Spokes 2: Table of Contents

Spokes 2: The Web of Life Table of Contents1178 pages {Notes}

The Web of Life (title page)

The Web of Life (1st chapter)
Defining Life
  History
  Life Defined
   Intelligence
Communication
     Fake Feces
     Telltale Smell
   Metacommunication
     Cleaner Fish
     Play
  Cellular Communication
   Intracellular Communication
    Calcium Ion Channels
    Electrons
    Prokaryote Palindromes
   Intercellular Communication
     Sweet Talk
     Stem Cell Conference
     Wounds
    Communal Encyclopedia
    Intracellular communication continued
     Primary Cilia
    Communication Lines
     Killer Diagrams
     Cancer Cells
  Media
   Light
     Fireflies Alight
    Bioluminescence
    Light continued
   Sound
     Echolocation
    Sound continued
   Electrical
   Chemical
     Azteca Ants & Phorid Flies
     Nematodes & Fungi
     Moth Advertising
     Benthic Scents
    Chemical continued
  Stimuli
  Noise
  Evolution
     Moths
     Shared Syntax
     Mangrove Snapper
     Spotted Hyena
  Coinciding Interests
     Feeding Offspring
   Recognition
    Kinship
     Sage Rats
   Recognition continued
    Status Sniff
   Coinciding Interests continued
  Audience Effect
  Honesty
     Roaring Deer
     Antlers & Horns
     Positive Polarization
     Bull Elephant Seals
     Toad Croaks
     Cricket Song
     Lizard Flashes and Dances
     Hyrax Songs
   Honesty continued
  Deception
     Parachute Plant
     Backstabbing Butterfly
   Bird Orders
   Deception continued 1
     Wintergreen Oil
   Camouflage
     Fish Scales
     Alternate Concealments
     Looking Dangerous
     Mocking Weevils
     The Scent of Food
   Deception continued 2
     
Drongos
   Deception continued 3
     Biosphere
   Climate
    Volcanism
  Biomes
   Classification
  Atmosphere
    Exosphere
    Thermosphere
    Mesosphere
    Stratosphere
     Polar Vortex
    Troposphere
   Atmospheric Circulation
   Climate & Weather
   Dust
     Lake Chad
    Sahara Desert
    Dust continued
   Clouds
  Hydrosphere
     Microbes in the Ocean
    Hydrosphere continued 1
   Ocean Circulation & Climate
    Eddies
    Ocean Conveyor Belt
   Water Cycle
   Continental Shelves
    Hydrosphere continued 2
  Lithosphere
   Astheosphere
   Tectonics
    Continental Drift
    Supercontinents
    Sea Level
    Submerged Continents
    Evolutionary Effects
     Continental Stock Exchange
    Continental Rift
  Climate Cycles
   Into Icehouse
   Heading to Hothouse
    Antarctic Gyre
    El Nino & La Nina
   Climate Cycles continued
  Biota
   Food Web
     Pacific Salmon
   Oceanic Life
     Coral Reef Gardeners
     Cleaner Fish
     Jellyfish
    Oceanic Life continued 1
     Vampire Squid
    Oceanic Life continued 2
   Life Entangled
    Microbes
     Marine Microbe Synchrony
    Life Entangled continued 1
     Witches’ Broom
    Mutualism
     Endosymbiotic Exploitation
     Hydrothermal Vents
     Bean Bugs & Burkholderia
     The Nematode & Its Killer Bacteria
     Agricultural Ants
     Tree Police
     Amazonian Ant-Plant
     Reef Police
     Clownfish & Anemone
     Seagrass & Clams
     Seagrass Comeback
     Sloths & Moths et cetera
     Take A Load Off
     Birds & Alligators
     Communication Chemistry
    Commensalism
     Tank Plants
     Sardine Tongue Trap
     Incidental Commensalism
    Amensalism
    Parasitism
     Parasitic Plants
     Cape Sumach
     Parasitism continued 1
     Parasite Zombies
     Fish Eye Fluke
     Tangle Web Spider
     Ant Berry
     Hired Protection
     Toxoplasma gondii
     Strepsipterans
     Parasitism continued 2
    Kleptoparasitism
    Microparasitism
     Microsporidia
    Epiparasitism
   Energy Flow
    Trophic Loops
    Death for Life
    Population Parameters
     Yelllowstone Wolves
   Keystones
     Rainforest Ants
     Sagebrush
    Marshes
     Canary Islands Trees
    Keystones continued 1
    Rarities
    Parasites
     Mistletoe
    Keystones continued 2
   Invasive Species
    Plants
     Kudzu
     King Crabs Under Antarctica
    Invasive Species continued
  Ecosystems
   Ecology Gyre
    Soil
     Termites
    Community Ecology
     Plant Stress
   Ecosystems continued
    Island Biomes
Synopsis

Life’s Diversity
Classification
     Jellyfish
    Supergroups
   Classification Confounded
   Linnaeus’ Curse
     Classifying Crows
    Misidentification
   Karyotype
   Classification continued
  Domains
  Nomenclature Overload
Microbes
  Importance
  Numbers
   Marine Microbes
   In the Soil
  Travel
  Sociality
   Cooperation
    Biofilms
   Quorum-Sensing
   Cheating
   Cooperation continued
   Warfare
   Associations
     Teamwork in the Rhizosphere
    Microbiome
     Gut Flora
     Ruminating
     Flatworms See The Light
  Habitats
     Hot Clams
   Microbe Habitats continued
  Archaea
  Bacteria
   Coating
   Diversity
   Bacteria continued
   Senses
     Magnetotactic Microbes
   Intelligence
     Work Uniform
   Genetic Uptake
   Sociality
    Myxobacteria
     Myxococcus xanthus
    Altruism
   Symbiosis
     Bioluminescence
     Eating With The Enemy
   Diet
     Power Grid
     Energetic Drinker
   Reproduction
   Robustness
  Viruses
     Mimivirus
   Viruses continued 1
   History
   Alive?
    Subvirals | Satellite Viruses
     Mama & Sputnik
     Cafeteria roenbergensis
     Intrigue at Organic Lake
     Satellite Viruses continued
   Infection
    Viral Altruism
    Infection continued
     Herpes
    Viruses continued 2
   Bacteriophages
    Communal Decisions
    Bacteriophages continued
   Ocean Viruses
    In the Muck
   Archaeal Viruses
   Plant Viruses
   Viral Zombies
     The Wasp & Its Virus
Protists
   Reproduction
  Algae
    Diatoms
    Volvox
  Plankton
     Husbanding Phosphorus
   Dinoflagellates
    Photosynthetic Techniques
   Other Plankton
  Protozoa
    Trich
   Ciliates
   Amoeba
   Xenophyophores
  Slime Molds
   Intelligence
   Plasmodia
   Social Amoeba
    Amoeba Farmers
    Social Amoeba continued
Multicellular Life
    Chloroplasts
Fungi
   Predatory Fungi
  Microscopic
   Chytrids
    Allomyces
   Yeast
    Fermentation
    Maternal Sacrifice
    Yeast Proprioception
   Molds
    Penicillin
  Macroscopic
   Mushrooms
    Mycophagous Mammals
  Lichen
  Pathogens
     Candida
     Ergot
     Potato Blight
    Fungal Voices
     Death Grip
     Fungus of the Gods
Synopsis

Plants
Tissues
  Meristem
  Secondary Tissues
Physics
    Sunflower Florets
   Photosynthesis
    Chrlorophyll
     Chlorophyll’s Color
   Water
   Transport
    Xylem & Phloem
   Size Limits
Chemistry
    Vacuoles
  Primary Metabolites
   Carbohydrates
   Lipids
   Amino Acids
  Secondary Metabolites
   Flavonoids
   Tannins
   Terpenes
    Conifers
    Terpenes continued
   Alkaloids
   Glycosides
Mechanics
  Materials
  Cell Growth
  Properties
   Parenchyma
  Flowering Plants
   Pollination
   Seed Production
    Maternal Care
   Establishment
Adaptabilities
  Water Management
  Reproduction
  Polyploidy
  Hybridity
  Dormancy
     Looted Fruit
Intelligence
     Pesky Pollinator
     Killer Quorum Mimic
   Intelligence continued 1
     Barberry Battles Barbarism
   Intelligence continued 2
  Communication
     The Headaches of Willows
   Lines of Communication
    Others on the Party Line
   Chemical Calling Cards
  Cheater Compliance
     Legumes & Rhizobia
     Yuccas & Moths
  Senses
   Sight
     Facing the Dawn
     Compass Plant
   Touch
     Touch-Me-Not
   Gravity
   Smell
     The Scent of Ripening
   Hearing
   Electricity
   Sense of Self
     Wood Sorrel
Stress
  Drought
  Waterlogging
   Hydrophytes
     Rootless Duckweed
  Cold
  Heat
Strategies
  Growth
   Cells
    Auxin
   Leaves
   Roots
    Rhizosphere
     Kwongan Root Strategies
   Seasonal Sense
    Flowering
  Defenses
   Wounds
   Border Building
   Self-Protection
     Inciting Cannibalism
     Beetle Juice
    Calling For Help
     Tobacco’s Defense
     The Timing of Fruit
    Self-Protection continued
    Immune Systems
     Damn Spots
     Viruses
      RNA Silencing
  Movement
     Hopping Horsetail Legs
     Moss Spore Shoot
     Orchids
   Plant Movement continued
   Tropisms
     Creeping Dogwood
     Bladderworts
     Venus Flytraps
     Shooting Seeds
    Nyctinastic Plant Movements
      Pollinator Responder
    Circumnutation
      Dodgy Dodders
    Growth As Movement
     Roots on the Move
  Competition
  Belowground
   Endophytes
    Mycorrhizae
     Trees
     Thale Cress Pickiness
     Trichoderma
     Mycoheterotrophy
      Indian Pipe
      Orchids
  Sociality
     The Comity of Sunflowers
     Jewelweed Relations
     Searocket Siblings
   All Together Now
Plants & Animals
   Pollination
     Elephant Yam
     Survival by Theft
     Just Don’t Munch the Seeds
     Cliffhanger
    Myrmecochory
   Camouflage
     Stone Plants
     Pygmy Pipes
   Borrowed Protection
     Monarchs & Milkweed
   Plants As Power Plants
  Medicinal Plants
   History
    Antiquity
    Early Europe
    Medieval Times
     Doctrine of Signatures
    The Renaissance
    The 19th Century
    The Rise of Synthetics
Synopsis

Animals
     Tardigrades
   Animals continued
   Sociality
   The Mirror Test
Insects
   Metamorphosis
   Wings
    Morpho Dragonflies
   Feet
  Fairyflies
  Dragonflies
  Cockroaches
  Bees
   Honeybees
    Life Cycle
     King Bee
    Honey
    Pollen
    Wax
    Honeycomb
    Guard Duty
    Foraging
    Young Again
    Hive Maintenance
    Intelligence
   Bumblebees
   Stingless Bees
  Ants
   Castes
    Ant Sounds
   Queens
    Supercolonies
    Colonies Without Queens
   Dinosaur Ants
    Ants continued
   Communication
     Wheedled by Beetles
    Ant Sounds
   Leafcutter Ants
     Heads Up
    Fungus Farming
     Killer Mold
    Hygiene
   Weaver Ants
   Meat Ants
     Cane Toads
  Termites
Octopuses
Reptiles
   Taxonomy
  Lizards
   Sight
   Communication
   Geckos
    Gecko Feet
     Namibian Desert Gecko
   Lifestyles
     Striped Lava Lizards
   Mating
    Tails
   Intelligence
  Snakes
   Anatomy
     Skin
   Temperature Regulation
   Senses
    Smell
    Infrared Detection
   Locomotion
   Diet
     The Big Squeeze
     Snake Eaters
     Tentacled Snakes
     Eggs Worth Fighting For
   Defenses
     Playing Dead
    Snake Venom
   Reproduction
   Cognition
   Snakes & Humans
Birds
  Diet
     Hornbills
     Songbird Patience
     Emus
     Hummingbirds
  Senses
   Sight
   Hearing
     Owls
   Seasonal Changes
  Brains & Intelligence
     Chickens
  Sociality
   Finch Society
  Communication
   Songs and Such
     Mockingbirds
    Singing in the City
    Bird Song continued
     Bat Song
     Parrots
      Alex
   Bird Communication continued
   Foraging Guidance
     Honeyguides
  Territory
   Advantages
   Defense
     Pied Wagtails
     Battles in Epping Forest
  Planning & Memory
     Scrub Jay Caching
     Bivouac Checking
  Corvids
   Intelligence & Awareness
    Tool Use
   Parenting
     Jackdaws
     Pinyon Jays
     Magpies
Mammals
  Rodents
   Squirrels
   Rats
   Sand Puppies
   Prairie Dogs
    A Keystone Species
  Giraffes
  Elephants
   Sociality
   Senses
   Diet
   The Trunk
   Teeth
    Tusks
   Communication
     Koshik
   Psychology
    In the Mirror
  Marine Mammals
     Captivity
   Sea Otters
   Dolphins
    Intelligence Physiology
    Intelligence
    Sociality
   Orcas
     Sea Lion Slam
   Pilot Whales
  Primates
   Lemurs
  Monkeys
   Variety
   Classification
   Diet
   Habitats
   Physiology
   Communication
   Socialty
    Grooming
   Intelligence
    Deception
   New World Monkeys
    Callitrichids
    Cebids
     Capuchins
     Squirrel Monkeys
    Night Monkeys
    Pitheciids
    Atelids
     Howler Monkeys
     Spider Monkeys
     Woolly Monkeys
   Old World Monkeys
    Colobines
     Proboscis Monkeys
    Cercopithecines
     Guenon Monkeys
     Talpoin Monkeys
     Patas Monkeys
     Dianas
     Vervets
     Japanese Macaques
      Imo the Innovator
    Baboons
     Diet
     Sociality
     Communication
     Domestication
  Apes
   Orangutans
   Gorillas
     Koko
   Chimpanzees
    Diet
    Tool Use
    Communication
    Personality & Emotions
    Parenting
    Sociality
    Culture
    Intelligence
     In the Mirror
   Bonobos
Aspects of Existence
  Sustenance
     Bats
     Giraffes & Acacias
     Ant Foraging
     Tit Milk
    Colonial Intelligence
  Health Care
   Grooming
   Remedies
     Fermented Fruit Flies
  Migration
    Human Incomprehension
    Monarch Butterfly Migration
    Dragonfly Migration
    Dung Roll
   Magnetic Field Detection
    Cryptochrome on the Wing
  Generations
     Homosexuality
     Primal Urges
   Mating
    Spiders
    Mating Choice
   Mating Systems
     Oversexed Marsupial Mice
    Lekking
     Kakapo
    Family
     Sex Ratios
     Birds
      Blue-Footed Boobies
    Mammal Mating
     House Mice
    Cooperative Breeding
     Turkey Sturt
   Birthing
    Egg Laying
     Smart Eggs
     Water Bugs
     Megapodes
     Bird Eggs
    Live Birth
   After Birth
    Parental Care
     Earwigs
     Chiclids
     Strawberry Poison Frogs
     Demurring Murres
    Alloparenting
     Common Creche
     Meerkats
    Adoption
    Brood Parasites
    Education
    Prolactin
    Infanticide
     Burying Beetles
    Parental Investment
     Milk
    Bonding
    Weaning
     Sea Otter Moms
   Menopause
     Grandmother Hypothesis
  Emotions
     Pill Bugs
   Emotional Chemistry
     Dopamine
   Comfort Behaviors
   Joy
   Play
     An Imprisoned Turtle
  Violence
   Gender
   Ants
     Slave Rebellion
     Suicide Ants
     Honeypots
     Looting
   Violence continued
  Personality
     Dunnocks at the Botanical Garden
     Comb-Foot Spiders
  Sociality
  Sociality and Biochemistry
     Vinegar Flies
     Hermit Crabs
   Cost & Benefits
    Protection
    Food
    Pair Bonds
   Organization
     Geladas
    Eusociality
     African Wild Dogs
   Social Dominance
     Gall Aphids
   Cooperation
     Lionfish
    Group Hunting
     Pseudoscorpions
     Lions
   Empathy & Altruism
    Coerced Altruism
     Vampire Bats
   Altruism continued
   Friendship
    Interspecies Bonding
  Intelligence
   Intelligence Survey
   Microbes
     Altruistic Algae
   Plants
   Animals
     Worm Charming
   Culture
     Great Tits
    Domestication
   Theory of Mind
    Dogs
    Dogs vis-a-vis Wolves
   Defining Intelligence
    Expectation & Purpose
   Savvy
     Houseflies
     Fruit Fly Song
     Fighting Damselflies
     Mantis Shrimp
     Coral Trout
     Irukandji Jellyfish
   Collective Intelligence
    Insect Colonies
     Rock Ant Real Estate
     Fish Shoals
   Construction
     Caddisflies
    Spiders
     Spider Brains
     Spider Silk
     Spider Webs
     Darwin’s Bark Spider
     Common House Spider
     Bolas Spider
     Water Spider
    Antlions
    Skink Mansions
    Bird Nests
     Village Weavers
     Bowerbirds
    Beavers
   Tool Use
    Invertebrates
     Funnel Ants
     Assassin Bugs
     Fishing Lure
    Vertebrates
     Archerfish
     Wrasse
     Birds
      Tanimbar Corella
     Mammals
      Wolverine Refrigerators
   Communication
   Math Skills
     Road Signs
    Optimal Foraging
     Starfish Geometry
     Pigeons
Synopsis

Conclusion

Glossary
People
Index