Spokes 2: Notes

Spokes 2: The Web of Life   Research References   (Table of Contents)

Common knowledge for Spokes obtained from various encyclopedias and dictionaries, including Encyclopedia Britannica, Everipedia, New World Encyclopedia, Wikipedia, World Book Encyclopedia, Scholarpedia, Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary, Dictionary.com, and the infotainment serpent known as the Internet.

The author especially thanks those artists and photographers who freely provide their work for reproduction. The images in the Spokes series are often incidental to the content, but do help to accent a point. The images of life especially provide a modest reminder of the wondrous beauty in Nature.

The Web of Life
David Attenborough, Life, BBC Worldwide (2010).
Steven Vogel, Life’s Devices, Princeton University Press (1988).
Defining Life – History
Nurit Bird-David, “Animism revisited: personhood, environment, and relational epistemology,” Current Anthropology 40: 67–91 (1991).
Elizabeth A. Williams, “A cultural history of medical vitalism,” in Enlightenment Montpellier, Routledge (2003).
William Bechtel & Robert C. Richardson, “Vitalism,” in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge (1998).
Peter Lipson, “The death and rebirth of vitalism,” Science-Based Medicine (24 June 2009).
Life Defined
Paul Davies, The Fifth Miracle: The Search for the Origin and Meaning of Life, Simon & Schuster (2015).
David McFarland (editor), The Oxford Companion to Animal Behavior, Oxford University Press (1981).
Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, Merriam Webster (2002).
Aubrey Manning & Marian Stamp Dawkins, An Introduction to Animal Behavior, Cambridge University Press (1998).
Paul Watzlawick et al, Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes, Norton (2011).
Heather M. Whitney et al, “The influence of pigmentation patterning on bumblebee foraging from flowers of Antirrhinum majus,” Naturwissenschaften (February 2013).
Katrina Alcorn et al, “Flower movement increases pollinator preference for flowers with better grip,” Functional Ecology 26(4): 941–947 (August 2012).
Ivan Marazzi et al, “Suppression of the antiviral response by an influenza histone mimic,” Nature 483: 428–433 (22 March 2012).
Justin R. Meyer et al, “Repeatability and contingency in the evolution of a key innovation in phage lambda,” Science 335(6067): 428–432 (27 January 2012).
Tal Kramer & Lynn W. Enquist, “Alphaherpesvirus infection disrupts mitochondrial transport in neurons,” Cell Host & Microbe 11(5): 504–514, (17 May 2012).
Fake Feces
Eunice J. Tan et al, “Why do orb-weaving spiders (Cyclosa ginnaga) decorate their webs with silk spirals and plant detritus?,” Animal Behaviour 79(1): 179–186 (January 2010).
Min-Hui Liu et al, “Evidence of bird dropping masquerading by a spider to avoid predators,” Scientific Reports (29 May 2014).
Sarah Zielinski, “Bird dropping disguise proves to be effective camouflage,” Science News (6 June 2014).
Telltale Smell
“Mosquitoes: how we smell is why they bite,” ScienceDaily (2 July 2012).
Allison F. Carey et al, “Odorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae,” Nature 464: 66–71 (4 March 2010).
Cleaner Fish
Janine W.Y. Wong & Nico K. Michiels, “Control of social monogamy through aggression in a hermaphroditic shrimp,” Frontiers in Zoology (11 November 2011).
Cellular Communication
“Seeing cell membranes in a new light,” ScienceDaily (1 November 2018).
Zheng Shi et al, “Cell membranes resist flow,” Cell (1 November 2018).
Hyun Youk & Wendell A. Lim, “Secreting and sensing the same molecule allows cells to achieve versatile social behaviors,” Science 343: 1242782-1–1242782-9 (7 February 2014).
Arupratan Das et al, “Flippase-mediated phospholipid asymmetry promotes fast Cdc42 recycling in dynamic maintenance of cell polarity,” Nature Cell Biology (19 February 2012).
Anna Jisu Lee & Lingchong You, “Cells listen to their inner voice,” Science 343: 624–625 (7 February 2014).
Michael C. Abt et al, “Commensal bacteria calibrate the activation thresh-old of innate antiviral immunity,” Immunity (14 June 2012).
Stephanie K. Lathrop et al, “Peripheral education of the immune system by colonic commensal microbiota,” Nature 478: 250–254 (13 October 2011).
Mitch Leslie, “Gut microbes keep rare immune cells in line,” Science 335: 1428 (23 March 2012).
Vanessa Sperandio, “Virulence or competition?,” Science 336: 1238–1239 (27 January 2012).
Intracellular Communication
“A dictionary of the language of cells,” Phys.org (22 July 2015).
“Body’s own recycling system: researchers discover ‘molecular emergency brake’ in charge of regulating self-digestion,” ScienceDaily (12 October 2012).
Melissa Chesarone-Cataldo et al, The myosin passenger protein Smy1 controls actin cable structure and dynamics by acting as a formin damper,” Developmental Cell 21 (2): 217 (2011).
Pekka Lappalainen, “Protein modification fine-tunes the cell’s force producers,” Nature (9 January 2019).
Kevin Thurley et al, “Reliable encoding of stimulus intensities within random sequences of intracellular Ca2+ spikes,” Science Signaling 7(331): ra59 (24 June 2014).
Andreas Blees et al, “Structure of the human MHC-I peptide-loading complex,” Nature (November 2017).
“How cells filter status updates,” ScienceDaily (15 November 2017).
C.A. Janeway et al, “The major histocompatibility complex and its functions,” in Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease, Garland Science (2001).
Clotilde Théry et al, “Exosomes: composition, biogenesis and function,” Nature Reviews Immunology (1 August 2002).
Peter Cresswell et al, “The nature of the MHC class I peptide loading complex,” Cell Biology and Tumor Biology (1999).
“Biological signal processing: body cells – instrumentalists in a symphony orchestra,” ScienceDaily (3 July 2014).
Stephan Wagner et al, “The ef-hand ca2+ binding protein MICU choreographs mitochondrial ca2+ dynamics in Arabidopsis,” The Plant Cell (November 2015).
“How plant cell compartments ‘chat’ with each other,” Phys.org (4 November 2015).
Mingyue Gou et al, “Cytochrome b5 is an obligate electron shuttle protein for syringyl lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis,” The Plant Cell (April 2019).
“‘Electron shuttle’ protein plays key role in plant cell-wall construction,” ScienceDaily (8 April 2019).
Yaohui Sun et al, “Infection-generated electric field in gut epithelium drives bidirectional migration of macrophages,” PLoS Biology (9 April 2019).
“Bacteria flip an electric switch to worsen food poisoning,” ScienceDaily (9 April 2019).
Prokaryote Palindromes
Prokaryote Palindromes
Kirstine L. Bendtsen et al, “Toxin inhibition in C. crescentus VapBC1 is mediated by a flexible pseudo-palindromic protein motif and modulated by DNA binding,” Nucleic Acids Research (19 December 2016).
“Secret code language of bacteria revealed,” ScienceDaily (21 December 2016).
Julien Guglielmini & Laurence Van Melderen, “Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems,” Mobile Genetic Elements 1(4): 283-290 (1 November 2011).
Rebecca Page & Wolfgang Peti, “Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacterial growth arrest and persistence,” Nature Chemical Biology 12: 208-214 (18 March 2016).
Intercellular Communication
Nagarajan Nandagopal et al, “Dynamic ligand discrimination in the notch signaling pathway,” Cell 172(4): 869-880 (8 February 2018).
“Intercellular communication system is found to encode and transmit more messages than previously thought,” Phys.org (16 February 2018).
“How plants decide on a pattern for a new leaf,” ScienceDaily (27 October 2017).
Sandy Evangelista, “Cancer cells can communicate over longer distances within the body,” Phys.org (10 May 2019).
Damianos S. Skopelitis et al, “Boundary formation through a direct threshold-based readout of mobile small RNA gradients,” Developmental Cell 43(3): 265-273 (6 November 2017).
“Cells’ ‘molecular muscles’ help them sense and respond to their environments,” Phys.org (20 October 2013).
Tianzhi Luo et al, “Molecular mechanisms of cellular mechanosensing,” Nature Materials 12: 1064–1071 (20 October 2013).
Ginés Morata & Salvador C. Herrera, “Eiger triggers death from afar,” eLife 2:e01388 (24 September 2013).
Ainhoa Pérez-Garijo et al, “Apoptotic cells can induce nonautonomous apoptosis through the TNF pathway,” eLife 2:e10004 (24 September 2013).
John G. Lock et al, “Reticular adhesions are a distinct class of cell-matrix adhesions that mediate attachment during mitosis,” Nature Cell Biology (22 October 2018).
Rafael Arrojo e Drigo et al, “Age mosaicism across multiple scales in adult tissues,” Cell Metabolism (6 June 2019).
“How old are your organs? To scientists’ surprise, organs are a mix of young and old cells,” Phys.org (6 June 2019).
Sweet Talk
Nathan Sharon & Halina Lis, “Carbohydrates in cell recognition,” Scientific American 82–89 (January 1993).
Rosa M. Espinosa-Marzal et al, “Sugars communicate through water: orietned glycans induce water structuring,” Biophysical Journal 104(12): 2686–2694 (18 June 2013).
Stem Cell Conference
Junling Jia et al, “Regulation of pluripotency and self- renewal of ESCs through epigenetic-threshold modulation and mRNA pruning,” Cell 151(3): 576–589 (26 October 2012).
Erica K. Shannon et al, “Multiple mechanisms drive calcium signal dynamics around laser-induced epithelial wounds,” Biophysical Journal 113: 1623-1635 (3 October 2017).
“Cell signals that trigger wound healing are surprisingly complex,” ScienceDaily (3 October 2017).
Communal Encyclopedia
David Scanlan, “Bacterial vesicles in the ocean,” Science 343: 143–144 (10 January 2014).
Brooke L. Deatherage & Brad T. Cookson, “Membrane vesicle release in bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea: a conserved yet underappreciated aspect of microbial life,” Infection and Immunity 80(6): 1948–1957 (June 2012).
Steven J. Biller et al, “Bacterial vesicles in marine ecosystems,” Science 343(6167): 183–186 (10 January 2014).
Primary Cilia
James R. Davenport & Bradley K. Yoder, “An incredible decade for the primary cilium: a look at a once-forgotten organelle,” American Journal of Physiology: Renal Physiology 289 (6): F1159–F1169 (2005).
Mike Adams, “The primary cilium: an orphan organelle finds a home,” Nature Education 3(9): 54 (2010).
Sergei I. Fokin, “Life of Alexander Onufrievich Kowalevsky (1840–1901),” Evolution & Development 14(1): 3–8 (February 2012).
Mary Beth Gardiner, “The importance of being cilia,” HHMI Bulletin 18:2 (September 2005).
Communication Lines
Wallace Ravven, “Antenna on cell surface is key to development and disease,” The New York Times (19 May 2009).
Juan Song et al, “Neuronal circuitry mechanism regulating adult quiescent neural stem-cell fate decision,” Nature (29 July, 2012).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Nouveaux antennas,” Science News 16–18 (3 November 2012).
“Brain’s stem cells ‘eavesdrop’ to find out when to act,” ScienceDaily (6 August 2012).
Pernille Rørth, “Reach out and touch someone,” Science 343: 848–849 (21 February 2014).
Killer Diagrams
“Immune system fighters speak in patterns of proteins, prefer squishy partners,” ScienceDaily (26 October 2012).
Cancer Calls
Margaritis Voliotis et al, “Information transfer by leaky, heterogeneous, protein kinase signaling systems,” PNAS (6 January 2014).
“Secondary goals,” The Economist (15 February 2014).
M. Hagedorn & W. Heiligenberg “Court and spark: electric signals in the courtship of mating gymnotid fish,” Animal Behaviour 33: 254–265 (1985).
“Romancing the firefly,” ScienceDaily (26 June 2012).
Brian C. Leavell et al, “Fireflies thwart bat attack with multisensory warning,” Science Advances (22 August 2018).
Yvaine Ye, “Fireflies don’t just glow for sex – they do it to warn away bats too,” New Scientist (22 August 2018).
Karen Marchetti, “Dark habitats and bright birds illustrate the role of the environment in species divergence,” Nature 362: 149-152 (11 March 1993).
Sayoko Ueda et al, “A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus),” PLoS One 9(6): e98217 (June 2014).
Innes C. Cuthill et al, “The biology of color,” Science 357(6350) (4 August 2017).
Jennifer Wathan & Karen McComb, “The eyes and ears are visual indicators of attention in domestic horses,” Current Biology 4(15): R677–R679 (4 August 2014).
Juvenile cherry-crowned mangabey monkey photo courtesy of Keven Law.
Fireflies Alight
A. South & S.M. Lewis, “Determinants of reproductive success across sequential episodes of sexual selection in a firefly,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (25 April 2012).
R.E. Young & C.F. Roper, “Bioluminescent countershading in midwater animals: evidence from living squid,” Science 191 (4231): 1046–1048 (12 March 1976).
Hannah Rosen et al, “Chromogenic behaviors of the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) studied in situ with an animal-borne video package,” The Journal of Experimental Biology 218: 265–275 (2015).
Dawn D. Bennett, “Making sense of animal sounds,” Science News 127: 314–317 (18 May 1985).
Emily J. Mockford et al, “Degradation of rural and urban great tit song: testing transmission efficiency,” PLoS One 6 (12): e28242 (12 December 2011).
R.C. Paul & T.J. Walker, “Arboreal singing in a burrowing cricket, Anurogryllus arboreus,” Journal of Comparative Physiology 132: 217–223 (1979).
E. R. Staaterman et al, “Rumbling in the benthos: acoustic ecology of the California mantis shrimp Hemisquilla californiensis,” Aquatic Biology 13 (2): 97–105 (2011).
P.R. Marler & W.J. Hamilton III, Mechanisms of Animal Behavior, John Wiley & Sons (1966).
Phillip Ball, “Sounding out the science of whale song,” Nature News (5 November 1999).
Gloriana Chaverri & Erin H. Gillam, “Sound amplification by means of a horn-like roosting structure in Spix’s disc-winged bat,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (16 October 2013).
Eran Amichai et al, “Calling louder and longer: how bats use biosonar under severe acoustic interference from other bats,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (23 December 2015).
“How bats recognize their own ‘bat signals’,” ScienceDaily (28 January 2016).
Coen P. H. Elemans et al, “Superfast muscles set maximum call rate in echolocating bats,” Science 333: 1885-1888 (30 September 2011).
Genevieve Spanjer Wright et al, “Social calls predict foraging success in big brown bats,” Current Biology (27 March 2014).
Aaron J. Corcoran & William E. Conner, “Bats jamming bats: food competi-tion through sonar interference,” Science 346(6210): 745–747 (7 November 2014).
K.E. Jones et al, “Bats, clocks, and rocks: diversification patterns in chiroptera,” Evolution 59 (10): 2243–2255 (2005).
Annemarie Surlykke & Elisabeth K. V. Kalko, “Echolocating bats cry out loud to detect their prey,” PLoS One (30 April 2008).
Li Gao et al, “Ear deformations give bats a physical mechanism for fast adaptation of ultrasonic beam patterns,” Physical Review Letters, 107: 214301–214306 (14 November 2011).
Coen P. H. Elemans et al, “Superfast muscles set maximum call rate in echolocating bats,” Science 333 (6051): 1885–1888 (30 September 2011).
James A. Simmons, “Temporal binding of neural responses for focused attention in biosonar,” The Journal of Experimental Biology (15 August 2014).
Yossi Yovel et al, “Active control of acoustic field-of-view in a biosonar system,” PLoS Biology 9 (9): e1001150 (September 2011).
Mohamed Y. El-Naggar et al, “Electrical transport along bacterial nanowires from ♦Shewanella oneidensis MR-1,” PNAS 107(42): 18127–18131 (19 October 2010).
Dominic Clarke et al, “Detection and learning of floral electric fields by bumblebees,” Science (21 February 2013).
Kenneth Catania, “The shocking predatory strike of the electric eel,” Science 346(6214): 1231–1234 (5 December 2014).
Susan Milius, “Electric eels remote-control nervous systems of prey,” Science News (4 December 2014).
Christine N. Bedore et al, “Freezing behaviour facilitates bioelectric crypsis in cuttlefish faced with predation risk,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2 December 2015).
Henry Nicholls, “Zoology Notes 10: cuttlefish can hide their electrical signals,” The Guardian (3 December 2015).
Edward O. Wilson, “Chemical communication in the social insects,” Science (3 September 1965).
“Wisdom of crowds,” The Economist (8 April 2009).
“Two ‘noses’ are necessary for flies to navigate well,” ScienceDaily (26 December 2007).
Azteca Ants & Phorid Flies
Hsun-Yi Hsieh et al, “Cascading trait-mediated interactions induced by ant pheromones,” Ecology and Evolution (27 July 2012).
“Predatory beetles eavesdrop on ants’ chemical conversations to find best egg-laying sites,” ScienceDaily (3 August 2012).
Nematodes & Fungi
Andreas H. Ludewig & Frank C. Schroeder, “Ascaroside signaling in C. elegans,” WormBook 18: 1–22 (January 2013).
Sylvia Anaid Diaz et al, “Diverse and potentially manipulative signalling with ascarosides in the model nematode C. elegans,” BMC Evolutionary Biology 14(1): 46 (11 March 2014).
Yen-Ping Hsueh et al, “Nematode-trapping fungi eavesdrop on nematode pheromones,” Current Biology 23(1): 83–86 (7 January 2013).
Moth Advertising
D.B. Dusenberry, Sensory Ecology, W.H. Freeman (1992).
Benthic Scents
Mark Hay, “Chemistry as the language of life,” The New York Times (14 October 2011).
Kerstin E. Thonhauser et al, “Scent marking increases male reproductive success in wild house mice,” Animal Behaviour 86(5): 1013–1021 (No-vember 2013).
D.L. Clark & G.W. Uetz, “Morph-independent mate selection in a dimorphic jumping spider: demonstration for movement bias in female choice using video-controlled courtship behaviour,” Animal Behaviour 43: 247–254 (1992).
Greg Miller, “Behavioral neuroscience uncaged,” Science 306: 432–434 (15 October 2004).
H. Proctor, “Courtship behavior in the water mite Neumania papillator,” Animal Behaviour 42: 589–598 (1991).
C. Lofstedt et al, “Diet related courtship success in the Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Tortricidae),” Oikos 55: 1402–1408 (1989).
“Underwater noise decreases whale communications in Stellwagen Bank sanctuary,” NOAA (15 August 2012).
John Pickrell, “U.S. Navy sonar may harm killer whales, expert says,” National Geographic News (31 March 2004).
“Lethal sounds,” National Resources Defense Council (6 October 2008).
Miguel Llanos, “Navy raises sonar impact on dolphins, whales dramatically,” NBC News (11 May 2012).
“How navy sonar kills whales and dolphins,” Seattle PI (2012).
Kieran Mulvaney, “Navy admits whales and dolphins in harm’s way,” Discovery News (6 July 2012).
Pete Yost, “U.S. Navy wins dispute over sonar, whales,” National Geographic News (13 November 2008).
Susan Milius, “Chicks do worse in noisy nests,” Science News 182(2): 8 (28 July 2012).
“Birds sing louder amidst the noise and structures of the urban jungle,” ScienceDaily (22 February 2012).
“Grasshoppers change their tune to stay tuned over traffic noise,” ScienceDaily (13 November 2012).
Alexandra Witze, “How to hear above the cocktail party din,” Science News (3 January 2011).
Oliver M. Bannard & Jason G. Cyster, “When less signaling is more,” Science 336(6085): 1120–1121 (1 June 2012).
Ashraf M. Khalil et al, “B cell receptor signal transduction in the gc is short-circuited by high phosphatase activity,” Science 336(6085): 1178–1181 (1 June 2012).
John Alcock, Animal Behavior, Sinauer Associates (2005).
David Maximiliano Gómez et al, “Language universals at birth,” PNAS (8 April 2014).
Mangrove Snapper
Susan Milius, “Baby fish are noisier than expected,” Science News 186(10): 9 (15 November 2014).
Spotted Hyena
Spotted hyena drawing courtesy of Thomas Pennant (1726 – 1798).
“Spot the difference,” The Economist (22 February 2014).
Kevin R. Theis et al, “Symbiotic bacteria appear to mediate hyena social odors,” PNAS (15 October 2013).
“Bacteria may allow animals to send quick, voluminous messages,” Phys.org (11 November 2013).
Kevin R. Theis et al, “Evidence for a bacterial mechanism for group-specific social odors among hyenas,” Scientific Reports (30 August 2012).
Coinciding Interests
“Nice organisms finish first: Why cooperators always win in the long run,” Phys.org (1 August 2013).
J.R. Krebs & R. Dawkins, “Animal signals: mind reading and manipula-tion,” in Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, 2nd edition 380–402, Blackwell Scientific Publications (1984).
Springbok stotting photo courtesy of Yathin sk.
John W. Wilson et al, “Cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus, balance turn capacity with pace when chasing prey,” Biology Letters (4 September 2013).
Melissa Hellmann, “And the world’s new fastest land animal is…,” TIME (30 April 2014).
R. Kilner & R.A. Johnstone, “Begging the question: are offspring solicita-tion behaviours signals of need?” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12(1): 11–15 (1997).
Susan Milius, “Impatiens plants are more patient with siblings,” Science News (12 November 2009).
“Plants recognize their siblings, biologists discover,” ScienceDaily (13 June 2007).
Susan Milius, “Face smarts,” Science News (6 October 2012).
D. Baracchi et al, “Speed and accuracy in nest-mate recognition: a hover wasp prioritizes face recognition over colony odour cues to minimize intrusion by outsiders,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (4 February 2015).
“These wasps remember a friend’s face,” Nature World News (10 February 2015).
Helen Thompson, “Tropical wasps memorize friendly faces,” Science News (5 February 2015).
Michael J. Sheehan, et al, “Specialized face learning is associated with individual recognition in paper wasps,” Science 334: 1272–1274 (4 December 2011).
Alla Katsnelson, “Wasp clock faces like humans,” Nature News (1 December 2011).
Markus Boeckie & Thomas Bugnyar, “Long-term memory for affiliates in ravens,” Current Biology 22: 1–6 (8 May 2012).
Yossi Yovel et al, “The voice of bats: how greater mouse-eared bats recognize individuals based on their echolocation calls,” PLoS Computational Biology (5 June 2009).
David W. Pfennig & Paul W. Sherman, “Kin recognition,” Scientific American 98–103 (June 1995).
Sage Rats
Belding’s ground squirrel photo courtesy of Alan Vernon.
Status Sniff
Daniel W. Wesson, “Sniffing behavior communicates social hierarchy,” Current Biology (7 March 2013).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Yeast use scents to entice fruit flies,” Science News 186(10): 13 (15 November 2014).
Audience Effect
Davy Ung et al, “Heaven it’s my wife! Male canaries conceal extra-pair courtships but increase aggressions when their mate watches,” PLoS One (9 August 2011).
Anne C. Keddy Hector et al, “Male parental care, female choice and the effect of an audience in vervet monkeys,” Animal Behaviour 38: 262–271 (August 1989).
Simon W. Townsend & Klaus Zuberbuhler, “Audience effects in chimpanzee copulation calls,” Communicative & Integrative Biology 2: 282–284 (15 June 2009).
Gabrielle Tachon et al, “Agonistic displays and the benefits of fighting in the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus,” Journal of Insect Behavior 12(4): 533-543 (July 1999).
Anna C. Price & F. Helen Rodd, “The effect of social environment on male–male competition in guppies (Poecilia reticulata),” Ethology (12 January 2006).
Rui F. Oliveira et al, “Know thine enemy: fighting fish gather information from observing conspecific interactions,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (22 June 1998).
Claire Doutrelant & Peter K. McGregor, “Eavesdropping and mate choice in female fighting fish,” Behaviour 137(12): 1655–1668 (2000).
Marc Naguib & Dietmar Todt, “Effects of dyadic vocal interactions on other conspecific receivers in nightingales,” Animal Behaviour 54(6): 1535–1543 (December 1997).
Mathieu Amy & Gérard Leboucher, “Effects of eavesdropping on subse-quent signalling behaviours in male canaries,” Ethology (29 January 2009).
James P. Higham, “How does honest costly signaling work?,” Behavioral Ecology 25(1): 8-11 (1 January 2014).
Ryan J. Weaver et al, “What maintains signal honesty in animal colour displays used in mate choice?,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (22 May 2017).
Positive Polarization
Amina Khan, “Before mating with peacocks, females check out males’ backsides,” Los Angeles Times (14 November 1986).
Angela R.Freeman & James F.Hare, “Infrasound in mating displays: a peacock’s tale,” Animal Behaviour 102: 241-250 (April 2015).
Gina M. Calabrese et al, “Polarization signaling in swordtails alters female mate preference,” PNAS (2 September 2014).
Timothy York et al, “Bioinspired polarization imaging sensors: from circuits and optics to signal processing algorithms and biomedical applications,” Proceedings of the IEEE 102(10): 1450-1469 (October 2014).
Beth Miller, “New camera sheds light on mate choice of swordtail fish,” Phys.org (16 September 2014).
Doekele G. Stavenga et al, “Polarized iridescence of the multilayered elytra of the Japanese jewel beetle, Chrysochroa fulgidissima,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (31 January 2011).
Roaring Deer
T.H. Clutton-Brock & S.D. Albon, “The roaring of red deer and the evolution of honest advertisement,” Behaviour 69: 145-170 (1979).
Benjamin J. Pitcher et al, “Fallow bucks attend to vocal cues of motivation and fatigue,” Behavioral Ecology (9 Feburary 2014).
Cricket Song
Natash Mhatre et al, “Changing resonator geometry to boost sound power decouples size and song frequency in a small insect,” PNAS (30 April 2012).
Lizard Flashes and Dances
Russell A. Ligon & Kevin J. McGraw, “Chameleons communicate with complex colour changes during contests: different body regions convey different information,” Biology Letters (11 December 2013).
Y. Brandt, “Lizard threat display handicaps endurance,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 2070: 1061–1068 (2003).
Hyrax Songs
“The song of songs,” The Economist (15 January 2009).
Douglas J. Emlen et al, “A mechanism of extreme growth and reliable signaling in sexually selected ornaments and weapons,” Science 337(6096): 860–864 (17 August 2012).
Martin Stevens, Cheats and Deceits, Oxford University Press (2016).
Kariem Ezzat et al, “The viral protein corona directs viral pathogenesis and amyloid aggregation,” Nature Communications (27 May 2019).
“Coat of proteins makes viruses more infectious and links them to Alzheimer’s disease,” ScienceDaily (27 May 2019).
Phil Gates, “Weevil wheeze: staying alive by feigning death ,” The Guardian (19 May 2016).
Hendrik J.T. Hoving et al, “First in situ observations of the deep-sea squid Grimalditeuthis bonplandi reveal unique use of tentacles,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (28 August 2013).
William Calvin, The Ascent of Mind: Ice Age Climates and the Evolution of Intelligence, iUniverse (2001).
Michael Lewis & Carolyn Saami (editors), Lying and Deception in Everyday Life, The Guilford Press (1993).
Susana Martinez-Conde & Stephen L. Macknik, “Animal magicians,” Scientific American Mind 27(2): 18-19 (March/April 2016).
Natalie Angier, “Surviving by disguising: nature’s game of charades,” The New York Times (6 September 2010).
Parachute Plant
J. Lorang et al, “Tricking the guard: exploiting plant defense for disease susceptibility,” Science 338: 659–662 (2 November 2012).
Annemarie Heiduk et al, “Ceropegia sandersonii mimics attacked honeybees to attract kleptoparasitic flies for pollination,” Current Biology (6 October 2016).
“This flower smells like a bee under attack,” Cell Press (6 October 2016).
Female Dragonflies Fake Death
Rassim Khelifa, “Faking death to avoid male coercion: extreme sexual conflict resolution in a dragonfly,” Ecology (24 April 2017).
“Female dragonflies found to fake death to avoid male advances,” Phys.org (1 May 2017).
Walk Like an Ant
Paul S. Shamble et al, “Walking like an ant: a quantitative and experimental approach to understanding locomotor mimicry in the jumping spider Myrmarachne formicaria,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (12 July 2017).
“Walking like ants gives spiders a chance,” ScienceDaily (14 July 2017).
Backstabbing Butterfly
Richa Malhotra, “Back-stabbing butterflies rob the ants that once protected them,” New Scientist (17 June 2016).
Phillip J. Torres, “Butterfly kleptoparasitism and first account of immature stages, myrmecophily, and bamboo host plant of the metalmark Adelotypa annulifera (Riodinidae),” Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 70(2): 130–138 (2016).
Nir Drayman et al, “Pathogens use structural mimicry of native host ligands as a mechanism for host receptor engagement,” Cell 14(1): 63–73 (17 July 2013).
Matthew F. Barber & Nels C. Elde, “Evolutionary biology: Mimicry all the way down,” Nature 501: 38–39 (5 September 2013).
Wintergreen Oil
Xavier Martini et al, “Plant pathogen-induced volatiles attract parasitoids to increase parasitism of an insect vector,” Frontiers in Ecology and Evo-lution (29 May 2014).
“UF/IFAS researchers find chemicals that treat citrus greening in the lab,” University of Florida News (4 June 2014).
Martin Stevens et al, “Improvement of individual camouflage through background choice in ground-nesting birds,” Nature Ecology & Evolution (31 July 2017).
“How camouflaged birds decide where to blend in,” ScienceDaily (31 July 2017).
Ed Yong, “Invisible: the high-vis trick that blinds the eye,” New Scientist (24 March 2014).
Fish Scales
Parrish C. Brady et al, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263): 965-969 (20 November 2015).
“New camouflage mechanism fish use in the open ocean,” ScienceDaily (19 November 2015).
Alternate Concealment
Onychoteuthis banksii image courtesy of L. Joubin & Ch. Richard.
Japetella image courtesy of Ewald Rübsamen.
Sarah Zylinski & Sönke Johnsen, “Mesopelagic cephalopods switch between transparency and pigmentation to optimize camouflage in the deep,” Current Biology (10 November 2011).
Ritchie S. King, “Cloaks of invisibility, switched in a flash,” The New York Times (14 November 2011).
Nic Fleming, “Squid and octopus switch camouflage according to which enemies are close,” The Guardian (10 November 2011).
“Now you see me… species of octopus uses dual camouflage system to baffle all predators,” Daily Mail (11 November 2011).
Looking Dangerous
Susan Milius, “It’s true: butterfly spots can mimic scary eyes,” Science News (7 April 2015).
C.A. Ristau, editor, Cognitive Ethology: the Minds of other Animals, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (1991).
Rohan M. Brooker et al, “You are what you eat: diet-induced chemical crypsis in a coral-feeding reef fish,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (10 December 2014).
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Mocking Weevils
Pachyrhynchus argus photo courtesy of Hectonichus.
Lu-Yi Wang et al, “Too hard to swallow: a secret secondary defence of an aposematic insect,” Journal of Experimental Biology (27 November 2017).
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Virginia Morell, “African bird ‘cries wolf’ to steal food,” Science (1 May 2014).
African drongo photo courtesy of Mats Carnmarker.
Bruce D. Baigrie et al, “Interspecific signalling between mutualists: food-thieving drongos use a cooperative sentinel call to manipulate foraging partners,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (30 July 2014).
Sarah Zielinski, “Drongos deceive but weavers let them,” Science News (4 August 2014).
Susan Milius, “Bird mimicry lets hustlers keep cheating,” Science News (1 May 2014).
“Two-faced cuttlefish,” Nature 487: 143 (12 July 2012).
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David B. Rowley et al, “Dynamic topography change of the eastern United States since 3 million years ago,” Science (16 May 2013).
Michael Ruse, The Gaia Hypothesis: Science on a Pagan Planet, University of Chicago Press (2013).
Toby Tyrell, “My verdict on Gaia hypothesis: beautiful but flawed,” New Scientist (30 October 2013).
Michael Bond, “Exploring our love/hate relationship with Gaia,” New Scientist (26 August 2013).
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Biomes – Classification
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David M. Olson et al, “Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth,” BioScience, 51(11): 933–938 (2001).
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Jonathan S. Lefcheck et al, “Biodiversity enhances ecosystem multifunctionality across trophic levels and habitats,” Nature Communications (24 April 2015).
“Biodiversity promotes multitasking in ecosystems,” ScienceDaily (24 April 2015).
Ecology Gyre
Jane J. Lee, “Tropical oceans dried out East Africa,” Science (17 February 2012).
Steve Banwart, “Save our soils,” Nature 474: 151–152 (9 June 2011).
Cameron Wagg et al, “Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality,” PNAS 111(14): (8 April 2014).
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Kyla M. Dahlina et al, “Environmental and community controls on plant canopy chemistry in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem,” PNAS (8 April 2013).
Benoit P. Guillod et al, “Reconciling spatial and temporal soil moisture effects on afternoon rainfall,” Nature Communications (5 March 2015).
“Forests lose essential nitrogen in surprising way, find scientists,” Phys.org (3 November 2014).
Sarah K. Wexler et al, “Isotopic signals of summer denitrification in a northern hardwood forested catchment,” PNAS (4 November 2014).
Melissa A. Donaldson et al, “Soil surface acidity plays a determining role in the atmospheric-terrestrial exchange of nitrous acid,” PNAS (15 De-cember 2014).
Chris Greening et al, “A soil actinobacterium scavenges atmospheric H2 using two membrane-associated, oxygen-dependent [NiFe] hydrogenas-es,” PNAS 111(11): 4257–4261 (18 March 2014).
Jenna Iacurci, “Creepy crawlers crucial to grasslands,” Nature World News (3 October 2014).
Mark A. Bradford et al, ” Discontinuity in the responses of ecosystem processes and multifunctionality to altered soil community composition,” PNAS (3 October 2014).
Juan A. Bonachela et al, “Termite mounds can increase the robustness of dryland ecosystems to climatic change,” Science 347(6222): 651–655 (6 February 2015).
Elizabeth Pennisi, “Africa’s soil engineers: termites,” Science 347(6222): 596–597 (6 February 2015).
Natalie Angier, “Termites: guardians of the soil,” The New York Times (2 March 2015).
Community Ecology
José M. Montoya et al, “Ecologial networks and their fragility,” Nature 442: 259–264 (20 July 2006).
Samir Suweis et al, “Emergence of structural and dynamical properties of ecological mutualistic networks,” Nature 500: 449–452 (22 August 2013).
Colin Fontaine, “Ecology: abundant equals nested,” Nature 500: 411–412 (22 August 2013).
Roger Ardditi & Lev R. Ginburg, How Species Interact, Oxford University Press (2012).
Luis Santamaría & Miguel A Rodríguez-Gironés, “Linkage rules for plant–pollinator networks: trait complementarity or exploitation barriers?” PLoS Biology (23 January 2007).
Kelly J. Benoit-Bird & Margaret A. McManus, “Bottom-up regulation of a pelagic community through spatial aggregations,” Biology Letters (2 May 2012).
Samraat Pawar et al, “Dimensionality of consumer search space drives trophic interaction strengths,” Nature 486: 485–489 (28 June 2012).
Daniel B. Stouffer et al, “Evolutionary conservation of species’ roles in food webs,” Science 335: 1489–1493 (23 March 2012).
Stefano Allesina & Si Tang, “Stability criteria for complex ecosystems,” Nature 483: 205–208 (8 March 2012).
Sean R. Connolly et al, “Commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere,” PNAS (27 May 2014).
“Pelagic predators face double jeopardy, too,” Science 33: 268 (15 July 2011).
“Loss of big predators disrupts Earth ecosystem: study,” AFP (15 July 2011).
Plant Stress
Sara L. Jackrel & J. Timothy Wootton, “Cascading effects of induced terrestrial plant defences on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem function,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (18 March 2015).
“Plants:stressed parents, stronger offspring,” ScienceDaily (7 October 2014).
Ecosystem Self-Organized Criticality
Stephen R. Carpenter, “Complex systems: spatial signatures of resilience,” Nature 496: 308–309 (18 April 2013).
Lei Dai et al, “Slower recovery in space before collapse of connected populations,” Nature 496: 355–358 (18 April 2013).
Dror Hawlena et al, “Fear of predation slows plant-litter decomposition,” Science 15(336) 1434–1438 (15 June 2012).
Island Biomes
Manuel Jonas Steinbauer et al, “Increase of island endemism with altitude – speciation processes on oceanic islands,” Ecography 35(1): 23 (5 April 2012).
“The storm that never was: why meteorologists are often wrong,” ScienceDaily (25 January 2013).
Thomas Reichler et al, “A stratospheric connection to Atlantic climate variability,” Nature Geoscience (23 September 2012).
Polar Vortex
“Stratosphere targets deep sea to shape climate: North Atlantic ‘Achilles heel’ let’s upper atmosphere affect the abyss,” ScienceDaily (23 Septem-ber 2012).
Climate & Weather
“Past tropical climate change linked to ocean circulation,” ScienceDaily (23 August 2012).
Sid Perkins, “Dust, the thermostat,” Science News (25 September 2001).
Jeffrey Bartholet, “Swept from Africa to the Amazon,” Scientific American 306(2): 44–49 (February 2012).
Paul H. Glaser, “Holocene dynamics of the Florida Everglades with respect to climate, dustfall, and tropical storms,” PNAS 110(43): 17211–17216 (22 October 2013).
Beth Mole, “African dust fertilized Everglades,” Science News (16 Novem-ber 2013).
V Vinoj et al, “Short-term modulation of Indian summer monsoon rainfall by West Asian dust,” Nature Geoscience (16 March 2014).
Joseph M. Prospero et al, “High-latitude dust over the North Atlantic: inputs from Icelandic proglacial dust storms,” Science 335(6072): 1078–1082 (2 March 2012).
F. Lamy et al, “Increased dust deposition in the Pacific Southern Ocean during glacial periods,” Science 343: 403–407 (24 January 2014).
Lake Chad
“Lake Chad complex emergency fact sheet #25 FY2017,” US Aid (21 September 2017).
Ahmad Salkida, “Africa’s vanishing Lake Chad,” Africa Renewal (April 2012).
Andrew Bomford, “Slow death of Africa’s Lake Chad,” BBC News (14 April 2006).
The Sahara Desert
Sid Perkins & Quirin Schiermeier, “Climate simulation doubles Sahara’s age,” Nature (17 September 2014).
Zhongshi Zhang et al, “Aridification of the Sahara desert caused by Tethys Sea shrinkage during the Late Miocene,” Nature 513: 401–404 (18 Sep-tember 2014).
Cloud cover photo courtesy of NASA Earth Observations (2015).
Stuart Gary, “Two-thirds of Earth is covered in clouds,” ABC Science (12 May 2015).
Daniel J. Cziczo et al, “Clarifying the dominant sources and mechanisms of cirrus cloud formation,” Science 340(6138): 1320–1324 (14 June 2013).
rolling cloud photo courtesy of Benjamin Foster.
Shiva Kavosi & Joachim Raeder, “Ubiquity of Kelvin–Helmholtz waves at Earth’s magnetopause,” Nature Communications (11 May 2015).
Jenna Iacurci, “‘Breaking waves’ disturb earth’s magnetic field surprising-ly often,” Nature World News (12 May 2015).
“UNH scientists show ‘breaking waves’ perturb Earth’s magnetic field,” University of New Hampshire (11 May 2015).
Douglas Palmer, A History of Earth, Firefly Books (2011).
John Farndon, Atlas of Oceans, Yale University Press (2011).
D.G. Pearson et al, “Hydrous mantle transition zone indicated by ring-woodite included within diamond,” Nature 507: 221–224 (13 March 2014).
Birger Schmitz, “Earth science: how a world came to be,” Nature 485: 39 (3 May 2012).
Catriona D. Menzies et al, “Incursion of meteoric waters into the ductile regime in an active orogen,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 399: 1–13 (1 August 2014).
Mark Denny, How the Ocean Works, Princeton University Press (2008).
David Attenborough, Frozen Planet, BBC (2012).
“One Third less life on planet Earth? Scientists offer better estimate of living biomass,” ScienceDaily (26 August 2012).
Jens Kallmeyer et al, “Global distribution of microbial abundance and biomass in subseafloor sediment,” PNAS (26 August 2012).
Donna J. Shillington, “Water takes a deep dive into an oceanic tectonic plate,” Nature (14 November 2018).
Chen Cai et al, “Water input into the Mariana subduction zone estimated from ocean-bottom seismic data,” Nature 563: 389-392 (14 November 2018).
Microbes in the Rain
Natasha DeLeon-Rodriguez et al, “Microbiome of the upper troposphere: Species composition and prevalence, effects of tropical storms, and atmospheric implications,” PNAS (28 January 2013).
David L. Bones et al, “Comparing the mechanism of water condensation and evaporation in glassy aerosol,” PNAS (2 July 2012).
Kate Ravilious, “Rain makers: How high-flying bacteria could control the clouds,” New Scientist (13 April 2016).
“New link between ocean microbes and atmosphere uncovered,” Scripps Institution of Oceanography (14 May 2015).
Microbes in the Ocean
Mary Ann Moran, “The global ocean microbiome,” Science 350(6266) (11 December 2013).
Alan Flurry, “Functions of global ocean microbiome key to understanding environmental changes,” University of Georgia (10 December 2015).
Roman Stocker, “Marine microbes see a sea of gradients,” Science 338(6107): 628–633 (2 November 2012).
Shinichi Sunagawa et al, “Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome,” Science 348(6237)(22 May 2015).
E. Virginia Armbrust & Stephen R. Palumbi, “Uncovering hidden worlds of ocean biodiversity,” Science 348(6237): 865-867 (22 May 2015).
Jessica Mackaro, “Plankton: a small, but important, player in life on Earth,” GLOBE Scientist’s Blog (10 July 2013).
Carl Zimmer, “Scientists find a microbe haven at ocean’s surface,” The New York Times (28 July 2009).
William M. Durham et al, “Turbulence drives microscale patches of motile phytoplankton,” Nature Communications (15 July 2013).
Brandon K. Swan et al, “Prevalent genome streamlining and latitudinal divergence of planktonic bacteria in the surface ocean,” PNAS (24 June 2013).
Nick Dygert et al, “Spatial variations in cooling rate in the mantle section of the Samail ophiolite in Oman: Implications for formation of lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 465: 134–144 (1 May 2017).
“Rock samples indicate water is key ingredient for crust formation,” Phys.org (1 May 2017).
Zhengguang Zhang et al, “Oceanic mass transport by mesoscale eddies,” Science 345(6194): 322–324 (18 July 2014).
Diane K. Adams et al, “Surface-generated mesoscale eddies transport deep-sea products from hydrothermal vents,” Science 332: 580–583 (29 April 2011).
Sandrine Ceurstemont, “‘Black holes’ of the ocean could curb climate change,” New Scientist (26 September 2013).
I. Frenger et al, “Imprint of Southern Ocean eddies on winds, clouds and rainfall,” Nature Geoscience (7 July 2013).
Eiji Watanabe et al, “Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump,” Nature Communications (27 May 2014).
Ocean Conveyor Belt
Matthew W. Schmidt et al, “Impact of abrupt deglacial climate change on tropical Atlantic subsurface temperatures,” PNAS (4 September 2012).
John Marshall & Kevin Speer, “Closure of the meridional overturning circulation through Southern Ocean upwelling,” Nature Geoscience 5: 171–180 (26 February 2012).
Peter J. Webster & Judith A. Curry, “The oceans and weather,” in The Oceans, Scientific American (1998).
Dargan M.W. Frierson et al, “Contribution of ocean overturning circulation to tropical rainfall peak in the Northern Hemisphere,” Nature Geoscience (20 October 2013).
David J. R. Thornalley et al, “The deglacial evolution of North Atlantic deep convection, ” Science 331(6014): 202–205 (14 January 2011).
Andrew J. Weaver et al, “Stability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: a model intercomparison,” Geophysical Research Letters (24 October 2012).
“Deep ocean is a heat sink,” Nature 503: 9 (7 November 2013).
Water Cycle
Tom Garth & Andreas Rietbrock, “Order of magnitude increase in subducted H2O due to hydrated normal,” Geology (10 January 2014).
Alexandra Witze, “Rivers in the sky,” Science News 179(5): 20–21 (26 February 2011).
Fiona Tomkinson, “How raindrops fall,” Nature (20 July 2009).
Olivier Pauluis & Juliana Dias, “Satellite estimates of precipitation-induced dissipation in the atmosphere,” Science 335 (6071): 953–956 (24 February 2012).
Philip Ball, “Rainfall calms storms,” Nature (23 February 2012).
Michael L. Roderick et al, “Water cycle varies over land and sea,” Science 336(6086): 1230–1231 (8 June 2012).
Sharon La Bonde Hanks, Ecology and the Biosphere 113, St. Lucie Press (1996).
Luiz E.O.C. Aragão, “The rainforest’s water pump,” Nature 489: 217–218 (13 September 2012).
Sid Perkins, “Amazon seeds its own rain,” Science (30 August 2012).
D.V. Spracklen et al, “Observations of increased tropical rainfall preceded by air passage over forests,” Nature (5 September 2012).
Paul J. Durack et al, “Ocean salinities reveal strong global water cycle intensification during 1950 to 2000,” Science 336(6080): 455–458 (27 April 2012).
Janet Raloff, “Marsh sediment analysis reveals fastest sea level rise in 2,000 years,” Science News 180(2): 13 (16 July 2011).
Richard A. Kerr, “The greenhouse is making the water-poor even poorer,” Science 336(6080): 405 (27 April 2012).
Don L. Anderson & Scott D. King, “Driving the Earth machine?,” Science 346(6214): 1184–1185 (5 December 2014).
Rob L. Evans, “Making the Earth move,” Nature 509: 40–41 (1 May 2014).
David Sifré et al, “Electrical conductivity during incipient melting in the oceanic low-velocity zone,” Nature 509: 81–85 (1 May 2014).
Natalie Angier, “The Earth’s shell has cracked, and we’re drifting on the pieces,” The New York Times (18 December 2018).
Chris J. Hawkesworth & Michael Brown, “Earth dynamics and the development of plate tectonics,” Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical And Engineering Sciences (1 October 2018).
Laura Schaefer & Linda T. Elkins-Tanton, “Magma oceans as a critical stage in the tectonic development of rocky planets,” Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society A (1 October 2018).
A. Lenardic, “The diversity of tectonic modes and thoughts about transitions between them,” Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society A (1 October 2018).
Anthony I.S. Kemp, “Early earth geodynamics: cross examining the geological testimony,” Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society A (1 October 2018).
Robert J. Stern, “The evolution of plate tectonics,” Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society A (1 October 2018).
Bradford J. Foley, “The dependence of planetary tectonics on mantle thermal state: applications to early Earth evolution,” Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society A (1 October 2018).
Jun Korenaga, “Crustal evolution and mantle dynamics through Earth history,” Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society A (1 October 2018).
Aubrey L. Zerkle, “Biogeodynamics: bridging the gap between surface and deep Earth processes,” Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society A (1 October 2018).
David B. Rowley et al, “Kinematics and dynamics of the East Pacific Rise linked to a stable, deep-mantle upwelling,” Science Advances 2:e1601107 (2016).
“Heat from Earth’s core could be underlying force in plate tectonics,” ScienceDaily (18 January 2017).
Rob L. Evans, “Geophysics: making the Earth move,” Nature 509: 40–41 (1 May 2014).
Continental Drift
Alexandra Witze, “Evidence falls into place for once and future supercontinents,” Science News (11 January 2017).
Naomi Lubick, “Tiny minerals may have shaped Earth’s first plate boundaries,” Science News (6 April 2014).
David Bercovici & Yanick Ricard, “Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance,” Nature 508: 513–516 (24 April 2014).
Alexandra Witze, “Plate tectonics got a bumpy start,” Science News 11 (2 June 2012).
Chen Cai et al, “Water input into the Mariana subduction zone estimated from ocean-bottom seismic data,” Nature 563: 389–392 (14 November 2018).
“Seismic study reveals huge amount of water dragged into Earth’s interior,” ScienceDaily (14 November 2018).
“The Nd of the innocence,” Science 340: 1142 (7 June 2013).
“Studies show movements of continents speeding up after slow ‘middle age’,” Phys.org (13 June 2014).
Jeff Hecht, “Why did evolution stall during the ‘boring billion’?,” New Scientist (1 May 2014).
“Continental formation more complicated than previously understood,” Phys.org (24 October 2014).
N. Rawlinson, “Complex continental growth along the proto-Pacific margin of East Gondwana,” Geology 42: 783–786 (September 2014).
Katherine A. Kelley, “Inside earth runs hot and cold,” Science 344(6179): 51–52 (4 April 2014).
Colleen A. Dalton et al, “Geophysical and geochemical evidence for deep temperature variations beneath mid-ocean ridges,” Science 344(6179): 80–83 (4 April 2014).
“A stiff new layer in Earth’s mantle,” ScienceDaily (23 March 2015).
“Geologists discover new layer in Earth’s mantle,” Sci-News.com (24 March 2015).
W.P. Schellart, “Andean mountain building and magmatic arc migration driven by subduction-induced whole mantle flow,” Nature Communications (8 December 2017).
“The origin of the Andes unravelled,” ScienceDaily (11 December 2017).
Hauke Marquardt & Lowell Miyagi, “Slab stagnation in the shallow lower mantle linked to an increase in mantle viscosity,” Nature Geoscience (23 March 2015).
David Bercovici et al, “Abrupt tectonics and rapid slab detachment with grain damage,” PNAS 112(5): 1287–1291 (3 February 2015).
David Sifré et al, “Electrical conductivity during incipient melting in the oceanic low-velocity zone,” Nature 509: 81–85 (1 May 2014).
T. A. Stern et al, “A seismic reflection image for the base of a tectonic plate,” Nature 518: 85–88 (05 February 2015).
Thomas Sumner, “Geologists discover tectonic plate’s slippery underbelly,” Science News (4 February 2015).
W.L. van Mierlo et al, “Stagnation of subducting slabs in the transition zone due to slow diffusion in majoritic garnet,” Nature Geoscience (31 March 2013).
Maxwell L. Rudolph et al, “Viscosity jump in Earth’s mid-mantle,” Science 350(6266): 1349–1352 (11 December 2015).
Thomas Sumner, “Gooey rock in mantle thickens 1,000 kilometers down,” Science News 189(1): 11 (9 January 2016).
Sid Perkins, “Gravity lows mark rock burial sites,” Science News 177(12): 13 (5 June 2010).
Vincent Courtillot, Evolutionary Catastrophes, Cambridge University Press (1999).
David Huddart & Tim Stott, Earth Environments, Wiley-Blackwell (2010).
Clinton P. Conrad et al, “Stability of active mantle upwelling revealed by net characteristics of plate tectonics,” Nature 498: 479–481 (27 June 2013).
Fraser Keppie, “How the closure of paleo-Tethys and Tethys oceans controlled the early breakup of Pangaea,” Geology (27 February 2015).
Thomas Sumner, “Tethys Ocean implicated in Pangaea breakup,” Science News (8 March 2015).
Submerged Continents
Elizabeth M. Dowding & Malte C. Ebach, “Geography: Zealandia is not a continent,” Nature (8 March 2017).
The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, “Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia,” Science 326(5959): 1541–1545 (11 December 2009).
Till Hanebuth et al, “Rapid flooding of the Sunda Shelf: a late-glacial sea-level record ,” Science 288(5468): 1033–1035 (12 May 2000).
Sunil Prasannan, “Where was Atlantis? Sundaland fits the bill, surely!,” Free Republic (29 October 2004).
Sea Level
Kenneth G. Miller et al, “The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change,” Science 310(5752): 1293–1298 (25 November 2005).
Ross N. Mitchell et al, “Supercontinent cycles and the calculation of absolute palaeolongitude in deep time,” Nature 482: 208-211 (9 February 2012).
Masaki Yoshida, “Formation of a future supercontinent through plate motion–driven flow coupled with mantle downwelling flow,” Geology (July 2016).
Evolutionary Effects
Carrie Arnold, “When Earth was a snowball,” Scientific American 304(2): 32 (February 2011).
Stephen L. Brusatte et al, “Dinosaur morphological diversity and the end-Cretaceous extinction,” Nature Communications 3: 804 (1 May 2012).
Roger Lewin, Human Evolution: An Illustrated Introduction, Blackwell Publishing (2005).
Continental Rift
E.M. Roberts et al, “Initiation of the western branch of the East African Rift coeval with the eastern branch,” Nature Geoscience 5: 289–294 (25 March 2012).
Alexandra Witze, “Continent prepares to do the splits,” Science News 179(8): 12 (9 April 2011).
“Geologists correct a ‘rift’ in Africa,” ScienceDaily (26 March 2012).
Heading to Hothouse
M.J. Siegert, Ice Sheets and Late Quaternary Environmental Chang, John Wiley & Sons (2001).
John Carey, “Global warming: faster than expected?,” Scientific American 51–55 (November 2012).
E. Rignot et al, “Ice-shelf melting around Antarctica,” Science (June 13 2013).
Catherine Brahic & Aviva Hope Rutkin, “Blame slow jet stream for US deep freeze,” New Scientist (7 January 2014).
“Fire and ice: wildfires darkening Greenland snowpack, increasing melting,” ScienceDaily (6 December 2012).
Antarctic Gyre
Jane Qiu, “Winds of change,” Science 338: 879–881 (16 November 2012).
El Niño & La Niña
Emily Becker, “On the trail of El Niño,” Scientific American 315(4): 68–75 (October 2016).
Katinka Bellomo & Amy C. Clement, “Evidence for weakening of the Walker circulation from cloud observations,” Geophysical Research Letters (21 September 2015).
“Study of cloud cover in tropical Pacific reveals future climate changes,” ScienceDaily (4 November 2015).
Aaron F.Z. Levine & Michael J. McPhaden, “How the July 2014 Easterly wind burst gave the 2015-6 El Niño a head start,” Geophysical Research Letters (26 April 2016).
Thomas Sumner, “Fizzled 2014 El Niño fired up ongoing monster El Niño,” Science News (2 May 2016).
Thomas Sumner, “Failure spurred current El Niño,” Science News (28 May 2016).
“Global warming: in the red,” The Economist (28 May 2016).
Dennis Normile, “El Niño’s warmth devastating reefs worldwide,” Science 352(6281): 15–16 (1 April 2016).
“El Niño prolongs longest global coral bleaching event,” ScienceDaily (23 February 2016).
Climatic Patterns
Steffen Kutterolf et al, “A detection of Milankovitch frequencies in global volcanic activity,” Geology (30 November 2012).
N. Nakata & R. Snieder, “Estimating near-surface shear wave velocities in Japan by applying seismic interferometry to KiK-net data,” Journal of Geophysical Research 117: B01308–B01321 (2012).
John R. Taylor & Roman Stocker, “Trade-offs of chemotactic foraging in turbulent water,” Science 338(6107): 675–679 (2 November 2012).
Food Web
Martin J. Ingrouille & Bill Eddie, Plants – Diversity and Evolution, Cambridge University Press (2006).
Jennifer A. Dunne et al, “Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity,” PLoS Biology 11(6): e1001579 (June 2013).
Pacific Salmon
Leyland Cecco, “‘We’re sounding the alarm’: half of Canada’s chinook salmon endangered,” The Guardian (5 December 2018).
Nathan F. Putman et al, “An inherited magnetic map guides ocean navigation in juvenile Pacific salmon,” Current Biology (6 February 2014).
Nathan F. Putman et al, “Evidence for geomagnetic imprinting as a homing mechanism in Pacific salmon,” Current Biology (7 February 2013).
David Attenborough, Nature’s Great Events, BBC Worldwide (2009).
Joel Greenberg, “Animal behaviour: nomads of necessity,” Nature 508: 317–318 (17 April 2014).
“How sounds make goldfish skittish,” Nature (5 October 2011).
Leif Ristroph et al, “Lateral line layout correlates with the differential hydrodynamic pressure on swimming fish,” Physical Review Letters (6 January 2015).
Robert H. Busch, Salmon Country, Key Porter Books Limited (2000).
photo of a bear cub carrying a salmon courtesy of Jitze Couperus.
Peter Coates, Salmon, Reakton Books (2006).
“Bears, scavengers count on all-you-can-eat salmon buffet lasting for months,” ScienceDaily (3 August 2012).
Thomas P. Quinn, The Behavior and Ecology of Pacific Salmon and Trout, University of Washington Press (2005).
“Bears, scavengers count on all-you-can-eat salmon buffet lasting for months,” ScienceDaily (3 August 2012).
Oceanic Life
James Lovelock, Gaia, Oxford University Press (2000).
James W. Nybakken & Steven K. Webster, “Life in the ocean,” in The Oceans, Scientific American (1998).
Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy et al, “Multiple B-vitamin depletion in large areas of the coastal ocean,” PNAS (23 July 2012).
Jellyfish horde photo courtesy of Linnaea Mallette.
Graeme C. Hays et al, “A paradigm shift in the trophic importance of jellyfish?,” Trends in Ecology & Evolution (20 September 2018).
Carl Zimmer, “Who wants to eat a gooey jellyfish? Pretty much everyone in the ocean,” The New York Times (2 October 2018).
Kakani Katija1 & John O. Dabiri, “A viscosity-enhanced mechanism for biogenic ocean mixing,” Nature 460: 624–626 (30 July 2009).
Till Bayer et al, “The microbiome of the red sea coral Stylophora pistillata is dominated by tissue-associated Endozoicomonas bacteria,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology (24 May 2013).
C. Kopp et al, “Highly dynamic cellular-level response of symbiotic coral to a sudden increase in environmental nitrogen,” mBio 4(3): e00052-13 (14 May 2013).
Coral Gardeners
Hiroki Hata et al, “Geographic variation in the damselfish-red alga cultivation mutualism in the Indo-West Pacific,” BMC Evolutionary Biology (18 June 2010).
Cleaner Fish
Sean B. Carroll, “For fish in coral reefs, it’s useful to be smart,” The New York Times (20 October 2009).
Nichola J. Raihani et al, ” Female cleaner fish cooperate more with unfamiliar males,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (22 February 2012).
Redouan Bshary, “Biting cleaner fish use altruism to deceive image–scoring client reef fish,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (22 October 2002)
Nichola J. Raihani et al, “Male cleaner wrasses adjust punishment of female partners according to the stakes,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (15 June 2011).
Laura E. Stummer et al, “Size and stripes: how fish clients recognize cleaners,” Animal Behaviour 68(10): 145–150 (July 2004).
Vampire Squid
Hendrik J. T. Hoving & Bruce H. Robison, “Vampire squid: detritivores in the oxygen minimum zone,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (26 September 2012).
Henk-Jan T. Hoving et al, “Vampire squid reproductive strategy is unique among coleoid cephalopods,” Current Biology 25(8): R322–R32 (20 April 2015).
Bruce H. Robison, “Light in the ocean’s midwaters,” Scientific American, 59–64 (July 1995).
Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal et al, “Node-by-node disassembly of a mutualistic interaction web driven by species introductions,” PNAS 110(41): 16503–16507 (8 October 2013).
Rudolf P. Rohr et al, “On the structural stability of mutualistic systems,” Science 345(6195) (25 July 2014).
Marine Microbes
Joakim Stenhammar et al, “Role of correlations in the collective behavior of microswimmer suspensions,” Physical Review Letters (13 July 2017).
“Synopsis: bacteria never swim alone,” APS Physics (13 July 2017).
“Bacteria never swim alone,” Lund University (14 July 2017).
Elizabeth A. Ottesen et al, “Multispecies diel transcriptional oscillations in open ocean heterotrophic bacterial assemblages,” Science 345(6193): 207–212 (11 July 2014).
Lauren Hitchings, “Marine microbes march to the beat of the same drum,” New Scientist (11 July 2014).
Frank O Aylward et al, “Microbial community transcriptional networks are conserved in three domains at ocean basin scales,” PNAS (16 March 2015).
“Oceanic microbes behave in a synchrony across ocean basins,” ScienceDaily (16 March 2015).
Lily R. Lewis et al, “First evidence of bryophyte diaspores in the plumage of transequatorial migrant birds,” PeerJ (2014).
Witches’ Broom
“The sorceress’s apprentice,” The Economist (12 April 2014).
Christin Siewert et al, “Analysis of expressed genes of the bacterium ‘candidatus phytoplasma mali’ highlights key features of virulence and metabolism,” PLoS One (11 April 2014).
Wan-Chia Chung et al, “Comparative analysis of the peanut witches’-broom phytoplasma genome reveals horizontal transfer of potential mobile units and effectors,” PLoS One (23 April 2013).
Kenro Oshima et al, “Dramatic transcriptional changes in an intracellular parasite enable host switching between plant and insect,” PLoS One (16 April 2011).
“Ants ‘screen’ for beneficial bacteria to assist them,” ScienceDaily (21 August 2012).
Endosymbiotic Exploitation
Vittorio Boscaro et al, “Parallel genome reduction in symbionts descended from closely related free-living bacteria,” Nature Ecology & Evolution (21 July 2017).
“Hostage situation or harmony? Researchers rethink symbiosis,” ScienceDaily(27 July 2017).
Christopher D. Lowe et al, “Shining a light on exploitative host control in a photosynthetic endosymbiosis,” Current Biology 26:1-5 (25 January 2016).
“A far from perfect host,” ScienceDaily (4 January 2016).
Power Grid
Shawn E. McGlynn et al, “Single cell activity reveals direct electron transfer in methanotrophic consortia,” Nature (16 September 2015).
“Microorganisms in the sea organize their power supply via nanowire power cables,” Phys.org (21 October 2015).
Jessica Stoller-Conrad, “Flowing electrons help ocean microbes gulp methane,” Phys.org (18 September 2015).
Hydrothermal Vents
Victoria J. Orphan & Tori M. Hoehler, “Microbiology: hydrogen for dinner,” Nature 476: 154–155 (11 August 2011).
Jillian M. Petersen et al, “Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses,” Nature 476: 176–180 (11 August 2011).
Bean Bugs & Burkholderia
Yoshitomo Kikuchi et al, “Symbiont-mediated insecticide resistance,” PNAS 109(22): 8618–8622 (29 May 2012).
Yoshitomo Kikuchi & Isao Yumoto, “Efficient colonization of the bean bug Riptortus pedestris by an environmentally transmitted Burkholderia symbiont,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology (4 January 2013).
Jiyeun Kate Kim et al, “Polyester synthesis genes associated with stress resistance are involved in an insect–bacterium symbiosis,” PNAS 110(26): E2381–E2389 (25 June 2013).
The Nematode & Its Killer Bacteria
Vishal S. Somvanshi et al, “A single promoter inversion switches Photorhabdus between pathogenic and mutualistic states,” Science 337(6090): 88–93 (6 July 2012).
Plant Pollination Networks
Samraat Pawar, “Why are plant-pollinator networks nested?,” Science 345(6195) (25 July 2014).
Agricultural Ants
Gillaume Chomicki & Susanne S. Renner, “Obligate plant farming by a specialized ant,” Nature Plants (21 November 2016).
Tree Police
Tiffany L. Weir et al, “Plant-inhabiting ant utilizes chemical cues for host discrimination,” Biotropica (12 May 2011).
Nicholas Bakalar, “Polite guests, ants pick host trees out of a crowd,” The New York Times (13 May 2011).
Philip S. Ward, “Systematics, biogeography and host plant associations of the Pseudomyrmex viduus group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Triplaris– and Tachigali-inhabiting ants,” Zoological Journal 136(4): 451-540 (August 1999).
Amazonian Ant-Plant
Alain Dejean et al, “Arboreal ants build traps to capture prey,” Nature 434: 973 (21 April 2005).
Pierre-Jean G. Malé et al, “Retaliation in response to castration promotes a low level of virulence in an ant–plant mutualism,” Evolutionary Biology (July 2013).
Reef Police
Christie Wilcox, “Clever coral,” Scientific American, 22 (January 2013).
Loïc M. Thibaut et al, “Diversity and stability of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs,” ESA Ecology 93(4): 891–901 (April 2012).
Clownfish & Anemone
Clownfish amidst an anemone photo courtesy of Nick Hobgood.
Joseph T. Szczebak et al, “Anemonefish oxygenate their anemone hosts at night,” The Journal of Experimental Biology 216: 970–976 (15 March 2013).
Marea Martlew, “Humble plants may save the planet,” Phys.org (16 August 2013).
Seagrass & Clams
Tjisse van der Heide et al, “A three-stage symbiosis forms the foundation of seagrass ecosystems,” Science 336: 1432–1434 (15 June 2012).
Elizabeth Pennisi, “Seagrasses partner with clams to stay healthy,” Science 336: 1367–1368 (15 June 2012).
Donna Hesterman, “Little clams play big part in keeping seagrass ecosystems healthy, new study finds,” Phys.org (14 June 2012).
Michelle Waycott et al, “Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems,” PNAS 106(30): 12377–12381 (28 July 2009).
Seagrass Comeback
“Sea otters promote recovery of seagrass beds,” Phys.org (26 August 2013).
Brent B. Hughes et al, “Recovery of a top predator mediates negative eutrophic effects on seagrass,” PNAS 110(38): 153137–15318 (17 September 2013).
“Correction for Hughes et al, Recovery of a top predator mediates negative eutrophic effects on seagrass,” PNAS 111(9): 3644 (4 March 2014).
Sloths & Moths et cetera
Three-toed sloth photo courtesy of Stefan Laube (Tauchgurke).
Rebecca Cliffe, Sloths: Life in the Slow Lane The Sloth Conservation Foundation (2017).
Jason Bittel, “Busy doing nothing: How sloths mastered life in the slow lane,” New Scientist (19 December 2017).
Jonathan N. Pauli et al, “A syndrome of mutualism reinforces the lifestyle of a sloth,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (22 January 22 2014).
Nicholas Wade, “The sloth’s busy inner life,” The New York Times (27 January 2014).
“Slow food movement,” The Economist (1 February 2014).
Helen Briggs, “Sloth’s lazy image ‘a myth’,” BBC News (13 May 2008).
Eduardo Garcia, “Laziness: an evolutionary trait,” Scientific American (December 2016).
Take a Load Off (pitcher plants)
Nepenthes hemsleyana photo courtesy of Vincent Bazile.
“Pitcher plants,” Science 360 News (3 April 2015).
“Carnivorous pitcher plants use a clever strategy to lure their prey,” Sci News (14 January 2015).
Ulrike Bauer et al, “How to catch more prey with less effective traps: explaining the evolution of temporarily inactive traps in carnivorous pitcher plants,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (14 January 2015).
Stephanie Pain, “The Borneo hills diet: pitcher plants’ strange prey,” New Scientist (3 February 2014).
Melinda Greenwood et al, “A unique resource mutualism between the giant bornean pitcher plant, Nepenthes rajah, and members of a small mammal community,” PLoS One (14 June 2011).
Charles M. Clarke et al, “Tree shrew lavatories: a novel nitrogen seques-tration strategy in a tropical pitcher plant,” Biology Letters 5(5): 632–635 (23 October 2009).
Caroline R. Schöner et al, “Supply determines demand: influence of partner quality and quantity on the interactions between bats and pitcher plants,” Oecologia 173(1): 191–202 (September 2013).
Michael G. Schoner et al, “Bats are acoustically attracted to mutualistic carnivorous plants,” Current Biology (9 July 2015).
“With acoustic reflector, carnivorous pitcher plants advertise themselves to bats,” Cell Press (9 July 2015).
Mico Tatalovic, “Tiny bat makes home in a carnivorous plant,” New Scientist (24 February 2015).
Birds & Alligators
Lucas A. Nell et al, “Presence of breeding birds improves body condition for a crocodilian nest protector,” PLoS One (2 March 2016).
“Breeding birds use alligators to protect nests from raccoons, opossums,” Phys.org (2 March 2016).
Tim A. Hoek et al, “Resource availability modulates the cooperative and competitive nature of a microbial cross-feeding mutualism,” PLoS Biology (24 August 2016).
“Mutually helpful species become competitors in benign environments,” Phys.org (24 August 2016).
Sardine Tongue Trap
Karen Bass, editor, “The great tide,” Nature’s Great Events, The University of Chicago Press (2009).
Jacke Kominek et al, “Eukaryotic acquisition of a bacterial operon,” Cell (21 February 2019).
“Yeasts reach across tree of life to domesticate suite of bacterial genes,” ScienceDaily (21 February 2019).
Albert O. Bush et al, Parasitism: The diversity and ecology of animal parasites, Cambridge University Press (2001).
Janice Moore, Parasites and the Behavior of Animals, Oxford University Press (2002).
Fluke life cycle drawing based upon a similar drawing by Conery Calhoon.
Parasitic Plants
“Root radar: How parasitic plants know when to attack,” ScienceDaily (30 July 2015).
Elizabeth Pennisi, “How crop-killing witchweed senses its victims,” Science 350: 146-147 (9 October 2015).
“How parasites hack victims to seize control of genes in plant—to—plant warfare,” Virginia Tech (3 January 2018).
Caitlin E. Conn et al, “Convergent evolution of strigolactone perception enabled host detection in parasitic plants,” Science 349(6247): 540-543 (31 July 2015).
Gunjune Kim et al, “Genomic-scale exchange of mRNA between a parasitic plant and its hosts,” Science 345(6198): 808–811 (15 August 2014).
Cape Sumach
Jan Schnitzler et al, “Causes of plant diversification in the cape biodiversity hotspot of South Africa,” Systematic Biology (28 February 2011).
Parasite Zombies
Carl Zimmer, “How to control an army of zombies,” The New York Times (5 December 2012).
Shelley A. Adamo & Joanne P. Webster, “Neural parasitology: how parasites manipulate host behaviour,” The Journal of Experimental Biology 216 (1): 1–2 (1 January 2013).
Shelley Anne Adamo, “Parasites: evolution’s neurobiologists,” The Journal of Experimental Biology 216(1): 3–10 (1 January 2013).
Fish Eye Fluke
Mikhail Gopko et al, “Deterioration of basic components of the anti-predator behavior in fish harboring eye fluke larvae,” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 71: 68 (April 2017).
Andrew Lee, “Parasite living inside fish eyeball controls its behaviour,” New Scientist (10 May 2017).
John Kuroski, “Zombie parasite lives inside fish’s eyeball and controls its behavior, new study show,” ATI (17 November 2017).
Tangle Web Spider
William G. Eberhard, “Recovery of spiders from the effects of parasitic wasps: implications for fine-tuned mechanisms of manipulation,” Animal Behavior 79(2): 375–383 (February 2010).
William G. Eberhard, “Spider manipulation by a wasp larva,” Nature 406: 255–256 (20 July 2000).
Nicholas Wade, “Wasp invades a spider and puts it to work,” The New York Times (25 July 2000).
Carl Zimmer, “Deciphering the tools of nature’s zombies,” The New York Times (5 December 2012).
S.P. Yanoviak et al, “Parasite-induced fruit mimicry in a tropical canopy ant,” The American Naturalist 171(4): 536–544 (April 2008).
Ant Berry
Infected Cephalotes atratus ant photo courtesy of Steve Yanoviak.
Robert Sanders, “Ant parasite turns host into ripe red berry, biologists discover,” UC Berkeley News 434 (16 January 2008).
Robert Poulin, “Parasite manipulation of host personality and behavioural syndromes,” The Journal of Experimental Biology 216 (1): 18–26 (1 Janu-ary 2013).
Hired Protection
Masaru K. Hojo et al, “Lycaenid caterpillar secretions manipulate attendant ant behavior,” Current Biology 25(17): 2260–2264 (31 August 2015).
Richard Gray, “Caterpillar drugs ants to enslave them as bodyguards: sugary snack from butterfly larvae alters brains of insects,” Daily Mail (31 July 2015).
Susan Milius, “Caterpillar treats and tricks ants by oozing spiked juice,” Science News (30 July 2015).
Toxoplasma gondii
Barbara A. Butcher et al, “Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry kinase rop16 activates stat3 and stat6 resulting in cytokine inhibition and arginase-1-dependent growth control,” PLoS Pathogens (8 September 2011).
Carly Hodes, “Researchers discover how ‘promiscuous parasites’ hijack host immune cells,” Cornell Chronicle (19 September 2011).
J.G. Montoya & O. Liesenfeld, “Toxoplasmosis,” The Lancet 363(9425): 1965–1976 (12 June 2004).
M. Berdoy et al, “Fatal attraction in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 267: 1591–1594 (2000).
Joanne P. Webster, “The effect of Toxoplasma gondii on animal behavior: playing cat and mouse,” Schizophrenia Bulletin (11 January 2007).
Gustavo Arrizabalaga & Bill Sullivan, “Played by a parasite,” Scientific American Mind 26(2):63-67 (March/April 2015).
Ajai Vyas, “Parasite-augmented mate choice and reduction in innate fear in rats infected by Toxoplasma gondii,” The Journal of Experimental Biology 216 (1): 120–126 (1 January 2013).
Glenn A. McConkey et al, “Toxoplasma gondii infection and behaviour – location, location, location?” The Journal of Experimental Biology 216 (1): 113–119 (1 January 2013).
Jaroslav Flegr, “Influence of latent Toxoplasma infection on human personality, physiology and morphology: pros and cons of the Toxoplasma–human model in studying the manipulation hypothesis,” The Journal of Experimental Biology 216 (1): 127–133 (1 January 2013).
Strepsiptera halictophagida drawing courtesy of Halvard Hatlen.
Jeyaraney Kathirithamby, “Host-parasitoid associations in Strepsiptera,” Annual Review of Entomology 54: 227–249 (January 2009).
Daniel P. Wojcik, “Behavioral interactions between ants and their parasites,” The Florida Entomologist 72(1):43–51 (1989).
Charles Choi, “Newfound parasite could fight fire ants,” UPI (30 Septem-ber 2003).
Jeyaraney Kathirithamby & David P. Hughes, “Caenocholax fenyesi (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae) parasitic in Camponotus planatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Mexico: is this the original host?,” Ecology & Population Biology (2002).
Joanne P. Webster et al, “Toxoplasma gondii infection, from predation to schizophrenia: can animal behaviour help us understand human behaviour?,” The Journal of Experimental Biology 216 (1): 99–112 (1 January 2013).
“Single-cell parasites co-opt ‘ready-made’ genes from host,” ScienceDaily (18 July 2012).
Jean-François Pombert et al, “Gain and loss of multiple functionally related, horizontally transferred genes in the reduced genomes of two microsporidian parasites,” PNAS 109(31): 12638–12643 (31 July 2012).
Andrew F Read et al, “Animal defenses against infectious agents: is damage control more important than pathogen control,” PLoS Biology (23 December 2008).
Karen L. Haag et al, “Evolution of a morphological novelty occurred before genome compaction in a lineage of extreme parasites,” PNAS (13 October 2014).
Erik H. Poelman et al, “Hyperparasitoids use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their parasitoid host,” PLoS Biology (27 November 2012).
Energy Flow
Alexandra Witze, “Deep life,” Science News 181(3): 18–21 (11 February 2012).
John R. Taylor & Roman Stocker, “Trade-offs of chemotactic foraging in turbulent water,” Science 338(6107): 675–679 (2 November 2012).
Trophic Loops
Mark Denny, How the Ocean Works, Princeton University Press (2008).
Death for Life
Bernd Heinrich, Life Everlasting: The Animal Way of Death, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2012).
Marine Food Webs
Craig A. Lyaman et al, “Thresholds of ecosystem response to nutrient enrichment from fish aggregations,” Ecology 94(2): 521–529 (February 2013).
Jacob E. Allgeier et al, “Consumers regulate nutrient limitation regimes and primary production in seagrass ecosystems,” Ecology 94(2): 485–496 (February 2013).
“Fish have enormous nutrient impacts on marine ecosystems, study finds,” ScienceDaily (11 December 2012).
Yellowstone Wolves
William J. Ripple & Robert L. Beschta, “Wolves, elk, willows, and trophic cascades in the upper Gallatin Range of Southwestern Montana, USA,” Forest Ecology and Management 200: 161–181 (2004).
Mary Ellen Hannibal, “Why the beaver should thank the wolf,” The New York Times (28 September 2012).
Biotic Webs
José M. Montoya et al, “Ecological networks and their fragility,” Nature 442: 259–264 (20 July 2006).
Michael J. O. Pocock et al, “The robustness and restoration of a network of ecological networks,” Science 335(6071): 973–977 (24 February 2012).
Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz & Steve Blake, “Megagardeners of the forest – the role of elephants in seed dispersal,”Acta Oecologica 37(6): 542–553 (November–December 2011).
Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz et al, “Asian tapirs are no elephants when it comes to seed dispersal,” Biotropica 44(2): 220–227 (March 2012).
“Absence of elephants and rhinoceroses reduces biodiversity in tropical forests,” ScienceDaily (11 May 2012).
Arnold H. Taylor, The Dance of Air & Sea, Oxford University Press (2011).
Elizabeth Pennisi, “The river masters,” Science 346(6211): 802–805 (14 November 2014).
Matt Soniak, Elephants are really messy eaters – and that’s great for other animals,” The Week (10 March 2014).
Rainforest Ants
Hannah M. Griffiths et al, “Ants are the major agents of resource removal from tropical rainforests,” Journal of Animal Ecology (8 August 2017).
“Ants dominate waste management in tropical rainforests,” ScienceDaily (9 August 2017).
Jeffrey L. Beck et al, “Consequences of treating Wyoming big sagebrush to enhance wildlife habitats,” Rangeland Ecology & Management 65(5):444–455 (September 2012).
Carl Zimmer, “When predators vanish, so does the ecosystem,” The New York Times (15 May 2014).
Marco Marani et al, “Vegetation engineers marsh morphology through multiple competing stable states,” PNAS (11 February 2013).
Mark D. Bertness et al, “Experimental predator removal causes rapid salt marsh die-off,” Ecology Letters (28 April 2014).
Giulio Mariottia & Sergio Fagherazzia, “Critical width of tidal flats triggers marsh collapse in the absence of sea-level rise,” PNAS (19 March 2013).
David Mouillot et al, “Rare species support vulnerable functions in high-diversity ecosystems,” PLoS Biology (28 May 2013).
Jonathan Chase, “An inordinate fondness of rarity,” PLoS Biology (28 May 2013).
Takuya Sato et al, “Nematomorph parasites drive energy flow through a riparian ecosystem,” Ecology 92(1): 201–207 (January 2011).
Albert O. Bush et al, Parasitism: The diversity and ecology of animal parasites, Cambridge University Press (2001).
Tommy Leung, “Good parasite, bad parasite: nature has a job for everyone,” Phys.org (14 March 2014).
Diana Crow, “Keystone pathogen,” Scientific American 311(5): 24 (November 2014).
Kim N. Mouritsen & Robert Poulin, “Parasitism as a determinant of community structure on intertidal flats,” Marine Biology 157(1): 201–213 (January 2010).
Dennis Gordon & Maggy Wassilieff, “Marine animals without backbones – simple worms,” Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand (13 July 2012).
“Horsehair worm,” Iowa State University – Horticulture and Home Pest News (undated).
Olivia Judson, “The hemiparasite season,” The New York Times (25 December 2014).
“Under the mistletoe,” The Economist (14 July 2012).
David M. Watson & Matthew Herring, “Mistletoe as a keystone resource: an experimental test,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (11 July 2012).
Helene C. Muller-Landau, “Ecology: plant diversity rooted in pathogens,” Nature 506: 44–45 (6 February 2014).
Robert Bagchi et al, “Pathogens and insect herbivores drive rainforest plant diversity and composition,” Nature 506: 85–88 (6 February 2014).
Invasive Species
“Nature’s marauders,” The Week (10 December 2010).
Balise Petitpierre et al, “Climatic niche shifts are rare among terrestrial plant invaders,” Science 335: 1334–1348 (16 March 2013).
Reid Tingley et al, “Establishment success of introduced amphibians increases in the presence of congeneric species,” The American Naturalist 177(3): 382–388 (March 2011).
Robert I. Colautti & Spencer C.H. Barrett, “Rapid adaptation to climate facilitates range expansion of an invasive plant,” Science 342: 364–366 (18 October 2013).
Abhineshwar V. Prasad & Simon Hodge, “Factors influencing the foraging activity of the allodapine bee Braunsapis puangensis on creeping daisy (Sphagneticola trilobata) in Fiji,” Journal of Hymenoptera Research 35: 56–69 (25 October 2013).
Jennifer Firn et al, “Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities,” Ecology Letters 14(3): 274–281 (March 2011).
Linda Chalker-Scott, How Plants Work, Timber Press (2015).
Michael J. Cawley (editor), Plant Ecology, Blackwell Science (1997).
Matthew J. Heard & Dov F. Sax, “Coexistence between native and exotic species is facilitated by asymmetries in competitive ability and susceptibility to herbivores,” Ecology Letters 16(2): 206–213 (February 2013).
“Desert invaders,” Science 338: 1264 (7 December 2012).
Adam Hinterthuer, “Following the money,” Scientific American, 27–28 (May 2008).
“Climate change opens new avenue for spread of invasive plants,” ScienceDaily (30 November 2008).
“Home and away: how do invasive plant species dominate native species?,” ScienceDaily (8 February 2011).
King Crabs Under Antarctica
Brian Merchant, “King crabs invade Antarctica for first time in 40 million years,” TreeHugger (21 March 2011).
Douglas Fox, “Polar research: Trouble bares its claws,” Nature (12 December 2012).
Wynne Parry, “King crabs encroach on Antarctica, scientists warn,” LiveScience (7 September 2011).
“King crabs threaten seafloor life near Antarctica,” ScienceDaily (8 September 2011).
Jaimie T. A. Dick et al, “Parasitism may enhance rather than reduce the predatory impact of an invader,” Biology Letters (14 April 2010).

Life’s Diversity
Frank T. Vertosick, Jr., The Genius Within. Discovering The Intelligence Of Every Living Thing, Harcourt (2002).
Tom A. Williams et al, “An archaeal origin of eukaryotes supports only two primary domains of life,” Nature 504: 231-236 (12 December 2013).
Donald Worster, Nature’s Economy, Cambridge University Press (1994).
John S. Wilkins, Species: The Evolution of the Idea, CRC Press (2018).
Arshan Nasir & Gustavo Caetano-Anollés, “A phylogenomic data-driven exploration of viral origins and evolution,” Science Advances (25 September 2015).
“Cross species transfer of genes has driven evolution,” EurekAlert! (8 July 2018).
Atma M. Ivancevic et al, “Horizontal transfer of BovB and L1 retrotransposons in eukaryotes,” Genome Biology 19:85 (9 July 2018).
Susan Milius, “Defining ‘species’ is a fuzzy art,” Science News (1 November 2017).
Laura Wegener Parfrey et al, “Evaluating support for the current classification of eukaryotic diversity,” PLoS Genetics 2(12): e220 (22 December 2006).
Suzanne Goldenberg, “Planet Earth is home to 8.7 million species, scientists estimate,” The Guardian (23 August 2011).
“Just how many species are there, anyway?,” ScienceDaily (26 May 2003).
Elizabeth Pennisi, “New way to look at life,” Science 338: 317 (19 October 2012).
W. Ford Doolittle, “Uprooting the tree of life,” Scientific American (February 2000).
“Wealth of unsuspected new microbes expands tree of life: bacteria make up nearly two-thirds of all biodiversity on Earth, half of them uncultivable,” ScienceDaily (11 April 2016).
R.H. Whittaker, “New concepts of kingdoms of organisms,” Science 163(3863): 150–160 (10 January 1969).
Martin Schlegel & Norbert Hülsman, “Protists – A textbook example for a paraphyletic taxa,” Organisms Diversity & Evolution 7(2): 166-172 (2 August 2007).
Susan Milius, “The name of the fungus,” Science News (18 April 2014).
Susan Milius, “The tree of life gets a makeover,” Science News (29 July 2015).
Lynn Margulis, Origin of Eukaryotic Cells, Yale University Press (1971).
Romain Derelle et al, “Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root,” PNAS 112(7): E693–E699 (17 February 2015).
Portuguese man o’ war drawing courtesy of Peri Coleman.
E. Sally Chang et al, “Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria,” PNAS (16 November 2015).
“New discovery may redefine classifications in the animal kingdom,” ScienceDaily (18 November 2015).
Colin Barras, “Human or hybrid? The big debate over what a species really is,” New Scientist (23 January 2019).
Fabien Burki et al, “Phylogenomics reshuffles the eukaryotic supergroups,” PLoS One (29 August 2007).
Gordon Lax et al, “Hemimastigophora is a novel supra-kingdom-level lineage of eukaryotes,” Nature (14 December 2018).
Andrew J. Roger & Alastair G.B. Simpson, “Evolution: revisiting the root of the eukaryote tree,” Current Biology 19(4): R165–R167 (24 February 2009).
Fabien Burki, “The eukaryotic tree of life from a global phylogenomic perspective,” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology (August 2014).
Sina M. Adl et al, “The revised classification of eukaryotes,” Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59(5): 429–514 (September 2012).
Linnaeus’ Curse
Peter de Knijff, “How carrion and hooded crows defeat Linnaeus’s curse,” Science 344(6190): 1345–1346 (20 June 2014).
Classifying Crows
Hooded crow photo courtesy of Snowmanradio.
J.W. Poelstra et al, “The genomic landscape underlying phenotypic integrity in the face of gene flow in crows,” Science 344(6190): 1410–1414 (20 June 2014).
Zoë A. Goodwin et al, “Widespread mistaken identity in tropical plant collections,” Current Biology 25(22): R1066–R1067 (16 November 2015).
“Half the world’s natural history specimens may have the wrong name,” ScienceDaily (16 November 2015).
Vladimir A. Lukhtanov et al, “Unprecedented within-species chromosome number cline in the Wood White butterfly Leptidea sinapis and its significance for karyotype evolution and speciation,” BMC Evolutionary Biology (20 April 2011).
Mauro Mandrioli et al, “Karyotype rearrangements and telomere analysis in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) strains collected on Lavandula sp. plants,” Comparative Cytogenetics 8(4): 259–274 (31 October 2014).
Carl R. Woese & George E. Fox, “Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms,” PNAS 74(11): 5088–5090 (1 November 1977).
Cymon J. Cox et al, “The archaebacterial origin of eukaryotes,” PNAS 105(51): 20356–20361 (23 December 2008).
J.A. Lake et al, “Eocytes: a new ribosome structure indicates a kingdom with a close relationship to eukaryotes,” PNAS 81(12): 3786–3790 (1 June 1984).
Tom A. Williams et al, “An archaeal origin of eukaryotes supports only two primary domains of life,” Nature 504: 231–236 (12 December 2013).
John M. Archibald, “The eocyte hypothesis and the origin of eukaryotic cells,” PNAS 105(51): 20049–20050 (23 December 2008).
Laura A. Hug et al, “A new view of the tree of life,” Nature Microbiology (11 April 2016).
John L. Ingraham & Roberto Kolter, March of the Microbes, Belknap Press (2010).
Bernard Dixon, Power Unseen: How Microbes Rule the World W.E. Freeman – Spektrum (1994).
Rene Fester Kratz, Barron’s E-Z Microbiology, Barron’s (2011).
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Marine Microbes
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Erin Loury, “Barely breathing microbes still living in 86-million-year-old clay,” Science (17 May 2012).
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In the Soil
Fernando Puente-Sánchez et al, “Viable cyanobacteria in the deep continental subsurface,” PNAS 115(42): 10702-10707 (1 October 2018).
Jonathan Watts, “Scientists identify vast underground ecosystem containing billions of micro-organisms,” The Guardian (10 December 2018).
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Marc-André Lachance et al, “Saccharomycopsis fodiens sp. nov., a rare predacious yeast from three distant localities,” International Journal of Systematic and Evolution Microbiology (12 June 2012).
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Quorum Sensing
Melinda Wenner, “Don’t talk, reproduce,” Scientific American 19–20 (May 2009).
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Marguerite Holloway, “Talking bacteria,” Scientific American 34–35 (February 2004).
Thommie Karlsson et al, “The Pseudomonas aeruginosa N-acylhomoserine lactone quorum sensing molecules target iqgap1 and modulate epithelial cell migration,” PLoS Pathogens (11 October 2012).
Sophie E. Darch et al, “Density-dependent fitness benefits in quorum-sensing bacterial populations,” PNAS 109(21): 8259–8263 (22 May 2012).
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“Bacteria communicate to ramp up collective immune response to viral threats,” ScienceDaily (18 November 2016).
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Funky Viral Con
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Tim Radford, “Cunning cucumber virus alters plant aromas to attract bees,” The Guardian (11 August 2016).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Body’s bacteria don’t outnumber human cells so much after all,” Science News (8 January 2016).
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Arya Khosravi et al, “Gut microbiota promote hematopoiesis to control bacterial infection,” Cell Host & Microbe 15(3): 374–381 (12 March 2014).
Vanessa O. Ezenwa et al, “Animal behavior and the microbiome,” Science 338(6104): 198–199 (12 October 2012).
Javier A. Bravo et al, “Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotion-al behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve,” PNAS 108(38): 16050–16055 (20 September 2011).
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Gil Sharon et al, “Commensal bacteria play a role in mating preference of Drosophila melanogaster,” PNAS 106(46): 20051–20056 (16 November 2010).
Gut Flora
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Joe Alcock et al, “Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms,” BioEssays (7 August 2014).
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Laura Sanders, “Microbe’s survival manual,” Science News (3 February 2010).
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“Formation of bacterial spores,” ScienceDaily (8 March 2018).
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Ido Yosef & Udi Qimron, “How bacteria get spacers from invaders,” Nature 519: 166-167 (12 March 2015).
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Karine A. Gibbs et al, “Genetic determinants of self identity and social recognition in bacteria,” Science 321: 256–259 (11 July 2008).
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Victor Nizet & Tony Taksh, “Bacteria get on your nerves,” Nature 501: 43–44 (5 September 2013).
Isaac M. Chiu et al, “Bacteria activate sensory neurons that modulate pain and inflammation,” Nature 501: 52–57 (5 September 2013).
“Menacing microbes drain host cells with stealthy ‘straw’,” Nature (28 March 2019).
“Bacterial nanosized speargun works like a power drill,” Phys.org (26 September 2017).
Work Uniform
Theophile Grebert et al, “Light color acclimation is a key process in the global ocean distribution of Synechococcus cyanobacteria,” PNAS (12 February 2018).
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Genetic Uptake
Courtney K. Ellison et al, “Retraction of DNA-bound type IV competence pili initiates DNA uptake during natural transformation in Vibrio cholerae,” Nature Microbiology (14 June 2018).
Steph Yin, “Using harpoon-like appendages, bacteria ‘fish’ for new DNA,” The New York Times (14 June 2018).
Bacterium snatching DNA images courtesy of Ankur Dalia & Indiana University.
Michael Marshall, “DNA-grabbing bacteria hint at early phase of evolution,” New Scientist (26 Septemer 2013).
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“Bacterial colonies evolve amazing diversity,” ScienceDaily (30 June 2014).
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Myxococcus xanthus
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Eating With the Enemy
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“Some bacteria love their foes,” Max Planck Gesellschaft (10 June 2016).
“Bacteria probably formed symbioses with protists early in evolution,” Phys.org (10 June 2016).
Energetic Drinker (Rhodopseudomonas palustris)
A. Bose et al, “Electron uptake by iron-oxidizing phototrophic bacteria,” Nature Communications (26 February 2014).
“A shocking diet: Researchers describe microbe that ‘eats’ electricity,” ScienceDaily (10 March 2014).
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Johanna E Baschek et al, “Stochastic dynamics of virus capsid formation: direct versus hierarchical self-assembly,” BMC Biophysics 5:22 (17 De-cember 2012).
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Bernard La Scola et al, “A giant virus in amoebae,” Science 299(5615): 2033 (28 March 2003).
Matthieu Legendre et al, “Thirty-thousand-year-old distant relative of giant icosahedral DNA viruses with a pandoravirus morphology,” PNAS 111(11): 4274–4279 (18 March 2014).
Michael Slezak, “Origin of organs: thank viruses for your skin and bone,” New Scientist (27 February 2014).
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Marine Combe et al, “Single-cell analysis of RNA virus infection identifies multiple genetically diverse viral genomes within single infectious units,” Cell Host & Microbe 18(4): 424–432 (14 October 2015).
Helen C. Leggett et al, “Experimental evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in a parasite,” Current Biology 23(2): 139–142 (21 January 2013).
“Viruses work together to attack their hosts,” ScienceDaily (8 April 2016).
“Viruses cooperate or conquer to cause maximum destruction,” ScienceDaily (13 December 2012).
Carl Zimmer, “An infinity of viruses,” Natural Geographic (20 February 2013).
Yishay Pinto et al, “Clustered mutations in hominid genome evolution are consistent with APOBEC3G enzymatic activity,” Genome Research (7 April 2016).
Elizabeth Pennisi, “Virus fighter may have played a key role in human evolution,” Science (7 April 2016).
Tina Hesman Saey, “The vast virome,” Science News (27 December 2013).
Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, An Epistemology of the Concrete: Twentieth-Century Histories of Life, Duke University Press (2010).
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Alfred Nobel
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Arshan Nasir & Gustavo Caetano-Anollés, “A phylogenomic data-driven exploration of viral origins and evolution,” Science Advances (25 September 2015).
“Study adds to evidence that viruses are alive,” ScienceDaily (25 September 2015).
Luis P. Villarreal, “Are viruses alive?,” Scientific American, 100–105 (December 2004).
Mitch Leslie, “Cell-like giant virus found,” Science 356(6333): 16-17 (7 April 2017).
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Paul Seaburn, “Giant Frankenstein viruses discovered in Austrian sewer,” Mysterious Universe (12 April 2017).
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Mama & Sputnik
Helen Pearson, “‘Virophage’ suggests viruses are alive,” Nature (6 August 2008).
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Cafeteria Style
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Intrigue at Organic Lake
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Virginia Gewin, “‘Virus-eater’ discovered in Antarctic lake,” Nature (28 March 2011).
Elie Dolgin, “The secret social lives of viruses,” Nature (18 June 2019).
Zohar Erez et al, “Communication between viruses guides lysis–lysogeny decisions,” Nature 541: 488-493 (26 January 2017).
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“Microbes scared to death by virus presence,” Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology (3 April 2015).
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“How herpesvirus invades nervous system,” ScienceDaily (27 May 2013).
Viral Assistances
Jeremy J. Barr et al, “Bacteriophage adhering to mucus provide a non–host-derived immunity,” PNAS 110(26): 10771–10776 (25 June 2013).
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Manuela Villion & Sylvain Moineau, “Virology: phages hijack a host’s defence,” Nature 494: 433–434 (28 February 2013).
“A virus shield,” The Economist (25 May 2013).
“Using viruses to beat superbugs” ScienceDaily (26 March 2012).
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Communal Decisions
Zohar Erez et al, “Communication between viruses guides lysis–lysogeny decisions,” Nature 541: 488-493 (26 January 2017).
Jimmy T. Trinh et al, “Cell fate decisions emerge as phages cooperate or compete inside their host,” Nature Communications (6 February 2017).
Alan R. Davidson, “Phages make a group decision,” Nature 541: 466-467 (26 January 2017).
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Ocean Viruses
Forest Rohwer & Rebecca Vega Thurber, “Viruses manipulate the marine environment,” Nature 459: 207–212 (14 May 2009).
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Adam Monier et al, “Taxonomic distribution of large DNA viruses in the sea,” Genome Biology 9(7): R106 (2008).
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In The Muck
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Archaea Viruses
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Plant Viruses
Patrick Butterbach et al, “Tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance by Ty-1 involves increased cytosine methylation of viral genomes and is compromised by cucumber mosaic virus infection,” PNAS (18 August 2014).
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Viral Zombies
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The Wasp & Its Virus
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Joe Ballenger, “Polydnaviruses: Nature’s GMOs,” Biology Fortified (17 February 2010).
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Amber Dance, “How an obscure sexually transmitted parasite tangos with the immune system,” New Scientist (27 April 2019).
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Karen Grace V. Bondoc et al, “Decision-making of the benthic diatom Seminavis robusta searching for inorganic nutrients and pheromones,” The ISME Journal (9 October 2018).
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Patrick Martin et al, “Accumulation and enhanced cycling of polyphosphate by Sargasso Sea plankton in response to low phosphorus,” PNAS 111(2): 8089–8094 (3 June 2014).
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Slime Molds – Intelligence
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Social Amoeba
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Amoeba Farmers
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JoAnna Klein, “When fungi fight back,” The New York Times (15 January 2019).
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Parental Sacrifice
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Mycophagous Mammals
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Death Grip
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Sunflower Florets
Sunflower photo courtesy of L. Shyamal.
Nathan Collins, “Sunflowers do the math,” Science (14 June 2013).
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Chlorophyll’s Color
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Xylem & Phloem
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Size Limits
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Secondary Metabolites
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Mechanics & Materials
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Cell Growth
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Flowering Plants
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“Orchid lures flies with scent of rotting flesh,” ScienceDaily (11 March 2011).
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“Orchid lures flies with scent of rotting flesh,” ScienceDaily (14 May 2011).
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Seed Production
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Maternal Care
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Asexual Reproduction
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Looted Fruit
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“Plants use circadian rhythms to prepare for battle with insects,” ScienceDaily (13 February 2012).
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Pesky Pollinator
Danny Kessler et al, “Changing pollinators as a means of escaping herbivores,” Current Biology 20(3): 237-42 (9 February 2010).
Henry Fountain, “Plant switches pollinators when caterpillars strike,” The New York Times (21 January 2010).
Ed Yong, “Tobacco plants foil very hungry caterpillars by switching pollinators to hummingbirds,” National Geographic (21 January 2010).
Killer Quorum Mimic
Andrés Corral-Lugo et al, “Rosmarinic acid is a homoserine lactone mimic produced by plants that activates a bacterial quorum-sensing regulator,” Science Signaling 9(409): ra1 (5 January 2016).
Barberry Battles Barbarism
Katrin M. Meyer et al, “Adaptive and selective seed abortion reveals complex conditional decision making in plants,” The American Naturalist (29 January 2014).
Math in the Dark
Antonio Scialdone et al, “Arabidopsis plants perform arithmetic division to prevent starvation at night,” eLife 2: e00669 (25 June 2013).
“Plants do sums to get through the night, researchers show,” Phys.org (23 June 2013).
“Plants can do math,” The Week (24 June 2013).
Cleaner wrasse near a potato code photo courtesy of Richard Ling.
“Long-distance solute transport in trees improved by intercellular pathways in living woody tissues,” ScienceDaily (7 December 2012).
Katarzyna Sokolowska & Beata Zagórska-Marek, “Symplasmic, long-distance transport in xylem and cambial regions in branches of Acer pseudoplatanus (Aceraceae) and Populus tremula × P. tremuloides (Salicaceae),” American Journal of Botany (1 November 2012).
Daniel Tapken et al, “A plant homolog of animal glutamate receptors is an ion channel gated by multiple hydrophobic amino acids,” Science Signaling 6(279): ra47 (11 June 2013).
Daniela Tsikou et al, “Systemic control of legume susceptibility to rhizobial infection by a mobile microRNA,” Science 362(6411): 233-236 (12 October 2018).
“How leaves talk to roots,” ScienceDaily (25 September 2018).
Alexander Christmann & Erwin Grill, “Electric defence,” Nature 500: 404–405 (22 August 2013).
Lines of Communication
“Clever plants ‘chat’ over their own network,” ScienceDaily (25 September 2007).
Yuan Yuan Song et al, “Interplant communication of tomato plants through underground common mycorrhizal networks,” PLoS One (13 October 2010).
Zdenka Babikova et al, “Underground signals carried through common mycelial networks warn neihbouring plants of aphid attack,” Ecology Letters 16(7): 835–843 (July 2013).
Meredith C. Schuman et al, “Herbivory-induced volatiles function as defenses increasing fitness of the native plant Nicotiana attenuata in nature,” eLife (15 October 2012).
Mark C. Mescher & Consuelo M. De Moraes, “Plant biology: pass the ammunition,” Nature 510: 221–222 (12 June 2014).
Koichi Sugimoto et al, ” Intake and transformation to a glycoside of (Z)-3-hexenol from infested neighbors reveals a mode of plant odor reception and defense,” PNAS 111(19): 7144–7149 (13 May 2014).
Others on the Party Line
“Insects use plants like a telephone,” ScienceDaily (23 April 2008).
Gloria K. Muday & Heather Brown-Harding, “Nervous system-like signaling in plant defense,” Science 361(6407): 1068-1069 (14 September 2018).
Masatsugu Toyota et al, “Glutamate triggers long-distance, calcium-based plant defense signaling,” Science 361(6407): 1112-1115 (14 September 2018).
JoAnna Klein, “Watch plants light up when they get attacked,” The New York Times (13 September 2018).
Michael J. Haydon et al, “Photosynthetic entrainment of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock,” Nature 502: 689–692 (31 October 2013).
Jan A.D. Zeevaart, “Physiology of flowering,” Science 137(3532): 723–730 (7 September 1962).
Björn C. Willige et al, “D6PK AGCVIII kinases are required for auxin transport and phototropic hypocotyl bending in Arabidopsis,” The Plant Cell 25(5): 1674–1688 (May 2013).
Hyo-Jun Lee et al, “Stem-piped light activates phytochrome B to trigger light responses in Arabidopsis thaliana roots,” Science Signaling (1 November 2016).
“Plant roots in the dark see light,” ScienceDaily (3 November 2016).
“Plants are ‘in touch’ with the world around them,” Phys.org (27 may 2016).
Yun Bao et al, “Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water, PNAS 111(25): 9319–9324 (24 June 2014).
Brian J. Ford, The Secret Language of Life, Fromm International (1999).
Matthew G. Betts et al, “Pollinator recognition by a keystone tropical plant,” PNAS (2 March 2015).
Kate Baggaley, “Tropical plant knows whose bill is in its flowers,” Science News (2 March 2015).
Antoine Bérut et al, “Gravisensors in plant cells behave like an active granular liquid,” PNAS 115(20): 5123-5128 (15 May 2018).
P. Saraí Girón-Calva et al, “Volatile dose and exposure time impact perception in neighboring plants,” Journal of Chemical Ecology 38(2): 226–228 (February 2012).
“Plants use different scents to attract or repel insects,” Phys.org (31 March 2014).
Florian P. Schiestl et al, “Herbivory and floral signaling: phenotypic plasticity and tradeoffs between reproduction and indirect defense,” New Phytologist 203(1): 257–266 (July 2014).
Anjel M. Helms et al, “Identification of an insect-produced olfactory cue that primes plant defenses,” Nature Communications (24 August 2017).
“Plant ‘smells’ insect foe, initiates defense,” ScienceDaily (24 August 2017).
Krishna Ramanujan, “Plants’ chemical messages keep pests moving,” Phys.org (25 January 2017).
Kimberly Morrell & Andre Kessler, “Plant communication in a widespread goldenrod: keeping herbivores on the move,” Functional Ecology (21 November 2016).
The Scent of Ripening
“Why fruit ripens and spoils: thousands of plant genes activated by ethylene gas,” ScienceDaily (11 June 2013).
Katherine Noelani Chang et al, “Temporal transcriptional response to ethylene gas drives growth hormone cross-regulation in Arabidopsis,” eLife (11 June 2013).
Siobhan M. Brady, “When the time is ripe,” eLife 2:e00958 (25 June 2013)
Monica Gagliano et al, “Toward understanding plant bioacoustics,” Cell 17(6): 323-325 (June 2012).
Marine Veits et al, “Flowers respond to pollinator sound within minutes by increasing nectar sugar concentration,” bioRxiv (28 December 2018).
Sam Wong, “Flowers hear bees and make sweeter nectar when they’re buzzing nearby,” New Scientist (8 January 2019).
Becky Oskin, “Sound garden: can plants actually talk and hear?,” Discovery News (13 March 2013).
Douglas Quenqua, “Noisy predators put plants on alert, study finds,” The New York Times (1 July 2014).
H.M. Appel & R.B. Cocroft, “Plants respond to leaf vibrations caused by insect herbivore chewing,” Oecolgia (July 2014).
D. Jaslan et al, “Gating of the two-pore cation channel AtTPC1 in the plant vacuole is based on a single voltage-sensing domain,” Plant Biology (8 June 2016).
“How plants sense electric fields,” ScienceDaily (8 June 2016).
Ross Gunn, “The electricity of rain and thunderstorms,” Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity 40(1): 79–106 (March 1935).
Dominic Clarke et al, “Detection and learning of floral electric fields by bumblebees,” Science (21 February 2013).
Sense of Self
Susan Milius, “Easy there, bro,” Science News 171: 372 (16 June 2007).
Martin J. Hodson & John A. Bryant, Functional Biology of Plants, Wiley-Blackwell (2012).
Zoe G. Cardon et al, “Sagebrush carrying out hydraulic lift enhances surface soil nitrogen cycling and nitrogen uptake into in?orescences,” PNAS (5 November 2013).
“Why the sagebrush grows: ecologists explore arid plant survival,” Phys.org (4 November 2013).
Yong Ding et al, Multiple exposures to drought ‘train’ transcriptional responses in Arabidopsis,” Nature Communications (13 March 2012).
“Crop roots enact austerity measures during drought to bank water,” ScienceDaily (11 July 2016).
“How plant roots sense, react to soil flooding,” ScienceDaily (15 September 2016).
Zaigham Shahzad et al, “A potassium-dependent oxygen sensing pathway regulates plant root hydraulics,” Cell (15 September 2016).
Kimitsune Ishizaki, “Development of schizogenous intercellular spaces in plants,” Frontiers in Plant Science (2 July 2015).
Gustavo Gabriel Striker, “Flooding stress on plants: anatomical, morphological and physiological responses,” in Botany, edited by John Mworia (2012).
Rootless Duckweed
Ad Hoc Panel on Utilization of Aquatic Weeds, “Making aquatic weeds useful: some perspectives for developing countries,” U.S. National Academy of Sciences (1976).
Chin-Mei Lee & Michael F. Thomashowa, “Photoperiodic regulation of the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) cold acclimation pathway and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana,” PNAS 109(37): 15054–15059 (11 Sep-tember 2012).
“Theory of ‘smart’ plants may explain the evolution of global ecosystems,” ScienceDaily (1 December 2015).
Dong-Lei Yang et al, “Plant hormone jasmonate prioritizes defense over growth by interfering with gibberellin signaling cascade,” PNAS, (23 April 2012).
“Mechanism that gives plants ‘balance’ discovered,” ScienceDaily (23 April 2012).
J. Miles Mesa et al, “Molecular constraints on resistance–tolerance trade-offs,” Ecology (3 October 2017).
JoAnna Klein, “Meet the overcompensators, plants that get tougher and meaner when attacked,” The New York Times (20 October 2017).
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Mieke de Wit et al, “Integration of phytochrome and cryptochrome signals determines plant growth during competition for light,” Current Biology (23 November 2016).
“Plant makes growth spurt as competition approaches,” Phys.org (28 November 2016).
Ben Scheres & Wim H. van der Putten, “The plant perceptron connects environment to development,” Nature543: 337-345 (16 March 2017).
Marcel Proveniers, “Sugars speed up the circle of life,” eLife 2:e00625 (26 March 2013).
Sha Yu et al, “Sugar is an endogenous cue for juvenile-to-adult phase transition in plants,” eLife 2:e00629 (26 March 2013).
Li Yang et al, “Sugar promotes vegetative phase change in Arabidopsis thaliana by repressing the expression of MIR156A and MIR156C,” eLife 2:e00620 (26 March 2013).
N.L. Stephenson et al, “Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size,” Nature (15 January 2014).
Tian Zhang et al, “Nanoscale movements of cellulose microfibrils in primary cell walls,” Nature Plants (28 April 2017).
“Plant cell walls’ stretch-but-don’t-break growth more complex than once thought,” ScienceDaily (1 May 2017).
Miyoshi Haruta et al, “A peptide hormone and its receptor protein kinase regulate plant cell expansion,” Science 343 (6169): 408–411 (24 January 2014).
Arun Sampathkumar et al, “Subcellular and supracellular mechanical stress prescribes cytoskeleton behavior in Arabidopsis cotyledon pavement cells,” eLife 3:e01967 (16 April 2014).
Jelmer J. Lindeboom et al, “A mechanism for reorientation of cortical microtubule arrays driven by microtubule severing,” Science (7 November 2013).
Motoki Tominaga et al, “Cytoplasmic streaming velocity as a plant size determinant,” Developmental Cell 27(3): 345–352 (11 November 2013).
Tongda Xu et al, “Cell surface ABP1-TMK auxin-sensing complex activates ROP GTPase signaling,” Science 343(6174): 1025–1028 (28 February 2014).
“How plants know to send roots down and leaves up,” ScienceDaily (27 October 2008).
Elke Barbez et al, “A novel putative auxin carrier family regulates intracellular auxin homeostasis in plants,” Nature (16 April 2012).
Suruchi Roychoudhry et al, “Auxin controls gravitropic setpoint angle in higher plant lateral branches,” Current Biology (25 July 2013).
Erika E. Kuchen et al, “Generation of leaf shape through early patterns of growth and tissue polarity,” Science 335(6072): 1092-1096 (2 March 2012).
Saiko Yoshida et al, “Stem cell activation by light guides plant organogenesis,” Genes & Development 25:1439–50 (2011).
Susanna Sauret-Güeto et al, “JAGGED controls Arabidopsis petal growth and shape by interacting with a divergent polarity field,” PLoS Biology (30 April 2013).
“How petals get their shape,” ScienceDaily (30 April 2013).
Gregory R. Goldsmith et al, “The incidence and implications of clouds for cloud forest plant water relations,” Ecology Letters 16(3): 307–314 (March 2013).
Beatriz Orosa-Puente et al, “Root branching toward water involves posttranslational modification of transcription factor ARF7,” Science 362(6421): 1407-1410 (21 December 2018).
“Divining roots: Revealing how plants branch out to access water,” ScienceDaily (22 December 2018).
Ricardo F. H. Giehl & Nicolaus von Wirén, “Hydropatterning—how roots test the waters,” Science 362(6421): 1358-1359 (21 December 2018).
Xiangpei Kong et al, “The root transition zone: a hot spot for signal crosstalk,” Trends in Plant Science 23(5): 403-409 (1 May 2018).
František Baluška & Stefano Mancuso, “Root apex transition zone as oscillatory zone,” Frontiers in Plant Science (2 October 2013).
František Baluška et al, “Root apex transition zone: a signalling–response nexus in the root,” Trends in Plant Science (2010).
Anil Ananthaswamy, “Root intelligence: plants can think, feel and learn,” New Scientist (3 December 2014).
James F. White et al, “Rhizophagy cycle: an oxidative process in plants for nutrient extraction from symbiotic microbes,” Microorganisms (17 September 2018).
“How plants harness microbes to get nutrients,” ScienceDaily (17 September 2018).
Rajesh Kumar Jain, “Study on shear strength of soil in relation to plant roots as a combined matrix,” Research Journal of Chemical and Environmental Science (December 2013).
F. Ghidey & E.E. Alberts, “Plant root effects on soil erodibility, splash detachment, soil strength, and aggregate stability,” Transactions of the ASAE 40(1): 129-135 (1997).
Sarah De Baets et al, “Root tensile strength and root distribution of typical Mediterranean plant species and their contribution to soil shear strength,” Plant and Soil 305(1):207-226 (April 2008).
S.T. Willatt & N. Sulistyaningsih, “Effect of plant roots on soil strength,” Soil and Tillage Research 16(4): 329-336 (July 1990).
František Baluška et al, “Swarm intelligence in plant roots,” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25(12): 682–683 (18 October 2010).
F. Baluška et al, “The ‘root-brain’ hypothesis of Charles and Francis Darwin: revival after more than 125 years,” Plant Signal Behavior 4(12): 1121–1127 (December 2009).
František Baluška et al, “Root apex transition zone: a signalling–response nexus in the root,” Trends in Plant Science 15(7); 402–408 (July 2010).
Susan Milius, “Rooting for swarm intelligence in plants,” Science News (10 December 2010).
Alastair Fitter, “Nutrient acquisition,” in Plant Ecology, edited by Michael J. Crawley, Blackwell Science (1997).
D. Robinson, “The response of plants to non-uniform supplies of nutrients,” New Phytologist 127: 635–674 (1994).
James F. Cahill Jr. et al, “Plants integrate information about nutrients and neighbors,” Science 328(5986): 1657 (25 June 2010).
C. Claiborne Ray, “Urban roots,” The New York Times (17 December 2012).
Angela Hodge, “Root decisions,” Plant, Cell & Environment (22 September 2008).
Kwongan Root Strategies
Graham Zemunik et al, “Diversity of plant nutrient-acquisition strategies increases during long-term ecosystem development,” Nature Plants (20 April 2015).
“Don’t judge a book – or a plant – by its cover,” ScienceDaily (20 April 2015).
Jonas Å.H. Danielson & Wolf B. Frommer, “Jack of all trades, master of flowering,” Science 339(6120): 659–660 (8 February 2013).
Vanessa Wahl et al, “Regulation of flowering by trehalose-6-phosphate signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana,” Science 339(6120): 659–660 (8 February 2013).
Marcel Dicke, “Behavioural and community ecology of plants that cry for help,” Plant, Cell and Environment 32: 654-665 (2009).
Andrew G. Zink & Zheng-Hui He, “Botanical brilliance,” Science 347(6223): 724–725 (13 February 2015).
Rosa Lozano-Durán et al, “The transcriptional regulator BZR1 mediates trade-off between plant innate immunity and growth,” eLife 2:e00983 (31 December 2013).
Andrea A. Gust & Thorsten Nürnberger, “A life or death switch,” Nature 486: 198–199 (14 June 2012).
Zheng Qing Fu et al, “NPR3 and NPR4 are receptors for the immune signal salicylic acid in plants,” Nature 486: 228–232 (14 June 2012).
“Scientists uncover mechanism for natural plant immunity,” Phys.org (10 October 2013).
Yadong Sun et al, “Structural basis for flg22-induced activation of the Arabidopsis FLS2-BAK1 immune complex,” Science 342(6158): 624–628 (1 November 2013).
Amutha Sampath Kumar et al, “Rhizobacteria Bacillus subtilis restricts foliar pathogen entry through stomata,” The Plant Journal 72(4): 694–706 (November 2012).
Venkatachalam Lakshmanan et al, “Microbe-associated molecular patterns-triggered root responses mediate beneficial rhizobacterial recruitment in Arabidopsis,” Plant Physiology 160(3): 1642–1661 (November 2012).
Border Building
Bode A. Olukolu et al, “A genome-wide association study of the maize hypersensitive defense response identifies genes that cluster in related pathways,” PLoS Genetics (28 August 2014).
Jenna Iacurci, “Corn spots know the meaning of self-sacrifice,” Nature World News (12 September 2014).
Johnna Rizzo, “On the scent,” National Geographic (August 2013).
“Plants smell different when attacked by exotic herbivores,” Phys.org (24 January 2017).
Inciting Cannibalism
Kelly April Tyrrell, “Plants under attack can turn hungry caterpillars into cannibals,” University of Wisconsin–Madison (10 July 2017).
John Orrock et al, “Induced defences in plants reduce herbivory by increasing cannibalism,” Nature Ecology & Evolution (10 July 2017).
Laura Castells, “Plants turn caterpillars into cannibals,” Nature News (10 July 2017).
Beetle Juice
Seung Ho Chung et al, “Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses,” PNAS (9 September 2013).
Potato beetle larvae photo courtesy of Pollinator.
Danielle Goodspeed et al, “Arabidopsis synchronizes jasmonate-mediated defense with insect circadian behavior,” PNAS 109(12): 4674–4677 (20 March 2012).
Anjel M. Helms et al, “Identification of an insect-produced olfactory cue that primes plant defenses,” Nature Communications (24 August 2017).
Calling For Help
Marcel Dicke, “Behavioural and community ecology of plants that cry for help,” Plant, Cell & Environment 32(6): 654–665 (18 November 2008).
caterpillar photo is of an army beetworm, a major crop pest.
Sindya N. Bhanoo, “From a desert plant, a scented cry for help,” The New York Times (30 August 2010).
Georg E. von Mérey et al, “Herbivore-induced maize leaf volatiles affect attraction and feeding behavior of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars,” Frontiers in Plant Science (27 June 2013).
Kaori Shiojiri et al, “Plant volatiles, rather than light, determine the nocturnal behavior of a caterpillar,” PLoS Biology (16 May 2006).
Venkatesan Radhika et al, “Volatile emission in bracken fern is induced by jasmonates but not by Spodoptera littoralis or Strongylogaster multi-fasciata herbivory,” PLoS One (20 November 2012).
Tobacco’s Defense
“Death breath,” The Economist (4 January 2014).
Immune Systems
Chih-Hang Wu et al, “Receptor networks underpin plant immunity,” Science 360(6395): 1300-1301 (22 June 2018).
Saikat Bhattacharjee et al, “Pathogen effectors target Arabidopsis EDS1 and alter its interactions with immune regulators,” Science 334(6061): 1405-1408 (9 December 2011).
Stephan Wawra et al, “The fungal-specific B-glucan-binding lectin FGB1 alters cell-wall composition and suppresses glucan-triggered immunity in plants,” Nature Communications (27 October 2016).
Marc T. Nishimura & Jeffery L. Dangl, “Paired plant immune receptors,” Science 344(6181): 267–268 (18 April 2014).
Simon J. Williams et al, “Structural basis for assembly and function of a heterodimeric plant immune receptor,” Science 344(6181): 299–303 (18 April 2014).
Damn Spots
Xiao-yu Zheng et al, “Coronatine promotes Pseudomonas syringae virulence in plants by activating a signaling cascade that inhibits salicylic acid accumulation,” Cell Host & Microbe 11(6): 587–596 (14 June 2012).
“Bacterium signals plant to open up and let friends in: bug’s chemical feint makes plant respond the opposite of how it should,” ScienceDaily (13 June 2012).
Roger East, “Soil science comes to life,” Nature 501: S18–S19 (26 September 2013).
“Viruses sometimes save their hosts, rather than killing them,” The Economist (23 February 2013).
Aude Bernheim & Rotem Sorek, “Viruses cooperate to defeat bacteria,” Nature (23 July 2018).
Adair L. Borges et al, “Bacteriophage cooperation suppresses CRISPR-Cas3 and Cas9 immunity,” Cell (19 July 2018).
Mariann Landsberger et al, “Anti-CRISPR phages cooperate to overcome CRISPR-Cas immunity,” Cell (19 July 2018).
RNA Silencing
Jennifer L. M. Soosaar et al, “Mechanisms of plant resistance to viruses,” Nature Reviews Microbiology 3: 789–798 (October 2005).
David Baulcombe. “RNA silencing in plants,” Nature 431: 356–363 (16 September 2004).
Alison M. Smith et al, Plant Biology, 555–557, Garland Science (2010).
Charles W Melnyk et al, “Intercellular and systemic movement of RNA silencing signals,” The EMBO Journal 30: 3553–3563 (31 August 2011).
Dan Garisto, “The secrets of plant speed,” Science News (26 May 2018).
Sarah E. Wyatt & John Z. Kiss, “Plant tropisms: from Darwin to the International Space Station,” American Journal of Botany (1 January 2013).
“New insights into how plants grow in response to light, water and gravity,” ScienceDaily (2 January 2013).
Susan Milius, “No brainer behavior,” Science News 175(13): 16–21 (20 June 2009).
Hopping Horsetail Legs
Philippe Marmottant et al, “The walk and jump of Equisetum spores,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280(1770) (11 September 2013).
Victoria Gill, “Horsetail plant spores use ‘legs’ to walk and jump,” BBC News (11 September 2013).
Moss Spore Shoot
Susan Milius, “Explosions, mushroom clouds — all good for short moss,” Science News (23 July 2010).
Orchid blossom photo courtesy of Freier Denker.
Creeping Dogwood
Creeping dogwood photo courtesy of D. Gordon E. Robertson.
Bladderwort image courtesy of Johann Georg Sturm.
Daniel Strain, “Carnivorous bladderworts suck up prey,” Science News (16 February 2011).
Venus Flytrap
Venus flytrap drawing courtesy of William Curtis.
Carl Zimmer, “Fatal attraction,” National Geographic (March 2010).
Aaron M. Ellison & Nicholas J. Gotelli, “Energetics and the evolution of carnivorous plants – Darwin’s ‘most wonderful plants in the world’,” Journal of Experimental Botany, 60 (1): 19–42 (16 June 2008).
Pollinator Responders
Nasa poissoniana photo courtesy of Tilo Henning.
Moritz Mittelbach et al, “Flowers anticipate revisits of pollinators by learning from previously experienced visitation interval,” Plant Signaling & Behavior (26 March 2019).
Cara Giaimo, “Watch a flower that seems to remember when pollinators will come calling,” The New York Times (20 April 2019).
Dodgy Dodders
Daniel Chamotiz, “What a plant smells,” Scientific American 62–65 (May 2012).
Saima Shahid et al, “MicroRNAs from the parasitic plant Cuscuta campestris target host messenger RNAs,” Nature 553: 82-85 (4 January 2018).
“Agricultural parasite takes control of host plant’s genes,” Phys.org (3 January 2018).
Roots on the Move
Ricardo F. H. Giehl & Nicolaus von Wirén, “Hydropatterning—how roots test the waters,” Science 362(6421): 1358-1359 (28 December 2018).
Beatriz Orosa-Puente et al, “Root branching toward water involves posttranslational modification of transcription factor ARF7,” Science 362(6421): 1407-1410 (28 December 2018).
Erin E. O’Brien et al, “Root proliferation and seed yield in response to spatial heterogeneity of below-ground competition,” New Phytologist (12 September 2005).
Mordeschai Gersani et al, “Tragedy of the commons as a result of root competition,” Journal of Ecology 89: 660-669 (2001).
Godfrey G. Maina et al, “Intra-plant versus inter-plant root competition in beans: avoidance, resource matching or tragedy of the commons,” Plant Ecology 160(2): 235–247 (June 2002).
Jonathan P. Evans & Michael L. Cain, “A spatially explicit test of foraging behavior in a clonal plant,” Ecology 76(4): 1147-1155 (June 1995).
Ariel Novoplansky, “Picking battles wisely: plant behaviour under competition,” Plant, Cell & Environment (24 March 2009).
Bin Zhou et al, “Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) allelochemicals that interfere with crop growth and the soil microbial community,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61(22): 5310–5317 (17 May 2013).
Paloma Durán et al, “Microbial interkingdom interactions in roots promote Arabidopsis survival,” Cell (1 November 2018).
Wim H. van der Putten, “Removal of soil biota alters soil feedback effects on plant growth and defense chemistry,” New Phytologist (16 September 2018).
“Plants really do feed their friends,” ScienceDaily (22 March 2018).
Kateryna Zhalnina et al, “Dynamic root exudate chemistry and microbial substrate preferences drive patterns in rhizosphere microbial community assembly,” Nature Microbiology 3: 470-480 (19 March 2018).
Marnie E. Rout & Darlene Southworth, “The root microbiome influences scales from molecules to ecosystems: the unseen majority,” American Journal of Botany 100(9): 1689–1691 (5 September 2013).
Angelique Broghammer et al, “Legume receptors perceive the rhizobial lipochitin oligosaccharide signal molecules by direct binding,” PNAS (21 August 2012).
Davide Bulgarelli et al, “Revealing structure and assembly cues for Arabidopsis root-inhabiting bacterial microbiota,” Nature 488: 91–95 (2 August 2012).
“Horticultural hijacking: the dark side of beneficial soil bacteria,” ScienceDaily (21 September 2012).
“Plant protein ‘doorkeepers’ block invading microbes, study finds,” ScienceDaily (24 August 2009).
Andrew L. Neal et al, “Benzoxazinoids in root exudates of maize attract Pseudomonas putida to the rhizosphere,” PLoS One (24 April 2012).
Pascale B. Beauregard et al, “Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides,” PNAS (8 April 2013).
Elizabeth Pennisi, “Leaf bacteria fertilize trees, researchers claim,” Science 348(6237): 844–845 (22 May 2015).
Jennifer A. Lau & Jay T. Lennon, “Rapid responses of soil microorganisms improve plant fitness in novel environments,” PNAS 109(35): 14058–14062 (28 August 2012).
“Impulsive micromanager microbes help plants adapt, survive,” ScienceDaily (14 August 2012).
“Theory suggests root efficiency, independence drove global spread of flora,” ScienceDaily (21 February 2018).
Zeqing Ma et al, “Evolutionary history resolves global organization of root functional traits,” Nature 555: 94–97 (21 February 2018).
Zareen Khan et al, “Growth enhancement and drought tolerance of hybrid poplar upon inoculation with endophyte consortia,” Current Plant Biology (2016).
“Microbes help plants survive in severe drought,” Phys.org (19 September 2016).
Sharon L. Doty et al, “Variable nitrogen fixation in wild Populus,” PLoS One (21 May 2016).
I.S. Druzhinina et al, “Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success,” Nature Reviews Microbiology 9 (10): 749 (2011).
“Bacteria in branches naturally fertilize trees,” ScienceDaily (21 May 2016).
Susan Milius, “Plants and fungi recognize generous trading partners,” Science News (11 August 2011).
Andreas Keymer et al, “Lipid transfer from plants to arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi,” eLife 6:e29107 (20 July 2017).
Nicole Gaude et al, “Arbuscule-containing and non-colonized cortical cells of mycorrhizal roots undergo a massive and specific reprogramming during arbuscular mycorrhizal development,” The Plant Journal (2011).
Marc-André Selosse et al, “The plant-fungal marketplace,” Science 333(6044): 828–829 (12 August 2011).
Rabea Schweiger et al, “High specificity in plant leaf metabolic responses to arbuscular mycorrhiza,” Nature Communications (22 May 2014).
S. W. Behie et al, “Endophytic insect-parasitic fungi translocate nitrogen directly from insects to plants,” Science 336(1576): 1576–1577 (22 June 2012).
Peter Wohlleben, The Hidden Life Of Trees, Greystone Books (2016).
“Forest discovery: trees trade carbon among each other,” ScienceDaily (14 April 2016).
Tamir Klein et al, “Belowground carbon trade among tall trees in a temperate forest,” Science 352(6283): 342–344 (15 April 2016).
Marcel G. A. van der Heijden, “Underground networking,” Science 352(6283): 290–291 (15 April 2016).
Thale Cress Pickiness
Kei Hiruma et al, “Root endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae confers plant fitness benefits that are phosphate status dependent,” Cell (17 March 2016).
“Plants host fungi on demand,” Phys.org (17 March 2016).
I.S. Druzhinina, “Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success,” Nature Reviews Microbiology 9: 749–759 (October 2011).
Elizabeth Pennisi, “Do plants favor their kin?,” Science 363(6422): 15-16 (4 January 2019).
“And one root said to the other root, ‘Don’t I know you from somewhere?'” Phys.org (17 August 2016).
Thomas E. Marler et al, “Plastic responses mediated by identity recognition in below-ground competition in Cycas micronesica,” Tropical Conservation Science (27 June 2016).
The Comity of Sunflowers
Winslow R. Briggs, “How do sunflowers follow the Sun—and to what end?,” Science 353(6299): 541-542 (5 August 2016).
Hagop S. Atamian et al, “Circadian regulation of sunflower heliotropism, floral orientation, and pollinator visits,” Science 353(6299): 587-590 (5 August 2016).
Bob Holmes, “Sunflowers work together to avoid overcrowding and soak up ray,” New Scientist (10 July 2017).
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Jewelweed Relations
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All Together Now
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Plants & Animals
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Survival By Theft
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Just Don’t Munch the Seeds
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Cairo spiny mouse photo courtesy of Michael Samuni-Blank.
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Medicinal Plants
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The Mirror Test
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European wasp photo courtesy of Fir0002/Flagstaffotos.
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Morpho Dragonflies
Morpho (Zenithoptera) dragonfly photo courtesy of Ana Cotta.
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“Flipping roaches,” The Economist (9 June 2012).
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“Sniffing out a mate with precision,” ScienceDaily (8 February 2018).
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Clint J. Perry et al, “Unexpected rewards induce dopamine-dependent positive emotion–like state changes in bumblebees,” Science 353(6307): 1529-1531 (30 September 2016).
Reese Halter, The Incomparable Honeybee, Rocky Mountain Books (2009).
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“How bees naturally vaccinate their babies,” ScienceDaily (31 July 2015).
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“Personality affects hives’ fates,” Science News (26 February 2011).
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“How do bees make honey? It’s not just bee barf,” Phys.org (20 June 2013).
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Bogdan I. Gherman et al, “Pathogen-associated self-medication behavior in the honeybee Apis mellifera,” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 68(11): 1777-1784 (November 2014).
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Bogdan I. Gherman et al, “Pathogen-associated self-medication behavior in the honeybee Apis mellifera,” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 68(11): 1777–1784 (November 2014).
Heather R. Mattila et al, “Characterization of the active microbiotas associated with honey bees reveals healthier and broader communities when colonies are genetically diverse,” PLoS One 7 (3): e34601 (12 March 2012).
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“Biologists discover sophisticated ‘alarm’ signals in honey bee,” ScienceDaily (25 March 2016).
Peter Skorupski et al, “Counting insects,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (1 January 2018).
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Alex Riley, “Bees learn while they sleep, and that means they might dream,” BBC Earth (25 June 2016).
Hanna Zwaka et al, “Context odor presentation during sleep enhances memory in honeybees,” Current Biology (22 October 2015).
Rachael E. Bonoan et al, “Vasculature of the hive: heat dissipation in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) hive,” Naturwissenschaften 101(6): 459–465 (June 2014).
Jacob M. Peters et al, “Collective ventilation in honeybee nests,” Interface (23 January 2019).
Joseph L. Woodgate et al, “Continuous radar tracking illustrates the development of multi-destination routes of bumblebees,” Scientific Reports (11 December 2017).
“Bumblebees solve the travelling salesman problem on the fly,” New Scientist (11 December 2017).
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“Picky eaters: Bumble bees prefer plants with nutrient-rich pollen,” Penn State News (27 June 2016).
Dominic Clarke et al, “Detection and learning of floral electric fields by bumblebees,” Science 340: 66–69 (5 April 2013).
Erika H. Dawson & Lars Chittka, “Conspecific and heterospecific information use in bumblebees,” PLoS One 7 (2): e31444 (8 February 2012).
Sylvian Alem et al, “Associative mechanisms allow for social learning and cultural transmission of string pulling in an insect,” PLoS Biology (4 October 2016).
“Bees learn and ‘teach’ others,” Nature (20 October 2016).
Erika H. Dawson et al, “Learning by observation emerges from simple associations in an insect model,” Current Biology 23(8): 727–730, (22 April 2013).
“It’s gotta bee me,” The Economist (2 August 2014).
Dave Goulson et al, “Foraging bumblebees avoid flowers already visited by conspecifics or by other bumblebee species,” Animal Behaviour 55(1): 199–206 (January 1998).
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Piotr G. Jablonski et al, “Warning signals confer advantage to prey in competition with predators: bumblebees steal nests from insectivorous birds,” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67(8): 1259–1267 (August 2013).
Ant photo courtesy of William Cho.
Bert Hölldobler, “Ways of the ant,” National Geographic, page 811 (June 1984).
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Akiko Koto et al, “Social isolation causes mortality by disrupting energy homeostasis in ants,” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (18 January 2015).
James Gorman, “Efficiency is idleness,” The New York Times (16 August 2018).
J. Aguilar et al, “Collective clog control: Optimizing traffic flow in confined biological and robophysical excavation,” Science 361(6403): 672-677 (17 August 2018).
“Lazy ants make themselves useful in unexpected ways,” ScienceDaily (8 September 2017).
Daniel Charbonneau et al, “Who needs ‘lazy’ workers? Inactive workers act as a ‘reserve’ labor force replacing active workers, but inactive workers are not replaced when they are removed,” PLoS One (6 September 2017).
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Nathalie Stroeymeyt et al, “Social network plasticity decreases disease transmission in a eusocial insect,” Science 362(6417): 941-945 (23 November 2018).
Daniel F. Simola et al, “A chromatin link to caste identity in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus,” Genome Research (3 December 2012).
Ed Yong, “Tracking whole colonies shows ants make career moves,” Nature (18 April 2013).
E.P., “The private lives of ants,” Science 340: 270 (19 April 2013).
Danielle P. Mersch et al, “Tracking individuals shows spatial fidelity is a key regulator of ant social organization,” Science (18 April 2013).
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Ant Sounds
Carrie Arnold, “Shhh, the ants are talking,” Science (7 February 2013).
John Wang et al, “A Y-like social chromosome causes alternative colony organization in fire ants,” Nature (16 January 2013).
Christopher D. Smith et al, “Draft genome of the globally widespread and invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile),” PNAS (31 January 2011).
Sarah Graham, “Ant supercolony spans thousands of miles,” Scientific American (17 April 2002).
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Jonathan Z. Shik et al, “Towards a general life-history model of the superorganism: predicting the survival, growth and reproduction of ant societies,” Biology Letters 8(6): 1059– 1062 (23 December 2012).
Wheedled by Beetles
Bert Holldobler et al, “Amphotis marginata (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) a highwayman of the ant Lasius fuliginosus,” PloS One (7 August 2017).
Leafcutter Ants
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Weaver Ants
Weaver ant photo courtesy of Antonio Giudici.
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Adam Z. Rosenthal et al, “Localizing transcripts to single cells suggests an important role of uncultured deltaproteobacteria in the termite gut hy-drogen economy,” PNAS (27 September 2014).
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Legumes & Rhizobia
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Yuccas & Moths
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Tentacled Snake
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Eggs Worth Fighting For
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Playing Dead
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Snake Venom
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Songbird Patience
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Finch Society
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Songs and Such
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Singing in the City
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Pied Wagtails
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Planning & Memory
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Scrub Jay Caching
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Bivouac Checking
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Tool Use
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Jackdaw photo courtesy of Maxwell Hamilton.
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Pinyon Jays
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Panda photo courtesy of Petar P. Todorov.
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Shrew rat drawing courtesy of the Mintern Brothers.
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Squirrel photo courtesy of Mark Lissen.
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Sand Puppies
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Prairie Dogs
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William F. Wood & Paul J. Weldon, “The scent of the reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata),” Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 30(10): 913–917 (November 2002).
Henk P. van der Jeugd & Herbert H. T. Prins, “Movements and group structure of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania,” Journal of Zoology 251(1): 15–21 (May 2000).
Craig Holdrege, “The giraffe in its world,” The Nature Institute (Fall 2004).
Jennifer Leman, “Giraffes inherit their spots from their mothers,” Science News (2 October 2018).
Derek E. Lee et al, “Seeing spots: quantifying mother-offspring similarity and assessing fitness consequences of coat pattern traits in a wild population of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis),” PeerJ (2 October 2018).
David M. Pratt & Virginia H. Anderson, “Giraffe social behaviour,” Journal of Natural History 19(4): 771–781 (1985).
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P.A. Seeber et al, “Androgen changes and flexible rutting behaviour in male giraffes,” Biology Letters (7 August 2013).
African bull elephant photo courtesy of Muhammad Mahdi Karim.
Tina Hesman Saey, “Genes separate Africa’s elephant herds,” Science News (15 January 2011).
Shana Alexander, The Astonishing Elephant, Random House (2000).
Susan Milius, “Don’t trust any elephant under 60,” Science News (15 March 2011).
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Kaori Mizuno et al, “Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing,” Animal Cognition (5 November 2015).
Karen McComb et al, “Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices,” PNAS (10 March 2014).
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Caitlin O’Connell-Rodwell, “The darker side of elephant country,” The New York Times (27 July 2012).
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“Female elephants inherit social roles,” Nature 528: 493 (31 December 2015).
Angela S. Stoeger et al, “An Asian elephant imitates human speech,” Current Biology (1 November 2012).
G. Dwayne Fuselier, “Placing the Stockholm Syndrome in Perspective,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 22–25 (July 1999).
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Sabri Ben-Achour, “A pachyderm’s ditty prompts and elephantine debate,” NPR (26 August 2012).
Matt Kaplan, “Elephants recognize the voices of their enemies,” Nature (14 March 2014).
Richard W. Byrne et al, “Elephant cognition in primate perspective,” Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews 4: 65–79 (2009).
Benjamin L. Hart et al, “Cognitive behaviour in Asian elephants: use and modification of branches for fly switching,” Animal Behaviour 62(5): 839–847 (November 2001).
Marine Mammals
S.H. Ridgway et al, “Forward shift of feeding buzz components of dolphins and belugas during associative learning reveals a likely connection to reward expectation, pleasure and brain dopamine activation,” The Journal of Experimental Biology (15 August 2014).
David Kirby, Death At Sea World, St. Martin’s Press (2012).
Hannah Devlin, “Fossil of ancient four-legged whale with hooves discovered,” The Guardian (4 April 2019).
Sea Otters
Kendra Pierre-Louis, “California’s underwater forests are being eaten by the ‘cockroaches of the ocean’,” The New York Times (25 October 2018).
Intelligence Physiology
Emma Marris, “Are dolphins sensing global forces?,” Nature (23 Septem-ber 2004).
“Ants more rational than humans?,” ScienceDaily (24 July 2009).
Rachel Adelson, “Marine mammals master math,” American Psychological Association 36 (8): 22 (September 2005).
E. Mercado et al, “Memory for action events in the bottlenosed dolphin,” Animal Cognition 2: 17–25 (1999).
C.K. Tayler & G.S. Sayman, “Imitative behavior of Indian Ocean bottlenosed dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in captivity,” Behaviour 44: 286 – 298 (1973).
A.R. Martin, “Object carrying as socio-sexual display in an aquatic mammal,” Biology Letters 4: 243–245 (2008).
Sharon Begley, “Cultures of animals may provide insights into human behavior,” Science Journal (7 May 2004).
Kendall Powell, “Dolphin hear, dolphin do,” Nature (21 August 2002).
Peter L. Tyack, “Dolphins whistle a signature tune,” Science 289( 5483): 1310–1311 (25 August 2000).
Srdan Randic et al, “A novel mammalian social structure in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.): complex male alliances in an open social network,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (28 March 2012).
Hannah Joy Kriesell et al, “Identification and characteristics of signature whistles in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Namibia,” PLoS One (9 September 2014).
“Dolphins have conversations,” The Week (30 September 2016).
John C. Lilly & Alice M. Miller, “Vocal exchanges between dolphins,” Science 1873–1876 (8 December 1961).
Michael Hopkin, “Dolphins play name game,” Nature (8 May 2006).
Elizabeth Norton, “Nice to meet eet eet you,” Science (28 February 2012).
Michael Bright, Dolphins, DK Publishing (2001).
Orca photo courtesy of Robert Pittman.
Lauren J.N. Brent et al, “Ecological knowledge, leadership, and the evolution of menopause in killer whales,” Current Biology 25(6): 746–750 (16 March 2015).
Emma A. Foster et al, “Adaptive prolonged postreproductive life span in killer whales,” Science (14 September 2012).
“Orca helicopter moms,” The Week (5 October 2012).
Susan Milius, “Killer whales follow postmenopausal leaders,” Science News (5 March 2015).
Peter Knudtson, Orca, Sierra Club Books (1996).
Luke Rendell & Hal Whitehead, “Culture in whales and dolphins,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24: 309–382 (2001).
Candace Calloway Whiting, “Orca whales imitate each other and people – scientists correlate imitation with intelligence,” Seattle PI (24 June 2013).
Kevin Speer, “How smart are killer whales? Orcas have 2nd-biggest brains of all marine mammals,” Phys.org (8 March 2010).
Sea Lion Slam
David Attenborough, Frozen Planet, BBC (2012).
Pilot Whales
Amy M. Van Cise et al, “Song of my people: dialect differences among sympatric social groups of short-finned pilot whales in Hawai’i,” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 72:193 (December 2018).
“Groups of pilot whales have their own dialects,” ScienceDaily (19 December 2018).
“Pilot whales use synchronized swimming when they sense danger,” ScienceDaily (23 November 2012).
Erica van de Waal et al, “Wild vervet monkey infants acquire the food-processing variants of their mothers,” Animal Behaviour 90: 41–45 (April 2014).
Lemur photo courtesy of Veszprémi Állatkert.
Lisa Gould & M.L. Sauther (editors), Lemurs: Ecology and Adaptation, Springer (2006).
Lemur World web site.
K. Praveen Karanth et al, “Ancient DNA from giant extinct lemurs confirms single origin of Malagasy primates,” PNAS 102(14): 5090–5095 (5 April 2005).
Ying Tan & Wen-Hsiung Li, “Trichromatic vision in prosimians,” Nature 402: 36 (4 November 1999).
Ipek G. Kulahci et al, “Individual recognition through olfactory–auditory matching in lemurs,” Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences (16 April 2014).
Rachel L. Harris et al, “Costs of injury for scent signalling in a strepsirrhine primate,” Scientific Reports (29 June 2018).
“Lemurs can smell weakness in each other,” ScienceDaily (29 June 2018).
Marylène Boulet et al, “Decoding an olfactory mechanism of kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance in a primate,” BMC Evolutionary Biology (3 December 2009).
Sharon E. Kessler et al, “Paternal kin recognition in the high frequency / ultrasonic range in a solitary foraging mammal,” BMC Ecology (30 November 2012).
Lydia K. Greene & Christine M. Drea, “Love is in the air: sociality and pair bondedness influence sifaka reproductive signaling,” Animal Behaviour 88: 147–156 (February 2014).
Melanie Seiler et al, “Interspecific semantic alarm call recognition in the solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis,” PLoS One 8(6): e67397 (June 2013).
Lydia K. Greene et al, “Mix it and fix it: functions of composite olfactory signals in ring-tailed lemurs,” Royal Society Open Science (20 April 2016).
“Lemurs mix smelly secretions to make richer, longer-lasting scents,” ScienceDaily (19 April 2016).
A.E. Dunham et al, “Body size and sexual size dimorphism in primates: influence of climate and net primary productivity,” Journal of Evolutionary Biology (10 September 2013).
Joseph M.A. Petty & Christine M. Drea, “Female rule in lemurs is ancestral and hormonally mediated,” Scientific Reports (7 May 2015).
A.E. Dunham & V.H.W. Rudolf, “Evolution of sexual size monomorphism: the influence of passive mate guarding,” Journal of Evolutionary Biology (22 May 2009).
“New theory on why male, female lemurs same size,” Phys.org (14 July 2009).
Ipek G. Kulahci et al, “Consistent individual variation across interaction networks indicates social personalities in lemurs,” Animal Behaviour 136: 217-226 (February 2018).
“Some lemurs are loners, others crave connection,” Phys.org (9 January 2018).
Alison Jolly, “Lemur social behavior and primate intelligence,” Science 153(3735): 501–506 (29 July 1966).
Marie J.E. Charpentier & Christine M. Drea, “Victims of infanticide and conspecific bite wounding in a female-dominant primate: a long-term study,” PLoS One 8(12): e82830 (December 2013).
Marina B. Blanco et al, “Underground hibernation in a primate,” Scientific Reports (2 May 2013).
Guiseppe Donati et al, “Low levels of fruit nitrogen as drivers for the evolution of Madagascar’s primate communities,” Scientific Reports (31 October 2017).
Monkey photo courtesy of Jim Ankan Deka.
Elizabeth Pennisi, “Red hot monkey love,” Science (30 May 2007).
Marc Zabludoff, Monkeys, Marshal Cavendish (2008).
Emporer tamarin photo courtesy of Brocken Inaglory.
Peter Ward & Joe Kirschvink, A New History of Life, Bloomsbury Press (2015).
Michael A. Ruggiero et al, “A higher level classification of all living organisms,” PLoS One (29 April 2015).
R.H. Whittaker, “New concepts of kingdoms of organisms,” Science 163(3863): 150-160 (10 January 1969).
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Stephen T. Garnett & LEs Christidis, “Taxonomy anarchy hampers conservation,” Nature (31 May 2017).
Jeet Sukumaran & L. Lacey Knowles, “Multispecies coalescent delimits structure, not species,” PNAS (30 January 2017).
Luna Shyr, “29 names, same plant,” National Geographic (June 2011).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Number of species depends how you count them,” Science News (8 February 2017).
Mariano Bond et al, “Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys,” Nature (4 February 2015).
C.R. Woese et al, “Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya,” PNAS 87(12): 4576-4579 (1 June 1990).
William E. Balch et al, “An ancient divergence among the bacteria,” Journal of Molecular Evolution 9(4): 305-311 (December 1977).
Carl R. Woese & George E. Fox, “Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms,” PNAS 74(11): 5088-5090 (1 November 1977).
Herbert F. Copeland, “The kingdoms of organisms,” The Quarterly Review of Biology 13(4): 383-420 (December 1938).
Robert Hooke, Micrographia (1665).
James Randerson, “Monkey business reveals sense of fair play,” New Scientist (17 September 2003).
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Becky Summers, “Monkey brain area keeps count of kindnesses,” Nature (23 December 2012).
Ivan Puga-Gonzalez et al, “Emergent patterns of social affiliation in primates, a model,” PLoS Computational Biology (24 December 2009).
Richard McFarland & Bonaventura Majoloa, “The occurrence and benefits of postconflict bystander affiliation in wild Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus,” Animal Behaviour 84(3): 583–591 (September 2012).
“Monkeys can perform mental addition,” ScienceDaily (20 December 2007).
Capuchin monkey photo courtesy of Whaldener Endo.
M. Mannu & E.B. Ottoni, “The enhanced tool-kit of two groups of wild bearded capuchin monkeys in the Caatinga: tool making, associative use, and secondary tools,” American Journal of Primatology 71(3): 242 251 (2009).
Susan Perry, “The behavior of wild white-faced capuchins: demography, life history, social relationships, and communication,” Advances in the Study of Behavior 44: 135–181 (2012).
“The old primates’ club: even male monkeys ride their fathers’ coattails to success,” ScienceDaily (10 June 2012).
Frans B.M. de Waal et al, “The monkey in the mirror: Hardly a stranger,” PNAS 102(32): 11140–11147 (9 August 2005).
Squirrel Monkeys
Squirrel monkey photo courtesy of Jlahorn.
Night Monkeys
Night monkey photo courtesy of dsasso.
Spider Monkeys
Black spider monkey photo courtesy of Petruss.
Spider monkey photo courtesy of Michael Schamis.
Kayla S. Hartwell et al, “Assessing the occurrence of sexual segregation in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis), its mechanisms and function,” International Journal of Primatology (2014).
Howler Monkeys
Howler monkey photo courtesy of Paulo B. Chaves.
Woolly Monkeys
Woolly monkey photo courtesy of Hans Hillewaert.
Proboscis Monkeys
Tim Laman, “Borneo’s proboscis monkeys smell trouble,” National Geographic 100–117 (August 2002).
Carey P. Yeager, “Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) social organization: nature and possible functions of intergroup patterns of association,” American Journal of Primatology 26(2): 133–137 (1992).
R. Rajanathan & E.L. Bennett, “Notes on the social behaviour of wild proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus),” Malay Nature Journal 44(1): 35–44 (1990).
Diana monkey photo courtesy of Adrian Kirton.
Vervet photo courtesy of Derek Keats.
D.L. Cheney & R.M. Seyfarth, “Vocal recognition in free-ranging vervet monkeys,” Animal Behaviour 28: 362–367 (1980).
D.L. Cheney & R.M. Seyfarth, “The recognition of social alliances among vervet monkeys,” Animal Behaviour 34: 1722–1731 (1986).
Japanese Macaques
Masayuki Nakamichi et al, “Carrying and washing of grass roots by free-ranging Japanese macaques at Katsuyama,” International Journal of Primatology 69-1 (1998).
Bijal P. Trivedi, “‘Hot tub monkeys’ offer eye on nonhuman ‘culture’,” National Georgraphic News (6 February 2004).
photo of Japanese macaques bathing in a hot spring courtesy of Yosemite.
Patricia Miller-Schroeder, Japanese Macaques, Weigl Educational Publishers Limited (2002).
Hamadryas baboon photo courtesy of Dick Mudde.
Ariana Strandburg-Peshkin et al, “Shared decision-making drives collective movement in wild baboons,” Science 348(6241): 1358-1361 (19 June 2015).
“Baboons follow the majority,” Phys.org (20 July 2015).
Thore J. Bergman, “Speech-like vocalized lip-smacking in geladas,” Current Biology 23(7): R268–R269 (8 April 2013).
Jonathan Grainger et al, “Orthographic processing in baboons (Papio papio),” Science 336 (6078): 245–248 (13 April 2012).
Chris Palmer, “Fossils indicate common ancestor for two primate groups,” Nature (15 May 2013).
Vivek V. Venkataraman et al, “Solitary Ethiopian wolves increase predation success on rodents when among grazing gelada monkey herds,” Journal of Mammalogy 96(1): 129–137 (15 February 2015).
Bob Holmes, “Monkeys’ cosy alliance with wolves looks like domestication,” New Scientist (5 June 2015).
Alexandra G. Rosati & Brian Hare, “Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes,” PLoS One (May 2013).
“Apes get emotional over games of chance,” ScienceDaily (29 May 2013).
Daniel B. M. Haun, et al, “Great apes’ risk-taking strategies in a decision making task,” PLoS One 6 (12): e28801 (21 December 2011).
Gema Martin-Ordas et al, “Memory fo distant past events in chimpanzees and orangutans,” Current Biology (18 July 2013).
Gisela Kaplan & Lesley J. Rogers, The Orangutans, Perseus Publishing (2000).
Carel Van Schaik, Among Orangutans, Belknap Press (2004).
Serge A. Wich et al, Orangutans: Geographic Variation in Behavioral Ecology and Conservation, Oxford University Press (2009).
“Borneo’s orangutans are coming down from the trees,” Phys.org (29 July 2013).
Biruté M. F. Galdikas, “Orangutan diet, range, and activity at Tanjung Puting, Central Borneo,” International Journal of Primatology 9(10): 1–35 (1988).
Chris L. Schürmann and Jan A. R. A. M. van Hooff, “Reproductive strategies of the orangutan: New data and a reconsideration of existing sociosexual models,” International Journal of Primatology 7(3): 265–287 (1986).
“Monopoly of the male orangutan: comparative field observations on Sumatra and Borneo,” ScienceDaily (5 March 2013).
Carel P. Van Schaik & Jan A.R.A.M. Van Hoof, “Toward an understanding of the orangutan’s social system,” in Great Ape Societies, edited by William C. McGrew, Cambridge University Press (1996).
Matt Walker, “Wild orangutans treat pain with natural anti-inflammatory,” New Scientist (28 July 2008).
Adam van Casteren et al, “Nest-building orangutans demonstrate engineering know-how to produce safe, comfortable beds,” PNAS 109(18): 6873–6877 (1 May 2012).
Carel P. van Schaik et al, “Wild orangutan males plan and communicate their travel direction one day in advance,” PLoS One 8(9): e74896 (Sep-tember 2013).
“Orangutans plan their future route and communicate it to others, researchers show,” Phys.Org (11 September 2013).
Brigitte Spillmann et al, “Acoustic properties of long calls given by flanged male orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) reflect both individual identity and context,” Ethology (25 March 2010).
Isaas Bédard, “Orangutans, check your schedules,” Scientific American Mind 25(3): 11 (May/June 2014).
Adam van Casteren et al, “Nest-building orangutans demonstrate engineering know-how to produce safe, comfortable beds,” PNAS 109(18): 6873-6877 (1 May 2012).
“Orangutans smarter than previously thought: orangutan nest building highly sophisticated,” ScienceDaily (17 April 2012).
Janet Raloff, “Caste-off orangs,” Science News 147(12) (25 March 1995).
Paul Fleisher, Gorillas, Benchmark Books (2001).
K.J. Stewart & A.H. Harcourt , Primate Societies, University of Chicago Press (1987).
S.E. Woods, “Implementation and evaluation of a behavioral enrichment program for captive gorillas, with an emphasis on tool behaviors (Gorilla gorilla),” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder (1992).
Francine Patterson & Eugene Linden, The Education of Koko, Holt, Rinehard and Winston (1981).
B. Fontaine et al, “Observations of spontaneous tool making and tool use in a captive group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla),” Folia Primatologica 65(4): 219–233 (1995).
R.W. Wrangham & D. Peterson, Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence, Houghton Mifflin (1994).
David A. Leavens et al, “The mismeasure of ape social cognition,” Animal Cognition (4 August 2017).
“Apes’ abilities misunderstood by decades of poor science,” Phys.org (31 August 2017).
Chimpanzee photo courtesy of Ruy Alvarez.
Karline R.L. Janmaat et al, “Chimpanzees use long-term spatial memory to monitor large fruit trees and remember feeding experiences across seasons,” Animal Behaviour 86(6): 1183–1205 (December 2013).
Karline R.L. Janmaat et al, “Taï chimpanzees use botanical skills to discover fruit: what we can learn from their mistakes,” Animal Cognition 16(6): 851 – 860 (1 November 2013).
Tool Use
Kathelijne Koops et al, “Chimpanzees prey on army ants at Seringbara, Nimba Mountains, Guinea: predation patterns and tool use characteristics,” American Journal of Primatology (14 October 2014).
Martin Banks, Chimpanzee, Raintree Steck-Vaughn (2000).
Catherine Hobaiter et al, “Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees,” PLoS Biology (30 September 2014).
Though ironwood trees are only about 10% of the trees, chimpanzees choose them 74% of the time.
David R. Samson & Kevin D. Hunt, “Chimpanzees preferentially select sleeping platform construction tree species with biomechanical properties that yield stable, firm, but compliant nests,” PLoS One (16 April 2014).
Jennifer Viegas, “Chimps ‘talk’ about favourite fruits, best trees,” ABC Science (20 January 2015).
Stuart K. Watson et al, “Vocal learning in the functionally referential food grunts of chimpanzees,” Current Biology (5 February 2015).
Geoffrey C. Saign, Great Apes, Franklin Watts (1998).
Catherine Crockford et al, “Wild chimpanzees inform ignorant group members of danger,” Current Biology 22(2): 142–146 (29 December 2011).
“Chimpanzees show similar personality traits to humans, researchers say,” Phys.org (6 May 2014).
Personality & Emotions
Robert D. Latzman et al, “Personality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): exploring the hierarchical structure and associations with the vasopressin v1a receptor gene,” PLoS One (21 April 2014).
Hani D. Freeman et al, “Developing a comprehensive and comparative questionnaire for measuring personality in chimpanzees using a simultaneous top-down/bottom-up design,” American Journal of Primatology (3 June 2013).
“Planet of the apes,” The Economist (15 June 2013).
Darby Proctor et al, “Chimpanzees play the ultimatum game,” PNAS (14 January 2013).
Katja Liebal et al, “Does sympathy motivate prosocial behaviour in great apes?,” PLoS One (8 January 2014).
Shinya Yamamoto et al, “Chimpanzees help each other upon request,” PLoS One (14 October 2009).
Matthew W. Campbell & Frans B.M. de Waal, “Chimpanzees empathize with group mates and humans, but not with baboons or unfamiliar chimpanzees,” Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences (11 March 2014).
Maggie Koerth-Baker, “Want to understand mortality? Look to the chimps.” The New York Times (25 June 2013).
Sonya M. Kahlenberg & Richard W. Wrangham, “Sex differences in chimpanzees’ use of sticks as play objects resemble those of children,” Current Biology 20(24): R1067–R1068 (21 December 2010).
Edwin J. C. van Leeuwen et al, “Early social deprivation negatively affects social skill acquisition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes),” Animal Cognition 17(2): 407–414 (March 2014).
“Chimpanzees of a feather sit together’: friendships are based on homophily in personality,” Phys.org (9 October 2013).
Jorg J.M. Massen & Sonja E. Koski, “‘Chimpanzees of a feather sit together’: friendships are based on homophily in personality,” Evolution and Human Behavior (4 October 2013).
Natalie Angier, “In society of female chimps, subtle signs of vital status,” The New York Times (12 August 1997).
Toshisada Nishida & Kazuhiko Hosaka, “Coalition strategies among adult male chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania,” in Great Ape Societies, edited by William C. McGrew, 114–134, Cambridge University Press (1996).
Ian C. Gilby et al, “Fitness benefits of coalitionary aggression in male chimpanzees,” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67(3): 373–381 (March 2013).
Michael L. Wilson et al, “Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts,” Nature 513: 414–417 (18 Sep-tember 2014).
James Gorman, “Lethal violence in chimps occurs naturally, study suggests,” The New York Times (17 September 2014).
Colin Barras, “Only known chimp war reveals how societies splinter,” New Scientist (7 May 2014).
Joseph H. Manson & Richard W. Wrangham, “Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and humans,” Current Anthropology 32(4): 369–390 (August – October 1991).
Claudia Rudolf von Rohr et al, “Impartial third-party interventions in captive chimpanzees: a reflection of community concern,” PLoS One 7(3): e32494 (7 March 2012).
F.B.M. De Waal, “Conflict as negotiation,” in Great Ape Societies, edited by William C. McGrew et al, Cambridge University Press (1996).
Victoria Horner et al, “Spontaneous prosocial choice by chimpanzees,” PNAS 108(33): 13847–13851 (16 August 2011).
Felix Warneken et al, “Spontaneous altruism by chimpanzees and young children,” PLoS Biology (26 June 2007).
Frans B. M de Waal, “With a little help from a friend,” PLoS Biology (17 July 2007).
Roman M. Wittig et al, “Food sharing is linked to urinary oxytocin levels and bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees,” Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences (15 January 2014).
Joseph T. Feldblum et al, “Sexually coercive male chimpanzees sire more offspring,” Cell (13 November 2014).
“Chimpanzees flexibly adjust their behavior to maximize payoffs, not to conform to majorities,” Phys.org (13 December 2013).
Eric Michael Johnson, “I’ve got your back,” Scientific American (October 2011).
Edwin J.C. Van Leeuwen et al, “Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes) flexibly adjust their behaviour in order to maximize payoffs, not to conform to majorities,” PLoS One 8(11): e80945 (27 November 2013).
“Scientists find origins of teamwork in our nearest relative the chimpanzee,” ScienceDaily (19 March 2013).
Alicia P. Melis & Michael Tomasello, “Chimpanzees’ (Pan troglodytes) strategic helping in a collaborative task,” Biology Letters (20 February 2013).
Kevin E. Langergraber et al, “How old are chimpanzee communities? Time to the most recent common ancestor of the Y-chromosome in highly patrilocal societies,” Journal of Human Evolution 69: 1–7 (April 2014).
Catherine Hobaiteret al, “Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees,” PLoS Biology (30 September 2014).
Lydia V. Luncz & Christophe Boesch, “Tradition over trend: neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females,” American Journal of Primatology (31 January 2014).
Lydia V. Luncz et al, “Evidence for cultural differences between neighbor-ing chimpanzee communities,” Current Biology (10 May 2012).
Edwin J. C. van Leeuwen et al, “Neighbouring chimpanzee communities show different preferences in social grooming behaviour,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (29 August 2012).
Andrew Whiten et al, “Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chimpanzees,” Nature 437: 737–740 (29 September 2005).
Gretchen Vogel, “Chimps in the wild show stirrings of culture,” Science 284(5423): 2070–2073 (25 June 1999).
A. Whiten et al, “Cultures in chimpanzees,” Nature 399: 682–685 (17 June 1999).
Michael Haslam, “Evolutionary biology: dating chimpanzees,” Nature 508: 322–323 (17 April 2014).
“Differential prefrontal white matter development in chimpanzees and humans,” Current Biology 21(16): 1397–1402 (23 August 2011).
William D. Hopkins et al, “Chimpanzee intelligence is heritable,” Current Biology 24(14): 1649–1652 (21 July 2014).
Katie Marsico, Chimpanzees, Scholastic (2012).
“Young chimps top adult humans in numerical memory,” ScienceDaily (3 December 2007).
Michael J. Beran et al, “Language-trained chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) name what they have seen but look first at what they have not seen,” Psychological Science 24(5): 660–666 (May 2013).
Female bonobo photo courtesy of Hans Hillewaert.
David Quammen, “The left bank ape,” National Geographic (March 2013).
Kay Prüfer et al, “The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes,” Nature 486: 527–531 (28 June 2012).
Martin Surbeck et al, “Mate competition, testosterone and intersexual relationships in bonobos, Pan paniscus,” Animal Behavior 83(3): 659-669 (March 2012).
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Roosting bats photo courtesy of Bernard Gagnon.
Tom A. August et al, “Sympatric woodland Myotis bats form tight-knit social groups with exclusive roost home ranges,” PLoS One 9(10): e112225 (October 2014).
“Bats make social alliances that affect roosting behavior,” ScienceDaily (17 June 2014).
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Ant Foraging
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Tit Milk
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Colonial Intelligence
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Seahorse image courtesy of Pearson Scott Foresman.
Catherine Zuckerman, “Head hunter,” National Geographic 225(5) (May 2014).
Large Carnivores
John W. Laundré, “How large predators manage the cost of hunting,” Science 346(6205): 33–34 (3 October 2014).
David M. Scantlebury et al, “Flexible energetics of cheetah hunting strategies provide resistance against kleptoparasitism,” Science 346(6205): 79–81 (3 October 2014).
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Quail Covey
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GrrlScientist, “Birds identify good nuts by listening to them,” The Guardian (26 May 2015).
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Health Care
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Andrew A. McKenzie, “The ruminant dental grooming apparatus,” Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 99 (2): 117–128 (15 May 2008).
“Animal behaviour: smarter than the average bear,” The Economist (10 March 2012).
Mark Patterson, “A question of grooming,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3: 87 (February 2002).
T. Adler, “Voles appreciate the value of good grooming,” Science News 149: 247 (20 April 1996).
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Nick Bos et al, “Ants medicate to fight disease,” Evolution (18 August 2015).
Penny Sarchet, “Ant knows how to self-medicate to fight off fungal infection,” New Scientist (21 August 2015).
Leif L. Richarson et al, “Nectar chemistry mediates the behavior of parasitized bees: consequences for plant fitness,” Ecology (September 2015).
“Parasitized bees are self-medicating in the wild,” ScienceDaily (1 September 2015).
Matthias Konrad et al, “Social transfer of pathogenic fungus promotes active immunisation in ant colonies,” PLoS Biology (3 April 2012).
“Boozing fruit flies,” The Week (1 March 2012).
Ker Than, “Woolly bear caterpillars self-medicate,” National Geographic News (13 March 2009).
Fermented Fruit Flies
Julianna Bozler et al, “Transgenerational inheritance of ethanol preference is caused by maternal NPF repression,” eLife (9 July 2019).
“Parental ‘memory’ is inherited across generation,” ScienceDaily (9 July 2019).
Neil F. Milan et al, “Alcohol consumption as self-medication against blood-borne parasites in the fruit fly,” Current Biology (16 February 2012).
Fermented Fruit Flies
Balint Z. Kacsoh et al, “Fruit flies medicate offspring after seeing parasites,” Science 339: 947–950 (22 February 2013).
Ben Hoare, Animal Migration, University of California Press (2009).
Susan Milius, “Overlooked mass migration spotted,” Science News (4 February 2017).
Brett R. Jesmer et al, “Is ungulate migration culturally transmitted? Evidence of social learning from translocated animals,” Science 361(6406): 1023-1025 (7 September 2018).
William J. Horton et al, “Transcriptome analyses of heart and liver reveal novel pathways for regulating songbird migration,” Scientific Reports (15 April 2019).
“Songbird-body changes that allow migration may have human health implications,” ScienceDaily (25 April 2019).
Jason W. Chapman et al, “Seasonal migration to high latitudes results in major reproductive benefits in an insect,” PNAS 109(37): 14924–14929 (11 September 2012).
O. Padget et al, “Anosmia impairs homing orientation but not foraging behaviour in free-ranging shearwaters,” Scientific Reports (29 August 2017).
“Sense of smell is key factor in bird navigation, new study shows,” ScienceDaily (29 August 2017).
Christian Skov et al, “Migration confers survival benefits against avian predators for partially migratory freshwater fish,” Biology Letters (27 February 2013).
Benjamin M. Winger et al, “Temperate origins of long-distance seasonal migration in New World songbirds,” PNAS (4 August 2014).
William V. DeLuca et al, “Transoceanic migration by a 12 g songbird,” Biology Letters (1 April 2015).
“Tiny songbird discovered to migrate non-stop, 1,500 miles over the Atlantic,” ScienceDaily (31 March 2015).
Steven J. Portugal et al, “Upwash exploitation and downwash avoidance by flap phasing in ibis formation flight,” Nature 505: 399–402 (16 January 2014).
Flora Lichtman, “Bird data confirms that V’s help save energy,” The New York Times (15 January 2014).
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Kevin A. Feldheim et al, “Two decades of genetic profiling yields first evidence of natal philopatry and long-term fidelity to parturition sites in sharks,” Molecular Biology 23(1): 110–117 (January 2014).
Thomus Mueller et al, “Social learning of migratory performance,” Science 341: 999–1000 (30 August 2013).
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P. Lundberg, “Dominance behavior, body-weight and fat variations, and partial migration in European blackbirds Turdus merula,” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 17: 185–189 (1985).
Human Comprehension
Gordon Ramel, “What is migration?” | link: http://www.earthlife.net/birds/migration1.html.
Monarch Butterfly Migration
Laura M. Holson, “With 86% drop, California’s monarch butterfly population hits record low,” The New York Times (9 January 2019).
M.I. Rameriz et al, “Effects of human activities on monarch butterfly habitat in protected mountain forests, Mexico,” Forestry Chronicle 79: 242–246 (2003).
“How monarch butterflies recolonize northern breeding range,” ScienceDaily (19 March 2012).
“Genetic basis for migration in monarch butterflies uncovered,” ScienceDaily (30 March 2010).
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Michael Wines, “Migration of monarch butterflies shrinks again under inhospitable conditions,” The New York Times (29 January 2014).
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Gabrielle Canon, “‘It’s a sad reality’: a troubling trend sees a 97% decline in monarch butterflies,” The Guardian (8 December 2018).
Dragonfly Migration
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Robert B. Srygley, “Wind drift compensation in migrating dragonflies Pantala (Odonata: Libellulidae),” Journal of Insect Behavior 16(2): 217–232 (March 2003).
Dung Roll
James J. Foster et al, “Orienting to polarized light at night – matching lunar skylight to performance in a nocturnal beetle,” The Journal of Experimental Biology (28 January 2019).
“Dung beetles navigate better under a full moon,” Phys.org (5 February 2019).
Marie Dacke et al, “Dung beetles use the milky way for orientation,” Current Biology (24 January 2013).
“Stars in their eyes,” The Economist (26 January 2013).
Jochen Smolka et al, “Dung beetles use their dung ball as a mobile thermal refuge,” Current Biology 22(20) R863–R864 (23 October 2012).
Hugh Dingle, Migration, Oxford University Press (1996).
John Alcock, Animal Behavior, Sinauer Associates (2005).
Magnetic Field Detection
Frank Swain, “Moose and sheep pass down their migration routes through culture,” New Scientist (12 September 2018).
Julia Rosen, “Earth’s magnetic field guides sea turtles home,” Science News (15 January 2015).
Travis W. Horton et al, “Straight as an arrow: humpback whales swim constant course tracks during long-distance migration,” Biology Letters (20 April 2011).
Daniel Cressey, “The mystery of the magnetic cows,” Nature (11 November 2011).
Vlastimil Hart et al, “Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth’s magnetic field,” Frontiers in Zoology (27 December 2013).
Cryptochrome on the Wing
Robert J. Gegear et al, “Animal cryptochromes mediate magnetoreception by an unconventional photochemical mechanism,” Nature 463: 804–807 (11 February 2010).
Marissa Cevallos, “Quantum compass for birds,” Science News (7 January 2011).
“Not every partnership is about sex,” Phys.org (1 October 2015).
Malika Ihle et al, “Fitness benefits of mate choice for compatibility in a socially monogamous species,” PLoS Biology (14 September 2015).
Roland G. Roberts, “The fitness effects of love,” PLoS Biology (14 September 2015).
“Speed-dating birds,” The Economist (19 September 2015).
Laura Germine et al, “Individual aesthetic preferences for faces are shaped mostly by environments, not genes,” Current Biology (October 2014).
“Gay penguin couple adopts abandoned egg in German zoo,” CBC News (5 June 2009).
Elham A. Wassef & Hayam A. Abdul Hady, Breeding biology of rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus (Siganidae) in mid Arabian gulf,” Fisheries Research 33(1–3): 159–166 (December 1997).
John Virata, “Rabbitfish that pair up may not necessarily be breeding partners,” Fish Channel (24 September 2015).
Sara Goudarzi, “Gay animals out of the closet?,” NBC News (16 November 2006).
Simon Levay, Gay, Straight, and The Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation, Oxford University Press (2011).
Primal Urges
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Christopher R. von Rueden & Adrian V. Jaeggi, “Men’s status and reproductive success in 33 nonindustrial societies: effects of subsistence, marriage system, and reproductive strategy,” PNAS (6 September 2016).
“Status drives men’s reproductive success across non-industrial world,” ScienceDaily (29 September 2016).
“Putting on the brakes,” Science 340: 789 (17 May 2013).
Penny Sarchet, “Fickle female guppies fancy fresh faces,” New Scientist (30 September 2014).
Teruhiro Okuyama et al, ” A neural mechanism underlying mating preferences for familiar individuals in medaka fish,” Science 343(6166): 91–94 (3 January 2014).
Lenka Sentenská et al, “Female control of mate plugging in a female-cannibalistic spider (Micaria sociabilis),” BMC Evolutionary Biology (13 February 2015).
Carrie Arnold, “Surprise! Male spiders eat females, too,” National Geographic (13 May 2013).
Dimitar Dimitrov et al, “Tangled in a sparse spider web: single origin of orb weavers and their spinning work unravelled by denser taxonomic sampling,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (2 November 2011).
Nick Bascom, “The origin of orbs,” Science News (3 November 2011).
Pavol Prokopa & Michael R. Maxwell, “Gift carrying in the spider Pisaura mirabilis: nuptial gift contents in nature and effects on male running speed and fighting success,” Animal Behaviour 83(6): 1395–1399 (June 2012).
Samantha Vibert et al, “A meal or a male: the ‘whispers’ of black widow males do not trigger a predatory response in females,” Frontiers in Zoology (17 January 2014).
Lenka Sentenská & Stano Pekár, “Mate with the young, kill the old: reversed sexual cannibalism and male mate choice in the spider Micaria sociabilis (Araneae: Gnaphosidae),” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67(7): 1131–1139 (July 2013).
Oversexed Marsupial Mice
J. Reynolds, “Animal breeding systems,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11 (2): 68–72 (1996).
Black-tailed antechinus photo courtesy of Gary Cranitch.
“Newly discovered marsupial the victim of fatal attraction,” Queensland University of Technology (21 February 2014).
R.M. Gibson & J.W. Bradbury, “Sexual selection in lekking sage grouse: phenotypic correlates of male mating success,” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 18: 117–123 (1985).
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M.J. Ryan et al, “The costs and benefits of frog chorusing behavior,” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 8: 273–278 (1981).
Rolando Rodríguez-Muñoz et al, “Guarding males protect females from predation in a wild insect,” Current Biology (6 October 2011).
Sex Ratios
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András Liker et al, “Divorce and infidelity are associated with skewed adult sex ratios in birds,” Current Biology (20 March 2014).
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Nicole M. Gerlach et al, “Promiscuous mating produces offspring with higher lifetime fitness,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (1 September 2011).
“All for the grandkids: promiscuity in female birds results in genetic ‘trade-up,’ more offspring, research finds,” ScienceDaily (6 September 2011).
“Promiscuity and sperm selection improves genetic quality in birds,” ScienceDaily (3 September 2013).
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Donald Blomqvist, “Genetic similarity between mates and extra-pair parentage in three species of shorebirds,” Nature 419: 613–615 (10 Octo-ber 2002).
Antica Culina et al, “Trading up: the fitness consequences of divorce in monogamous birds,” Biological Reviews (10 October 2014).
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Colin Barras, “Zoologger: sex in the city no lure for urban owls,” New Scientist (28 March 2014).
R.A. Mauck et al, “Adult survival and imperfect assessment of parentage: effects on male parenting decisions,” The American Naturalist 154(1): 99–109 (July 1999).
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Blue-footed booby photo courtesy of Vince Smith.
Natlie Angier, “On Galápagos, revealing the blue-footed booby’s true colors,” The New York Times (6 March 2017).
Oscar Sánchez-Macouzet & Hugh Drummond, “Sibling bullying during infancy does not make wimpy adults,” Biology Letters (22 June 2011).
Sindya N. Bhanoo, “Effects of early bullying don’t last in birds,” The New York Times (22 June 2011).
Cooperative Breeding
Maynard J. Smith & M.G. Ridpaht, “Wife sharing in the Tasmanian native hen, Tribonyx mortierii: a case of kin selection?,” American Naturalist 106(950): 447–452 (1972).
Turkey Strut
C.R. Watts & A.W. Stokes, “The social order of turkeys,” Scientific American (June 1971).
Malcolm J. Coe, ” Cooperation of three males in nest construction by Chiromantis rufescens (Amphibia : Rhacophoridae),” Nature 214: 112–113 (1 April 1967).
Egg Laying
Lesley Evans Ogden, ” The father enigma: why do nature’s devoted dads care?,” New Scientist (12 June 2014).
“Unusual parenting behaviour by Southeast Asian species of treefrog discovered,” ScienceDaily (28 May 2014).
David Malakoff, “An emergency hatch for baby lizards,” Science (4 April 2013).
“Mum’s hormones could make female magpie chicks more adventurous,” University of Lincoln (1 September 2014).
“Why robin eggs are blue,” ScienceDaily (27 May 2016).
David C. Lahti & Daniel R. Ardia, “Shedding light on bird egg color: pigment as parasol and the dark car effect,” The American Naturalist 187(5) (May 2016).
Kaisa Rokka et al, “Sex-specific differences in offspring personalities across the laying order in magpies Pica pica,” Behavioural Processes 107: 79–87 (September 2014).
P. George Lovell et al, “Egg-laying substrate selection for optimal camouflage by quail,” Current Biology (17 January 2013).
Smart Eggs
J. Sean Doody & Phillip Paull, “Hitting the ground running: environmentally cued hatching in a lizard,” Ecology and Behavior 2013(1): 160–165 (March 2013).
“One smart egg: birds sense day length and change development,” ScienceDaily (10 July 2012).
Water Bugs
R.L. Smith, “Evolution of paternal care in giant water bugs (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae),” in Social Competition and Cooperation among Insects and Arachnids, II: Evolution of Sociality, edited by J.C. Choe & B.J. Crespi, Cambridge University Press (1997).
Viviane Callier & H. Frederik Nijhout, “Control of body size by oxygen supply reveals size-dependent and size-independent mechanisms of molting and metamorphosis,” PNAS 108(35): 14664–14669 (30 August 2011).
D. Tallamy, “Evolution of exclusive paternal care in arthropods,” Annual Review of Entomology 46: 139–165 (2001).
A. Göth & D.T. Booth, “Temperature-dependent sex ratio in a bird,” Biology Letters (1):31–3 (2005).
D. Steadman, Extinction and Biogeography in Tropical Pacific Birds, University of Chicago Press (2006).
Bird Eggs
Dexter Palmer, “Hatching a new hypothesis about egg shape diversity,” Princeton University (22 June 2017).
“How eggs got their shapes: adaptations for flight may have driven egg-shape variety in birds,” Phys.org (22 June 2017).
Mary Caswell Stoddard et al, “Avian egg shape: form, function, and evolution,” Science 356(6344): 1249-1254 (23 June 2017).
Sam Wong, “Bird eggs may be shaped by the way their mother flies,” New Scientist (28 June 2017).
Claire N. Spottiswoode, “The most perfect thing, explained,” Science 356(6344): 1234-1235 (23 June 2017).
Tim R. Birkhead et al, “The point of a Guillemot’s egg,” Ibis 159: 255-265 (2017).
“Researchers ponder the shape of birds’ eggs,” ScienceDaily (23 February 2017).
Live Birth
Brian Handwerk, “Evolution in action: lizard moving from eggs to live birth,” National Geographic News (1 September 2010).
Parental Care
Julia Thesing et al, “Short-term benefits, but transgenerational costs of maternal loss in an insect with facultative maternal care,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (22 September 2015).
Earwig photo courtesy of Fir0002/Flagstaffotos.
“Earwigs raised without parents demonstrate limited maternal care of their own offspring,” ScienceDaily (16 November 2015).
David J. Siveter et al, “Exceptionally preserved 450-million-year-old Ordovician ostracods with brood care,” Current Biology (13 March 2014).
Junchang Lü et al, “Post-natal parental care in a Cretaceous diapsid from northeastern China,”Geosciences Journal (October 2014).
Blue discus photo courtesy of Patrick Farrelly.
Jennifer L. Stynoski et al, “Evidence of maternal provisioning of alkaloid-based chemical defenses in the strawberry poison frog Oophaga pumilio,” Ecology 95(3): 587–593 (March 2014).
Donal M. Windsor et al, “Subsocial neotropical Doryphorini (Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae): new observations on behavior, host plants and systematics,” ZooKeys (19 September 2013).
Katharina Mahr et al, “Female attractiveness affects paternal investment: experimental evidence for male differential allocation in blue tits,” Frontiers in Zoology 9:14 (2012).
Susan Milius, “Hatch a thief,” Science News 172: 372 (15 December 2007).
Julie Morand-Ferron et al, “Food stealing in birds: brain or brawn?,” Animal Behaviour 74(6): 1725-1734 (December 2007).
Elizabeth S. Eaton, “Seabirds negotiate parenting duties,” Science News (8 July 2017).
Common Crèche
“Come into my parlour,” The Economist (26 January 2013).
Lena Grinsted et al, ” Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders,” Naturwissenschaften (October 2012).
Simon W. Townsend et al, “A simple test of vocal individual recognition in wild meerkats,” Biology Letters (12 October 2013).
“Meerkat predator-scanning behaviour is altruistic, experts say,” ScienceDaily (4 February 2013).
Nicolas Perony & Simon W. Townsend, “Why did the meerkat cross the road? Flexible adaptation of phylogenetically-old behavioural strategies to modern-day threats,” PLoS One (18 February 2013).
K.J. MacLeod et al, “Factors predicting the frequency, likelihood and duration of allonursing in the cooperatively breeding meerkat,”Animal Behavior (4 October 2013).
“Infanticide linked to wet-nursing in meerkats,” Phys.org (7 October 2013).
Sindya N. Bhanoo, “Helping out the family, especially in good times,” The New York Times (22 August 2011).
Andy Coghlan, “The most trusted meerkats are those with impeccable reputation,” New Scientist (23 August 2018).
R. Rauber & M.B. Manser, “Experience of the signaller explains the use of social versus personal information in the context of sentinel behaviour in meerkats,” Scientific Reports (23 August 2018).
“Nature’s strangest families: why animals adopt,” New Scientist (29 July 2015).
R.D. Estes & J. Goddard, “Prey selection and hunting behavior of the African wild dog,” Journal of Wildlife Management (1967).
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H. Kummer, Social organization of Hamadryas baboons: a field study, University of Chicago Press (1968).
Brood Parasites
Brood parasite photo courtesy of Dario Sanche.
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Burying Beetles
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Sea Otter Moms
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Slave Rebellion
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“Fish can be creatures of habit, too,” ScienceDaily (24 October 2011).
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Anelosimus studiosus
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“Fish bond when they eat the same food,” ScienceDaily (22 March 2016).
Hermit Crabs
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Pair Bonds
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Geladas photo courtesy of Dave Watts.
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African Wild Dogs
African wild dog photo courtesy of Mikkel Elbech.
Natalie Angier, “One for all, and all for hunt,” The New York Times (11 August 2014).
Social Dominance
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Gall Aphids
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Lioness photo courtesy of Falense.
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Empathy & Altruism
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Coerced Altruism
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Robin Dunbar, “Friendship: do animals have friends, too?,” New Scientist (27 May 2014).
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Nidhi Subbaraman, “Lonely wolf? Wolves howl when they miss their friends,” NBC News (22 August 2013).
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Interspecies Bonding
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Altruistic Algae
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Worm Charming
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Great Tits
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Theory of Mind
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Dogs vis-à-vis Wolves
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Defining Intelligence
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Expectation & Purpose
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Fruit Fly Song
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Fighting Damselflies
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Mantis Shrimp
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Coral Trout
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Irukandji Jellyfish
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Collective Intelligence
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Insect Colonies
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Rock Ant Real Estate
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Fish Shoals
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Spider Brains
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Spider Silk
European garden spider photo courtesy of Gnissah.
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Spider Webs
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Darwin’s Bark Spider
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Common House Spider
Common house spider photo courtesy of Patrick Moran.
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Triangle-Weaver Spider
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Bolas Spider
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Skink Mansions
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Bird Nests
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Village Weavers
Village weaver photo courtesy of Bernard Dupont.
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Tool Use
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Assassin Bugs
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Fishing Lure
Spider crab photo courtesy of Richard Aspinall.
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Wolverine Refrigerators
Wolverine photo courtesy of William F. Wood.
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Banded Mongooses
Banded mongoose photo courtesy of Derek Keats.
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Tanimbar Corella
Tanimbar corella photo courtesy of Lip Kee Yap.
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Parrot Discretion
Tom Phillips, “Police seize ‘super obedient’ lookout parrot trained by Brazilian drug dealers,” The Guardian (24 April 2019).
Math Skills
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Road Signs
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Optimal Foraging
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Starfish Geometry
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