Spokes 3: Table of Contents

Spokes 3: The Elements of Evolution   Table of Contents   600 pages   {Notes}

Life’s History
    Geological Time
    Mass Extinctions
        Extinction Events
            End-Ordovician Extinction
            End-Devonian Extinction
        Causes
        Extinction Theories
            Catastrophism
            Uniformitarianism
    Timeline
                    A Watery Start
        Eukaryotes Evolve
            Spurring Multicellularity
                Reproduction Isolation
                Increasing Complexity
                    Sponges
        The Cryogenian Cooler
        Edicaran Life
        The Cambrian Explosion
                    Burgess Shale
                    Hallucigenia
                Fish Appear
                    Trilobytes
        Fish Tales
            Sharks
            Bottom Up
        Verdure Venture
                     Ferns
        Animals
            Insects Emerge
                     Early Herbivores
            Vertebrates Arrive on Land
        Continental Moves
        Plant Evolution
            Trees
                Fire Ecology
        Amphibians & Reptiles
            Snakes & Lizards
                Lizard Adaptability
                    Viviparity
                    Ginkgo
        The Great Dying
        The Triassic
        Flowering Plants
        Dinosaur Dominion
            Continental Shifts
            Body Heat
            The First Dinosaurs
                Hip Classification
            Saurischians
            Theropods & Sauropods
                Tyrannosaurs
                    T. Rex
                    Dakotaraptor
                    Halszkaraptor
            Ornithischians
                    Dinosaur Fleas
                    Water Fleas
            Ostrich Dinosaurs
                    Anzu
            In the Skies
                    Anurognathus
            At Sea
        Yucatan Big Bang
        Birds
                Growth Evolution
                    Yi qi
                    Aurornis
                    Archaeopteryx
                    Microraptor
                    Confusiusornis
            Extinction & Evolution
            Pedestrians
            Feathers
                Coloration
            Wings
            Bones
            Muscle & Tendons
            Lungs
            Manipulation
                    Woodpecker Beaks
            Flightless Birds
        Grasses
                    Mouseketeers
        True Beasts
            Mammals Multiply
            Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
            Primates Ascendant
            Eocene Cooling
                Antarctica Isolated
            Mediterranean Sea
    Geology & Plants
            Milankovitch Cycles
            Tectonic Pulses
    Synopsis
Evolution
            Analogues and Homologues
    Conceptual History
        Spontaneous Generation
        Preformatism
            Spermism
                Jan Swammerdam
        Natural Selection
                Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
                Giovanni Brocchi
                Charles Darwin
                Gregor Mendel
    Darwinism
        Competition
                    Seabird Colonies
                Mutualism
                Genomic Symphony
                    Selfish Genes
            Random Mutation
                    Nematode Timing
            Progress
                Devolution
                    Lizard Oviparity
            Symbiogenesis
            Punctuated Evolution
                    Wrasses
    The Science of Evolution
            Definitions
            A New Trait
                Sex Ratios
        Saltation
                Common Cordgrass
                Turtles
                Sphinx Moths
        Behavior
                Attitude Counts
            Human Mating Strategies
            Parasitic Manipulation
                Caterpillar Bodyguards
            Baldwin Effect
                House Finches
        Inheritance & Evolution
            Genetic Inheritance
                Gene Flow
            Mutation
            Recombination
            Gene Conversion
            Self-Splicing Elements
            Epigenetic Inheritance
                    Vinegar Flies
        Cells
                    Evolution Eternal
                    Ciliate Protozoa
                        DNA Mavens
            Microbes
            Viral Infection
            Evolvability
                Metabolism
            Adaptation in Disguise
                    Hemoglobin
            Haploid Adaptation
        Adaptation
            Perception
            Optimality
            Islands
                Animals
                Plants
                    Gall Plumbing
                    Backdoor Beetles
            Feathers & Fur
            Poison Avoidance
                    Pig Litters
                    Lusty Birds
                    Planthopper Leap Gear
                    Harvester Ants
            Rapid Adaptation
                    Polar Bears
                    Sticklebacks
                    Coy Wolves
                    Tibetans
                    Florida Lizards
                    Big-headed Ants
                    Polluted Fish
                    Polluted People
                    Peppered Moths
                    Mosquitofish
                    Birds
                    Potato Whiteflies
                    Coral
                Germ Plasm
            Coevolution
                     Milkweed
                Red Queen Hypothesis
                Symbiosis
                     Deep-Sea Battery
                     Termites & Fungus
                Plants & Animals
                Adaptive Predatory Cycle
                    Bad Taste
                Marked Against Predation
                    False Eyespots
        Conservation
            Weak Linkage
                The Easy Route
        Convergent Evolution
            Plants
                     Digestive Flexibility
                     Foraging
                     Infant Distress
                     Blood Suckers
                     Swimming Ants
                     Rove Beetles
                     High-Altitude Hummingbirds
                     Insect Eusociality
                     Blue Tarantulas
            Camouflage
                     Endogenous Retroviruses
                Adipose Fins
            Flight
            Singing
            Toxic Adaptation
                    Alkaloids
                    Glycosides
            Vision
                    Sea Urchins
                    Chiton
                    Paper Wasps
            Hearing
            Echolocation
                    Suction Vision
            Nervous Systems
            Brains
        Reversion Evolution
                    Snakes
                    Mites
                    Viruses
        Sex
                    Seven Sexes
                    Gray Tree Frogs
                    Guppies
                    Conspecific Male Plant Competition
            Hypotheses on Sex
            Sexual Selection Intensity
            Domiance
            Genitalia
            Rejections
            Humans
        Speciation
            History
                    Flies in Evolutionary Flight
                    Woodrats
                    Monkey-Flowers
                    Birds
                    Unhired Protection
            Niches
                    Competition in Guadalupe Canyon
                    Hummingbirds
                    Lake Constance Sticklebacks
                    Orca Culture
            Evolutionary Hotspots
                    Galapogos Islands
                    Paramo
        Precision
            Evolution By Perception
                    Nectar
                    Lizard Heads
            Mimicry
                    Cowbirds
                    Cagey Vines
                Batesian Mimicry
                Mullerian Mimicry
                    Tiger Moths
                    Mimic Octopus
                    Large Blue Butterfly
                    Courting Cockroach Counterfeit
        Inclusive Fitness
            Fitness Through Ignorance
            Altruism Innate
        Life-History Variables
            Animals
                Allometry
                    Bat Echolocation
                    Bat Shelter and Sociality
                    Infanticide
                    Cicadas
                    Mammal Predation
                    Mammal Defecation
                    Diving Birds
                Sexuality
                    Banana Slug Sex
                    Ram Horns and Longevity
                    Lechwe Reproductive Strategy
                Mating and Parent Care
                Precocial versus Altricial
                Bergman’s Rule
                    Hot Horse
                    Wandering Albatross Winds
                Sociality
            Intelligence
            Plants
                    Seeds
                Rate of Living
                    George the Lobster
                Full Lives
                Negligible Senescence
    Synopsis
Human Descent
            Neoteny
            Brain Size
            Vocalization
            Proconsul
            Climate
                Pleistocene
                The Last Glacial Maximum
                The Holocene Extinction
            Bipedalism
                Savannah Hypothesis
    Hominids
        Sahelanthropus
        Orrorin
        Ardipithecus
        Australopithecus
                    Fisticuffs
            Au. anamensis
            Au. bahrelghazali
            Au. africanus
                Lucy’s Northern Cousin
                Lucy’s Southern Cousin
                Lucy’s Next-Door Neighbor
            Au. garhi
            Au. sediba
        Kenyanthropus
        Paranthropus
        Homo
            The Paleolithic
            H. Habilis
                Not Homo?
            Splitting & Lumping
                H. antiquus
                H. rudolfensis
                H. helmei
            H. gautengenis
            H. erectus
            Diet
                Meat & Vegetables
                On the Hunt
                Fire
            H. antecessor
            H. heidelbergensis
                Controversy
                H. rhodesiensis
            Neanderthal
                Brain Development
                Technology
                Diet
            Denisovans
            H. floresiensis
            Homo sapiens
    Propelling Human Evolution
        Brains & Brawn
        Language
                Tilda
        Monogamy
        Longevity
        Social Cunning
        Cooperation
        Social Structure
            Cultural Diversity
            Domestication
        Technology
    Synopsis
Early Human History
    Prehistory
        Three-Age System
    Expression
        Art
            Abstract Art
            Cave Paintings
                 Chauvet-Pont-d’Arc Cave
        Writing
            Dispersal and Retention
    Stone Age
            Oldowan Industry
            Archeulean Industry
            Mousterian Industry
    Settlement
                    Dolni Vestonice
                    Abu Hureyra
    Agriculture
        Soil & Human Fertility
        Animal Domestication
                The Descent of Dogs
                Silkworms
        Cultural Crops
                Mesopotamia
    Early Civilizations
            Sumer
        Materialism
        Religion
    Bronze Age
            Minoan Civilization
        Ancient Egypt
        Bronze Age Collapse
            Mycenaean Civilization
    Iron Age
        Ancient Greece
        Ancient Rome
    Synopsis
Conclusion
Glossary
People
Index