decay into fermions,” Phys.org (22 June 2014).
ATLAS Collaboration, “Evidence for light-by-light scattering in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC,” Nature Physics (14 August 2017).
Emily Conover, “Normally aloof particles of light seen ricocheting off each other,” Science News (14 August 2017).
M.A. Khamehchi et al, “Negative-mass hydrodynamics in a spin-orbit–coupled Bose-Einstein condensate,” Physical Review Letters (10 April 2017).
The Hierarchy Problem
Paul S. Wesson, “Fundamental unsolved problems in physics and astrophysics,” California Institute for Physics and Astrophysics (undated).
Matt Strassler, “The hierarchy problem,” Of Particular Significance (14 August 2011).
Jon Cartwright, “The Higgs mass mystery: Why is everything so light?,” New Scientist (11 November 2015).
Justin Eure, “Evidence of new physics could have been under our noses all along,” New Scientist (13 February 2019).
Eric Sorensen, “Physicists create ‘negative mass’,” Phys.org (17 April 2017).
Jon Cartwright, “Spin revolution,” New Scientist 221(2951): 41–45 (11 January 2014).
X. Zhang et al, “Spectroscopic observation of SU(N)-symmetric interactions in Sr orbital magnetism,” Science (21 August 2014).
“Classical spin,” Physics Forums (14 March 2007).
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking
Haruki Watanabe & Hitoshi Murayama, “Unified description of non-relativistic Nambu–Goldstone bosons,” arXiv:1203.0609v2 [hep-th] (22 April 2012).
William J. Marciano, “Particle physics: quarks are not ambidextrous,” Nature 506: 43–44 (6 February 2014).
“Theorem unifies superfluids and other weird materials,” ScienceDaily (11 June 2012).
Ghost Fields
Gordon Kane, “Do the virtual particles in quantum mechanics really exist?,” Scientific American 296(3): 104 (March 2008).
Peter Woit, Not Even Wrong, 167, Basic Books (2006).
“Particle physics: a bet about a cherished theory of physics may soon pay out,” The Economist (12 November 2016).
Davide Castelvecchi, “Is supersymmetry dead?,” Scientific American 306(5): 16–19 (May 2012).
Eric Gershon, “Electron’s shapeliness throws a curve at supersymmetry,” Yale News (19 December 2013).
Klaus P. Jungmann, “Matter and antimatter scrutinized,” Nature 524: 168-169 (15 August 2015).
Arthur Schuster, “Potential matter – a holiday dream,” Nature 58: 367 (18 August 1898).
P.A.M. Dirac, “The quantum theory of the electron,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A 117(778): 610–624 (1 February 1928).
Carl D. Anderson, “The apparent existence of easily deflectable positives,” Science 76(1967): 238–239 (9 September 1932).
Carl D. Anderson, “The positive electron,” Physical Review 43(6): 491 (1933).
Anton Burkov, “Chiral anomaly without relativity,” Science 350(6259): 378–379 (23 October 2015).
Jun Xiong et al, “Evidence for the chiral anomaly in the Dirac semi-metal Na3Bi,”Science 350(6259): 413–416 (23 October 2015).
Davide Castelvecchi, “Ephemeral antimatter atoms pinned down in milestone laser test,” Nature (19 December 2016).
“Physicists reveal why matter dominates universe,” Phys.org (21 March 2019).
Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry
Ron Cowen, “Antimatter belt found circling Earth,” Science (9 August 2011).
Alexandra Witze, “Earth’s antiprotons,” Science News (10 August 2011).
Ron Cowen, “Sign of antimatter seen in lightning,” Science News 176(12): 9 (5 December 2009).
“Matter-antimatter asymmetry: using the Sun to illuminate a basic mystery of matter,” ScienceDaily (8 July 2013).
“Clue to antimatter conundrum: physicists find evidence for signifi-cant matter-antimatter asymmetry,” ScienceDaily (20 May 2010).
“Surprising new evidence for asymmetry between matter and anti-matter,” ScienceDaily (24 May 2010).
Ron Cowen, “Muons offer clue to why universe isn’t just space,” Science News 177 (13): 8 (June 19, 2010).
“Tantalizing clues as to why matter prevails in the universe: surpris-ingly large matter/antimatter asymmetry discovered,” ScienceDaily (16 August 2010).
Jon Cartwright, “Evidence for antimatter anomaly mounts,” Science (29 February 2012).
Dennis Overbye, “A new clue to explain existence,” The New York Times (17 May 2010).
“Exotic atoms hold clues to unsolved physics puzzle at the dawn of the universe,” ScienceDaily (8 May 2013).
CP Violation
A. Roy, “Discovery of parity violation,” Resonance 10(12): 164–175 (2005).
“Antimatter: violating the rules,” The Economist (10 March 2012).
Nuclear Forces
Barbara V. Jacak & Berndt Müller, “The exploration of hot nuclear matter,” Science 337: 310–314 (20 July 2012).
Kenneth Macdonald, “Pear-shaped nuclei discovery challenges time travel hopes,” BBC (23 June 2016).
B. Bucher et al, “Direct evidence of octupole deformation in neutron-rich Ba,” arXiv:1602.01485v1 (3 February 2016).
“Physicists just confirmed a pear-shaped nucleus, and it could ruin time travel forever,” BEC (27 June 2016).
Stephanie Hills, “First observations of short-lived pear-shaped atomic nuclei,” Cern (8 May 2013).
Emma Stoye, “Atomic nuclei go pear-shaped,” Chemistry World (9 May 2013).
L.P. Gaffney et al, “Studies of pear-shaped nuclei using accelerated radioactive beams,” Nature 497: 199–204 (9 May 2013).
R. Nathans et al, “Polarized neutron studies on antiferromagnetic single crystals: technical report no. 4,” Air Force Office of Scientific Research (26 November 1958).
Tian-Heng Han et al, “Fractionalized excitations in the spin-liquid state of a kagome-lattice antiferromagnet,” Nature 492: 406–410 (20 December 2012).
Jonathan A. Scholl et al, “Quantum plasmon resonances of individual metallic nanoparticles,” Nature 483: 421–427 (22 March 2012).
Lorentz Symmetry
Su-Yang Xu et al, “Discovery of Lorentz-violating type II Weyl fermions in LaAlGe,” Science Advances (2 June 2017).
Emily Conover, “Faux particles commit physics faux pas,” Science News (12 June 2017).
Su-Yang et al, “Discovery of a Weyl fermion semimetal and topological Fermi arcs,” Science 349(6248): 613-617 (7 August 2015).
Ling Lu et al, “Experimental observation of Weyl points,” Science 349(6248): 622-624 (7 August 2015).
Andrew Grant, “Elusive particle shows up in ‘semimetal’,” Science News (16 July 2015).
Neil Russell, “Framing Lorentz symmetry,” CERN Courier (24 November 2004).
Moritz Nagel et al, “Direct terrestrial test of Lorentz symmetry in electrodynamics to 10-18,” Nature Communications (1 September 2015).
Guoquing Change et al, “A strongly robust type II Weyl fermion semimetal state in Ta3S2,” Science Advances 2:e1600295 (24 June 2016).
Philip Ball, “Tall tales,” Nature (17 June 2005).
Tom Siegfried, “A new view of gravity,” Science News 178(7): 26 (25 September 2010).
Erik Verlinde, “On the origin of gravity and the laws of Newton,” Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam (6 January 2010).
Dennis Overbye, “Gravitational waves detected, confirming Einstein’s theory,” The New York Times (11 February 2016).
Adrian Cho, “Triumph for gravitational wave hunt,” Science 351(6274): 645 – 646 (12 February 2016).
Clara Moskowitz, “Gravitational waves discovered from colliding black holes,” Scientific American (11 February 2016).
Quantum Gravity
Petr Horava, “Quantum gravity at a Lifshitz point,” Physical Review D 79: 084008–084023 (6 April 2009).
Zeeya Merali, “Splitting time from space,” Scientific American 301(6): 18–21 (March 2010).
Laura Sanders, “Everyday entanglement,” Science News 178(11): 22–29 (20 November 2010).
M.P. Blencowe, “Effective field theory approach to gravitationally induced decoherence,” Physical Review Letters (12 July 2013).
David Lindley, “Focus: gravity makes the universe classical,” Physics 6(78) (12 July 2103).
Quantum Superposition
Isabela A. Silva et al, “Observation of time-invariant coherence in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum simulator,” Physical Review Letters (14 October 2016).
“Forever quantum: physicists demonstrate everlasting quantum coherence,” Phys.org (14 October 2016).
Jonathan R. Friedman et al, “Quantum superposition of distinct macroscopic states,” Nature 406: 43-44 (6 July 200).
B Hensen et al, “Experimental loophole-free violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electron spins separated by 1.3 km,” arXiv:1508.05949v1 (24 August 2015).
Lynden K. Shalm et al, “A strong loophole-free test of local realism,” arXiv:1511.03189v1 (10 November 2015).
“‘Spooky action at a distance’ is really real,” ScienceDaily (12 November 2015).
Jeffrey Kluger, “What Einstein got wrong about the speed of light,” Time (22 October 2015).
Zeeya Merali, “Toughest test yet for quantum ‘spookiness’,” Nature 525: 14-15 (3 September 2015).
David Z. Albert & Rivka Galchen, “A quantum threat to special relativity,” Scientific American 300(3): 32–39 (March 2009).
“Quanundrum,” Nature 510: 312 (19 June 2014).
Guillaume Aubrun et al, “Entanglement thresholds for random induced states,” Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics (23 May 2013).
“Einstein’s ‘spooky action’ common in large quantum systems,” ScienceDaily (28 May 2013).
“‘Spooky action at distance’: physicists develop first conclusive test to better understand high-energy particles correlations,” ScienceDaily (16 January 2012).
Beatrix C. Hiesmayr et al, “Revealing Bell’s nonlocality for unstable systems in high energy physics,” The European Physical Journal C 72(1) (2012).
Andrew Grant, “New experiment verifies quantum spookiness,” Science News 188(6): 12 (19 September 2015).
Bose-Einstein Condensate
B. J. DeSalv et al, “Observation of fermion-mediated interactions between bosonic atoms,” Nature 568:61-64 (3 April 2019).
C. Gross et al, “Atomic homodyne detection of continuous-variable entangled twin-atom states,” Nature 480: 219–223 (8 December 2011).
Tarik Yefsah et al, “Heavy solitons in a fermionic superfluid,” Nature 449: 426–430 (25 July 2013).
Christoph Becker, “Dark and heavy,” Nature 449: 413–414 (25 July 2013).
D.Y. Tang et al, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Physical Review Letters 101: 153904 (10 October 2008).
Aleksandr S. Davydov, Solitons in molecular systems. Mathematics and its applications, Kluwer Academic Publishers (1991).
Thomas Heimburg & Andrew D. Jackson, “On soliton propagation in biomembranes and nerves,” PNAS (1 July 2005).
Ludmila V. Yakushevich, Nonlinear Physics of DNA, Wiley (2004).
Zachariah Sinkala, “Soliton/exciton transport in proteins,” Journal of Theoretical Biology 241(4): 919-927 (August 2006).
The Ground State
Andrey S. Moskalenko & Timothy C Ralph, “Correlations detected in a quantum vacuum,” Nature (10 April 2019).
Ileana-Cristina Benea-Chelmus et al, “Electric field correlation measurements on the electromagnetic vacuum state,” Nature 562: 202-206 (10 April 2019).
Lawrence M. Krauss & Michael S. Turner, “A cosmic conundrum,” Scientific American 291(3): 70–77 (March 2010).
Adam Ge Riess et al, “Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and a cosmological constant,” arXiv:astro-ph/9805201 (15 May 1998).
“Dark energy, dark matter,” NASA Science.
A. Bazavov et al, “Additional strange hadrons from QCD thermodynamics and strangeness freezeout in heavy ion collisions,” Physical Review Letters (11 August 2014).
Oliver Morsch, “Fluctuations in the void,” Phys.org (11 April 2019).
The Dance of Spacetime
Qingdi Wang et al, “How the huge energy of quantum vacuum gravitates to drive the slow accelerating expansion of the universe,” Physical Review D (11 May 2017).
“What drives the accelerating expansion of the universe?,” ScienceDaily (15 May 2017).
Angelo Esposito et al, “The gravitational mass carried by sound waves,” arXiv:1807.08771 [hep-th] (2 March 2019).
“Researchers suggest phonons may have mass and perhaps negative gravity,” Phys.org (15 August 2018).
Bob Yirka, “More evidence of sound waves carrying mass,” Phys.org (6 March 2019).
Quasiparticles Forever
Ruben Verresen et al, “Avoided quasiparticle decay from strong quantum interactions,” Nature Physics (27 May 2019).
“Immortal quantum particles,” ScienceDaily (14 June 2019).
String Theory
Brian Greene, The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory, W.W. Norton & Company (1999).
Tom Siegfried, “Infinity,” Science News 175(12): 26–28 (6 June 2009).
Frank Wilczek, “Quantum physics: Majorana modes materialize,” Nature 486: 195–197 (14 June 2012).
Jonathan B. Balewski et al, “Coupling a single electron to a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Nature 502: 664–667 (31 October 2013).
Gabriele Veneziano, “The myth of the beginning of time,” Scientific American 290(5): 54–65 (May 2004).
Amanda Gefter, “Mystery physics: What does the M in M-theory mean?,” New Scientist (20 April 2014).
George Musser, “A simple twist of fate,” Scientific American 302(6): 14–16 (June 2010).
F. Langer et al, “Lightwave-driven quasiparticle collisions on a subcycle timescale,” Nature (11 May 2016).
Dirk van der Marel, “Quasiparticles on a collision course,” Nature 533: 186-187 (12 may 2016).
Andrea Taroni, “Holes in reality,” New Scientist (10 September 2016).
Conrad T. Wolke et al, “Spectroscopic snapshots of the proton-transfer mechanism in water,” Science 354(6316): 1131-1135 (2 December 2016).
“A watershed moment in understanding how water conducts electricity,” ScienceDaily (3 December 2016).
Leah Crane, “Sound waves are a form of antigravity because they have negative mass,” New Scientist (7 August 2018).
Angelo Esposito, Rafael Krichevsky, Alberto Nicolis, “The mass of sound,” arXiv:1807.08771 (23 July 2018).
Ettore Majorana
Emily Conover, “Majorana fermion detected in a quantum layer cake,” Science News (19 August 2017).
“On the border between matter and anti-matter: nanoscientists find long-sought Majorana particle,” ScienceDaily (13 April 2012).
Majorana Fermion
Qing Lin He et al, “Chiral Majorana fermion modes in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator–superconductor structure,” Science 357: 294-297 (21 July 2017).
Vlad S. Pribiag, “A twist on the Majorana fermion,” Science 357: 252-253 (21 July 2017).
“Experiment finds evidence for the Majorana fermion, a particle that’s its own antiparticle,” Phys.org (20 July 2017).
Stevan Nadj-Perge et al, “Observation of Majorana fermions in ferromagnetic atomic chains on a superconductor,” Science (2 October 2014).
Jon Butterworth, “Majorana particles – fundamentally confusing,” The Guardian (5 October 2014).
V. Mourik et al, “Signatures of Majorana fermions in hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowire devices,” Science 336(6084): 1003–1007 (25 May 2012).
Piet W. Brouwer, “Enter the Majorana fermion,” Science 336(6084): 898–990 (25 May 2012).
Robert F. Service, “Physicists discover new type of particle–sort of,” Science (12 April 2012).
Eugenie Samual Reich, “Quest for quirky quantum particles may have struck gold,” Nature News (28 February 2012).
A.N. Redlich, “Gauge noninvariance and parity nonconservation of three-dimensional fermions,” Physical Review D 29(10): 18–21 (1984).
A.N. Redlich, “Parity violation and gauge noninvariance of the effective gauge field action in three dimensions,” Physical Review D 29(10): 2366–2374 (1984).
Devin Powell, “Superconductor may hide long-sought secret,” Science News 180(14): 18 (31 December 2011).
“Majorana fermions found,” Science 336(6078): 138 (13 April 2012).
Chiu Man Ho & Robert J. Scherrer, “Anapole dark matter,” Physics Letters B 722(4–5): 341–346 (24 May 2013).
The EXO-200 Collaboration, “Search for Majorana neutrinos with the first two years of EXO-200 data,” Nature 510: 229–234 (12 June 2014).
Dan Hooper & Jason H. Steffen, “Dark matter and the habitability of planets,” Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (25 March 2011).
Stringy Liquids
Tom Siegfried, Strings link the ultracold with the superhot,” Science News 175(9): 26–28 (25 April 2009).
Peter Steinberg, “Soft physics from RHIC to the LHC,” arXiv:0903.1474v1 [nucl-ex] (9 March 2009).
Alain Aspect, “Bell’s inequality test: more ideal than ever,” Nature 398: 189–190 (18 March 1999).
Terence G. Rudolph, “Quantum mechanics: The speed of instantly,” Nature 454: 831–832 (14 August 2008).
M. D. Shulman et al, “Demonstration of entanglement of electrostati-cally coupled singlet-triplet qubits,” Science 336(6078): 202–205 (13 April 2012).
Ralf Menzela et al, “Wave-particle dualism and complementarity unraveled by a different mode,” PNAS 109(24): 9314–9319 (12 June 2012).
Robert McConnell et al, “Entanglement with negative Wigner function of almost 3,000 atoms heralded by one photon,” Nature (25 March 2015).
Hong-Chen Jiang et al, “Identifying topological order by entanglement entropy,” Nature Physics 8: 902–905 (11 November 2012).
Daniel Salart et al, “Testing the speed of ‘spooky action at a distance’,” Nature 454: 861–864 (14 August 2008).
O. Jiménez Farías et al, “Determining the dynamics of entanglement,” Science 324(5933): 1414–1417 (12 June 2009).
Nathan Seiberg, “Emergent spacetime,” arXiv:hep-th/0601234v1 (21 January 2006).
Entanglement Out of Time
E. Megidish et al, “Entanglement swapping between photons that have never coexisted,” Physical Review Letters 110: 210403–210406 (22 May 2013).
Adrian Cho, “Physicists create quantum link between photons that don’t exist at the same time,” Science (22 May 2013).
The Information Paradigm
Jacob D. Bekenstein, “Information in the holographic universe,” Scientific American 289(2): 58–65 (August 2003).
Tom Siegfried, “Bits of reality,” Science News 181(7): 26–34 (7 April 2012).
Tom Siegfried, “A new view of gravity,” Science News 178(7): 26–29 (25 September 2010).
Vlatko Vedral, Decoding Reality, Oxford University Press (2010).
Information Theory
C.E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” The Bell Systems Technical Journal 27: 379-423,623-656 (July, October 1948).
G. ‘t Hooft, “Dimensional reduction in quantum gravity,” arXiv:gr-qc/9310026 (19 October 1993).
The Holographic Principle
Michael Talbot, The Holographic Universe, Harper Perennial (1991).
Leonard Susskind, “The world as a hologram,” Journal of Mathematical Physics 36:6377 (1995).
Adrian Cho, “Controversial test finds no sign of a holographic universe,” Science 350(6266): 1303 (11 December 2015).
C.R. Stephens et al, “Black hole evaporation without information loss,” areXiv:gr-gc/9310006v1 (4 October 1993).
Niayesh Afshordi et al, “From Planck data to Planck era: observational tests of holographic cosmology,” Physical Review Letters (27 January 2017).
“Substantial evidence of holographic universe,” ScienceDaily (30 January 2017).
Graham P. Collins, “Hawking a theory,” Scientific American 291(4): 32–33 (October 2004).
Cosmic Aether
Albert Abraham Michelson, “The relative motion of the Earth and the luminiferous ether,” American Journal of Science 22: 120–129 (1881).
Michael Moyer, “Is space digital?,” Scientific American 306(2): 31–36 (February 2012).
Jens Eisert et al, “Area laws for the entanglement entropy – a review,” arXiv:0808.3773 [quant-ph] (28 August 2008).
Paolo Zanardi & Lorenzo Campos Venuti, “Entanglement susceptibility: area laws and beyond,” Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment (15 April 2013).
Laruen McGough & Herman Verlinde, “Bekenstein-Hawking entropy as topological entanglement entropy,” arXiv:1308.2342v2 (19 September 2013).
C.M. Herdman et al, “Entanglement area law in superfluid 4He,” Nature Physics (13 March 2017).
“When helium behaves like a black hole,” ScienceDaily (21 March 2017).
Juan Martin Maldacena, “The large N limit of superconformal field theories and supergravity,” Advances in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics 2: 231–252 arXiv (1998).
Juan Maldacena, “The illusion of gravity,” Scientific American 294(5): 56–63 (November 2005).
Gravity & Thermodynamics
Erik P. Verlinde, “On the origin of gravity and the laws of Newton,” arXiv:1001.0785 [hep-th] (6 January 2010).
Thanu Padmanabhan, “Grappling with gravity,” Scientific American India 30–35 (January 2011).
Zeeya Mebali, “The origins of space and time,” Nature 500: 516–518 (29 August 2013).
Rainer Blatt, “Quantum mechanics: entanglement goes mechanical,” Nature 459: 653–654 (4 June 2009).
J.D. Jost et al, “Entangled mechanical oscillators,” Nature 459: 683–685 (4 June 2009).
Zeeya Merali, “Quantum effects brought to light,” Nature (28 April 2011).
Holistic Dimensionality
F. Belgiorno et al, “Hawking radiation from ultrashort laser pulse filaments,” Physical Review Letters 105 (8 November 2010).
Sang-Woo Kim, Jun Nishimura and Asato Tsuchiya, “Expanding (3+1)-dimensional universe from a Lorentzian matrix model for superstring theory in (9+1) dimensions,” Physical Review Letters 108: 011601 (5 January 2012)
Lisa Randall & Raman Sundrum, “Large mass hierarchy from a small extra dimension,” Physical Review Letters 83: 3370–3373 (25 October 1999).
Marguerite Holloway, “The beauty of branes,” Scientific American 293(4): 38–40 (November 2005).
Paul Halpern, The Great Beyond, John Wiley & Sons (2004).
James Owen Weatherall, Void: The Strange Physics of Nothing, Yale University Press (2016).
Diego A. R. Dalvit, “Quantum physics: Shaking photons out of the vacuum,” Nature 479: 303–304 (17 November 2011).
Qing-Dong Jiang & Frank Wilczek, “Chiral Casimir forces: Repulsive, enhanced, tunable,” Physical Review B 99: 125403 (4 March 2019).
“The force is with us, always? Tuning quantum vacuum forces from attractive to repulsive,” Phys.org (4 March 2019).
C.M. Wilson et al, “Observation of the dynamical Casimir effect in a superconducting circuit,” Nature 479: 376–379 (17 November 2011).
Devin Powell, “‘Magnetricity’ acts like electricity,” Science News 179(6): 13 (12 March 2011).
I. Levine et al, “Measurement of the electromagnetic coupling at large momentum transfer,” Physical Review Letters 78: 424–427 (20 January 1997).
Libai Huang et al, “Cofactor-specific photochemical function resolved by ultrafast spectroscopy in photosynthetic reaction center crystals,” PNAS (12 March 2012).
Elisabetta Collini et al, “Coherently wired light-harvesting in photo-synthetic marine algae at ambient temperature,” Nature 463: 644–647 (4 February 2010).
Michael Moyer, “Chlorophyll power,” Scientific American 300(9): 17–18 (September 2009).
John Alcock, Animal Behavior, Sinauer Associates (2005).
Robert J. Gegear et al, “Animal cryptochromes mediate magnetorecep-tion by an unconventional photochemical mechanism,” Nature 463: 804-807 (11 February 2010).
“Genetic basis for migration in monarch butterflies uncovered,” ScienceDaily (30 March 2010).
Daniel Cressey, “The mystery of the magnetic cows,” Nature (11 November 2011).
Sabine Begall et al, “Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer,” PNAS 105(36): 13451–13455 (9 September 2008).
Vlatko Vedral, “Living in a quantum world,” Scientific American 304(6): 38–44 (June 2011).
Susan Gaidos, “Living physics,” Science News 175(10): 27–29 (9 May 2009).
Balfour Stewart & Peter Tait, The Unseen Universe, MacMillan and Company (1874).
Matthew Chambers, “Why space has exactly three dimensions,” New Scientist (26 September 2013).
Expanding Into…?
“What is the universe expanding into?,” Phys.org (28 November 2013).
“Dark energy: is it merely an illusion?,” ScienceDaily (26 September 2008).
“Earth not so special,” Science News (30 August 2011).
Timothy Clifton & Pedro G. Ferreira, “Does dark energy really exist?,” Scientific American 300(4): 48–55 (April 2009).
A. Garrett Lisi, “An exceptionally simple theory of everything,” arXiv:0711.0770 [hep-th] (6 November 2007).
Theory of Everything
David L. Bergman, “Unification of physics,” Common Sense Science (November 2003).
James E. Beichler, “Alternative physical models of the universe,” MISAHA Newsletter (May 2003).
Jennifer Lin et al, “Locality of gravitational systems from entanglement of conformal field theories,” Physical Review Letters (5 June 2015).
“Theory of everything? How spacetime is built by quantum entanglement,” ScienceDaily (27 May 2015).
Mark Van Raamsdonk, “Building up spacetime with quantum entanglement,” arXiv:1005.3035v1 (17 May 2010).
Wormhole Entanglement
Anil Ananthaswamy, “Entangled universe: could wormholes hold the cosmos together?,” New Scientist (4 November 2015).
Adam Becker, “Wormhole entanglement gives space-time the bends,” New Scientist (26 July 2013).
Jennifer Lin et al, “Locality of gravitational systems from entangle-ment of conformal field theories,” Physical Review Letters (9 April 2015).
A. Einstein & N. Rosen, “The particle problem in the general theory of relativity,” Physical Review 18: 73–77 (1 July 1935).
Julian Sonner, “Holographic Schwinger effect and the geometry of entanglement,” Physical Review Letters (20 November 2013).
Mark Van Raamsdonk, “Evaporating firewalls,” arXiv:1307.1796v1 (6 July 2013).
Ron Cowen, “The quantum source of space-time,” Nature (16 Novem-ber 2015).
N. Rashevsky, “The geometrization of biology,” The Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 18(1): 31–56 (March 1956).
A. Pellionisz & R. Llinás, “Tensorial approach to the geometry of brain function: cerebellar coordination via a metric tensor,” Neuroscience 5: 1125–1136 (1980).
Andrew M. Goldsborough & Rudolf A. Römer, “Self-assembling tensor networks and holography in disordered spin chains,” Physical Review B 89(21): 214203 (27 June 2014).
Roman Orus, “A practical introduction to tensor networks: matrix product states and projected entangled pair states,” arXiv:1306.2164v3 (10 June 2014).
Andrew Grant, “Quantum histories get all tangled up,” Science News (20 February 2016).
Jordan Cotler & Frank Wilczek, “Entangled histories,” arXiv:1502.02480 [quant-ph] (22 March 2015).
Jordan Cotler et al, “Experimental test of entangled histories,” arXiv:1601.02943v2 [quant-ph]
Matryoshka Transition
Hyunseok Jeong et al, “Coarsening measurement references and the quantum-to-classical transition,” Physical Review Letters 112(1): 010402–010406 (6 January 2014).
Superconductivity Seam
Dirk K. Morr, “Lifting the fog of complexity,” Science 343(6169): 382–383 (24 January 2014).
“Quantum weirdness in ‘chicken or egg’ paradox,” Phys.org (3 September 2008).
Philip Ball, “A world without cause and effect,” Nature 546:590-591 (29 June 2017).
George F.R. Ellis et al, “Top-down causation: an integrating theme within and across the sciences?,” Interface Focus (23 November 2011).
Francis Crick, Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul, Scribner (1994).
Edward N. Lorenz, “Deterministic nonperiodic flow,” Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 20(2): 130-148 (March 1963).
George Ellis, “Time to turn cause and effect on their heads,” New Scientist (21 August 2013).
“Quantum causal relations: A causes B causes A,” Universität Wien (2 October 2012).
Ognyan Oreshkov et al, “Quantum correlations with no causal order,” Nature Communications (2 October 2012).
Caslav Brukner “Quantum causality,” Nature Physics (1 April 2014).
Constructal Law
Anthony Wing Kosner, “There’s a new law in physics and it changes everything,” Forbes (29 February 2012).
Bernat Corominas-Murtra et al, “On the origins of hierarchy in complex networks,” PNAS (19 July 2013).
Marissa Cevallos, “Quantum whirls,” Science News 179(6): 20 (12 March 2011).
Erik D. Andrulis, “Theory of the origin, evolution, and nature of life,” Life 2(1):1–105 (23 December 2011).
Jean-Francois Rupprecht & Jacques Prost, “A fresh eye on nonequilibrium systems,” Science 352(6285): 514-515 (29 April 2016).
Self-Organized Criticality
Jonathan N. Pruitt et al, “Social tipping points in animal societies,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (19 September 2018).
“Social animals have tipping points, too,” Phys.org (18 September 2018).
Per Bak et al, “Self-organized criticality: an explanation of 1/f noise,” Physical Review Letters 59 (4): 381–384 (1987).
J. Heierli et al, “Anticrack nucleation as triggering mechanism for snow slab avalanches,” Science 321(5886): 240–243 (11 July 2008).
Rachel Ehrenberg, “Numbers warn of looming collapses,” Science News (8 February 2012).
Lei Dai et al, “Generic indicators for loss of resilience before a tipping point leading to population collapse,” Science 336(6085): 1175–1177 (1 June 2012).
Dave Goldberg, “The greatest physics theorem you’ve never heard of,” New Scientist (22 April 2015).
Panchao Yin et al, “Chiral recognition and selection during the self-assembly process of protein-mimic macroanions,” Nature Communications (10 March 2015).
“Chiral recognition and selection during the self-assembly process of protein-mimic macroanions,” ScienceDaily (11 March 2015).
David Harvey et al, “The nongravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters,” Science 347(6229): 1462–1465 (27 March 2015).

Bruce A. Averill & Patricia Eldredge, Principles of General Chemistry (2012).
“Alchemists, ancient and modern,” The Economist (24 February 2011).
Peter Atkins, Reactions: The Private Life of Atoms, Oxford University Press (2011).
Paul Indelicato, “Orbital arguments,” Nature 498: 40 (6 June 2013).
Alexander Karpov, “The nuclear question,” Nature 498: 40-41 (6 June 2013).
“How a proton gets its spin is surprisingly complicated,” Science News (27 April 2019).
Randolf Pohl et al, “The size of the proton,” Nature 466: 213–216 (8 July 2010).
Dennis Overbye, “For a proton, a little off the top (or side) could be big trouble,” The New York Times (12 July 2010).
Emily Conover, “The proton pruzzle,” Science News 191(8): 22-27 (29 April 2017).
V.D. Burkert et al, “The pressure distribution inside the proton,” Nature 557: 396–399 (16 May 2018).
Adrian Cho, “Dark matter’s dark horse,” Science 342(6158): 552–555 (1 November 2013).
Rebecca Chang, “How long a neutron lives holds clues to the cosmos,” Science News 181(10): 20 (19 May 2012).
“Neutrons escaping to a parallel world?,” ScienceDaily (15 June 2012).
Zurab Berezhiani & Fabrizio Nesti, “Magnetic anomaly in UCN trapping: signal for neutron oscillations to parallel world?,” The European Physical Journal C 72(4): 1974 (11 April 2012).
Eugenie Samuel Reich, “Dipole hunt stuck in neutral,” Nature 482 (7383) 17 (31 January 2012).
Jennifer A. Johnson, “Populating the periodic table: Nucleosynthesis of the elements,” Science 363(6426): 474-478 (1 February 2019).
Nuclear Clusters
Martin Freer, “Nucleons come together,” Nature 487: 309–310 (19 July 2012).
J.-P. Ebran et al, “How atomic nuclei cluster,” Nature 487: 341–344 (19 July 2012).
The CLAS Collaboration, “Modified structure of protons and neutrons in correlated pairs,” Nature 566: 354-358 (20 February 2019).
Gerald Feldman, “Why neutrons and protons are modified inside nuclei,” Nature (20 February 2019).
Magic Nuclei
A. Mutschler et al, “A proton density bubble in the doubly magic 34Si nucleus,” Nature Physics (24 October 2016).
Emily Conover, “Physicists find atomic nucleus with a ‘bubble’ in the middle,” Science News 190(11): 11 (26 November 2016).
Gaute Hagen & Thomas Papenbrock, “A doubly magic nucleus that has two faces,” Nature (1 May 2019).
George M. Fuller et al, “Primordial black holes and r-process nucleosynthesis,” Physical Review Letters (7 August 2017).
“New theory suggests heavy elements created when primordial black holes eat neutron stars from within,” Phys.org (24 August 2017).
Periodic Table of Elements
Periodic table of the elements diagram courtesy of Sandbh.
Alexey Petrov, “David vs. Goliath: What a tiny electron can tell us about the structure of the universe,” The Conversation (20 December 2018).
Frank Wilczek, “The enigmatic electron,” Nature 498: 31-32 (6 June 2013).
Abigail Beall, “What if the diminutive electron isn’t as small as it gets?,” New Scientist (6 September 2017).
Edwin Cartlidge, “Rounding the electron,” Nature (25 May 2011).
Frank Wilczek, “Physics: the enigmatic electron,” Nature 498: 31–32 (06 June 2013).
Murray Wardrop, “Electrons are almost perfectly round, scientists discover,” The Telegraph (26 May 2011).
Alexandra Witze, “Measuring the inner shape of the famous particle could help solve a cosmic mystery,” Science News 179(4): 22–25 (12 February 2011).
R. Aaij et al, “First Observation of CP Violation in the Decays of Bs0 Mesons,” Physical Review Letters 110: 221601 (30 May 2013).
“Light on twenty-year-old mystery,” University of Groningen press release (29 August 2013).
M.J. Iqbal et al, “Odd and even Kondo effects from emergent localization in quantum point contacts,” Nature (29 August 2013).
“How electrons split: new evidence of exotic behaviors,” Phys.org (15 December 2014).
“Physicists observe the splitting of an electron inside a solid,” Paul Scherrer Institute (18 April 2012).
J. Gooth et al, “Thermal and electrical signatures of a hydrodynamic electron fluid in tungsten diphosphide,” Nature Communications (5 October 2018).
P. Salières et al, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518): 902–905 (4 May 2001).
Andreas Türler, “Nuclear chemistry: lawrencium bridges a knowledge gap,” Nature 520: 166–167 (9 April 2015).
T.K. Sato et al, “Nuclear chemistry: lawrencium bridges a knowledge gap,” Nature 520: 209–211 (9 April 2015).
Pekka Pyykkö, “Theoretical chemistry of gold. II,” Inorganica Chimica Acta 358(14): 4113–4130 (15 November 2005).
Florent Calv et al, “Evidence for low-temperature melting of mercury owing to relativity,” Angewandte Chemie 52(29): 7583–7585 (15 July 2013).
Bad Metals
“Breaking bad metals with neutrons,” ScienceDaily (11 January 2018).
Eugene A. Goremychkin et al, “Coherent band excitations in CePd3: A comparison of neutron scattering and ab initio theory,” Science 359(6372): 186-191 (12 January 2018).
Lisa Zyga, “Physicists propose explanation for metals behaving badly,” Phys.org (28 March 2014).
R. Jaramillo et al, “Origins of bad-metal conductivity and the insula-tor–metal transition in the rare-earth nickelates,” Nature Physics (16 March 2014).
B. Dalla Piazza et al, “Fractional excitations in the square-lattice quantum antiferromagnet,” Nature Physics (15 December 2014).
“How electrons split: New evidence of exotic behaviors,” Phys.org (15 December 2014).
A. P. Drozdov et al, “Superconductivity at 250 K in lanthanum hydride under high pressures,” Nature (22 May 2019).
Jame J. Hamlin, “Superconductivity near room temperature,” Nature (22 May 2019).
Laura Sanders, “Entanglement in the macroworld,” Science News 176(9): 12 (24 October 2009).
Pegor Aynajian et al, “Visualizing heavy fermions emerging in a quantum critical Kondo lattice,” Nature 486: 201–206 (14 June 2012).
“Got mass? scientists observe electrons become both heavy and speedy,” ScienceDaily (13 June 2012).
Adam Mann, “High-temperature superconductivity at 25: still in suspense,” Nature 475: 280–282 (21 July 2011).
Hiroki Takahashi et al, “Superconductivity at 43 K in an iron-based layered compound LaO1-xFxFeAs,” Nature 453: 376–378 (15 May 2008).
Graham P. Collins, “An iron key to high-temperature superconductivity?,” Scientific American 300(8): 62–71 (August 2009).
Charles Day, “New family of quaternary iron-based compounds superconducts at tens of kelvin,” Physics Today 61(5), 11–12 (May 2008).
Gwyneth Dickey, “Iron in the mix,” Science News 178(10): 18–21 (6 November 2010).
John S. Van Dyke et al, “Direct evidence for a magnetic f-electron–mediated pairing mechanism of heavy-fermion superconductivity in CeCoIn5,” PNAS (25 July 2014).
“Physicists unlock nature of high-temperature superconductivity,” Phys.org (28 July 2014).
Claudia Cantoni et al, “Orbital occupancy and charge doping in iron-based superconductors,” Advanced Materials (28 July 2014).
Darius H. Torchinsky et al, “Fluctuating charge-density waves in a cuprate superconductor,” Nature Materials (24 February 2013).
Liling Sun et al, “Re-emerging superconductivity at 48 kelvin in iron chalcogenides,” Nature 483: 67–69 (1 March 2012).
Jorge Quintanilla et al, “Relativistic analysis of the pairing symmetry of the noncentrosymmetric superconductor LaNiC2,” Physical Review B 82(17) (16 November 2010).
A.D. Hillier et al, “Nonunitary triplet pairing in the centrosymmetric superconductor LaNiGa2,” Physical Review Letters (22 June 2012).
“New class of unconventional superconductors,” ScienceDaily (3 July 2012).
Jade Boyd, “Study finds physical link to strange electronic behavior,” Rice University News (31 July 2014).
Mostafa Enayat et al, “Real-space imaging of the atomic-scale magnetic structure of Fe1+yTe,” Science (31 July 2014).
Xingye Lu et al, ” Nematic spin correlations in the tetragonal state of uniaxial-strained BaFe2-xNixAs2,” Science (31 July 2014).
J.C. Séamus & Dung-Hai Lee, “Concepts relating magnetic interac-tions, intertwined electronic orders, and strongly correlated super-conductivity,” PNAS 110(44): 17623–17630 (29 October 2013).
Valerii M. Vinokur et al, “Superinsulator and quantum synchronization,” Nature 452: 613–615 (3 April 2008).
Michela Fratini et al, “Scale-free structural organization of oxygen interstitials in La2CuO4+y,” Nature 466: 841–844 (12 August 2010).
“Astrophysicists find fractal image of sun’s ‘storm season’ imprinted on solar wind,” ScienceDaily (25 May 2007).
Andrew M. Sugden, “Secrets of long life,” Science 340(6136): 1016 (31 May 2013).
Joseph R. Dwyer, “A bolt out of the blue,” Scientific American 292(5): 64–71 (May 2005).
Marissa Cevallos, “Electrons tell a tale of the tape,” Science News 178(10): 13 (6 November 2010).
Gamma Rays
Daniel Clery, “What’s the source of the most energetic cosmic rays?,” Science 336(6085): 1096–1097 (1 June 2012).
Florinda Ferreri et al, “Mobile phone emissions and human brain excitability,” Annals of Neurology (July 2006).
Laura Sanders, “Cell phones turn up brain activity,” Science News 179(7): 13 (26 March 2011).
Cosmic Radiation
Devin Powell, “Origin of cosmic rays questioned,” Science News 179(7): 8 (26 March 2011).
Watch That Dial
Denise Grady, “A glow in the dark, and a lesson in scientific peril,” The New York Times (6 October 1998).
R. Mullner, Deadly Glow: The Radium Dial Worker Tragedy, American Public Health Association (1999).
Robert R. Johnson, Romancing the Atom, Praeger (2012).
Eternal Element
Emily Conover, “Rarest nucleus reluctant to decay,” Science News (3 October 2016).
“The unbelievable speed of electron emission from an atom,” ScienceDaily (13 November 2017).
M. Isinger, “Photionization in the time and frequency domain,” Science (2 November 2017).
Philip Ball, “10 unsolved mysteries,” Scientific American 305(4): 49–50 (October 2011).
Michael D. Fayer, Absolutely Small, American Management Association (2010).
David Chandler, “New low-temperature chemical reaction explained,” Phys.org (4 September 2013).
New pathways for formation of acids and carbonyl products in low-temperature oxidation: the Korcek decomposition of ?-ketohydroperoxides,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 135 (30): 11100–11114 (17 July 2013).
Scott A. Chambers, “Stability at the surface,” Science 346(6214): 1186–1187 (5 December 2014).
Joonhee Lee et al, “Visualizing vibrational normal modes of a single molecule with atomically confined light,” Nature 568: 78–82 (3 April 2019).
“Scientists are first to observe, image all-important molecular vibrations,” ScienceDaily (3 April 2019).
Philip Dalladay-Simpton et al, “Evidence for a new phase of dense hydrogen above 325 gigapascals,” Nature (6 January 2016).
Jesse Emspak, “Strange new state of hydrogen created,” Scientific American (8 January 2016).
Alexandra Witze, “Hydrogen takes a new form,” Science News (1 March 2012).
Enrico de Lazaro, “Physicists measure properties of hydrogen phase IV,” Sci News (5 June 2013).
Andrew P. Jephcoat, “High-pressure physics: testing one’s metal,” Nature Materials 10: 904-905 (23 November 2011).
Bonds Beyond
Jacob Aron, “Quantum mechanics enables ‘impossible’ space chemistry,” New Scientist (30 June 2013).
Robin J. Shannon et al, “Accelerated chemistry in the reaction between the hydroxyl radical and methanol at interstellar temperatures facilitated by tunnelling,” Nature Chemistry (30 June 2013).
Pengfei Liu et al, “Transient space localization of electrons ejected from continuum atomic processes in hot dense plasma,” Communications Physics (17 December 2018).
I. A. Ivanov et al, “Transverse electron momentum distribution in tunneling and over the barrier ionization by laser pulses with varying ellipticity,” Scientific Reports (7 January 2016).
U. Satya Sainadh et al, “Attosecond angular streaking and tunnelling time in atomic hydrogen,” Nature 568: 77-79 (18 March 2019).
“Booze in space? The phenomenon that creates interstellar alcohol,” The Week (2 July 2013).
HD Harmonically Bound
Mikhail Lemeshko & Hendrik Weimer, “Dissipative binding of atoms by non-conservative forces,” Nature Communications (30 July 2013).
van der Waals forces
Mainak Sadhukhan & Alexandre Tkatchenko, “Long-range repulsion between spatially confined van der Waals dimers,” Physical Review Letters (25 May 2017).
“Textbook knowledge in molecular interactions refuted,” ScienceDaily (29 June 2017).
Molecular Geometry
Todd J. Martinez, “Physical chemistry: seaming is believing,” Nature 467, 412–413 (23 September 2010).
Triple Point
Douglas Natelson, “A solid triple point,” Nature 500: 408–409 (22 August 2013).
Alexandra Witze, “A matter of solidity,” Science News 178(6): 22–26 (11 September 2010).
Laura Sanders, “Evidence mounts for an exotic supersolid,” Science News 175(8): 13 (11 April 2009).
Kaden R. A. Hazzard, “Quantum physics: a solid more fluid than a fluid,” Nature 543: 47-48 (1 March 2017).
Julian Léonard et al, “Supersolid formation in a quantum gas breaking a continuous translational symmetry,” Nature 543: 87-90 (1 March 2017).
Jun-Ru Li et al, “A stripe phase with supersolid properties in spin–orbit-coupled Bose–Einstein condensates,” Nature 543: 91-94 (1 March 2017).
Energy Transitions
Robert Schuetz et al, “Multidimensional optimality of microbial metabolism,” Science 336: 601–604 (4 May 2012).
M. Madan Babu et al, “Versatility from protein disorder,” Science 337(6101): 1460–1461 (21 September 2012).
David E. Pulleyblank, “Of Topo and Maxwell’s Dream,” Science 277(5326): 648–649 (1 August 1997).
H. Peter Lu, “Enzymes in coherent motion,” Science 335: 300–301 (20 January 2012).
Sean K. Whittier et al, “Conformational motions regulate phosphoryl transfer in related protein tyrosine phosphatases,” Science 341(6148): 899–903 (23 August 2013).
“Jekyll and Hyde: motion may explain similar enzymes’ divergence,” Phys.org (22 August 2013).
“Enzyme humbled to have played part in successful biochemical reaction,” The Onion (28 October 2013).
Mitch Leslie, “‘Dead’ enzymes show signs of life,” Science 340(6128): 25–27 (5 April 2013).
“Odd properties of water and ice explained: Water exists as two different liquids,” ScienceDaily (26 June 2017).
Johannes Niskanen et al, “Compatibility of quantitative X-ray spectroscopy with continuous distribution models of water at ambient conditions,” PNAS (5 March 2019).
“Water is more homogeneous than expected,” ScienceDaily (20 February 2019).
Fivos Perakis et al, “Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice,” PNAS (26 June 2017).
Guy Gugliotta, “Fountains of optimism for life way out there,” The New York Times (9 May 2011).
“Large water reservoirs at the dawn of stellar birth,” ScienceDaily (9 October 2012).
Shmuel Bialy et al, “Water formation during the epoch of first metal enrichment,” arXiv:1503.03475 [astro-ph.GA] (15 April 2015).
Roger N. Clark, “Detection of adsorbed water and hydroxyl on the Moon,” Science 326(5952): 562–564 (23 October 2009).
John Matson, “Fire and water,” Scientific American (June 2012).
Rodrigo Ledesma, “Scientists have discovered a fourth state of water beyond solid, liquid, and gas,” Quartz (23 December 2016).
L.M. Maestro et al, “On the existence of two states in liquid water: impact on biological and nanoscopic systems,” International Journal of Nanotechnology 13(8/9): 667-677 (2016).
Katrin Amann-Winkel et al, “Water’s second glass transition,” PNAS 110(44): 17720–17725 (29 October 2013).
Francesco Mallamace et al, “Possible relation of water structural relaxation to water anomalies,” PNAS 110(13): 4899–4904 (26 March 2013).
John Russo et al, “Water-like anomalies as a function of tetrahedrality,” PNAS (10 April 2018).
Igor V. Stiopkin et al, “Hydrogen bonding at the water surface revealed by isotopic dilution spectroscopy,” Nature 474: 192–195 (9 June 2011).
Alexander I. Kolesnikov et al, “Quantum tunneling of water in beryl: a new state of the water molecule,” Physical Review Letters 116: 67802 (22 April 2016).
“New state of water molecule discovered,” ScienceDaily (22 April 2016).
Phil Schewe et al, “A water molecule’s chemical formula is really not H2O,” Physics News Update 648(1) (31 July 2003).
Yixing Chen et al, “Electrolytes induce long-range orientational order and free energy changes in the H-bond network of bulk water,” Science Advances 2(4): e1501891 (8 April 2016).
“A single ion impacts a million water molecules,” Phys.org (8 April 2016).
Matthias Meier et al, “Water agglomerates on Fe3O4(001),” PNAS (4 June 2018).
“Building bridges with water molecules,” ScienceDaily (28 June 2018).
Surface Tension
James K. Beattie et al, “pH and the surface tension of water,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 422: 54–57 (15 May 2014).
Satoshi Nihonyanagi et al, “Unified molecular view of the air/water interface based on experimental and theoretical x(2) Spectra of an isotopically diluted water surface,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 133(42): 16875–16880 (2011).
Francisco de los Santos & Giancarlo Franzese, “Relations between the diffusion anomaly and cooperative rearranging regions in a hydro-phobically nanoconfined water monolayer,” Physical Review E 85(2): 010602 (2012).
Chi M. Phan et al, “Can water float on oil?,” Langmuir 28(10): 4609–4613 (21 February 2012).
Orion Shih et al, ” Cation-cation contact pairing in water: Guanidini-um,” The Journal of Chemical Physics (19 July 2013).
Davide Castelvecchi, “Quantum effects make H2O weird,” Science News 174(4): 7 (16 August 2008).
Giovanni Romanelli et al, “Direct measurement of competing quantum effects on the kinetic energy of heavy water upon melting,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (6 September 2013).
Ardita Kilaj et al, “Observation of different reactivities of para and ortho-water towards trapped diazenylium ion,” Nature Communications (29 May 2018).
“Water is not the same as water,” University of Basel (29 May 2018).
“Separation of para and ortho water,” Phys.org (18 September 2014).
Phil Dooley, “A choice of waters: still, sparkling, para or ortho?,” Cosmos (30 May 2018).
Mike McRae, “Water has more than one type of molecule, and that’s even stranger than we thought,” Science Alert (2 June 2018).
Molecular Forms
Martin Chaplin, “Anomalous properties of water,” Water Sturcture and Science web site (18 May 2018).
David Robson & Michael Marshall, “H2Oh! 10 mysteries of water,” New Scientist (30 May 2018).
John Canton, “Experiments and observations on the compressibility of water and some other fluids,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (1764).
Nuno F. Loureiro & Stanislav Boldyrev, “Collisionless reconnection in magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic turbulence,” The Astrophysical Journal (1 December 2017).
“Theoretical analysis uncovers new mechanisms in plasma turbulence,” Phys.org (1 December 2017).
“Elements can be solid and liquid at the same time, study reveal,” Phys.org (8 April 2019).
L.M. Maestro et al, “On the existence of two states in liquid water: impact on biological and nanoscopic systems,” International Journal of Nanotechnology 13(8/9) (2016).
Pradeep Kumar & H. Eugene Stanley, “Thermal conductivity mini-mum: a new water anomaly,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 115(48): 14269–14273 (13 October 2011).
“Supercool: water doesn’t have to freeze until –55F,” ScienceDaily (23 November 2011).
Tianshu Li et al, “Ice nucleation at the nanoscale probes no man’s land of water,” Nature Communications (21 May 2013).
Emily B. Moore & Valeria Molinero, “Structural transformation in supercooled water controls the crystallization rate of ice,” Nature 479(7374): 506 (24 November 2011).
Gretchen Cuda Kroen, “The sharp shape of frozen water,” Science (12 October 2012).
Mpemba Effect
Emily Conover, “Fast-freezing hot water spurs debate,” Science News (4 February 2017).
Laura Lupi et al, “Role of stacking disorder in ice nucleation,” Nature (8 November 2017).
Andrew Mitchinson, “Physical chemistry: ice niceties,” Nature (8 November 2017).
“How ice in clouds is born,” Phys.org (8 November 2017).
Richard J. Saykally & David J. Wales, “Pinning down the water hexamer,” Science 336(6083): 814–815 (18 May 2012).
Timothy A. Strobel et al, “Hydrogen-stuffed, quartz-like water ice,” Journal of the American Chemical Society (19 August 2016).
B. Pamuk et al, “Anomalous nuclear quantum effect in ice,” Physical Review Letters 108(19): 193003–193007 (2012).
“Significant water anomaly explained,” ScienceDaily (9 May 2012).
M. Alejandra Sánchez et al, “Experimental and theoretical evidence for bilayer-by-bilayer surface melting of crystalline ice,” PNAS (12 December 2016).
“Milikelvins drive droplet evaporation,” Phys.org (18 July 2013).
Robert Holyst et al, “Nanoscale transport of energy and mass flux during evaporation of liquid droplets into inert gas: computer simulations and experiments,” Soft Matter (11 June 2013).
Organic Role
“When water speaks: solvents make catalysts more efficient,” ScienceDaily (21 February 2013).
John T. King et al, “Crowding induced collective hydration of biological macromolecules over extended distances,” Journal of the American Chemical Society (16 December 2013).
“Water in cells behaves in complex and intricate ways,” Phys.org (16 December 2013).
B. Pamuk et al, “Anomalous nuclear quantum effects in ice,” Physical Review Letters 108: 193003 (May 2012).
Fear of Water
Huib J. Bakker, “Water’s response to the fear of water,” Nature 491: 533–534 (22 November 2012).
Joel G. Davis et al, “Water structural transformation at molecular hydrophobic interfaces,” Nature 491: 582–585 (22 November 2012).
Water Memory
Harriet Hall, “Homeopathy has no basis in science,” Scientific American (November 2016).
Nicola Davis & Denis Campbell, “‘A misuse of scarce funds’: NHS to end prescription of homeopathic remedies,” The Guardian (21 July 2017).
E. Davenas et al, “Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE,” Nature 333: 816–818 (30 June 1988).
Edzard Ernst, “Why I changed my mind about homeopathy,” The Guardian (3 April 2012).
Helen Davidson, “Homeopathy is bunk, study says,” The Guardian (8 April 2014).
Sheila Kaplan, “Hundreds of babies harmed by homeopathic remedies, families say,” Scientific American (21 February 2017).
Organic Chemistry
Natlie Wolchover, “What are the ingredients of life?,” Live Science (2 February 2011).
N.J. Tosca et al, “Water activity and the challenge for life on early Mars,” Science 320 (5880): 1204 (2008).
Edelsys Codorniu-Hernández & Peter G. Kusalik, “Probing the mechanisms of proton transfer in liquid water,” PNAS 110(34): 13697–13698 (20 August 2013).
Ali Hassanali et al, “Proton transfer through the water gossamer,” PNAS 110(34): 13723–13728 (20 August 2013).
Sergey Koroidov et al, “Mobile hydrogen carbonate acts as proton acceptor in photosynthetic water oxidation,” PNAS (7 April 2014).
Christopher Kupitz et al, “Serial time-resolved crystallography of photosystem II using a femtosecond X-ray laser,” Nature (9 July 2014).
Nick Lane, Life Ascending: The Ten Great Inventions of Evolution, 66, W. W. Norton & Company (2010).
Franklin D. Fuller et al, “Vibronic coherence in oxygenic photosynthesis,” Nature Chemistry (13 July 2014).
Moritz Malischewski & K. Seppelt, “Crystal structure determination of the pentagonal-pyramidal hexamethylbenzene dication C6(CH3)62+,” Angewandte Chemie (25 November 2016).
Laurel Hamers, “Cabon can exceed four-bond limit,” Science News (4 February 2017).
Rebecca Boyle, “Carbon seen bonding with six other atoms for the first time,” New Scientist (11 January 2017).
Carbon Cycle
Edward Brook, “The Ice Age carbon puzzle,” Science 336( 6082): 682–683 (11 May 2012).
Jochen Schmitt et al, “Carbon isotope constraints on the deglacial CO2 rise from ice cores,” Science 336( 6082): 711–714 (11 May 2012).
Rebecca Lindsey, “Climate change: Atmospheric carbon dioxide,” NOAA Climate.gov (1 August 2018).
In the Ocean
Elisabeth Sikes, “Earth science: how the ocean exhales,” Nature 495: 454–455 (28 March 2013).
A.N. Meckler et al, “Deglacial pulses of deep-ocean silicate into the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean,” Nature 495: 495–498 (28 March 2013).
Seagrass Meadows
James W. Fourqurean et al, “Seagrass ecosystems as a globally significant carbon stock,” Nature Geoscience (20 May 2012).
“Seagrasses can store as much carbon as forests,” ScienceDaily (23 May 2012).
On Land
“Dryland ecosystems drivers of global carbon cycle,” Nature World News (22 May 2014).
Benjamin Poulter et al, “Contribution of semi-arid ecosystems to interannual variability of the global carbon cycle,” Nature (21 May 2014).
M. Fernández-Martínez et al, “Nutrient availability as the key regulator of global forest carbon balance,” Nature Climate Change (6 April 2014).
Charles Petit, “Soil’s hidden secrets,” Science News 181 (2): 16–20 (28 January 2012).
John Sousanis, “World vehicle population tops 1 billion units,” Wards Auto (15 August 2011).
Nitrogen Cycle
Edward A.G. Schuur, “Nitrogen from the deep,” Nature 477: 39–40 (1 September 2011).
Maren Voss & Susanna Hietanen, “Biogeochemistry: the depths of nitrogen cycling,” Nature 493: 616–618 (31 January 2013).
D.A. Brook et al, “DON as a source of bioavailable nitrogen for phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 4: 283–-296 (2007).
T.B. Meador et al, “Isotopic heterogeneity and cycling of organic nitrogen in the oligotrophic ocean,” Limnology and Oceanography 52(3): 934–947 (2007).
Scott L. Morford et al, “Increased forest ecosystem carbon and nitrogen storage from nitrogen rich bedrock,” Nature 477: 78–81 (1 September 2011).
Bess B. Ward, “How nitrogen is lost,” Science 341: 352–353 (26 July 2013).
James J. Elser, “A world awash with nitrogen,” Science 334: 1504–1505 (16 December 2011).
Gordon W. Holtgrieve et al, “A coherent signature of anthropogenic nitrogen deposition to remote watersheds of the northern hemi-sphere,” Science 334: 1545–1548 (16 December 2011).
Kendra K. McLauchlan et al, “Changes in global nitrogen cycling during the Holocene epoch,” Nature 495: 352–355 (21 March 2013).
Peter Hietz et al, “Long-term change in the nitrogen cycle of tropical forests,” Science 334: 664–666 (4 November 2011).
Fritz Haber
Klaus Berndl et al, Visual History of the World, National Geographic (2005)
Oxygen – Molecular Forms
Timothy M. Lenton, “The coupled evolution of life and atmospheric oxygen,” in Evolution on Planet Earth, Academic Press (2003).
Nick Lane, Oxygen, Oxford University Press (2002).
Joseph Priestly portrait courtesy of Ellen Sharples.
Apollo 1
“NASA Langley Research Center’s Contributions to the Apollo Program” NASA Langley Research Center (undated).
Sam Kean, The Disappearing Spoon, 187, Little, Brown and Company (2010).
Atmospheric Oxygen
Alexandra Witz, “Interstellar oxygen bar,” Science News (10 August 2011).
Sean A. Crowe et al, “Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago,” Nature 501: 535–538 (26 September 2013).
Sid Perkins, “Tiny crystals in Australian rocks suggest earlier debut for oxygen,” Science News 175(8): 9 (11 April 2009).
Solmaz Barazesh, “Drop in oceanic nickel may have set stage for atmospheric oxygen,” Science News 175(10): 14 (9 May 2009).
Carolyn Gramling, “Plate tectonics started at least 3.5 billion years ago,” Science News 11 (21 September 2017).
Alexandra Witze, “Plate tectonics got a bumpy start,” Science News 11 (2 June 2012).
“The Nd of the innocence,” Science 340: 1142 (7 June 2013).
Eniko Bali et al, “Water and hydrogen are immiscible in Earth’s mantle,” Nature 495: 220–223 (14 March 2013).
Robert M. Hazen, “Evolution of minerals,” Scientific American 302(3): 58–65 (March 2010).
Andrew H. Knoll, “Breathing room for early animals,” Nature 382: 111–112 (11 July 1996).
“Life & Atmospheric Oxygen” chart adapted from Lost Creatures of the Earth by Joe Erickson, Checkmark Books (2001).
Jane J. Lee, “The first oxygen users?,” Science (10 January 2012).
Alison M. Smith et al, Plant Biology, Garland Science (2010).
J. Payne et al, “Late Paleozoic fusulinoidean gigantism driven by atmospheric hyperoxia,” Geological Society of America Meeting, Min-neapolis, Minnesota (12 October 2011).
Devin Powell, “Oxygen blew up ancient amoebas,” Science News (13 October 2011).
Ben Harder, “Air’s oxygen content constrains insect growth,” Science News 170 (17): 270 (21 October 2006).
Daan A. Weits et al, “An apical hypoxic niche sets the pace of shoot meristem activity,” Nature (15 May 2019).
“Plant stem cells require low oxygen levels,” ScienceDaily (23 May 2019).
“Study finds new moves in protein’s evolution,” ScienceDaily (29 September 2013).
Susanne Still et al, “Thermodynamics of prediction,” Physical Review Letters 109(12): 120604–120609 (19 September 2012).
Philip Ball, “Proteins remember the past to predict the future,” Nature (4 October 2012).
“Reaction rate of many molecules depends on their shape,” Phys.org (3 October 2013).
Yuan-Pin Chang et al, “Specific chemical reactivities of spatially separated 3-aminophenol conformers with cold Ca+ ions,” Science 342: 98–101 (4 October 2013).
Kim A. Sharp, “Protein folding, interrupted,” Science 343: 743-744 (14 February 2014).
“Like elephants, large working proteins have small handlers,” Phys.org (15 March 2017).
Kara S. Hingorani et al, “Ligand-promoted protein folding by biased kinetic partitioning,” Nature Chemical Biology (20 February 2017).
“Team discovers many new twists in protein folding,” Phys.org (2 March 2017).
Cell Size
Fangwei Si et al, “Mechanistic origin of cell-size control and homeostasis in bacteria,” Current Biology (16 May 2019).
“Researchers unravel mechanisms that control cell size,” ScienceDaily (17 May 2019).
Protein Folding
“Protein origami: quick folders are the best,” ScienceDaily (31 January 2013).
Florian Georgescauld et al, “GroEL/ES chaperonin modulates the mechanism and accelerates the rate of TIM-barrel domain folding,” Cell 157(4): 922–934 (8 May 2014).
Deepa Nath & Sadaf Shadan, “Dynamics of the cell,” Nature 475: 307 (21 July 2011).
F. Ulrich Hartl et al, “Molecular chaperones in protein folding and proteostasis,” Nature 475: 324–332 (21 July 2011).
Andrea Soranno et al, “Quantifying internal friction in unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins with single-molecule spectroscopy,” PNAS (6 April 2012).
A. Keith Dunker & Richard W. Kriwacki, “The orderly chaos of proteins,” Scientific American 204(4): 68–73 (April 2011).
M. Madan Babu et al, “Versatility from protein disorder,” Science 337: 1460–1461 (21 September 2012).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Neuron killers,” Science News 174(4): 22 (16 August 2008).
Björn M. Burmann et al, “An a helix to ß barrel domain switch transforms the transcription factor RfaH into a translation factor,” Cell 150(2): 291–303 (20 July 2012).
Gira Bhabha et al, “Divergent evolution of protein conformational dynamics in dihydrofolate reductase,” Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (29 September 2013).
Generalists & Specialists
Hojung Nam et al, “Network context and selection in the evolution to enzyme specificity,” Science 337(6098): 1101–1104 (31 August 2012).
Rachel Ehrenberg, “Big jobs go to loyal proteins,” Science News (31 August 2012).
Till Biskup et al, “Unexpected electron transfer in cryptochrome identified by time-resolved EPR spectroscopy,” Angewandte Chemie 50(52): 12647–12651 (December 23, 2011).
Rachel Ehrenberg, “Protein detects when lungs fill with air,” Science News (4 February 2017).
Oscar M. Arenas et al, “Activation of planarian TRPA1 by reactive oxygen species reveals a conserved mechanism for animal nociception,” Nature Neuroscience (16 October 2017).
Laura Sanders, “To understand the origins of pain, ask a flatworm,” Science News (16 October 2017).
Amino Acids
“Enzymatic synthesis of pyrrolysine, the mysterious 22nd amino acid,” ScienceDaily (18 November 2011).
Synopsis – Organic Chemistry
Nicholas F. Dupuis et al, “Molecular-crowding effects on single-molecule RNA folding/unfolding thermodynamics and kinetics,” PNAS (21 May 2014).

Life Begins
Origin On Earth
Nicholas Wade, “New glimpses of life’s puzzling origin,” The New York Times (16 June 2009).
Robert F. Service, “Seeing the dawn,” Science 363(6423: 116-119 (11 January 2019).
Allen P. Nutman et al, “Rapid emergence of life shown by discovery of 3,700-million-year-old microbial structures,” Nature (31 August 2016).
Matthew S. Dodd et al, “Evidence for early life in Earth’s oldest hydrothermal vent precipitates,” Nature 543: 60-64 (1 March 2017).
“The origins of life: a new fossil could push back the start of life on Earth,” The Economist (4 March 2017).
“Simple chemical process that may have led to the origin of life on Earth,” ScienceDaily (13 June 2018).
“Why deep oceans gave life to the first big, complex organisms,” ScienceDaily (12 December 2018).
Thomas H. Boag et al, “Oxygen, temperature and the deep-marine stenothermal cradle of Ediacaran evolution,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (12 December 2018).
Penny Sarchet, “Life may have emerged not once, but many times on Earth,” New Scientist (24 August 2016).
Kuhan Chandru et al, “Simple prebiotic synthesis of high diversity dynamic combinatorial polyester libraries,” Communications Chemistry (31 May 2018).
Sara Imari Walker, “The new physics needed to probe the origins of life,” Nature (1 May 2019).
Robert Pascal, “A possible non-biological reaction framework for metabolic processes on early Earth,” Nature (1 May 2019).
“Scientists discover new chemistry that may help explain the origins of cellular life,” Phys.org (23 July 2019).
Tony Z. Jia et al, “Membraneless polyester microdroplets as primordial compartments at the origins of life,” PNAS (22 July 2019).
Nathaniel Wagner & Addy Pross, “The nature of stability in replicating systems,” Entropy 13: 518-527 (2011).
Stuart A. Kauffman, A World Beyond Physics: The Emergence and Evolution of Life, Oxford University Press (2019).
Florian Reetz et al, “Exact invariant solution reveals the origin of self-organized oblique turbulent-laminar stripes,” Nature Communications (23 May 2019).
“Researchers crack an enduring physics enigma,” Phys.org (28 May 2019).
Salvatore Torquato & Frank H. Stillinger, “Local density fluctuations, hyperuniformity, and order metrics,” Physical Review E (29 October 2003).
Michael A. Klatt et al, “Universal hidden order in amorphous cellular geometries,” Nature Communications (18 February 2019).
“Order hidden in disorder,” ScienceDaily (3 April 2019).
Kevin Mcelwee, “Surprising hidden order unites prime numbers and crystal-like materials,” Phys.org (6 September 2018).
S. Torquato et al, “Uncovering multiscale order in prime numbers ia scattering,” arXiv:1802.10498v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech] (28 February 2018).
Emily Conover, “Laser light can contain intricate, beautiful fractals,” Science News 195(4): 7 (2 March 2019).
Martin J. Van Kranendonk et al, “Life springs,” 317(2): 28-35 Scientific American (August 2017).
“Did life begin on land rather than in the sea?,” ScienceDaily (18 July 2017).
Elizabeth A. Bell et al, “Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon,” PNAS (19 October 2015).
“Life on Earth likely started 4.1 billion years ago—much earlier than scientists thought,” Phys.org (19 October 2015).
Press Association, “Life on Earth may have begun 300m years earlier than previously thought,” The Guardian (19 October 2015).
Sarah C.P. Williams, “Traces of inaugural life,” Science News 181(10): 22 (19 May 2012).
Helen Thompson, “Ancient asteroids kept on coming,” Nature (25 April 2012).
Alexandra Witze, “Meteorites contain chemicals linked to life,” Science News (10 August 2011).
Fred J. Ciesla & Scott A. Sandford, “Organic synthesis via irradiation and warming of ice grains in the solar nebula,” Science (29 March 2012).
Michael P. Callahan et al, “Carbonaceous meteorites contain a wide range of extraterrestrial nucleobases,” PNAS (11 August, 2011).
Rachel Ehrenberg, “Comet dust harbors life’s building blocks,” Science News 176(6): 8 (12 September 2009).
Ron Cowen, “An odd place for life’s ingredients,” Science News 179(3): 12 (29 January 2011).
A.I. Oparin (translated by Sergius Morgulus), The Origin of Life, Macmillan (1938).
Tony Human & Cliff Brangwynne, “The Origin of Life,” Nature 491: 524–525 (22 November 2012).
Alexander S. Bradley, “Expanding the limits of life,” Scientific American 301(6): 62–67 (December 2009).
Wolfgang Nitschke & Michael J. Russell, “The inevitable journey to being,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (10 June 2013).
Brian Switek, “Debate bubbles over the origin of life,” Nature (13 February 2012).
Maarten J. de Wit & Harald Furnes, “3.5-Ga hydrothermal fields and diamictites in the Barberton Greenstone Belt—Paleoarchean crust in cold environments,” Science Advances (26 February 2016).
Beth Geiger, “3.5 billion years ago, oceans were cool, not hot,” Science News (26 February 2016).
Martin D. Brasier et al, “Pumice as a remarkable substrate for the origin of life,” Astrobiology (2011).
Cool Life
James Attwater et al, “Ice as a protocellular medium for RNA replication,” Nature Communications (21 September 2010).
“Life’s cold start: Frigid cocoons may have incubated earliest replicating molecules,” Science News (23 October 2010).
Pond Spawn
Sukrit Rnajan et al, “Nitrogen oxide concentrations in natural waters on early Earth,” Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (12 April 2019).
“Earliest life may have arisen in ponds, not oceans,” ScienceDaily (12 April 2019).
“Ocean-floor migration,” The Economist (28 April 2011).
Brandon K. Swan et al, “Potential for chemolithoautotrophy among ubiquitous bacteria lineages in the dark ocean,” Science 333: 1296–1299 (2 September 2011).
Greg Springsteen et al, “Linked cycles of oxidative decarboxylation of glyoxylate as protometabolic analogs of the citric acid cycle,” Nature Communications (8 January 2018).
“Chemists discover plausible recipe for early life on Earth,” ScienceDaily (8 January 2018).
Leroy Cronin & Sarah Imari Walker, “Beyond prebiotic chemistry,” Science 352(6290): 1174-1175 (3 June 2016).
Rogier Braakman & D. Eric Smith, “The compositional and evolutionary logic of metabolism,” Santa Fe Institute (10 July 2012).
Aaron S. Burton et al, “A propensity for n-?-amino acids in thermally altered Antarctic meteorites,” Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47(3): 374–386 (March 2012).
Devin Powell, “Rare earth elements plentiful in ocean sediments,” Science News (3 July 2011).
Clémentine Gibard et al, “Phosphorylation, oligomerization and self-assembly in water under potential prebiotic conditions,” Nature Chemistry 10: 212-217 (6 November 2017).
“Potential ‘missing link’ in chemistry that led to life on Earth discovered,” ScienceDaily (6 November 2017).
“Quest for sugars involved in origin of life,” ScienceDaily (16 February 2012).
J.M. Dreiling & T.J. Gay, “Chirally sensitive electron-induced molecular breakup and the Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis,” Physical Review Letters (12 September 2014).
Elizabeth Gibney, “Force of nature gave life its asymmetry,” Nature (25 September 2014).
Jay G. Forsythe et al, “Surveying the sequence diversity of model prebiotic peptides by mass spectrometry,” PNAS (12 September 2017).
“Was the primordial soup a hearty pre-protein stew?,” Phys.org (4 September 2017).
Stanley L. Miller, “A production of amino acids under possible primitive Earth conditions,” Science 117(3046): 528-529 (15 May 1953).
Fred J. Cielsa & Scott A. Sandford, “Organic synthesis via irradiation and warming of ice grains in the solar nebula,” Science (29 March 2012).
Elbert Branscomb & Michael J. Russell, “Turnstiles and bifurcators: the disequalibrium converting engines that put metabolism on the road,” Biochemica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Bioenergetics 1827(2): 62–78 (2 February 2013).
Paul Davies, “Are we alone in the universe?,” The New York Times (18 November 2013).
Bhavesh H. Patel et al, “Common origins of RNA, protein and lipid precursors in a cyanosulfidic protometabolism,” Nature Chemistry (16 March 2015).
Beht Mole, “Cooking up life’s ingredients, all in one pot,” Science News (16 March 2015).
Ranjan Sukrit et al, “Sulfidic anion concentrations on early Earth for surficial origins-of-life chemistry,” Astrobiology (8 April 2018).
“Brewing up Earth’s earliest life,” ScienceDaily (9 April 2018).
RNA World
Michael P. Robertson & Gerald F. Joyce, “The origins of RNA world,” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology (28 April 2010).
“DNA found outside genes plays largely unknown, potentially vital roles: thousands of previously unknown RNA molecules identified,” ScienceDaily (26 June 2013).
Walter Gilbert, “Origin of life: the RNA world,” Nature (20 February 1986).
Alonso Ricardo & Jack W. Szostak, “Life on Earth,” Scientific American 301(3): 22 (September 2009).
Matthew A. Pasek et al, “Evidence for reactive reduced phosphorus species in the early Archean ocean,” PNAS 110(25): 10089–10094 (18 June 2013).
Solmaz Barazesh, “Scientists identify chemical reactions that could be responsible for the origin of life,” Science News 175(12): 5–6 (6 June 2009).
Jack W. Szostak, “Origins of life: Systems chemistry on early Earth,” Nature 459: 171–172 (14 May 2009).
Matthew W. Powner et al, “Synthesis of activated pyrimidine ribonucleotides in prebiotically plausible conditions,” Nature 459: 239–242 (14 May 2009).
Leslie E. Orgel, “Prebiotic chemistry and the origin of the RNA world,” Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Bilogy 39: 99-123 (2004).
Antoine Baurdrimont et al, “Multiplexed gene control reveals rapid mRNA turnover,” 3(7): e1700006 Science Advances (12 July 2017).
“Hidden rules of genetics for how life on Earth began,” ScienceDaily (30 July 2018).
Charles W Carter, Jr & Peter R Wills, “Hierarchical groove discrimination by Class I and II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases reveals a palimpsest of the operational RNA code in the tRNA acceptor-stem bases,” Nucleic Acids Research (17 July 2018).
“RNA molecules live short lives,” ScienceDaily (12 July 2017).
Seohyun Chris Kim et al, “Inosine, but none of the 8-oxo-purines, is a plausible component of a primordial version of RNA,” PNAS (21 August 2018).
“Life has a new ingredient,” ScienceDaily (4 December 2018).
Nicholas Wade, “Making sense of the chemistry that led to life on Earth,” The New York Times (4 May 2015).
Jef Akst, “RNA World 2.0,” The Scientist (1 March 2014).
Anton A. Polyansky et al, “Proteome-wide analysis reveals clues of complementary interactions between mRNAs and their cognate proteins as the physicochemical foundation of the genetic code,” RNA Biology 10(8): 1248–1254 (August 2013).
Matea Hajnic et al, “Computational analysis of amino acids and their sidechain analogs in crowded solutions of RNA nucleobases with implications for the mRNA–protein complementarity hypothesis,” Nucleic Acids Research 42(21): 12984–12994 (1 December 2014).
“The origin of the language of life,” Phys.org (19 December 2014).
Chrisopher A. Stulson et al, “RNA catalysis through compartmentalization,” Nature Chemistry (14 October 2012).
Nilesh Vaidya et al, “Spontaneous network formation among cooperative RNA replicators,” Nature 491: 72–74 (1 November 2012).
“Molecules assemble in water, hint at origins of life,” Georgia Institute of Technology (20 February 2013).
Christopher Francklyn & Charles W. Carter Jr., “Aminoacylating urzymes challenge the RNA world hypothesis,” Journal of Biological Chemistry (18 July 2013).
Matthew W. Powner et al, “Synthesis of activated pyrimidine ribonucleotides in prebiotically plausible conditions,” Nature 459: 239-242 (14 May 2009).
Richard Van Noorden, “RNA world easier to make,” Nature (13 May 2009).
Shaun Stairs et al, “Divergent prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidine and 8-oxo-purine ribonucleotides,” Nature Communications (19 May 2017).
Robert F. Service, “Chemists may be zeroing in on chemical reactions that sparked the first life,” Science (19 May 2017).
“How RNA formed at the origins of life,” UCL News (19 May 2017).
Pyrite Life
Günter Wächtershäuser, “Life as we don’t know it,” Science 289(5483): 1307–1308 (25 August 2000).
G. Wächtershäuser, “Evolution of the first metabolic cycles,” PNAS 87(1): 200–204 (1 January 1990).
E. Blöchl et al, “Reactions depending on iron sulfide and linking geochemistry with biochemistry,” PNAS 89(17): 8117–8120 (1 September 1992).
William F. Martin et al, “Energy at life’s origin,” Science 344(1688): 1092–1093 (6 June 2014).
Christian de Duve & Stanley L. Miller, “Two-dimensional life?,” PNAS 88(22): 10014–10017 (15 November 1991).
G. Wächtershäuser, “Life in a ligand sphere,” PNAS 91(10): 4283–4287 (10 May 1994).
Roy A. Black et al, “Nucleobases bind to and stabilize aggregates of a prebiotic amphiphile, providing a viable mechanism for the emergence of protocells,” PNAS 10(33): 13272–13276 (13 August 2013).
Ekaterina Sokolova et al, “Enhanced transcription rates in membrane-free protocells formed by coacervation of cell lysate,” PNAS (2 July 2013).
Katarzyna Adamala & Jack W. Szostak, “Nonenzymatic template-directed RNA synthesis inside model protocells,” Science 342(6162) 1098–1100 (29 November 2013).
Michael Marshall, “Synthetic primordial cell copies RNA for the first time,” New Scientist (28 November 2013).
Emily Conover, “Life on Earth may have begun as dividing droplets,” Science News (21 March 2017).
David Zwicker et al, “Growth and division of active droplets provides a model for protocells,” Nature Physics (12 December 2016).
Romain Mercier et al, “Excess membrane synthesis drives a primitive mode of cell proliferation,” Cell 152(5): 997–1007 (28 February 2013).
Jeff Errington, “L-form bacteria, cell walls and the origins of life,” Open Biology (9 January 2013).
“How did early primordial cells evolve?,” ScienceDaily (28 February 2013).
Wayne M. Becker et al, The World of the Cell, 3rd Edition, Benjamin Cummings (1996).
Biomolecular Evolution
Ibrahim Koç & Gustavo Caetano-Anollés, “The natural history of molecular functions inferred from an extensive phylogenomic analysis of gene ontology data,” PLoS One (3 May 2017).
“New study sheds light on origins of life on Earth through molecular function,” ScienceDaily (17 May 2017).
Water World
“Origin of life: chemistry of seabed’s hot vents could explain emergence of life,” ScienceDaily (27 April 2015).
A. Roldan et al, “Bio-inspired CO2 conversion by iron sulfide catalysts under sustainable conditions,” Chemical Communications (24 March 2015).
Michael J. Russell et al, “The drive to life on wet and icy worlds,” Astrobiology (15 April 2014).
“New study outlines ‘water world’ theory of life’s origins,” Phys.org (15 April 2014).
Nick Lane & William F. Martin, “The origin of membrane bioenergetics,” Cell 151(7): 1406–1416 (21 December 2012).
Ed Yong, “How life emerged from deep-sea rocks,” Nature News (20 December 2012).
E.F. DeLong & N.R. Pace, “Environmental diversity of bacteria and archaea,” Systematic Biology 50 (4): 470–478 (2001).
Andrew R. Thurber et al, “Archaea in metazoan diets: implications for food webs and biogeochemical cycling,” International Society for Microbial Ecology Journal (March 2012).
Cora S. Thiel et al, “Functional activity of plasmid DNA after entry into the atmosphere of earth investigated by a new biomarker stability assay for ballistic spaceflight experiments,” PLoS One (26 November 2014).
Andrew M. Steer et al, “Prebiotic synthesis of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from interstellar building blocks promoted by amino esters or amino nitriles,” Chemical Communications (8 September 2017).
“Scientists discover cosmic factory for making building blocks of life,” ScienceDaily (15 September 2013).
David Warmflash & Benjamin Weiss, “Did life come from another world?,” Scientific American 293(5): 64–71 (November 2005).
Jessica Shugart, “Cometlike crashes produce building blocks of life,” Science News (19 October 2013).
Lisa Grossman, “Crack a comet to spawn the ingredients of life,” New Scientist (16 September 2013).
Zita Martins et al, “Shock synthesis of amino acids from impacting cometary and icy planet surface analogues,” Nature Geoscience (15 September 2013).
Raymond L. Menzel & Wayne G. Roberge, “Reexamination of induction heating of primitive bodies in protoplanetary disks,” The Astrophysical Journal 775(2) (1 October 2013).
R.I. Kaiser et al, “On the formation of dipetides in interstellar model ices,” The Astrophysical Journal 765(2) (10 March 2013).
Lisa Grossman, “Meteor impact trapped ancient swamp plants in glass,” New Scientist (11 November 2013).
“Life on Earth shockingly comes from out of this world,” ScienceDaily (5 June 2013).
Nir Goldman & Isaac Tamblyn, “Prebiotic chemistry within a simple impacting ice mixture,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry (2 May 2013).
Edward Belbruno et al, “Chaotic exchange of solid material between planetary systems: implications for lithopanspermia,” Astrobiology 12(8): 754–774 (12 September 2012).
“Irradiated space dust carries water to earth and other planets,” Nature World News (24 January 2014).
John P. Bradley et al, “Detection of solar wind-produced water in irradiated rims on silicate minerals,” PNAS (28 January 2014).
Life From Mars
Colin Barras, “No more primal soup: creating life without water,” New Scientist (16 April 2014).
“Percival Lowell,” BBC (2013).
“Ancient Martian lake system records two water-related events,” Brown University (25 March 2015).
Jenna Iacurci, “Scientists discover signs of ancient water activity on mars,” Nature World News (26 March 2015).
Robert M. Hazen, “Paleomineralogy of the Hadean eon: a preliminary species list,” American Journal of Science 313(9): 807–843 (November 2013).
Nora Noffke, “Ancient sedimentary structures in the <3.7 Ga Gillespie Lake member, Mars, that resemble macroscopic morphology, spatial associations, and temporal succession in terrestrial microbialites, Astrobiology 15(2) (January 2015).
“We may all be Martians,” European Association of Geochemistry (28 August 2013).
Eric Hand, “Mars rover finds long-chain organic compounds,” Science 347(6229): 1402–1403 (27 March 2015).
Eric Hand, “‘Fixed’ nitrogen found in martian soil,” Science 347(6229): 1402–1403 (27 March 2015).
“A warm little pond?,” The Economist (14 December 2013).
“Did life come to Earth from Mars?,” Smithsonian (28 August 2013).
Richard Webb, “Primordial broth of life was a dry Martian cup-a-soup,” New Scientist (29 August 2013).
Lisa Grossman, “Martian soup may have been tasty to early life,” New Scientist (1 September 2013).
Carl Zimmer, “A far-flung possibility for the origin of life,” The New York Times (12 September 2013).
Andrew Grant, “Mars was habitable longer, more recently than thought,” Science News (9 December 2013).
“Earth organisms survive under Martian conditions,” Phys.org (19 May 2014).
A Steele et al, “A reduced organic carbon component in Martian basalts ,” Science (24 May 2012).
“New way to look at dawn of life: focus shifts from ‘hardware’ to ‘software’,” ScienceDaily (12 December 2012).
Sarah Imari Walker & Paul C.W. Davies, “The algorithmic origins of life,” Interface (12 December 2012).
Life Rising
Eugene V. Koonin, “Temporal order of evolution of DNA replication systems inferred by comparison of cellular and viral DNA polymerases,” Biology Direct (18 December 2006).
Detlef D. Leipe et al, “Did DNA replication evolve twice independently?,” Nucleic Acids Research 27(17): 3389–3401 (September 1999).
Microbes Everywhere
Catherine Brahic, “The 19 superbugs that rule Earth’s hidden depths,” New Scientist (6 December 2013).
Common Ancestor
Tina Hesman Saey, “All modern life on earth derived from common ancestor,” Discovery News (14 May 2010).
Douglas L. Theobald, “A formal test of the theory of universal common ancestry,” Nature 465: 219–222 (13 May 2010).
Nicholas Wade, “Meet Luca, the ancestor of all living things,” The New York Times (25 July 2016).
Madeline C. Weiss et al, “The physiology and habitat of the last universal common ancestor,” Nature Microbiology (25 July 2016).
Carl Woese, “The universal ancestor,” PNAS 95(12): 6854–6859 (9 June 1998).
W. Ford Doolittle, “Uprooting the tree of life,” Scientific American 90–95 (February 2000).
Rachel Ehrenberg, “As evidence of the influence of viruses escalates, appreciation of these master manipulators grows,” Science News 176(8): 22–28 (10 October 2009).
“How ancient viruses became genomic ‘superspreaders’,” ScienceDaily (23 April 2012).
Patrick Forterre, “The origin of viruses and their possible roles in major evolutionary transitions,” Virus Research (Mendeley) 117(1): 5–16 (2008).
Patrick Forterre, “Defining life: the virus viewpoint,” Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 40: 151–160 (3 March 2010).
Curtis A. Suttle, “Viruses in the sea,” Nature 437: 356–361 (15 September 2005).
Michael Slezak, “Origin of organs: thank viruses for your skin and bone,” New Scientist (27 February 2014).
Arshan Nasir & Gustavo Caetano-Anollés, “A phylogenomic data-driven exploration of viral origins and evolution,” Science Advances (25 September 2015).
Masayuki Horie et al, “Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus elements in mammalian genomes,” Nature 463: 84–87 (7 January 2010).
Robin A. Weiss & Jonathan P. Stoye, “Our viral inheritance,” Science 340: 820–821 (17 May 2013).
“Study of giant viruses shakes up tree of life,” ScienceDaily (13 September 2012).
Antonella Caforio et al, “Converting Escherichia coli into an archaebacterium with a hybrid heterochiral membrane,” PNAS (19 March 2018).
“‘New life form’ answers question about evolution of cells,” ScienceDaily (19 March 2018).
Derek J. Taylor et al, “Virus-host co-evolution under a modified nuclear genetic code,” PeerJ (5 March 2013).
“Viruses: More survival tricks than previously thought,” ScienceDaily (5 March 2013).
Maria do Ceu Santos & Manuel A.S. Santos, “Structural and molecular features of non-standard genetic code,” in Codon Evolution: Mechanisms and Models, edited by Gina M. Cannarozzi & Adrian Schneiderin, Oxford University Press (2012).
Life Elsewhere
Jonathan Watts, “Scientists identify vast underground ecosystem containing billions of micro-organisms,” The Guardian (10 December 2018).
Leonie Mueck, “Cosmic chemistry: Life’s molecules are made in space,” New Scientist 2939 (21 October 2013).
Nadia Drake, “Life’s building blocks grow close to home,” Science News 181(8): 5 (21 April 2012).
“Oceans in space: not so lonely sea in the sky,” The Economist (19 November 2016).
Leah Crane, “Enceladus is spewing out organic molecules necessary for life,” New Scientist (4 July 2018).
Frank Postberg, “Under the sea of Enceladus,” Scientific American 315(4): 38–45 (October 2016).
Annie Sneed, “Excitement builds for the possibility of life on Enceladus,” Scientific American (28 June 2016).
William Herkewitz, “Why the warm ocean on this moon of Saturn could be perfect for life,” Popular Mechanics (11 March 2015).
“Cassini finds global ocean in Saturn’s moon Enceladus,” NASA (15 September 2015).
D.C.B. Whittet et al, “Observational constraints on methanol production in interstellar and preplanetary ices,” The Astrophysical Journal, 742 (1): 28 (2011).
“Life on other planets could be far more widespread, study finds,” Phys.org (7 January 2014).
“Planets abound: astronomers estimate that at least 100 billion planets populate the galaxy,” ScienceDaily (3 January 2013).
Erik A. Peigura et al, “Prevalence of Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars,” PNAS 110(48): 19273–19278 (26 November 2013).
Richard A. Lovett, “Tidal heating shrinks the ‘goldilocks zone’,” Nature (8 May 8, 2012).
Dennis Overbye, “Cosmic census finds billions of planets that could be like Earth,” The New York Times (4 November 2013).
“Home away from home,” The Economist (10 December 2011).
Nadia Drake, “Planet hunt finds lots of little ones,” Science News 180(9): 18 (22 October 2011).
“Vatican astronomer cites possibility of extraterrestrial ‘brothers’,” The New York Times (undated electronic archive).
“Protocells may have formed in a salty soup,” ScienceDaily (2 July 2013).
“Plenty more bugs in the sea,” The Economist (24 March 2011).
Paul Davies, “Is anybody out there?,” The Wall Street Journal (10 April 2010).

Robert Snedden, The World of the Cell: Life on a Small Scale, Heinemann Library (2002).
Wayne M. Becker et al, Becker’s World of the Cell, Benjamin Cummings (2008).
Eva Bianconi et al, “An estimation of the number of cells in the human body,” Annals of Human Biology (5 July 2013).
Katarzyna M. Kedziora & Jeremy E. Purvis, “Cell biology: the persistence of memory,” Nature 549: 343-344 (21 September 2017).
Hee Won Yang et al, “Competing memories of mitogen and p53 signalling control cell-cycle entry,” Nature 549: 404-408 (21 September 2017).
Erik G. Marklund et al, “Transcription-factor binding and sliding on DNA studied using micro- and macroscopic models,” PNAS (11 November 2013).
“Errant gliding proteins yield long-sought insight,” Phys.org (11 November 2013).
“Bacteria’s hidden traffic control,” ScienceDaily (8 February 2015).
Lynn Margulis, Origin of Eukaryotic Cells, Yale University Press (1971).
Katherine L. French et al, “Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks,” PNAS 112(19): 5915–5920 (12 May 2015).
David A. Baum & Buzz Baum, “An inside-out origin for the eukaryotic cell,” BMC Evolutionary Biology 12:76 (28 October 2014).
Congping Lin et al, “Active diffusion and microtubule-based transport oppose myosin forces to position organelles in cells,” Nature Communications (2 June 2016).
“How to organize a cell: novel insight from a fungus,” Phys.org (2 June 2016).
Joseph L. Costello et al, “ACBD5 and VAPB mediate membrane associations between peroxisomes and the ER,” The Journal of Cell Biology (20 January 2017).
“We all need contacts: How organelles hug in cells,” ScienceDaily (20 January 2017).
Suzanne Wolff & Andrew Dillin, The stressful influence of microbes,” Nature 508: 328–329 (17 April 2014).
Brenton D. Hoffman et al, “Dynamic molecular processes mediate cellular mechanotransduction,” Nature 475: 316–323 (21 July 2011).
David Grüwald et al, “Nuclear export dynamics of RNA-protein complexes,” Nature 475: 333–341 (21 July 2011).
Toby Lieber et al, “Mitochondrial fragmentation drives selective removal of deleterious mtDNA in the germline,” Nature (15 May 2019).
“How egg cells choose their best powerhouses to pass on,” ScienceDaily (15 May 2019).
Martin Picard et al, “Mitochondrial functions modulate neuroendocrine, metabolic, inflammatory, and transcriptional responses to acute psychological stress,” PNAS (16 November 2015).
Dominique Chretien et al, “Mitochondria are physiologically maintained close to 50 °C,” bioRxiv (2 May 2017).
Michael Le Page, “The energy generators inside our cells reach a sizzling 50°C,” New Scientist (4 May 2017).
“Mitochondria affect stress responses,” ScienceDaily (2 December 2015).
Esther Lapuente-Brun et al, “Supercomplex assembly determines electron flux in the mitochondrial electron transport chain,” Science 340: 1567–1570 (28 June 2013).
“Newly-discovered signal in the cell sets protein pathways to mitochondria,” ScienceDaily (27 June 2016).
“Researchers reformulate the model of mitochondrial function,” ScienceDaily (27 June 2013).
“What keeps a cell’s energy source going?,” ScienceDaily (27 November 2012).
Karthik Mallilankaraman et al, “MICU1 is an essential gatekeeper for MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake that regulates cell survival,” Cell 151(3): 630–644 (26 October 2012).
Karthik Mallilankaraman et al, “MCUR1 is an essential component of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake that regulates cellular metabolism,” Nature Cell Biology 14: 1336–1343 (25 November 2012).
Fiona A. Chandra et al, “Glycolytic oscillations and limits on robust efficiency,” Science 333: 187–192 (8 July 2011).
Carolin Gerbeth et al, “Glucose-induced regulation of protein imnport receptor Tom22 by cystosolic and mitochondria-bound kinases,” Cell Metabolism 18(4): 578–587 (4 October 2013).
Jun Zhang et al, “Altered proteome biology of cardiac mitochondria under stress conditions,” Journal of Proteome Research (17 May 2008).
Richard J. Youle & Alexander M. van der Bliek, “Mitochondrial fission, fusion, and stress,” Science 337(1062): 1062–1065 (31 August 2012).
Laura Bell, “Mitochondria gone bad,” Science News 175(5): 20–23 (28 February 2009).
Douglas R. Green et al, “Mitochondria and the autophagy–inflammation–cell death axis in organismal aging,” Science 333: 1109-1112 (26 August 2011).
Steph Yin, “Why do we inherit mitochondrial dna only from our mothers?,” The New York Times (23 June 2016).
Qinghua Zhou et al, “Mitochondrial endonuclease G mediates breakdown of paternal mitochondria upon fertilization,” Science 353(6297): 394-399 (22 July 2016).
“Mothers transmit mitochondrial DNA through daughters only,” ScienceDaily (7 September 2001).
Rebecca Rojansky et al, “Elimination of paternal mitochondria in mouse embryos occurs through autophagic degradation dependent on PARKIN and MUL1,” eLife (17 November 2016).
Thomas G. McWilliams & Anu Suomalainen, “Mitochondrial DNA can be inherited from fathers, not just mothers,” Nature (14 January 2019).
M. Peyro et al, “Evolutionarily conserved sequence features regulate the formation of the FG network at the center of the nuclear pore complex,” Scientific Reports 5:15795 (6 November 2015).
“New clues to how gatekeeper for the cell nucleus works,” ScienceDaily (6 November 2015).
Russell Bainer & Valerie Weaver, “Strength under tension,” Science 341: 965–966 (30 August 2013).
Endoplasmic Reticulum
“New insight in how cells’ powerhouse divides,” ScienceDaily (2 September 2011).
Angelikia S. Rambold & Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, “SevERing mitochondria,” Science 334: 186–187 (14 October 2011).
Christopher V. Nicchitta, “Cell biology: how to combat stress,” Nature 457: 668–669 (5 February 2009).
Bennett H. Penn & Jeffrey S. Cox, “Organelle stress triggers inflammation,” Nature 532: 321-322 (21 April 2016).
A. Marijke Keestra-Gounder et al, “NOD1 and NOD2 signalling links ER stress with inflammation,” Nature 532: 394-397 (21 April 2016).
Daniel N. Wilson1 & Jamie H. Doudna Cate, “The structure and function of the eukaryotic ribosome,” Cold Spring Harbor – Perspectives in Biology (2012).
“Optimization for self-production may explain mysterious features of the ribosome,” ScienceDaily (22 July 2017).
Shlomi Reuveni et al, “Ribosomes are optimized for autocatalytic production,” Nature (19 July 2017).
Maria Barna, “Ribosome heterogeneity in translating the genetic code,” ASCB | EMBO 2017 meeting (5 December 2017).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Not all of a cell’s protein-making machines do the same job,” Science News (12 December 2017).
Tarek Hilal et al, “Structural insights into ribosomal rescue by Dom34 and Hbs1 at near-atomic resolution,” Nature Communications (20 December 2016).
“Evolution of life’s operating system revealed in detail,” Phys.org (30 June 2014).
Marna V. Rodnina, “Translocation in action,” Science 340: 1534–1535 (28 June 2013).
Anton S. Petrov et al, “History of the ribosome and the origin of translation,” PNAS 112(50): 15396-15401 (15 December 2015).
Bethany S. Strunk et al, “A translation-like cycle is a quality control checkpoint for maturing 40s ribosome subunits,” Cell 150(1): 111–121 (6 July 2012).
Anton S. Petrov et al, “Evolution of the ribosome at atomic resolution,” PNAS (30 June 2014).
“Biologists find ‘missing link’ in the production of protein factories in cells,” Phys.org (22 June 2014).
Jennifer Carpenter, “Multicellularity driven by bacteria,” Science 337: 510 (3 August 2012).
Golgi Complex
Yasuyuki Suda et al, “Rab GAP cascade regulates dynamics of Ypt6 in the Golgi traffic,” PNAS (5 November 2013).
Plasma Membrane
Cell membrane image courtesy of Mariana Ruiz (Lady of Hats).
Peter J. Collings, Liquid Crystals: Nature’s Delicate Phase of Matter, Princeton University Press (2002).
Eric A. Schon, “Bioenergetics through thick and thin,” Science 362(6419): 1114-1115 (7 December 2018).
Itay Budin et al, “Viscous control of cellular respiration by membrane lipid composition,” Science 362(6419): 1186-1189 (7 December 2018).
Felix Spira et al, “Patchwork organization of the yeast plasma membrane into numerous coexisting domains,” Nature Cell Biology (29 April 2012).
“Order in the chaos of a cell membrane,” ScienceDaily (1 March 2013).
Cristina Stefaniu et al, “Subgel phase structure in monolayers of glycosylphosphatidylinositol glycolipids,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition 51(51): 12874–12878 (14 December 2012).
Thommie Karlsson et al, “Fluxes of water through aquaporin 9 weaken membrane-cytoskeleton anchorage and promote formation of membrane protrusions,” PLoS One (3 April 2013).
Erick J. Dufourc, “Sterols and membrane dynamics,” Journal of Chemical Biology 1:63-77 (2008).
Marie-Andree Hartmann, “Plant sterols and the membrane environment,” Trends in Plant Science 3(5): 170-175 (1 May 1998).
“Water governs cell movement: aquaporins play key role, new research finds,” ScienceDaily (14 May 2013).
Chuan-Hsiang Huang et al, “An excitable signal integrator couples to an idling cytoskeletal oscillator to drive cell migration,” Nature Cell Biology (20 October 2013).
Yuting Zhao et al, “Exo70 generates membrane curvature for morphogenesis and cell migration,” Developmental Cell 26(3): 266–278 (12 August 2013).
Arthur D. Lander, “How cells know where they are,” Science 339: 923–927 (22 February 2013).
Urszula Kosinska Eriksson et al, “Subangstrom resolution X-ray structure details aquaporin-water interactions,” Science 340: 1346–1347 (14 June 2013).
Jeff Abramson & Armand S. Vartanian, “Watch water flow,” Science 340: 1294–1295 (14 June 2013).
Bert L de Groot & Helmut Grubmüller, “The dynamics and energetics of water permeation and proton exclusion in aquaporins,” Current Opinion in Structural Biology 15(2): 176–183 (April 2005).
“Cell biology: calcium ‘accelerator’ keeps cell power supply going,” ScienceDaily (25 November 2012).
Karthik Mallilankaraman et al, “MCUR1 is an essential component of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake that regulates cellular metabolism,” Nature Cell Biology 14: 1336–1343 (25 November 2012).
Lin Tang et al, “Structural basis for Ca2+ selectivity of a voltage-gated calcium channel,” Nature (24 November 2013).
Gary J. Doherty & Harvey T. McMahon, “Mediation, modulation, and consequences of membrane-cytoskeleton interactions,” Annual Review of Biophysics 37: 65–95 (June 2008).
Maria Lobikin et al, “Early, nonciliary role for microtubule proteins in left–right patterning is conserved across kingdoms,” PNAS 109(31): 12586–12591 (31 July 2012).
“Human cells, worms, frogs and plants share mechanism for asym-metrical patterning: tubulin proteins,” ScienceDaily (16 July 2012).
Sophie M Morgani & Joshua M Brickman, “Cell fate choice: Survival of the fattest,” eLife (26 November 2013).
Janna C. Nawroth et al, “Motile cilia create fluid-mechanical microhabitats for the active recruitment of the host microbiome,” PNAS (23 August 2017).
“Cilia: ‘the bouncer’ of bacteria,” ScienceDaily (7 September 2017).
Mary Beth Gardiner, “The importance of being cilia,” HHMI Bulletin (September 2005).
Philip Beales, “Cell tails: a surprising number,” New Scientist (30 October 2013).
Veikko F. Geyer et al, “Cell-body rocking is a dominant mechanism for flagellar synchronization in a swimming alga,” PNAS (21 October 2013).
Markus Meister et al, “The proton flux through the bacterial flagellar motor,” Cell 49(50): 643–650 (5 June 1987).
Ilyong Jung et al, “Evidence for two extremes of ciliary motor response in a single swimming microorganism,” Biophysical Journal 106(10): 106–113 (7 January 2014).
Markus Delling et al, “Primary cilia are specialized calcium signalling organelles,” Nature 504: 311–314 (12 December 2013).
Marie Le Borgne & Andrey S. Shaw, “Do T cells have a cilium?,” Science 342(6163): 1177–1178 (6 December 2013).
Maike de la Roche et al, “Hedgehog signaling controls T cell killing at the immunological synapse,” Science 342(6163): 1247–1250 (6 December 2013).
James R. Davenport & Bradley K. Yoder, “An incredible decade for the primary cilium: a look at a once-forgotten organelle,” American Journal of Physiology – Renal Physiology 289: F1159–F1169 (No-vember 2005).
Wallace Ravven, “Antenna on cell surface is key to development and disease,” The New York Times (19 May 2009).
Stella M. Hurtley, “Eat now,” Science 342: 403 (25 October 2013).
Sarah J. Swanson et al, “Barley aleurone cells contain two types of vacuoles: characterization of lytic organelles by use of fluorescent probes,” The Plant Cell 10(5): 685–698 (May 1998).
Xianrui Cheng & James E. Ferrell Jr., “Apoptosis propagates through the cytoplasm as trigger waves,” Science 361(6402): 607-612 (10 August 2018).
“In apoptosis, cell death spreads through perpetuating waves,” ScienceDaily (9 August 2018).
Stephanie Bleicken et al, “Quantitative interactome of a membrane Bcl-2 network identifies a hierarchy of complexes for apoptosis regulation,” Nature Communications (14 July 2017).
“How protein interactions drive cellular death,” ScienceDaily (14 July 2017).
Sayantan Chakraborty et al, “Engulfment pathways promote programmed cell death by enhancing the unequal segregation of apoptotic potential,” Nature Communications (10 December 2015).
“Why cell divisions are often followed by apoptosis of one new ‘daughter’ cell,” Phys.org (11 December 2015).
Ginés Morata & Salvador C. Herrera, “Eiger triggers death from afar,” eLife 2:e01388 (24 September 2013).
Ainhoa Pérez-Garijo et al, “Apoptotic cells can induce nonautonomous apoptosis through the TNF pathway,” eLife 2:e10004 (24 September 2013).
Christopher D. Gregory, “Cell biology: the disassembly of death,” Nature 507: 312–313 (20 March 2014).
Ho Larn Tang et al, “Cell survival, DNA damage, and oncogenic transformation after a transient and reversible apoptotic response,” Molecular Biology of the Cell 23(12): 2240–2252 (15 June 2012).
Clement T.Y. Chen et al, “Reprogramming of tRNA modifications controls the oxidative stress response by codon-biased translation of proteins,” Nature Communications 3(937) (3 July 2012).
The Evolution of Eukaryotes
Alexandros A. Pittis & Toni Gabaldón, “Late acquisition of mitochondria by a host with chimaeric prokaryotic ancestry,” Nature 531: 101–104 (3 March 2016).
Tom A. Williams et al, “An archaeal origin of eukaryotes supports only two primary domains of life,” Nature 504: 231–236 (12 December 2013).
Andrew H. Knoll et al, “Eukaryotic organisms in Proterozoic oceans,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Part B 361 (1470): 1023–1038 (2006).
Adrian Woolfson, “An improbable journey,” Nature 520: 617-618 (30 April 2015).
Philip C. J. Donoghue & Jonathan B. Antcliffe, “Early life: origins of multicellularity,” Nature 466: 41–42 (1 July 2010).
Abderrazak El Albani et al, “Large colonial organisms with coordinated growth in oxygenated environments 2.1 Gyr ago,” Nature 466: 100–104 (1 July 2010).
Christian de Duve, “The birth of complex cells,” Scientific American 50–57 (April 1996).
Zhang Wang & Martin Wu, “Phylogenomic reconstruction indicates mitochondrial ancestor was an energy parasite,” PLoS One (15 Octo-ber 2014).
Jenna Iacurci, “Mitochondria were parasites before they were powerhouses,” Nature World News, (17 October 2014).
Theresia A. Schaedler et al, “A conserved mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette transporter exports glutathione polysulfide for cytosolic metal cofactor assembly,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry (8 July 2014).
Heather J. Goldsby et al, “Task-switching costs promote the evolution of division of labor and shifts in individuality,” PNAS 109(34): 13686–13691 (21 August 2012).
Shinichiro Maruyama & Eunsoo Kim, “A modern descendent of early green algal phagotrophs,” Current Biology (23 May 2013).
Bruce A. Curtis et al, “Algal genomes reveal evolutionary mosaicism and the fate of nucleomorphs,” Science 492: 59–65 (6 December 2012).
Frederick W. Spiegel, “Contemplating the first plantae,” Science 335(6070): 809–810 (17 February 2012).
Camilla Dornfeld et al, “Phylobiochemical characterization of class-Ib aspartate/prephenate aminotransferases reveals evolution of the plant arogenate phenylalanine pathway,” The Plant Cell (July 2014).
Cheryl A. Kerfeld et al, “Protein structures forming the shell of primitive bacterial organelles,” Science 309 (5736): 936–938 (5 August 2005).
Ishi Nobu, Spokes of the Wheel, Book 2: The Web of Life (1918).
Anna Karnkowska et al, “A eukaryote without a mitochondrial organelle,” Current Biology (12 May 2016).
“Change the textbooks: this eukaryote completely lacks mitochondria,” ScienceDaily (12 May 2016).
Eukaryotic Uplift
John Parnell et al, “Heavy metal, sex and granites: crustal differenti-ation and bioavailability in the mid-Proterozoic,” Geology (8 June 2012).
Sid Perkins, “You owe your life to rock,” Science (15 June 2012).
Eukaryotic Cell Types
Andrew Koob, The Root of Thought, Pearson Education (2009).
Daniel C. Factor et al, “Epigenomic comparison reveals activation of ‘seed’ enhancers during transition from naive to primed pluripotency,” Cell: Stem Cell 14(6): 854–863 (5 June 2014).
Pekka Katajisto et al, “Asymmetric apportioning of aged mitochondria between daughter cells is required for stemness,” Science 348(6232): 340-343 (17 April 2015).
Tushar J. Desai & Mark A. Krasnow, “Stem cells: differentiated cells in a back-up role,” Nature 503: 204–205 (14 November 2013).
Purushothama Rao Tata et al, “Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo,” Nature 503: 218–223 (14 November 2013).
Kyle M. Loh & Bing Lim, “Close encounters with full potential,” Nature (19 September 2013).
Extracellular Matrices
Wayne M. Becker et al, The World of the Cell (7th Edition), Benjamin Cummings (2008).
Yu Yao et al, “Glycocalyx modulates the motility and proliferative response of vascular endothelium to fluid shear stress,” American Journal of Physiology (1 August 2007).
Nathan Mellor & Anthony Bishopp, “The innermost secretes of root development,” Science 345(6197): 622–623 (8 August 2014).
Pontus Nordenfelt et al, “Coordinated integrin activation by actin-dependent force during T-cell migration,” Nature Communications (10 October 2016).
“How cells move,” EurekaAlert! (10 October 2016).
“Cells migrate collectively by intermittent bursts of activity,” ScienceDaily (29 September 2016).
Bert De Rybel et al, “Integration of growth and patterning during vascular tissue formation in Arabidopsis,” Science 345(6197): 1255215-1 – 1255215-8 (8 August 2014).
Katsuya Shimabukuro et al, “Reconstitution of amoeboid motility in vitro identifies a motor-independent mechanism for cell body retraction,” Current Biology (2011).
Tamal Das et al, “A molecular mechanotransduction pathway regulates collective migration of epithelial cells,” Nature Cell Biology (23 February 2015).
“How a wound closes,” ScienceDaily (23 February 2015).
Julie Cohen, “Which way is up? Key protein in epithelial cells plays important roles in how cells sense direction,” Phys.org (22 May 2014).
“Cells talk to their neighbors before making a move: comparing notes boosts cells sensing accuracy,” ScienceDaily (21 September 2106).
David Ellison et al, “Cell–cell communication enhances the capacity of cell ensembles to sense shallow gradients during morphogenesis,” PNAS 113(6): E679–E688 (9 February 2016).
Andrew Mugler et al, “Limits to the precision of gradient sensing with spatial communication and temporal integration,” PNAS 113(6): E689–E695 (9 February 2016).
Push & Shove
“Mechanical forces play major role in regulating cells,” ScienceDaily (19 March 2013).
Cho-yin Lee et al, “Actin depolymerization under force is governed by lysine 113:glutamic acid 195-mediated catch-slip bonds,” PNAS (4 March 2013).
Teamwork in the Rhizosphere
C.J. Ingham et al, “Mutually facilitated dispersal between the nonmotile fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and the swarming bacterium Paenibacillus vortex,” PNAS (2011).
Pilong Li et al, “Phase transitions in the assembly of multivalent signalling proteins,” Nature (7 March 2012).
Loïc Le Goff & Thomas Lecuit, “Phase transition in a cell,” Science 324(5935): 1654–1655 (26 June 2009).
Ginés Morata & Luna Ballesteros-Arias, “Death to the losers,” Science 346(6214): 1181–1182 (5 December 2014).
S.N. Meyer et al, “An ancient defense system eliminates unfit cells from developing tissues during cell competition,” Science 346(6214) (5 December 2014).
Anthony A. Hyman & Kai Simons, “Beyond oil and water—phase transitions in cells,” Science 337(6098): 1047–1049 (31 August 2012).
David M. Duda et al, “Structure of a glomulin-RBX1-CUL1 complex: inhibition of a RING E3 ligase through masking of its E2-binding surface,” Molecular Cell 47(3): 371–382 (28 June 2012).
Nuclear Pore Complexes
Brandon H. Toyama et al, “Identification of long-lived proteins reveals exceptional stability of essential cellular structures,” Cell 154(5): 971–982 (29 August 2013).
Cell Division
Bruno M.C. Martins et al, “Cell size control driven by the circadian clock and environment in cyanobacteria,” PNAS (9 October 2018).
“Cells decide when to divide based on their internal clocks,” ScienceDaily (16 November 2018).
Claudio Asencio et al, “Coordination of kinase and phosphatase activities by Lem4 enables nuclear envelope reassembly during mitosis,” Cell 150(1): 122–135 (6 July 2012).
J. Ranft et al, “Tissue dynamics with permeation,” The European Physical Journal E: Soft Matter and Biological Physics 35(6) (2012).
Andrea Chicano et al, “Frozen-hydrated chromatin from metaphase chromosomes has an interdigitated multilayer structure,” The EMBO Journal (4 January 2019).
“Mitosis: chromosome DNA packed in stacked layers,” ScienceDaily (8 January 2019).
Amma Asare et al, “Coupling organelle inheritance with mitosis to balance growth and differentiation,” Science 355(6324): (3 February 2017).
“Scientists discover an unexpected influence on dividing stem cells’ fate,” ScienceDaily (10 February 2017).
Laia Sadeghi et al, “Centromeric histone H2B monoubiquitination promotes noncoding transcription and chromatin integrity,” Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (16 February 2014).
Brian Clegg, “20 amazing facts about the human body,” The Observer (26 January 2013).
Lu Gan et al, “Organization of the smallest eukaryotic spindle,” Current Biology 21(18):1578–1583 (8 September 2011).
“Cell memory mechanism discovered,” Phys.org (15 August 2013).
Jian Yan et al, “Transcription factor binding in human cells occurs in dense clusters found around cohesion anchor sites,” Cell 154(4): 801–813 (15 August 2013).
Richard P. Halley-Stott et al, “Mitosis gives a brief window of opportunity for a change in gene transcription,” PLoS Biology 12(7): e1001914 (July 2014).
Adam S. Wilkins & Robin Holliday, “The evolution of meiosis from mitosis,” Genetics 181(1): 3–12 (January 2009).
Da-Qiao Ding et al, “Meiosis-specific noncoding RNA mediates robust pairing of homologous chromosomes in meiosis,” Science 336(6082): 732–736 (11 May 2012).
“Sperm control DNA break,” Nature 497: 497 (16 May 2013).
Sarah E. Yeates et al, “Cryptic choice of conspecific sperm controlled by the impact of ovarian fluid on sperm swimming behavior,” Evolution (12 August 2013).
Kirandeep Bhullar et al, “Antibiotic resistance is prevalent in an isolated cave microbiome,” PLoS One 7(4): e34953 (11 April 2012).
Piotr Fabrowski et al, “Tubular endocytosis drives remodelling of the apical surface during epithelial morphogenesis in Drosophila,” Nature Communications (7 August 2013).
Hilde Abrahamsen & Harald Stenmark, “Growth signaling from inside,” Science 334: 611–612 (4 November 2011).
Baljit S. Khakh and Geoffrey Burns, “The double life of ATP,” Scientific American 301(6): 84–90 (December 2009).
Rodney Cotterill, The Material World, Cambridge University Press (2008).
Metabolic Pathways
Brenda S.J. Winkel, “Metabolic channeling in plants,” Annual Review of Plant Biology 55:87-107 (June 2004).
Camille J. Delebecque et al, “Organization of intracellular reactions with rationally designed RNA assemblies,” Science 333(470): 470–474 (22 July 2011).
Kate Theodey & Christina D. Smolke, “Bringing it together with RNA,” Science 333: 412-413 (22 July 2011).
Cell Intelligence
Bjorn Hegenmann et al, “A cellular system for spatial signal decoding in chemical gradients,” Cell (12 November 2015).
Emmanuel D. Levy et al, “Signaling through cooperation,” Science 328: 983-984 (21 May 2010).
Simon Ausländer & Martin Fussenegger, “Dynamic genome engineering in living cells,” Science 346(6211): 813–815 (14 November 2014).
Juan Pablo Muñoz et al, “Mfn2 modulates the UPR and mitochondrial function via repression of PERK,” The EMBO Journal 32: 2348–2361 (6 August 2013).
“A protein that can mean life or death for cells,” Phys.org (17 Sep-tember 2013).
Tianzhi Luo et al, “Molecular mechanisms of cellular mechanosens-ing,” Nature Materials (20 October 2013).
Yee-Hung M. Chan and Wallace F. Marshall, “How cells know the size of their organelles,” Science 337: 1886–1889 (7 September 2012).
Martin A. Schwartz & Christopher S. Chen, “Deconstructing dimen-sionality,” Science 339: 402–403 (25 January 2013).
“Cell measures stiffness of its environment using special protein bonds,” Phys.org (12 September 2013).
Li Han et al, “DNA ligase 1 is not essential for mammalian cell viability,” Cell Reports 7(2): 316–320 (24 April 2014).
Eric D. Siggia & Massimo Vergassola, “Decisions on the fly in cellular sensory systems,” PNAS (9 September 2013).
Swathi Yadlapalli & Yukiko M. Yamashita, “Chromosome-specific nonrandom sister chromatid segregation during stem-cell division,” Nature (5 May 2013).
Vuong Tran et al, “Asymmetric division of drosophila male germline stem cell shows asymmetric histone distribution,” Science 338: 679–682 (2 November 2012).
Aryeh Warmflash et al, “A method to recapitulate early embryonic spatial patterning in human embryonic stem cells,” Nature Methods 11: 847–854 (29 June 2014).
Brian Stallard, “Stem cell specialization is ruled by geometry,” Nature World News (1 July 2014).
“Using geometry, researchers coax human embryonic stem cells to organize themselves,” Rockefeller University Newswire (30 June 2014).
Mitch Leslie, “How does a cell know its size?,” Science 334: 1047–1048 (25 November 2011).
Nicolas Borghi et al, “E-cadherin is under constitutive actomyosin-generated tension that is increased at cell–cell contacts upon exter-nally applied stretch,” PNAS (16 July 2013).
Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado, “Developmental biology: A cellular view of regeneration,” Nature 460: 39–40 (2 July 2009).
Martin Kragl et al, “Cells keep a memory of their tissue origin during axolotl limb regeneration,” Nature 460: 60–65 (2 July 2009).
P. Barry, “Extreme healing,” Science News 172: 276 (3 November 2007).
Maring Krag et al, “Cells keep a memory of their tissue origin during axolotl limb regeneration,” Nature 460: 60–65 (2 July 2009).
Lucas Laursen, “Salamander cells remember their origins in limb regeneration,” Nature (1 July 2009).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Salamanders don’t regrow limbs from scratch,” Science News (1 July 2009).
“Study finds how bacteria inactivate immune defenses,” Phys.org (15 November 2012).
A. Marijke Keestra et al, “Manipulation of small Rho GTPases is a pathogen-induced process detected by NOD1,” Nature 496: 233–237 (11 April 2013).
“Social behavior of cancer cells leads experts to suggest launching ‘social networking war’ against cancer,” ScienceDaily (14 August 2012).
Chris D. Madsen et al, “STRIPAK components determine mode of cancer cell migration and metastasis,” Nature Cell Biology (22 December 2014).
Micheal Slezak, “Cancer copies how healthy cells move to invade organs,” New Scientist (7 January 2015).
Alyssa Botelho, “Breast cancer impersonates neurons to invade the brain,” New Scientist (6 January 2014).
Josh Neman et al, “Human breast cancer metastases to the brain display GABAergic properties in the neural niche,” PNAS (14 Janu-ary 2014).
Gary A. Clawson, “Fusion for moving,” Science 342: 699–700 (8 November 2013).
Rossitza Lazova et al, “A melanoma brain metastasis with a donor-patient hybrid genome following bone marrow transplantation: first evidence for fusion in human cancer,” PLoS One (26 June 2013).
L. Duncan Bulkley, Cancer, Its Cause and Treatment, Paul B. Hoeber (1915).
Amina M Abdul-Aziz et al, “Acute myeloid leukemia induces pro-tumoral p16INK4a driven senescence in the bone marrow microenvironment,” Blood (6 November 2018).
“Cancer causes premature ageing,” Medical eXpress (30 January 2019).
Cell Movement
Thomas P. Stossel, “The machinery of cell crawling,” Scientific American 54–63 (September 1994).
Carl Zimmer, “New technologies allow scientists to watch cells in motion,” The New York Times (9 June 2009).
Markus Basan et al, “Alignment of cellular motility forces with tissue flow as a mechanism for efficient wound healing,” PNAS (23 January 2013).
“How cells know which way to go,” ScienceDaily (27 October 2014).
Ming-Jie Wang et al, “The directional response of chemotactic cells depends on a balance between cytoskeletal architecture and the ex-ternal gradient,” Cell Reports 9(3): 1110–1121 (6 November 2014).
Ming Tang et al, “Evolutionarily conserved coupling of adaptive and excitable networks mediates eukaryotic chemotaxis,” Nature Communications (27 October 2014).
Xavier Serra-Picamal et al, ” Mechanical waves during tissue expansion,” Nature Physics 8: 628–634 (8 July 2012).
Gretchen Vogel, “Cells rewrite their own destiny, “Science 330: 1678 (17 December 2010).
Miguel Perz-Aso et al, “Pharmacological blockade of adenosine A2A receptors diminishes scarring,” The FASEB Journal (5 July 2012).
Ray Keller, “Physical biology returns to morphogenesis,” Science 338: 201-202 (12 October 2012).

Benjamin A. Pierce, Genetics: A Conceptual Approach, Southwestern University (2008).
Deciphering DNA
J.D. Watson & F.H.C. Crick, “Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid,” Nature 171: 737–738 (25 April 1953).
Paul Strathern, The Big Idea: Crick, Watson, and DNA, First Anchor Books (1997).
Sam Kean, The Disappearing Spoon, Little, Brown and Company (2010).
Mario Livio, Brilliant Blunders, Simon & Schuster (2014).
Kenneth Douglas, DNA Nanoscience: From Prebiotic Origins to Emerging Nanotechnology, CRC Press (2017).
Eva Jablonka & Marion J. Lamb, Evolution in Four Dimensions, Bradford (2014).
Unlettered Nucleobases
Yasuhiro Doi et al, “Artificial DNA made exclusively of nonnatural c-nucleosides with four types of nonnatural bases,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 130(27): 8762–8768 (11 June 2008).
Karin Betz et al, “KlenTaq polymerase replicates unnatural base pairs by inducing a Watson-Crick geometry,” Nature Chemical Biology 8: 612–614 (3 June 2012).
Jeffrey M. Perkel, “The new techniques revealing the varied shapes of chromatin,” Nature (6 May 2019).
Bogdan Bintu et al, “Super-resolution chromatin tracing reveals domains and cooperative interactions in single cells,” Science 362(6413) (26 October 2018).
Guy Nir, “Walking along chromosomes with super-resolution imaging, contact maps, and integrative modeling,” PLoS Genetics (26 December 2018).
Ralph Stadhouders et al, “Transcription factors orchestrate dynamic interplay between genome topology and gene regulation during cell reprogramming,” Nature Genetics (15 January 2018).
“The surprising role of gene architecture in cell fate decisions,” Medical Xpress (16 January 2018).
J. David Sweatt, “Chromatin controls behavior,” Science 353(6296): 218-219 (15 July 2016).
Yue Yang et al, “Chromatin remodeling inactivates activity genes and regulates neural coding,” Science 353(6296): 300-305 (15 July 2016).
Erez Liberman-Aiden et al, “Comprehensive mapping of long-range interactions reveals folding principles of the human genome,” Science 326(5950): 289–293 (9 October 2009).
Christophe Redon et al, “Histone H2A variants H2AX and H2AZ,” Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 12(2): 162–169 (1 April 2002).
Suhas S.P. Rao et al, “A 3D map of the human genome at kilobase resolution reveals principles of chromatin looping,” Cell 159(7): 1665–1680 (18 December 2014).
Tina Hesman Saey, “The art of DNA folding,” Science News (29 December 2014).
Robert E. Thurman et al, “The accessible chromatin landscape of the human genome,” Nature 489: 75–82 (6 September 2012).
Laura Sanders, “New view of genome reveals how cell packs DNA neatly into place,” Science News 176(10): 14 (7 November 2009).
Charles Q. Choi, “Double-helix double up,” Scientific American 298(4): 30 (April 2008).
Recognizing Foreign DNA
Seamus R. Morrone et al, “Cooperative assembly of IFI16 filaments on dsDNA provides insights into host defense strategy,” PNAS 111(1): E62–E71 (7 January 2014).
Kirsten L. Frieda & Steven M. Block, “Direct observation of cotran-scriptional folding in an adenine riboswitch,” Science 338: 397–400 (19 October 2012).
DNA Knots
“DNA in knots,” Science 277(5326) (1 August 1997).
Philip Ball, “DNA: Celebrate the unknowns,” Nature 496: 419–420 (25 April 2013).
“Location matters, even for genes,” ScienceDaily (15 Feburary 2008).
Michael Hempsey, “A new direction for gene loops,” Science 338: 624–625 (2 November 2012).
Sue Mei Tan-Wong et al, “Gene loops enhance transcriptional directionality,” Science 338: 671–675 (2 November 2012).
Tom Misteli, “The inner life of the genome,” Scientific American 304(2): 66–73 (February 2011).
L.J. Stadler, “The gene,” Science 120(3125): 811–819 (19 November 1954).
Natalia N. Ivanova et al, “Stop codon reassignments in the wild,” Science 344(6186): 909–913 (23 May 2014).
Genetic Coding
M. J. Lajoie et al, “Probing the limits of genetic recoding in essential genes,” Science 342(6156): 361–363 (18 October 2013).
John F. Atkins & Pavel V. Baranov, “The distinction between recoding and codon reassignment,” GSA Genetics 185(4): 1535–1536 (August 2010).
Erika Check Hayen, “Microbes defy rules of DNA code,” Nature (22 May 2014).
Keith W. Caldecott, “Ribose – an internal threat to DNA,” Science 343: 260-261 (17 January 2014).
Prokaryotic Adaptive Immunity
Rea Globus & Udi Qimron, “Crystal-clear memories of a bacterium,” Science 357(6356): 1096-1097 (15 September 2017).
Rodolphe Barrangou et al, “CRISPR provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes,” Science 315(5819): 1709-1712 (23 March 2007).
Carl Zimmer, “Breakthrough DNA editor born of bacteria,” Quanta Magazine (6 February 2015).
Rosie Mestel, “CRISPR had a life before it became a gene-editing tool,” Science News (5 April 2017).
Asaf Levy et al, “CRISPR adaptation biases explain preference for acquisition of foreign DNA,” Nature (13 April 2015).
Heidi Ledford, “CRISPR: gene editing is just the beginning,” Nature (7 March 2016).
Joseph Bondy-Denomy et al, “Multiple mechanisms for CRISPR–Cas inhibition by anti-CRISPR proteins,” Nature (23 September 2015).
Kimberley D. Seed et al, “A bacteriophage encodes its own CRISPR/Cas adaptive response to evade host innate immunity,” Nature (27 February 2013).
Prarthana Mohanraju et al, “Diverse evolutionary roots and mechanistic variations of the CRISPR-Cas systems,” Science 353(6299) (5 August 2016).
Sukrit Silas et al, “Direct CRISPR spacer acquisition from RNA by a natural reverse transcriptase–Cas1 fusion protein,” Science 351(6276): 932 (26 February 2016).
“Bacteria take ‘RNA mug shots’ of threatening viruses,” ScienceDaily (25 February 2016).
Danny Ionescu et al, “Community-like genome in single cells of the sulfur bacterium Achromatium oxaliferum, ScienceDaily (10 September 2017).
Barbara McClintock, “The significance of responses of the genome to challenge,” Nobel lecture (8 December 1983).
Barbara McClintock, “The significance of responses of the genome to challenge,” Science 226(4676): 792-801 (16 December 1984).
Codons & Cistrons
Benjamin Lewis, Genes IX, Jones & Bartlett Learning (2007).
M.J. Thompson & C.D. Jiggins, “Supergenes and their role in evolution,” Heredity (19 March 2014).
Elizabeth Pennisi, “Supergenes’ drive evolution,” Science 357(6356): 1083 (15 September 2017).
Ingrid Lobo, “Pleiotropy: one gene can affect multiple traits,” Scitable (2008).
Genetic Variations
Eléonore Durand et al, “Dominance hierarchy arising from the evolution of a complex small RNA regulatory network,” Science 346(6214) 1200–1205 (5 December 2014).
S.P. Yip, “Sequence variation at the human ABO locus,” Annals of Human Genetics 66 (1): 1–27 (January 2002).
Margret R. Hoehe et al, “Multiple haplotype-resolved genomes reveal population patterns of gene and protein diplotypes,” Nature Communications (26 November 2014).
Gregor Mendel
Susan J. Lolle et al, “Genome-wide non-mendelian inheritance of extra-genomic information in Arabidopsis,” Nature 434: 505–509 (24 March 2005).
Rebecca Cheung, “Death hour may depend on DNA,” Science News 181(12): 14 (16 June 2012).
Christopher Vollmers et al, “Circadian oscillations of protein-coding and regulatory RNAs in a highly dynamic mammalian liver epigenome,” Cell Metabolism 6(6): 833–845 (5 December 2012).
Guillaume Rey & Akhilesh B. Reddy, “Rhythmic respiration,” Science 342: 570–571 (1 November 2013).
Clara Bien Peek et al, “Circadian clock NAD+ cycle drives mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in mice,” Science (19 September 2013).
Expression & Regulation
Gordon M. Tomkins et al, “Control of specific gene expression in higher organisms,” Science 166(3912): 1474–1480 (19 December 1969).
Stephanie Fanucchi et al, “Chromosomal contact permits transcription between coregulated genes,” Cell 155: 606–620 (October 24, 2013).
“‘Kissing genes’ breakthrough,” Phys.org (14 November 2013).
“Unique solution to gene regulation,” ScienceDaily (21 August 2012).
Gina Bari Kolata, “Molecular probes: a new way to study gene expression,” Science 183(4120): 63–64 (11 January 1974).
Robert F. Goldberger, “Autogenous regulation of gene expression,” Science 183(4127): 810–816 (1 March 1974).
Sea Lampreys
Jeramiah J Smith et al, “Sequencing of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) genome provides insights into vertebrate evolution,” Nature Genetics (24 February 2013).
S. Kuratani et al, “Embryology of the lamprey and evolution of the vertebrate jaw: insights from molecular and developmental perspectives,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 356(1414): 1615–1632 (29 October 2001).
Yihan Lin et al, “Combinatorial gene regulation by modulation of relative pulse timing,” Nature (22 October 2015).
“Scientists find cells rhythmically regulate their genes,” Phys.org (21 October 2015).
Gautham Nair & Arjun Raj, “Time-lapse transcription,” Science 332(6028): 431–432 (22 April 2011).
Robert A. Forties et al, “Transcription: on the move,” eLife 2: e01414 (24 September 2013).
John S. Mattick, “The hidden genetic program of complex organisms,” Scientific American 291(4): 60–67 (June 2005).
Erika Check Hayden, “Evidence of altered RNA stirs debate,” Nature 473: 432 (26 May 2011).
Brian B. Tuch et al, “Evolution of eukaryotic transcription circuits,” Science 319: 1979–1799 (28 March 2012).
Leonardo Salmena et al, “A ceRNA hypothesis: the Rosetta stone of the hidden RNA language?,” Cell 146: 353–358 (5 August 2011).
Robert J. Weatheritt & M. Madan Babu, “The hidden codes that shape protein evolution,” Science 342(6164): 1325–1326 (13 Decem-ber 2013).
Mingyao Li et al, “Widespread RNA and DNA sequence differences in the human transcriptome,” Science 333: 53–58 (1 July 2011).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Central dogma thrown off-kilter,” Science News 178(12): 17 (4 December 2010).
J.R. Minkel, “RNA to the rescue,” Scientific American 292(6): 20–21 (June 2005).
Dominic Schmidt, “Evolution of vertebrate transcriptional regulator binding,” Science 342(6163): 1186 (6 December 2013).
X. Roca et al, “Widespread recognition of 5′ splice sites by noncanoni-cal base-pairing to U1 snRNA involving bulged nucleotides,” Genes & Development 26 (10): 1098–1109 (15 May 2012).
“New exception to decades-old rule about RNA splicing uncovered,” ScienceDaily (17 May 2012).
Jeffrey T. Morgan et al, “Excised linear introns regulate growth in yeast,” Nature 565: 606-611 (31 January 2019).
Julie Parenteau et al, “Introns are mediators of cell response to starvation,” Nature 565: 612-617 (31 January 2019).
O. Fedorova & N. Zingler, “Group II introns: structure, folding and splicing mechanism,” Biological Chemistry 388: 665–678 (2007).
Andrew B. Stergachis et al, “Exonic transcription factor binding directs codon choice and affects protein evolution,” Science 342(6164): 1367–1372 (13 December 2013).
Michael Ibba & Dieter Söll, “Quality control mechanisms during translation,” Science 286(5446): 1893–1897 (3 December 1999).
Albert Tsai et al, “Heterogeneous pathways and timing of factor departure during translation initiation,” Nature (17 June 2012).
Pavan Vedula et al, “Diverse functions of homologous actin isoforms are defined by their nucleotide, rather than their amino acid sequence,” eLife (15 December 2017).
Katherine Unger Baillie, “‘Silent code’ of nucleotides, not amino acids, determines discrete functions of proteins vital for life,” Penn News (3 January 2018).
“Actin,” Worthington Biochemical Corporation (2017).
Bret Stetka, “Curiouser and curiouser – octopus’s evolution is even stranger than thought,” Scientific American (6 April 2017).
Steph Yin, “A genetic oddity may give octopuses and squids their smarts,” The New York Times (6 April 2017).
Noa Liscovitch-Brauer et al, “Trade-off between transcriptome plasticity and genome evolution in cephalopods,” Cell 169(2): 191-202 (6 April 2017).
“‘Smart’ cephalopods trade off genome evolution for prolific RNA editing,” EurekAlert! (6 April 2017).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Cephalopod smarts tied to RNA edits,” Science News (29 April 2017).
Quality Control
Simone C Rufener & Oliver Mühlemann, “eIF4E-bound mRNPs are substrates for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in mammalian cells,” Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (12 May 2013).
“How quality control works in our cells,” ScienceDaily (7 July 2013).
Yoshitaka Matsuo et al, “Coupled GTPase and remodelling ATPase activities form a checkpoint for ribosome export,” Nature (17 Novem-ber 2013).
“How ‘quality control’ functions in ribosome assembly,” ScienceDaily (7 July 2013).
Michael A. Lodato et al, “Somatic mutation in single human neurons tracks developmental and transcriptional history,” Science 350(6256): 94–98 (2 October 2015).
Laura Sanders, “Brain cells’ DNA differs,” Science News (1 October 2015).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Tunicate genome found out of order,” Science News 178(13): 13 (18 December 2010).
France Denoeud et al, “Plasticity of animal genome architecture unmasked by rapid evolution of a pelagic tunicate,” Science 330(6009): 1381–1385 (3 December 2010).
Andreas D. Zimmer et al, “Reannotation and extended community resources for the genome of the non-seed plant Physcomitrella patens provide insights into the evolution of plant gene structures and func-tions,” BMC Genomics (23 July 2013).
P. Carninci & Y. Hayashizaki, “Noncoding RNA transcription beyond annotated genes,” Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 17 (2): 139–144 (April 2007).
The Tomato Genome Consortium, “The tomato genome sequence provides insights into fleshy fruit evolution,” Nature 485: 635–641 (31 May 2012).
Nicholas Wade, “More genes than humans: the tomato decoded,” The New York Times (30 May 2012).
“Recreating the history of life through the genome,” ScienceDaily (19 November 2013).
David Juan et al, “Late-replicating CNVs as a source of new genes,” Biology Open (15 November 2013).
James R. Lupski, “Genome mosaicism – one human, multiple genomes,” Science 341: 358–359 (26 July 2013).
Joseph Panno, The Cell, Facts on File (2005).
Stephen J. Giovannoni et al, “Genome streamlining in a cosmopolitan oceanic bacterium,” Science 309(5738): 1242–1245 (19 August 2005).
Genetic Exchange
Alastair Crisp et al, “Expression of multiple horizontally acquired genes is a hallmark of both vertebrate and invertebrate genomes,” Genome Biology (13 March 2015).
“Some genes ‘foreign’ in origin and not from our ancestors,” Phys.org (12 March 2015).
Stuart B. Levy, “The challenge of antibiotic resistance,” Scientific American 278(3): 46–53 (March 1998).
Chris S. Smillie et al, “Ecology drives a global network of gene exchange connecting the human microbiome,” Nature 480: 241 – 244 (8 December 2011).
Gina Kolata “In good health? thank your 100 trillion bacteria,” The New York Times (13 June 2012).
The Human Microbiome Project Consortium, “Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome,” Nature 486: 207–214 (14 June 2012).
Tanya Yatsunenko et al, “Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography,” Nature 486: 222–227 (14 June 2012).
“Eduardo P.C. Rocha, “With a little help from prokaryotes,” Science 339: 1154–1155 (8 March 2013).
Gerard Schönknecht et al, “Gene transfer from bacteria and archaea facilitated evolution of an extremophilic eukaryote,” Science 339: 1207–1210 (8 March 2013).
S. Stegemann et al, “Horizontal transfer of chloroplast genomes between plant species,” PNAS (30 January 2012).
Zhenxiang Xi et al, “Horizontal transfer of expressed genes in a parasitic flowering plant,” BMC Genomics 13: 227 (8 June 2012).
Jonathan T. Siebert et al, “Are there knots in chromosomes?,” Polymers (20 October 2017).
“Discovery reveals chromosomes organize into ‘yarns’,” University of Massachusetts Medical School (11 April 2012).
Joe Dekker, “Gene regulation in the third dimension,” Science 319: 1793–1794 (28 March 2008).
Erez Lieberman-Aiden et al, ” Comprehensive mapping of long-range interactions reveals folding principles of the human genome,” Science 326 (5950): 289–293 (9 October 2009).
Joan-Ramon Daban, “The energy components of stacked chromatin layers explain the morphology, dimensions and mechanical properties of metaphase chromosomes,” Interface (8 January 2014).
Preetha Anand et al, “A novel role for lipid droplets in the organismal antibacterial response,” eLife 1:e00003 (13 November 2012).
Elphège P. Nora et al, “Spatial partitioning of the regulatory land-scape of the X-inactivation centre,” Nature (11 April 2012).
Jim Fessenden, “Chromosomes organize into ‘yarns’: may explain why DNA mutations can affect genes located thousands of base pairs away,” ScienceDaily (11 April 2012).
Joe Nassour et al, “Autophagic cell death restricts chromosomal instability during replicative crisis,” Nature 565: 659-663 (31 January 2019).
“Critical pathway in cell cycle may lead to cancer development,” Salk Institute News Release (11 July 2013).
Anthony J. Cesare et al, “The telomere deprotection response is functionally distinct from the genomic DNA damage response,” Molecular Cell 51(2): 141–155 (11 July 2013).
Daniela Rhodes & Hans J. Lipps, “G-quadruplexes and their regulatory roles in biology,” Nucleic Acids Research 43(18): 8627-8637 (September 2015).
Julian L. Huppert & Shankar Balasubramanian, “Prevalence of quadruplexes in the human genome,” Nucleic Acids Research 33(9): 2908–2916 (September 2005).
Tomas Simonsson, “G-Quadruplex DNA structures variations on a theme,” Biological Chemistry 382(4): 621–628 (June 2005).
Giulia Biffi et al, “Quantitative visualization of DNA G-quadruplex structures in human cells,” Nature Chemistry (20 January 2013).
Janelle Vultaggio, “G-Quadruplexes: a web of functional complexities,” Brandeis University (2014).
Comparative Chromosomes
Ann Gibbons, “Bonobos join chimps as closest human relatives,” Science (13 June 2012).
Katherine S. Pollard, “What makes us human?,” Scientific American 300(5): 44-49 (May 2009).
Kay Prüfer et al, “The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes,” Nature (13 June 2012).
Cory Y. McLean et al, “Human-specific loss of regulatory DNA and the evolution of human-specific traits,” Nature 471: 216–219 (10 March 2011).
DNA Content
Nessa Carey, The Epigenetics Revolution, Columbia University Press (2012).
Greg Elgar & Tanya Vavouri, “Tuning in to the signals: noncoding sequence conservation in vertebrate genomes,” Trends in Genetics 24(7): 344–352 (July 2008).
Ewen Callaway, “Human brain shaped by duplicate genes,” Nature (3 May 2012).
Michael T. Madigan et al, Biology of Microorganisms, Pearson Education (2009).
Enrique Ibarra-Laclette et al, “Architecture and evolution of a minute plant genome,” Nature (12 May 2013).
Replication Accuracy
Evan Z. Macosko &, Steven A. McCarroll, “Our fallen genomes,” Science 342(6158): 564–565 (1 November 2013).
Michael J. McConnell et al, “Mosaic copy number variation in human neurons,” Science 342(6158): 632–637 (1 November 2013).
Sex Chromosomes
Carl Zimmer, “Seeing X chromosomes in a new light,” The New York Times (20 January 2014).
Natalie Angier, “For motherly X chromosome, gender is only the beginning,” The New York Times (1 May 2007).
Richard Harris, “Scientists decipher Y chromosome,” NPR (19 June 2003).
Jae Bok Heo & Sibum Sung, “Vernalization-mediated epigenetic silencing by a long intronic noncoding RNA,” Science 331(6013): 76–79 (7 January 2011).
Gary Stix, “Geographer of the male genome,” Scientific American 291(6): 40–41 (December 2004).
Jacob L Mueller et al, “Independent specialization of the human and mouse X chromosomes for the male germ line,” Nature Genetics (21 July 2013).
Genetic Complexity
William E. Friedman, “One genome, two ontogenies,” Science 339(6123): 1045–1046 (1 March 2013).
Keiko Sakakibara et al, “KNOX2 genes regulate the haploid-to-diploid morphological transition in land plants,” Science 339(6123): 1067–1070 (1 March 2013).
Amber Willbanks et al, “The evolution of epigenetics: from prokaryotes to humans and its biological consequences,” Genetics & Epigenetics (2016).
Jane Qiu, “Epigenetics: unfinished symphony,” Nature 441: 143–145 (11 May 2006).
Oded Rechavi et al, “Transgenerational inheritance of an acquired small RNA-based antiviral response in C. elegans,” Cell 147: 1248-1256 (9 December 2011).
Trever R. Covert, “The history of epigenetics explored,” Epigenetics News (15 April 2006).
Gary Felsenfeld, “A brief history of epigenetics,” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology (2014).
Nina V. Fedoroff, “Transposable elements, epigenetics, and genome evolution,” Science 338: 758–767 (9 November 2012).
“Cross species transfer of genes has driven evolution,” Phys.org (9 July 2018).
Atma M. Ivancevic et al, “Horizontal transfer of BovB and L1 retrotransposons in eukaryotes,” Genome Biology 19:85 (9 July 2018).
Oded Rechavisend et al, “Transgenerational inheritance of an acquired small RNA-based antiviral response in C. elegans,” Cell, 147(6): 1248–1256 (23 November 2011).
Sandip De & Judith A. Kassis, “Passing epigenetic silence to the next generation,” Science 356(6333): 28-29 (7 April 2017).
“Epigenetics between the generations: Researchers prove that we inherit more than just genes,” Medical Xpress (14 July 2017).
Fides Zenk et al, “Germ line–inherited H3K27me3 restricts enhancer function during maternal-to-zygotic transition,” Science 357: 212-216 (14 July 2017).
Douglas L. Chalker, “Epigenetics: keeping one’s sex,” Nature 509: 430–431 (22 May 2014).
Deepankar Pratap Singh et al, “Genome-defence small RNAs exapted for epigenetic mating-type inheritance,” Nature 509: 447–452 (22 May 2014).
Vincenzo Pirrotta, “How to read chromatin past,” Science 337: 919–920 (24 August 2012).
Helena Kilpinen et al, “Coordinated effects of sequence variation on DNA binding, chromatin structure, and transcription,” Science 342: 744–747 (8 November 2013).
“Rethinking the genetic code,” ScienceDaily (11 August 2013).
Thomas M. Norman et al, “Memory and modularity in cell-fate decision making,” Nature 503: 481–486 (28 November 2013).
Mark Ptashne, “Epigenetics: core misconcept,” PNAS 110(18): 7101–7103 (30 April 2013).
André Fischer, “Epigenetic memory: the Lamarckian brain,” The EMBO Journal 33(7): 665–779 (1 April 2014).
“Gene expression changes with meditation,” ScienceDaily (8 December 2013).
Eric J. Nestler, “Epigenetics: stress makes its molecular mark,” Nature 490: 171–172 (11 October 2012).
W.W. Pace et al, “Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune and behavioral responses to psychosocial stress,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 34(1): 87–98 (January 2009).
Christopher R.K. MacLean et al, “Effects of the transcendental meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 22(4): 277–295 (May 1997).
Linda Geddes, “Fear of a smell can be passed down several generations,” New Scientist (1 December 2013).
Alex Eccleston et al, “Epigenetics,” Nature 447: 395 (24 May 2007).
Mirko Francesconi & Ben Lehner, “The effects of genetic variation on gene expression dynamics during development,” Nature 505: 208–211 (9 January 2014).
Alejandro Lomniczi et al, “Epigenetic control of female puberty,” Nature Neuroscience (27 January 2013).
Tina Hesman Saey, “DNA packaging runs in families,” Science News 174(2): 9 (19 July 2009).
“Genetics has a role in determining sexual orientation in men, further evidence,” ScienceDaily (8 November 2007).
Elizabeth Norton, “Homosexuality may start in the womb,” Science (11 December 2012).
Tina Hesman Saey, “DNA tags differ in gay, straight men,” Science News (14 November 2015).
William R. Rice et al, “Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development,” The Quarterly Review of Biology 84(4) (December 2012).
“Epigenetics may be a critical factor contributing to homosexuality, study suggests,” ScienceDaily (11 December 2012).
Jonathan Weitzman, “Beyond face value,” Nature 477: 534–535 (29 September 2011).
María Berdasco et al, “DNA methylation plasticity of human adipose-derived stem cells in lineage commitment,” The American Journal of Pathology 181(6): 20790–20793 (December 2012).
Epigenetics, edited by C. David Allis et al, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (2007).
Paolo Sassone-Corsi, “When metabolism and epigenetics converge,” Science 339(6116): 148–150 (11 January 2013).
Guilhem Chalancon et al, “Reconfiguring regulation,” Science 335: 1050–1051 (2 March 2012).
Pierre Nicolas et al, “Condition-dependent transcriptome reveals high-level regulatory architecture in Bacillus subtilis,” Science 335: 1103–1106 (2 March 2012).
“New role for RNAi discovered: epigenetic memory may pass RNA silencing from one generation to the next,” ScienceDaily (26 June 2012).
Masaki Shirayama et al, piRNAs initiate an epigenetic memory of nonself RNA in the C. elegans germline,” Cell (25 June 2012).
Anne-Ruxandra Carvunis et al, “Proto-genes and de novo gene birth,” Nature 487: 370–373 (19 July 2012).
Oded Rechavi et al, “Starvation-induced transgenerational inheritance of small rnas in C. elegans,” Cell 158(2): 277–287 (17 July 2014).
Eric J. Nestler, “Hidden switches in the mind,” Scientific American 305(6): 77–83 (December 2011).
Elise B. Robinson et al, “Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population,” Nature Genetics (21 March 2016).
“Autism genes are in all of us, new research reveals,” ScienceDaily (21 March 2016).
Richard C. Francis, Epigenetics, W.W. Norton & Company (2011).
Ulrike C Lange & Robert Schneider, “What an epigenome remembers,” BioEssays 32(8) (2010).
Minoo Rassoulzadegan et al, “RNA-mediated non-mendelian inheritance of an epigenetic change in the mouse,” Nature 441: 469–474 (25 May 2006).
Genetic Evolution
Federico Gaiti et al, “Landscape of histone modifications in a sponge reveals the origin of animal cis-regulatory complexity,” eLife (11 April 2017).
“Humans and sponges share gene regulation,” ScienceDaily (11 April 2017).
Junk Debunked
Roger Fricker et al, “A tRNA half modulates translation as stress response in Trypanosoma brucei,” Nature Communications (10 January 2019).
“Turbocharger for the cell machinery,” ScienceDaily (10 January 2019).
Susumu Ohno, “So much “junk” DNA in our genome,” in Evolution of Genetic Systems, edited by H.H. Smith, Gordon and Breach (1972).
Tim Hunt, “How mammals get the message,” New Scientist (18 May 1972).
Dan Graur, “The origin of junk DNA: a historical whodunnit,” Judge Starling weblog (19 October 2013).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Genome may be full of junk after all,” Science News 17 178(12): (4 December 2010).
Dan Graur, “An upper limit on the functional fraction of the human genome,” Genome Biology and Evolution (July 2017).
“Improved gene expression atlas shows that many human long non-coding RNAs may actually be functional,” ScienceDaily (1 March 2017).
Matthew J. Hangauer et al, “Pervasive transcription of the human genome produces thousands of previously unidentified long intergenic noncoding RNAs,” PLoS Genetics (20 June 2013).
Karen Adelman & Emily Egan, “Non-coding RNA: more uses for genomic junk,” Nature 543: 183-185(8 March 2017).
Chris M. Rands et al, “8.2% of the human genome is constrained: variation in rates of turnover across functional element classes in the human lineage,” PLoS Genetics (24 July 2014).
Bryan J. Venters & B. Franklin Pugh, “Genomic organization of human transcription initiation complexes,” Nature (18 September 2013).
Alexander D. Ramos et al, “Integration of genome-wide approaches identifies lncRNAs of adult neural stem cells and their progeny in vivo,” Cell: Stem Cell 12(5): 616-628 (11 April 2013).
Justin J.L. Wong et al, “Orchestrated intron retention regulates normal granulocyte differentiation,” Cell 154(3): 583–595 (1 August 2013).
“Long noncoding RNAs may alter chromosome’s structure,” Science 340: 910 (24 May 2013).
Jeremy E. Wilusz and Phillip A. Sharp, “A circuitous route to noncoding RNA,” Science 340: 440–441 (26 April 2013).
Shane Neph et al, “An expansive human regulatory lexicon encoded in transcription factor footprints,” Nature 489: 83–90 (6 September 2012).
Colin Barras, “Your face may have been sculpted by junk DNA,” New Scientist (24 October 2013).
Gina Kolata, “Bits of mystery DNA, far from ‘junk,’ play crucial role,” The New York Times (5 September 2012).
Terrence S. Furey & Praveen Sethupathy, “Genetics driving epigenet-ics,” Science 342: 705–706 (8 November 2013).
Mark Ptashne, “On the use of the word ‘epigenetic’,” Current Biology 17(3): R233–R236 (3 April 2007).
“Some long non-coding RNAs are conventional after all,” Phys.org (4 April 2014).
Ariel A Bazzini et al, “Identification of small ORFs in vertebrates using ribosome footprinting and evolutionary conservation,” The EMBO Journal 33(7): 665–779 (1 April 2014).
Mathias Wilhelm et al, “Mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome,” Nature 509: 582–587 (29 May 2014).
“Extensive cataloging of human proteins uncovers 193 never known to exist,” ScienceDaily (28 May 2014).
Jeffrey M. Perkel, “Visiting ‘noncordarnia’,” BioTechniques 54(6): 301–304 (June 2013).
Heidi Ledford, “Circular RNAs throw genetics for a loop,” Nature 494: 415 (28 February 2013).
Sebastian Memczak et al, “Circular RNAs are a large class of animal RNAs with regulatory potency,” Nature 495: 333–338 (21 March 2013).
Delphine Quénet & Yamini Dalal “A long non-coding RNA is required for targeting centromeric protein A to the human centromere,” eLife (12 August 2014).
The ENCODE Project Consortium, “An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome,” Nature 489: 57–74 (6 September 2012).
John Rinn & Mitchell Guttman, “RNA and dynamic nuclear organization,” Science 345(6202): 1240-1241 (12 September 2014).
Jian Zhou et al, “Whole-genome deep-learning analysis identifies contribution of noncoding mutations to autism risk,” Nature Genetics (27 May 2019).
“Artificial intelligence detects a new class of mutations behind autism,” MedicalXpress (27 May 2019).
Laura M. Zahn, “Tagging new genes,” Science 340(6135) (24 May 2013).
V.K. Rakyan et al, “Transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic states at the murine Axin(Fu) allele occurs after maternal and paternal transmission,” PNAS 100 (5): 2538–2543 (2003).
Alexander Hunziker et al, “Genetic flexibility of regulatory networks,” PNAS 107(29): 12998–13003 (20 July 2010).
Emily Hodges et al, “Directional DNA methylation changes and complex intermediate states accompany lineage specificity in the adult hematopoietic compartment,” Molecular Cell 44(1): 17-28 (7 October 2011).
Peter Tarr, “Study suggests methylation and gene sequence co-evolve in human-chimp evolutionary divergence,” Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (15 September 2011).
Daniel M. Messerschmidt et al, “DNA methylation dynamics during epigenetic reprogramming in the germline and preimplantation embryos,” Genes & Development 28: 812-828 (2014).
Zhao-xia Chen & Arthur D. Riggs, “DNA methylation and demthylation in mammals,” Journal of Biological Chemistry 286(21): 18347-18353 (27 May 2011).
Hannah K. Long et al, “Epigenetic conservation at gene regulatory elements revealed by non-methylated DNA profiling in seven vertebrates,” eLife 2:e00348 (26 Feburary 2013).
Maria Gutierrez-Arcelus et al, “Passive and active DNA methylation and the interplay with genetic variation in gene regulation,” eLife 2:e00523 (4 June 2013).
Sylvain Guiber & Michael Weber, “Epigenetics: erase for a new start,” Nature 492: 363–364 (20 December 2012).
“Human-chimp evolutionary divergence: methylation and gene sequence co-evolved, study suggests,” ScienceDaily (15 September 2011).
Michael Balter, “Aging is recorded in our genes,” Science (11 June 2012).
Tasnim Dayeh et al, ” Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of human pancreatic islets from type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic donors identifies candidate genes that influence insulin secretion,” PLoS Genetics (6 March 2014).
Catherine Bui et al, “cAMP response element-binding (CREB) recruitment following a specific CpG demethylation leads to the elevated expression of the matrix metalloproteinase 13 in human articular chondrocytes and osteoarthritis,” The FASEB Jounal (13 April 2012).
Ana M.M. Oliveira et al, “Rescue of aging-associated decline in Dnmt3a2 expression restores cognitive abilities,” Nature Neuroscience (1 July 2012).
Christopher S. Nabel & Rahul M. Kohli, “Demystifying DNA demeth-ylation,” Science 333: 1229–1230 (2 September 2011).
Weiqiang Qian et al, “A histone acetyltransferase regulates active DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis,” Science 336(6087): 1445–1448 (15 June 2012).
Yannick Jacob & Rob Martienssen, “All packed up and ready to go,” Science 336(6087): 1391–1392 (15 June 2012).
Joseph S. Harrison et al, “Hemi-methylated DNA regulates DNA methylation inheritance through allosteric activation of H3 ubiquitylation by UHRF,” eLife (6 September 2016).
“The whole of epigenetic regulation may be greater than the sum of its parts,” ScienceDaily (7 September 2016).
Robert M. Cox et al, “Hormonally mediated increases in sex-biased gene expression accompany the breakdown of between-sex genetic correlations in a sexually dimorphic lizard,” The American Naturalist (25 January 2017).
“With most of the same genes, how do lizard siblings end up so different?,” Phys.org (1 March 2017).
“We now know how RNA molecules are organized in cells,” ScienceDaily (8 November 2018).
Breeding Urges
Tyler J. Stevenson & Brian J. Prendergast, “Reversible DNA methylation regulates seasonal photoperiodic time measurement,” PNAS 110(41): 16651–16656 (8 October 2013).
Honeybee Memories
Mark J. Dickman et al, “Extensive histone post-translational modification in honey bees,” Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 43(2): 125–137 (February 2013).
“New components of epigenetic ‘code’ for honey bee development discovered,” ScienceDaily (11 December 2012).
R. Kucharski et al, “Nutritional control of reproductive status in honeybees via DNA methylation,” Science 319(5871): 1827–1830 (28 March 2008).
“Epigenetics: what makes a queen bee?,” Nature 468: 348 (18 November 2010).
Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium, “Symbiosis insights through metagenomic analysis of a microbial consortium,” Nature 443: 950–955 (26 October 2006).
Yin Wang et al, “Functional CpG methylation system in a social insect,” Science 314(5799): 645–647 (27 October 2006).
Erika Check, “From hive minds to humans,” Nature 443: 893 (26 October 2006).
Edward O. Wilson, “Genomics: how to make a social insect,” Nature 443: 919–920 (26 October 2006).
Brendan G. Hunt et al, “Functional conservation of DNA methylation in the pea aphid and the honeybee,” Genome Biology and Evolution 2: 719–728 (2010).
Jeremy J. Day et al, “DNA methylation regulates associative reward learning,” Nature Neuroscience (25 August 2013).
Seeds & Embryos
Xu Wang et al, “Paternally expressed genes predominate in the placenta,” PNAS 110(26): 10705–10710 (25 June 2013).
Methylation Variation
Ryan Lister et al, “Global epigenomic reconfiguration during mamma-lian brain development,” Sciencexpress (5 July 2013).
Graham McVicker et al, “Identification of genetic variants that affect histone modifications in human cells,” Science 342(6159): 747–749 (8 November 2013).
Histone Alteration
Ana Raquel Pengelly et al, “A histone mutant reproduces the pheno-type caused by loss of histone-modifying factor polycomb,” Science 339: 698–699 (8 February 2013).
“Control of gene expression: histone occupancy in your genome,” ScienceDaily (30 April 2012).
Jung-Shin Lee et al, ” Codependency of H2B monoubiquitination and nucleosome reassembly on Chd1,” Genes and Development 26: 914-919 (1 May 2012).
“Histone modification controls development: chemical tags on histones regulate gene activity,” ScienceDaily (8 February 2013).
Rite of Spring
Ayaz Ahmad et al, “Decoding the epigenetic language of plant development,” Molecular Plant 3(4): 719–728 (May 2010).
Sibum Sung & Richard M. Amasino, “Vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by the PHD finger protein VIN3,” Nature 427: 159–164 (8 January 2004).
Stéphane Pien et al, “Arabidopsis trithorax1 dynamically regulates FLOWERING LOCUS C activation via histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation,” The Plant Cell 20: 580–588 (March 2008).
Filomena De Lucia et al, “A PHD-polycomb repressive complex 2 triggers the epigenetic silencing of FLC during vernalization,” PNAS 105(44): 16831–16836 (4 November 2008).
Jae Bok Heo & Sibum Sung, “Vernalization-mediated epigenetic silencing by a long intronic noncoding RNA,” Science 331(6013): 76–79 (7 January 2011).
RNA Regulation
Jeannie T. Lee, “Epigenetic regulation by long noncoding RNAs,” Science 338(6113): 1435–1439 (14 December 2012).
Nicole T. Schirle & Ian J. MacRae, “The crystal structure of human Argonaute2,” Science 336 (6084): 1037–1040 (25 May 2012).
“RNA’s secret language,” Nature 476: 375 (25 August 2011).
Yonit Hoffman & Yitzhak Pilpel, “MicroRNAs silence the noisy genome,” Science 348(6230): 41-42 (3 April 2015).
Nikolaus Rajewsky, “microRNA target predictions in animals,” Nature Genetics (30 May 2006).
Azra Krek et al, “Combinatorial microRNA target predictions,” Nature Genetics (3 April 2005).
“A micro-RNA as a key regulator of learning and Alzheimer’s disease,” ScienceDaily (23 September 2011).
Saad Arif et al, ” Evolution of mir-92a underlies natural morphological variation in Drosophila melanogaster,” Current Biology 23(6): 523-526 (28 February 2013).
Linda Geddes, “Fear of a smell can be passed down several generations,” New Scientist (1 December 2013).
Andy Coghlan, “Are RNA fragments making gene tweaks in descend-ants?,” New Scientist (13 April 2014).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Cancer’s little helpers,” Science News 178(5): 18–21 (8 August 2010).
X Inactivation
Laurent Duret et al, “The Xist RNA gene evolved in eutherians by pseudogenization of a protein-coding gene,” Science 312(5780): 1653-1655 (16 June 2006).
“Xistential crisis: discovery shows there’s more to the story in silencing X chromosomes,” ScienceDaily (8 January 2016).
Srimonta Gayen et al, “Sex-specific silencing of X-linked genes by Xist RNA,” PNAS (6 January 2016).
Andrew Dimond & Peter Fraser, “Long noncoding RNAs Xist in three dimensions,” Science 341: 720–721 (16 August 2013).
Jesse M. Engreitz et al, “The Xist lncRNA exploits three-dimensional genome architecture to spread across the X chromosome,” Science 341: 1237973-1–1237973-8 (16 August 2013).
Graeme D. Penny et al, “Requirement for Xist in X chromosome activation,” Nature 379: 131–137 (11 January 1996).
Caroline M. Ogilvie & Paul N. Scriven, “Meiotic outcomes in recipro-cal translocation carriers ascertained in 3-day human embryos,” European Journal of Human Genetics (European Society of Human Genetics) 10 (12): 801–806 (December 2002).
Marsupial X Inactivation
J.E. Deakin et al, “Unravelling the evolutionary origins of X chromo-some inactivation in mammals: insights from marsupials and mono-tremes,” Chromosome Research 17 (5); 671–685 (2009).
J.A. Erwin and J.T. Lee, “New twists in X-chromosome inactivation,” Current Opinion in Cell Biology 20(3): 349–355 (2008).
Donald M. Crothers, “Fine tuning gene regulation,” Science 339: 766–767 (15 February 2013).
Sangjin Kim et al, “Probing allostery through DNA,” Science 339: 816–819 (15 February 2013).
Hesam N. Motlagh et al, “The ensemble nature of allostery,” Nature 508: 331–339 (17 April 2014).
Vera van Noort et al, “Cross-talk between phosphorylation and lysine acetylation in a genome-reduced bacterium,” Molecular Systems Biology 8:571 (28 February 2012).
Petter Hammar et al, “The lac repressor displays facilitated diffusion in living cells,” Science 336(6088): 1595–1598 (22 June 2012).
“Protein crawls on chromosome,” Nature 486: 443 (28 June 2012).
Wood Work
Quanzi Lia et al, “Splice variant of the SND1 transcription factor is a dominant negative of SND1 members and their regulation in Popu-lus trichocarpa,” PNAS 109(36): 4699–14704 (4 September 2012).
Lifestyle Epigenetics
Jorge Alejandro Alegría-Torres et al, “Epigenetics and lifestyle,” Epigenomics 3(3): 267–277 (June 2011).
“Poisoned inheritance,” The Economist (14 December 2013).
Melissa Lee Phillips, “Bearing sons can alter your mind,” Science (26 September 2012).
H.E. Ross & L.J. Young, “Oxytocin and the neural mechanisms regulating social cognition and affiliative behavior,” Front Neuroendocrinol 30(4): 534–547 (2009).
Dong Liu et al, “Maternal care, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress,” Science 1659–1662 (12 September 1997).
Darlene Francis et al, “Nongenomic transmission across generations of maternal behavior and stress responses in the rat,” Science 1155–1158 (5 November 1999).
Julie B. Herbstman et al, “Predictors and consequences of global DNA methylation in cord blood and at three years,” PLoS One (4 September 2013).
F.A. Champagne & M.J. Meaney, “Like mother, like daughter: evidence for non-genomic transmission of parental behavior and stress responsivity,” Progress in Brain Research 133: 287–302 (2001).
P.O. McGowan et al, “Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse,” Natural Neuroscience 12(3): 342–348 (2009).
I.C. Weaver, “Shaping adult phenotypes through early life environ-ments,” Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today 87(4): 314–326 (2009).
J. Goldberg et al, “A twin study of the effects of the Vietnam War on posttraumatic stress disorder,” Journal of the American Medical Association 263(9): 1227–1232 (1990).
Michael Sargent, “Epigenetics: different under the skin,” Nature 487: 298–299 (19 July 2012).
Z.A. Kaminsky et al, “Epigenetics of personality traits: an illustrative study of identical twins discordant for risk-taking behavior,” Twin Research and Human Genetics 11(1): 1–11 (2009).
R.P. Hannes et al, “Effects of rank-order fights on whole-body and blood concentrations of androgens and corticosteroids in the mail swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri),” Z Tierpsychol 65: 53–65 (1984).
A. Booth et al, “Testosterone, and winning and losing in human competition,” Hormones and Behavior 23(4): 556–571 (1989).
F. Suay et al, “Effects of competition and its outcome on serum testosterone, cortisol and prolactin,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 24 (5): 551–566 (1999).
S.S. Burmeister, “Social dominance regulates androgen and estrogen receptor gene expression,” Hormones and Behavior 51(1): 164–170 (2007).
E. Hatchwell & J.M. Greally, “The potential role of epigenomic dysregulation in complex human disease,” Trends in Genetics 23(11): 588–595 (2007).
Andy Coghlan, “Stress can affect future generations’ genes,” New Scientist (25 January 2013).
“Acquired traits can be inherited via small RNAs,” Phys.org (5 December 2012).
Oded Rechavi et al, “Transgenerational inheritance of an acquired small RNA-based antiviral response in C. elegans,” Cell 147(6): 1248–1256 (23 November 2011).
Shirley S. Wang, “The genetic ripple effect of hardship,” The Wall Street Journal (28 February 2012).
Joost O. Linschooten et al, “Paternal lifestyle as a potential source of germline mutations transmitted to offspring,” The FASEB Journal (28 March 2013).
“Epigenetics: mother’s nutrition – before pregnancy – may alter function of her children’s genes,” ScienceDaily (20 September 2012).
Henri S. Tapp et al, “Nutritional factors and gender influence age-related DNA methylation in the human rectal mucosa,” Aging Cell (6 December 2012).
Nadine Provençal et al, “Childhood chronic physical aggression associates with adult cytokine levels in plasma,” PLoS One 8(7): e69481 (July 2013).
Farooq Ahmed, “Epigenetics: tales of adversity,” Nature 468: S20 (23 December 2010).
Aofie O’Donovan et al, “Stress appraisals and cellular aging: A key role for anticipatory threat in the relationship between psychological stress and telomere length,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 26(4): 573-579 (May 2012).
K.A. Lillycrop et al, “Induction of altered epigenetic regulation of the hepatic glucocorticoid receptor in the offspring of rats fed a protein-restrict diet during pregnancy suggest that reduced DNA methyl-transferase-1 expression is involved in impaired DNA methylation and changes in histone modifications,” British Journal of Nutrition 97(6): 1064–1073 (2007).
Janet Raloff, “Pollutants long gone, but disease carries on,” Science News (28 February 2012).
“Grandma’s curse,” The Economist (3 November 2012).
Mohan Manikkam et al, “Transgenerational actions of environmental compounds on reproductive disease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures,” PLoS One (28 February 2012).
Olivia Corradin et al, “Combinatorial effects of multiple enhancer variants in linkage disequilibrium dictate levels of gene expression to confer susceptibility to common traits,” Genome Research (6 November 2013).
“Common disorders: it’s not the genes themselves, but how they are controlled,” ScienceDaily (20 December 2013).
Shinji Maegawa et al, “Caloric restriction delays age-related methylation drift,” Nature Communications (14 September 2017).
“Researchers uncover mechanism behind calorie restriction and lengthened lifespan,” Medical Xpress (14 September 2017).
Leo Loeb, “book review of Cancer, Its Cause and Treatment“, Science (14 January 1916).
Kiran Mahajan et al, “H2B Tyr37 phosphorylation suppresses expression of replication-dependent core histone genes,” Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (12 August 2012).
A.P. Feinberg et al, “The epigenetic progenitor origin of human cancer,” Nature Reviews Genetics 7(1): 21–33 (2006).
Comparative Epigenetics
E. Jablonka & M.J. Raz, “Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: prevalence, mechanisms, and implications for the study of heredity and evolution,” The Quarterly Review of Biology 84(2): 131–176 (2009).
Rachel Ehrenberg, “Eight-legged evolution exploits editing,” Science News (6 January 2012).
“Octopus’ blue blood allows them to rule the waves,” ScienceDaily (5 July 2013).
Plant Epigenetics
E.J. Richards, “Inherited epigenetic variation – revisiting soft inheritance,” Nature Reviews Genetics 7(5): 395–401 (2006).
Elizabeth Pennisi, “Evolution heresy? epigenetics underlies heritable plant traits,” Science 341: 1055 (6 September 2013).
Joseph P. Calarco et al, “Reprogramming of DNA methylation in pollen guides epigenetic inheritance via small RNA,” Cell 154(1): 194–205 (28 September 2012).
Ayaz Ahmad et al, “Decoding the epigenetic language of plant development,” Molecular Plant 3(4): 719–728 (July 2010).
“New insights into ‘plant memories,” ScienceDaily (21 September 2016).
“Emily J. Hawkes et al, “COOLAIR antisense RNAs form evolutionarily conserved elaborate secondary structures,” Cell Reports 16: 3087–3096 (20 September 2016).
Marianne T. Hopkins et al, “De novo genetic variation revealed in somatic sectors of single Arabidopsis plants,” F1000Research 2:5 (10 January 2013).
Heidi Ledford, “Do plants ‘veto’ bad genes?,” Nature (8 February 2013).
Susan J. Lolle et al, “Genome-wide non-mendelian inheritance of extra-genomic information in Arabidopsis,” Nature 434: 505–509 (24 March 2005).
Daniel A. Herms & William J. Mattson, “The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend,” The Quarterly Review of Biology 67(3): 283–335 (September 1992).
I.R. Henderson & S.E. Jacobsen, “Epigenetic inheritance in plants,” Nature 447: 418–424 (24 May 2007).
T.L. Stokes et al, “Epigenetic variation in Arabidopsis disease resistance,” Genes & Development 16(2): 171–182 (2002).
“How does inbreeding avoidance evolve in plants?,” ScienceDaily (10 June 2013).
Sier-Ching Chantha et al, “Secondary evolution of a self-incompatibility locus in the Brassicaceae genus Leavenworthia,” PLoS Biology 11(5): e1001560 (May 2013).
D. Zilberman & S. Henikoff, “Epigenetic inheritance in Arabidopsis: selective silence,” Current Opinions in Genetic Development 15(5): 557–562 (2005).
Elizabeth Pennisi, “Epigenetics linked to inbreeding depression,” Science 333: 1563 (16 September 2011).
Elizabeth Pennisi, “Evolution heresy? epigenetics underlies heritable plant traits,” Science 341: 1055 (6 September 2013).
Claude Becker et al, “Spontaneous epigenetic variation in the Arabidopsis thaliana methylome,” Nature 480: 245–249 (8 December 2011).
“Transgenerational epigenetic instability is a source of novel methylation variants,” Science 334(6054): 369-373 (21 October 2011).
Genomic Production
Eric J. Belfield et al, “DNA mismatch repair preferentially protects genes from mutation,” Genome Research 28(1): 66-74 (January 2018).
“The proteins ensuring genome protection,” Phys.org (12 February 2012).
A. Martinez & R. Kolter, “Protection of DNA during oxidative stress by the nonspecific DNA-binding protein DPs,” Journal of Bacteriology 179(16):5188–5194 (August 1997).
Marie L. Rossi et al, “Roles of Werner syndrome protein in protection of genome integrity,” DNA Repair 9(3): 331–344 (2 March 2010).
Ana Marija Jaksic et al, “Regulation of transposable elements: Interplay between TE-encoded regulatory sequences and host-specific trans-acting factors in Drosophila melanogaster,” Molecular Ecology (16 August 2017).
Jesse N. Weber & Wenfei Tong, “Jumping gene gave fish a freshwater start,” Science 364(6443): 831-832 (31 May 2019).
Asano Ishikawa et al, “A key metabolic gene for recurrent freshwater colonization and radiation in fishes,” Science 364(6443): 886-889 (31 May 2019).
Brian Charlesworth & Deborah Charlesworth, “Evolution of the genome,” in Evolution: The First Four Billion Years, Michael Ruse & Joseph Travis (editors), Belknap Press (2009).
“Party discipline for jumping genes,” ScienceDaily (22 September 2017).
Barbara McClintock, “The origin and behavior of mutable loci in maize,” PNAS 36(6): 344–355 (1 June 1950).
Tokuji Tsuchiya & Thomas Eulgem, “An alternative polyadenylation mechanism coopted to the Arabidopsis RPP7 gene through intronic retrotransposon domestication,” PNAS (12 August 2013).
“Jumping genes have essential biological functions,” ScienceDaily (19 February 2015).
Vincent J. Lynch et al, “Transposon-mediated rewiring of gene regulatory networks contributed to the evolution of pregnancy in mammals,” Nature Genetics 43: 1154–1159 (2011).
“Invasion of genomic parasites triggered modern mammalian pregnancy, study finds,” ScienceDaily (26 September 2011).
Sid Perkins, “Ancestor of all placental mammals revealed,” Science (7 February 2013).
Mitch Leslie, “The immune system’s compact genomic counterpart,” Science 339: 25–27 (4 January 2013).
“Beneficial jumping gene discovered,” ScienceDaily (15 August 2013).
Elena Ivanova et al, “Alu RNA regulates the cellular pool of active ribosomes by targeted delivery of SRP9/14 to 40S subunits,” Nucleic Acids Research (19 February 2015).
Emily Underwood, “‘Jumping genes’ linked to schizophrenia,” Science (2 January 2014).
Wanhe Li et al, “Transposable elements in TDP-43-mediated neurodegenerative disorders,” PLoS One (5 September 2012).
Corentin Claeys Bouuaert et al, “The autoregulation of a eukaryotic DNA transposon,” eLife 2: e00668 (18 June 2013).
Kate M. Creasey et al, “miRNAs trigger widespread epigenetically activated siRNAs from transposons in Arabidopsis,” Nature 508: 411–415 (17 April 2014).
Alyson Ashe et al, “piRNAs can trigger a multigenerational epigenetic memory in the germline of C. elegans,” Cell 150(1): 88–99 (6 July 2012).
Vera Gorbunova et al, “Sleeping dogs of the genome,” Science 346(6214): 1187–1188 (5 December 2014).
International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium et al, “Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome,” Nature 409: 860–921 (15 February 2001).
“Illuminating the dark side of the genome,” Phys.org (29 July 2014).
Hau Zhou et al, “Detainment of Tam3 transposase at plasma membrane by its BED-zinc finger domain,” Plant Physiology 173(2): 1492-1501 (February 2017).
Endogenous Retroviruses
“How ancient viruses became genomic ‘superspreaders’,” ScienceDaily (23 April 2012).
Gkikas Magiorkinis et al, “Env-less endogenous retroviruses are genomic superspreaders,” PNAS 109(19): 7385–7390 (8 May 2012).
The Genetics of Behavior
Gene E. Robinson et al, “Genes and social behavior,” Science 322(5903): 896–900 (7 November 2008).
Erik Arne et al, “Transcribed enhancers lead waves of coordinated transcription in transitioning mammalian cells,” Science (12 February 2015).
Richard G. M. Morris & Tomonori Takeuchi, “The imaginary mind of a mouse,” Science 335 (6075): 1455–1456 (23 March 2012).
Aleena R. Garner et al, “Generation of a synthetic memory trace,” Science 335 (6075): 1513–1516 (23 March 2012).
Dorothy Tse et al, “Schema-dependent gene activation and memory encoding in neocortex,” Science (7 July 2011).
Stefan Grimm & Gert O. Pflugfelder, “Control of the gene optomotor-blind in Drosophila wing development by decapentaplegic and wingless,” Science 271(5255): 1601–1604 (15 March 1996).
J.E. Sherin et al, “Activation of ventrolateral preoptic neurons during sleep,” Science 271(5246): 216–219 (12 January 1996).
J. Maguire et al, “Gem: an induced, immediate early protein belonging to the Ras family,” Science 265(5169): 241–244 (8 July 1994).
D.D. Ginty et al, “Regulation of CREB phosphorylation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus by light and a circadian clock,” Science 260(5105): 238–241 (9 April 1993).
Zhuo Qian et al, “Tissue-plasminogen activator is induced as an immediate–early gene during seizure, kindling and long-term potentiation,” Nature 361: 453–457 (4 February 1993).
Joseph S. Takahashi, “Circadian clock genes are ticking,” Science 258: 238–239 (9 October 1992).
K.S. Ullman et al, “Activation of early gene expression in T lymphocytes by Oct-1 and an inducible protein, OAP40,” Science 254(5031): 558–562 (25 October 1991).
Vicki L. Seyfert et al, “Methylation of an immediate-early inducible gene as a mechanism for B cell tolerance induction,” Science 250(4982): 797–800 (9 November 1990).
G.J. Nabel et al, “Alternative mechanisms for activation of human immunodeficiency virus enhancer in T cells,” Science 239 (4845): 1299–1302 (11 March 1988).
Kathleen W. Scotto et al, “Amplification and expression of genes associated with multidrug resistance in mammalian cells,” Science 232: 751–755 (9 May 1986).
Robert A. Weinberg, “The action of oncogenes in the cytoplasm and nucleus,” Science 230: 770–776 (15 November 1985).
Matthias J. Reddehase & Ulrich H. Koszinowski, “Significance of herpesvirus immediate early gene expression in cellular immunity to cytomegalovirus infection,” Nature 312: 369–371 (22 November 1984).
Mice Digs
Jesse N. Weber et al, “Discrete genetic modules are responsible for complex burrow evolution in Peromyscus mice,” Nature (16 January 2013).
Ewen Callaway, “Behaviour genes unearthed,” Nature (16 January 2013).
James Gorman, “Study discovers DNA that tells mice how to construct their homes,” The New York Times (16 January 2013).
Gene Editing
“DNA repair after CRISPR cutting not at all what people thought,” Phys.org (30 July 2018).
“New method to detect off-target effects of CRISPR,” Phys.org (19 April 2019).
Beeke Wienert et al, “Unbiased detection of CRISPR off-targets in vivo using DISCOVER-Seq,” Science 364(6437): 286-289 (19 April 2019).
Carl Zimmer, “A CRISPR conundrum: how cells fend off gene editing,” The New York Times (13 June 2018).
Kevin M. Esvelt & Neil J. Gemmell, “Conservation demands safe gene drive,” PLoS Biology, (16 November 2017).
Susan Milius, “Current CRISPR gene drives are too strong for outdoor use, studies warn,” Science News (16 November 2017).
Daniel Lawson Jones et al, “Kinetics of dCas9 target search in Escherichia coli,” Science 357(6358): 1420-1424 (29 September 2017).
“How molecular scissors cut in the right place,” ScienceDaily (28 September 2017).
“The right way to repair DNA,” Phys.org (20 September 2017).
Nausica Arnoult et al, “Regulation of DNA repair pathway choice in S and G2 phases by the NHEJ inhibitor CYREN,” Nature (20 September 2017).
Heidi Ledford, “CRISPR fixes disease gene in viable human embryos,” Nature (2 August 2017).
Hong Ma et al, “Correction of a pathogenic gene mutation in human embryos,” Natures (2 August 2017).
“Genetic engineering: researchers get better at tweaking the genomes of human embryos,” The Economist (5 August 2017).
Raman Bahal et al, “In vivo correction of anaemia in B-thalassemic mice by yPNA-mediated gene editing with nanoparticle delivery,” Nature Communications (26 October 2016).
Heidi Ledford, “CRISPR deployed to combat sickle-cell anaemia,” Nature (12 October 2016).
Ishino Y. Shinagawa et al, “Nucleotide sequence of the iap gene, responsible for alkaline phosphatase isozyme conversion in Escherichia coli, and identification of the gene product,” Journal of Bacteriology 169(12): 5429–5433 (December 1987).
Melody Redman et al, “What is CRISPR/Cas9?,” BMJ Journals (2016).
Patrick D. Hsu et al, “Development and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 for genome engineering,” Cell 157(6): 1262-1278 (June 2014).
Feng Zhang et al, “CRISPR/Cas9 for genome editing: progress, implications and challenges,” Human Molecular Genetics 23(R1): R40-R46 (15 September 2014).
Zoe Corbyn, “Crispr: is it a good idea to ‘upgrade’ our DNA?,” The Guardian (10 May 2015).
Heidi Ledford, “CRISPR: gene editing is just the beginning,” Nature (7 March 2016).
Addison V. Wright et al, “Structures of the CRISPR genome integration complex,” Science 357(6356): 1113-1118 (15 September 2017).

Jeremie Palacci et al, “Living crystals of light-activated colloidal surfers,” Science 339: 936–940 (22 February 2013).

Parallel postulate diagram courtesy of Harkonnen2.