Spokes 3: Table of Contents

Spokes 3: The Elements of Evolution Table of Contents722 printed pages {Notes}

The Elements of Evolution (title page)

Life’s History
Geological Time
Mass Extinctions
   Method
  Extinction Events
   End-Ordovician Extinction
   Mass Extinction Diversity Loss
   End-Devonian Extinction
   Extinction Events continued
  Causes
   Mass Extinction Non-Selective
  Extinction Theories
   Catastrophism
   Uniformitarianism
Timeline
  Eukaryotes Evolve
   Spurring Multicellularity
    Reproduction Isolation
    Complexity
     Sponges
   Eukaryote Evolution continued
  The Cryogenian Cooler
  Edicaran Life
     Rangeomorphs
     Dickinsonia
  Edicaran Life continued
  The Cambrian Explosion
     Burgess Shale
     Hallucigenia
    Fish Appear
   The Cambrian Explosion continued
     Trilobytes
  Fish Tales
   Sharks
   Bottom Up
  Verdure Venture
     Ferns
   Verdure Venture
  Animals
   Insects Emerge
     Early Herbivores
   Vertebrates Arrive on Land
  Continental Moves
  Plant Evolution
   Trees
    Fire Ecology
  Amphibians & Reptiles
   Lizards & Snakes
    Lizard Adaptability
     Viviparity
     Ginkgo
   Reefs
  The Great Dying
  The Triassic
  Flowering Plants
    Pollinating Bees
   Flowering Plants continued
  Methane Maelstrom
  Dinosaurs
   Continental Shifts
   Body Heat
     Tegu Lizards
     Opah
     Cold Tolerance
   The First Dinosaurs
   Dinosaur Classification
   Dinosaurs continued
    Tyrannosaurs
     T. Rex</a>
     
Dakotaraptor
   Dinosaur Sociality
     Halszkaraptor
   Dinosaur Convergent Evolution
     Spinosaurs
   Dinosaur Dominion
   Dinosaur Diversity
    Sauropods
   Dinosaurs & Lizards
   Ornithischians
     Dinosaur Fleas
     Water Fleas
    Ostrich Dinosaurs
     Anzu
   In the Skies
     Anurognathus
   At Sea
     Stony Coral
     Seaside Sifter
    Ichthyosaurs
    Nothosaurs
    Plesiosaurs
    Mosasaurs
   Plant Evolution
  Yucatan Big Bang
  Birds
   Growth Evolution
   Early Bird Diversification
     Yi qi
     Aurornis
     Archaeopteryx
     Microraptor
   Avian Pre-Adaptations
   Ornithurae
     Confusiusornis
   Extinction & Evolution
   Pedestrians
   Feathers
    Coloration
   Wings & Flight
   Bones
   Muscle & Tendons
   Lungs
   Manipulation
     Woodpecker Beaks
   Manipulation continued
   Flightless Birds
  Grasses
   Early Mammals
     Mouseketeers
   Mammals Rising
  True Beasts
   Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
   Primates Ascendant
   Eocene Cooling
    Antarctica Isolated
   Oligocene
   Mediterranean Sea
Geology & Plants
   Milankovitch Cycles
   Tectonic Pulses
Synopsis
   Geological Time
   Mass Extinctions
   Timeline

Evolution
   Analogues and Homologues
Conceptual History
  Spontaneous Generation
  Preformatism
   Spermism
    Jan Swammerdam
   Preformatism continued
  Natural Selection
    Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
    Giovanni Brocchi
    Charles Darwin
    Gregor Mendel
   Evolution Theories
Darwinism
   Competition
     Seabird Colonies
    Mutualism
    Fitness
    Genomic Symphony
     Selfish Genes
   Random Mutation
     Nematode Timing
   Progress
    Devolution
    Progress continued
   Symbiogenesis
   Punctuated Evolution
    Evolution Direction
     Wrasses
   Complexity
The Science of Evolution
    Definitions
  Process
  Dispersal & Adaptation
    Global Microbes
  Patterns
  Conservation
   Deep Homology
   Weak Linkage
   WBio-layering
    The Easy Route
   A New Trait
     Sex Ratios
  Saltation
     Common Cordgrass
   Floral Saltation
     Turtles
     Sphinx Moths
  Behavior
     Attitude Counts
   Human Mating Strategies
   Parasitic Ants
   Parasitic Manipulation
     Caterpillar Bodyguards
   Baldwin Effect
     House Finches
  Inheritance & Evolution
   Genetic Inheritance
    Gene Flow
   Mutation
   Recombination
   Gene Conversion
   Self-Splicing Elements
   Epigenetic Inheritance
     Vinegar Flies
  Cells
     Evolution Eternal
   Natural Genetic Engineering 1
     Ciliate Protozoa
      DNA Mavens
   Natural Genetic Engineering 2
   Microbes
    Microbiomes
    Pathogens
    Viral Infection
   Evolvability
    Metabolism
   Adaptation in Disguise
     Hemoglobin
   Haploid Adaptation
  Adaptation
   Perception
     Sea Snakes
   Adaptation continued
     Tropical Rainforest Spiders
   (Not) Freezing
   Islands
    Animals
    Plants
    Islands continued
     Gall Plumbing
   Evolutionary Arms Races
     Backdoor Beetles
   Feathers & Fur
   Cryptic Coloration
   Poison Avoidance
     Pig Litters
   Epigenetics
     Lusty Birds
     Planthopper Leap Gear
     Harvester Ants
   Rapid Adaptation
     Polar Bears
     Sticklebacks
     Coy Wolves
     Tibetans
     Florida Lizards
     Big-headed Ants
     Polluted Fish
     Polluted People
     Peppered Moths
     Mosquitofish
     Birds
     Potato Whiteflies
     Hawaiian Crickets
     Coral
    Germ Plasm
   Coevolution
     Milkweed
     Fruit
     Marine Cyanophages
     Parasitic Plants
    Red Queen Hypothesis
    Mutualism
     Deep-Sea Battery
     Pathogen Protection
     Codependence
    Plants & Animals
     Acacia & Ants
      Beltian Body Snatcher
    Adaptive Predatory Cycle
     Bad Taste
    Marked Against Predation
     False Eyespots
    Lepidopteran Defense
  Convergent Evolution
   Plants
     Digestive Flexibility
     Foraging
     Blood Suckers
     Swimming Ants
     Rove Beetles
     High-Altitude Hummingbirds
     Insect Eusociality
     Blue Tarantulas
     Dragonfish
   Camouflage
     Endogenous Retroviruses
    Adipose Fins
   Flight
    Flightlessness
    Swimming
   Vocalization
     Infant Distress
    Singing
   Hearing
   Toxic Adaptation
     Alkaloids
     Glycosides
   Vision
     Sea Urchins
    Eye Evolution
     Chiton
     Paper Wasps
   Echolocation
     Suction Vision
   Nervous Systems
   Intelligence & Brains
  Reversion Evolution
     Snakes
    Sightless Animals
     Mites
     Viruses
  Sex
     Tetrahymena
   Sex continued
     Gray Tree Frogs
     Guppies
     Conspecific Male Plant Competition
     Marbled Crayfish
   Hypotheses on Sex
   Sexual Selection Intensity
   Dominance
   Genitals
   Rejections
   Humans
  Development
     Giraffes
   Heterotopy
   Metamorphosis
   Development continued
  Speciation
   History
   Variation
     Woodrats
    Sympatric Speciation
     Lake Constance Sticklebacks
     Orca Culture
     Ducks
     Plants
    Parapatric Speciation
   Speciation via Timing
     Monkey-Flowers
     Unhired Protection
   Niches
     Competition in Guadalupe Canyon
     Hummingbirds
     Birds
     Flies in Evolutionary Flight
   Evolutionary Hotspots
     Galápagos Islands
     Paramo
  Optimality
     Dandelions
     Manta Rays
     Deep-Sea Fish
   Cells
   Photosynthesis
   Optimality continued 1
   Moving Through Fluids
    Turning
   Optimality continued 2
   Evolution By Perception
     Nectar
     Iridescence
     Peacock Spiders
     Stingers
     Shore Crabs
   Mimicry
     Cowbirds
     Cagey Vines
    Batesian Mimicry
    Mullerian Mimicry
     Tiger Moths
     Mimic Octopus
     Large Blue Butterfly
     Courting Cockroach Counterfeit
  Altruism
   Fitness Through Ignorance
   Altruism Innate
  Life-History Variables
   Animals
    Allometry
     Bat Echolocation
     Bat Shelter and Sociality
     Infanticide
     Cicadas
     Mammal Predation
     Mammal Defecation
   Evolutionary Tradeoffs
     Diving Birds
    Sexuality
     Banana Slug Sex
     Monoecy
     Ram Horns and Longevity
     Lechwe Reproductive Strategy
    Mating and Parent Care
    Precocial versus Altricial
    Climate & Body Size
     Hot Horse
     Wandering Albatross Winds
     Brains
    Sociality
     Locusts
   Hominin Life-History Variables
   Intelligence
     Eyesight to the Blind
   Precocial & Altricial Animals
    Manipularity-Intelligence Hypothesis
   Plants
    Seeds
   Plant Life-History Variables continued
   Rate of Living
     George the Lobster
    Full Lives
   Aging & Mortality
    Fertility
     Negligible Senescence
Synopsis

Human Descent
   Neoteny
   Brain Size
   Vocalization
    Proconsul
    Pierolapithecus
    Pliobates
   Climate
    Pleistocene
    The Last Glacial Maximum
    Dyras Stadials
    The Holocene Extinction
   Bipedalism
    Savannah Hypothesis
    Hominid Tolerance Adaptation
Hominids
  Sahelanthropus
  Orrorin
  Ardipithecus
  Australopithecus
     Fisticuffs
   Au. anamensis
   Au. afarensis
    Lucy’s Northern Cousin
    Lucy’s Southern Cousin
    Lucy’s Next-Door Neighbor
   Au. bahrelghazali
   Au. africanus
   Au. garhi
   Au. sediba
  Kenyanthropus
  Paranthropus
  Homo
   The Paleolithic
   H. Habilis
    Not Homo?
   Splitting & Lumping
    H. antiquus
    Splitting & Lumping continued
    H. rudolfensis
    H. helmei
   H. gautengenis
   H. erectus
   H. ergaster
   H. georgicus
    Lumping, Take 2
   Diet
    Meat & Vegetables
    On the Hunt
    Fire
   H. antecessor
   H. heidelbergensis
    Controversy
    H. rhodesiensis
   Neanderthal
    Neanderthal Brain Development
    Neanderthal Technology
    Neanderthal Diet
    Neanderthal Interbreeding
   Denisovans
   H. naledi
   H. floresiensis
    Hominid Speciation
   Homo sapiens
     Toba Super-Eruption
    Red Deer Cave People
    Cro-Magnon
    Cro-Magnon versus Neanderthals
    Continuing Evolution
    Human Speciation
Propelling Human Evolution
  Brains & Brawn
  Culture
  Language
    Tilda
  Monogamy
  Longevity
  Social Cunning
  Cooperation
  Social Structure
   Cultural Diversity
   Domestication & Violence
  Technology
Synopsis

Early Human History
Prehistory
  3-Age System
Expression
  Art
   Abstract Art
   Cave Paintings
     Chauvet-Pont-d’Arc Cave
   Geoglpyhs
   Musical Instruments
  Writing
   Dispersal and Retention
Stone Age
   Oldowan Industry
   Archeulean Industry
   Mousterian Industry
   Stone Age continued
Settlement
     Dolni Vestonice
   Settlements continued
     Abu Hureyra
Religion
Agriculture
  Soil & Human Fertility
  Animal Domestication
    The Descent of Dogs
    Silkworms
   Agriculture continued
  Cultural Crops
    Mesopotamia
Early Civilizations
   Sumer
   Early Civilizations continued
  Materialism
  Religion
Bronze Age
   Minoan Civilization
  Ancient Egypt
  Yamnayans
  Bronze Age Collapse
   Mycenaean Civilization
Iron Age
  Ancient Greece
  Ancient Rome
Synopsis

Conclusion

Glossary
People
Index