Spokes 4: Notes

Spokes 4: The Ecology of Humans   Research References   (Table of Contents)

Common knowledge for Spokes obtained from various encyclopedias and dictionaries, including Encyclopedia Britannica, Everipedia, New World Encyclopedia, Wikipedia, World Book Encyclopedia, Scholarpedia, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary, Dictionary.com, and a plethora of Internet sites (cross-referenced for veracity).

Human Biology
Kevin R. Foster et al, “The evolution of the host microbiome as an ecosystem on a leash,” Nature 548:43–51 (03 August 2017).
Katharine Z. Coyte et al, “The ecology of the microbiome: networks, competition, and stability,” Science 350(6261): 663-666 (6 November 2015).
Elizabeth K. Costello et al, “The application of ecological theory toward an understanding of the human microbiome,” Science 336: 1255–1262 (8 June 2012).
Ron Sender et al, “Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body,” bioRXiv (6 January 2016).
Laty A. Cahoon & Nancy E. Freitag, “The electrifying energy of gut microbes,” Nature (12 September 2018).
Gutam Naik, “Deep inside bacteria, a germ of human personality,” The Wall Street Journal (8 September 2009).
“MicroRNAs manage gut microbes,” Science News (20 February 2014).
Megan S. Thoemmes et al, “Ubiquity and diversity of human-associated Demodex mites,” PLoS One (27 August 2014).
Andrew L. Kau et al, “Human nutrition, the gut microbiome and the immune system,” Nature 474: 327–336 (16 June 2011).
Laura Sanders, “Microbes can play games with the mind,” Science News (23 March 2016).
Moises Velasquez-Manoff, “Microbes, a love story,” The New York Times (10 February 2017).
David Berreby, “Studies explore love and the sweaty t-shirt,” The New York Times (6 June 1998).
Yassin M. Ibrahim et al, “Maternal gut microbes control offspring sex and survival,” Journal of Probiotics & Health (23 September 2014).
Suzanne Wolff & Andrew Dillin, “The stressful influence of microbes,” Nature 508: 328–329 (17 April 2014).
Moheb Constandi, “Microbes on your mind,” Scientific American Mind 23(3): 33-37 (July/August 2012).
Ying Liu et al, “Caenorhabditis elegans pathways that surveil and defend mitochondria,” Nature 508: 406 (17 April 2014).
Samuel Minot et al, “Hypervariable loci in the human gut virome,” PNAS 109(10): 3962–3966 PNAS (6 March 2012).
Elisabeth Kernbauer et al, “An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria,” Nature (19 November 2014).
Aaron E. Carroll, “The problem with probiotics,” The New York Times (3 November 2018).
Infant Exposure
Lauran Neergaard, “Bacteria live even in healthy placentas, study finds,” Medical Xpress (22 May 2014).
Dae-Wook Kang et al, “Long-term benefit of microbiota transfer therapy on autism symptoms and gut microbiota,” Scientific Reports (9 April 2019).
Jennifer G. Mulle et al, “The gut microbiome: a new frontier in autism research,” Current Psychiatry Reports (1 February 2014).
Richard E. Frye et al, “Approaches to studying and manipulating the enteric microbiome to improve autism symptoms,” Microbial Ecology (7 May 2015).
Jocelyn Kaiser, “Placenta harbors bacteria, may impact fetal health,” Science (21 May 2014).
Giacomo Biasucci et al, “Cesarean delivery may affect the early biodiversity of intestinal bacteria,” The Journal of Nutrition 138(9): 17965–18005 (September 2008).
“Study: C-section babies skip the bacterial slide,” NPR (27 June 2010).
Susanna Y. Huh et al, “Delivery by caesarean section and risk of obesity in preschool age children: a prospective cohort study,” Disease in Childhood (23 May 2012).
Hedvig E Jakobsson et al, “Decreased gut microbiota diversity, delayed Bacteroidetes colonisation and reduced Th1 responses in infants delivered by Caesarean section,” Gut (7 August 2013).
Andreas R. Graven, “C-section infants don’t get enough good microbes,” ScienceNordic (16 August 2013).
Derrick M. Chu et al, “Maturation of the infant microbiome community structure and function across multiple body sites and in relation to mode of delivery,” Nature Medicine (23 January 2017).
Laura Sanders, “Birth may not be a major microbe delivery event for babies,” Science News (15 February 2017).
Naama Geva-Zatorsky et al, “Mining the human gut microbiota for immunomodulatory organisms,” Cell (16 February 2017).
“Scientists monitor crosstalk between intestinal microbes and immune system,” ScienceDaily (16 February 2017).
Mitch Leslie, “Gut microbes keep rare immune cells in line,” Science 335: 1428 (23 March 2012).
Javier A. Bravo et al, “Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve,” PNAS 108(38): 16050–16055 (20 September 2011).
Hans-Rudolf Berthoud & Winfried L. Neuhuber, “Functional and chemical anatomy of the afferent vagal system,” Autonomic Neuroscience 85(1): 1–17 (20 December 2000).
Shruti Naik, “The skin’s secret surveillance system,” Nature (26 July 2012).
Shruti Naik et al, “Compartmentalized control of skin immunity by resident commensals,” Science (26 July 2012).
Shruti Naik et al, “Commensal–dendritic-cell interaction specifies a unique protective skin immune signature,” Nature (5 January 2015).
S. Lindquist et al, “Investigating protein conformation-based inheritance and disease in yeast,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London; Series B, Biological Sciences 356(1406): 169–176 (February 2001).
C. Canchaya et al, “Phage as agents of lateral gene transfer,” Current Opinion in Microbiology 6(4):417–424 (2003).
“Tuberculosis Fact sheet N°104,” World Health Organization (November 2010).
Bodo Linz et al, “A mutation burst during the acute phase of Helicobacter pylori infection in humans and rhesus macaques,” Nature Communications (13 June 2014).
John R. Rohde, “Listeria unwinds host DNA,” Science 331(6022): 1271–1272 (11 March 2011).
Ciarán P. Kelly, “Fecal microbiota transplantation – an old therapy comes of age,” The New England Journal of Medicine 368:474–475 (31 January 2013).
Thomas J. Borody & Alexander Khoruts, “Fecal microbiota transplan-tation and emerging applications,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology 9: 88-96 (February 2012).
Denise Grady, “When pills fail, this, er, option provides a cure,” The New York Times (16 January 2013).
Johan S. Bakken et al, “Treating Costridium difficile infection with fecal microbiota transplantation,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 9(12): 1044–1049 (December 2011).
Anil Ananthaswamy, “Faecal transplant eases symptoms of Parkinson’s,” New Scientist (19 January 2011).
“Triclosan added to consumer products impairs response to antibiotic treatment,” Phys.org (22 February 2019).
Corey Westfall et al, “The widely used antimicrobial triclosan induces high levels of antibiotic tolerance in vitro and reduces antibiotic efficacy up to 100-fold in vivo,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (19 February 2019).
“Triclosan: what consumers should know,” US Food and Drug Administration (April 2010).
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Fact sheet on triclosan,” National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (28 February 2011).
Andrew Martin, “Antibacterial chemical raises safety issues,” The New York Times (19 August 2011).
Adnan K. Syed et al, “Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization,” mBio 5(2): e01015-13 (8 April 2014).
Mei-Fei Yueh et al, “The commonly used antimicrobial additive triclosan is a liver tumor promoter,” PNAS (18 November 2014).
Lyndsey Layton, “FDA says studies on triclosan, used in sanitizers and soaps, raise concerns,” The Washington Post (8 April 2010).
Janet Raloff, “A new source of dioxins: clean hands,” Science News (18 May 2010).
J. Lindén et al, “Dioxins, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and the central regulation of energy balance. A review,” Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 31 (4): 452–478 (2010).
DioxinFacts.org, a web page from the Chlorine Chemistry Division of the American Chemistry Council (3 June 2010).
Joseph D. Wisk & Keith R. Cooper, “Comparison of the toxicity of several polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in embryos of the Japanese medaka (Oryzi-as latipes),” Chemosphere 20(3–4): 361–377 (1990).
“Chemical in antibacterial soap fed to nursing rats harms offspring, study finds,” ScienceDaily (17 June 2013).
Beth Mole, “Triclosan may spoil wastewater treatment,” Science News (26 July 2014).
Beth Mole, “Crops take up drugs from recycled water,” Science News (19 September 2014).
Gennady Cherednichenko et al, “Triclosan impairs excitation–contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle,” PNAS 109(35): 14158–14163 (28 August 2012).
Erin M. Rees Clayton et al, “The impact of Bisphenol A and triclosan on immune parameters in the US population, NHANES 2003-2006,” Environmental Health Perspectives (2010).
Gennady Cherednichenko et al, “Triclosan impairs excitation–contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle,” PNAS 109(35): 14158–14163 (28 August 2012).
“FDA issues final rule on safety and effectiveness of antibacterial soaps,” FDA (2 September 2016).
Beth Mole, “FDA bans antibacterial soaps; “No scientific evidence” they’re safe, effective,” Ars Technica (2 September 2016).
Alan Yuhas, “Antibacterial soaps banned in US amid claims they do ‘more harm than good’,” The Guardian (2 September 2016).
Cassie Martin, “Bones tell other organs a thing or two,” Science News (8 & 22 July 2017).
Tim Stephens, “Reign of the giant insects ended with the evolution of birds,” University of California – Santa Cruz (4 June 2012).
Friedrich G. Kapp et al, “Protection from UV light is an evolutionarily conserved feature of the haematopoietic niche,” Nature (13 June 2018).
Microbes In The Mix
B. Brett Finlay, “The art of bacterial warfare,” Scientific American (10 January 2010).
Arya Khosravi et al, “Gut microbiota promote hematopoiesis to control bacterial infection,” Cell Host & Microbe 15(3): 374–381, (12 March 2014).
Lora V. Hooper et al, “Interactions between the microbiota and the immune system,” Science 336(6086): 1268–1273 (8 June 2012).
“Brothers in arms: commensal bacteria help fight viruses,” ScienceDaily (18 June 2012).
Vanessa Sperandio, “Virulence or competition?,” Science 336(6086): 1238–1239 (8 June 2012).
Nobuhiko Kamada et al, “Regulated virulence controls the ability of a pathogen to compete with the gut microbiota,” Science 336(6086): 1325–1329 (8 June 2012).
Andrew Sczesnak et al, “The genome of Th17 cell-inducing segmented filamentous bacteria reveals extensive auxotrophy and adaptations to the intestinal environment,” Cell Host & Microbe 10(3): 260–272 (15 September 2011).
Dorothy L. Ackerman et al, “Human milk oligosaccharides exhibit antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties against group B Streptococcus,” ACS Infectious Diseases 3(8): 595–605 (1 June 2017).
“Sugars in human mother’s milk are new class of antibacterial agents,” ScienceDaily (20 August 2017).
The Immune System
Ethne Barnes, Diseases and Human Evolution, University of New Mexico Press (2005).
Jon Cohen, “Surprising treatment ‘cures’ monkey HIV infection,” Science 354(6309): 157–158 (14 October 2016).
Tina H. Saey, “Bacteria in bondage,” Science News (6 December 2011).
Manuela Villion & Sylvain Moineau, “Virology: phages hijack a host’s defence,” Nature 494: 433–434 (28 February 2013).
Joseph C. Sun & Lewis L. Lanier, “Natural killer cells remember: An evolutionary bridge between innate and adaptive immunity?,” European Journal of Immunology 39(8): 2059–2064 (August 2009).
Richard Robinson, “Inflammation triggers RNA transfer from blood cells to brain neurons,” PLoS Biology (3 June 2014).
Kirsten Ridder et al, “Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of genetic information between the hematopoietic system and the brain in response to inflammation,” PLoS Biology (3 June 2014).
Innate Immunity
A. Marijke Keestra et al, “Manipulation of small Rho GTPases is a pathogen-induced process detected by NOD1,” Nature (31 March 2013).
Selena M. Sagan & Peter Sarnow, “RNAi, antiviral after all,” Science 342(6155): 207–208 (11 October 2013).
Yang Li et al, “RNA interference functions as an antiviral immunity mechanism in mammals,” Science 342(6155): 231–234 (11 October 2013).
P.V. Maillard et al, “Antiviral RNA interference in mammalian cells,” Science 342(6155): 235–238 (11 October 2013).
Acquired Immunity
Edze R. Westra et al, “CRISPR–Cas systems: beyond adaptive immunity,” Nature Reviews Microbiology (7 April 2014).
Hannah Grace Roddie et al, “Simu-dependent clearance of dying cells regulates macrophage function and inflammation resolution,” PLoS Biology (14 May 2014).
“Dead cells disrupt how immune cells respond to wounds and patrol for infection,” ScienceDaily (21 May 2019).
T.D. Gilmore, “Introduction to NF-?B: players, pathways, perspectives,” Oncogene 25: 6680–6684 (2006).
Natural Killer Cells
Geoffrey O. Gillard et al, “Thy1 Nk cells from vaccinia virus-primed mice confer protection against vaccinia virus challenge in the absence of adaptive lymphocytes,” PLoS Pathogens (4 August 2011).
Stephanie K. Lathrop et al, “Peripheral education of the immune system by colonic commensal microbiota,” Nature 478: 250–254 (13 October 2011).
Adaptive Lymphocytes
Mark Schlissel, “Immunology: B-cell development in the gut,” Nature 501: 42-43 (5 September 2013).
Duane R. Wesmann et al, “Microbial colonization influences early B-lineage development in the gut lamina propria,” Nature 501: 112-115 (5 September 2013).
Hirotake Tsukamoto et al, “Age-associated increase in lifespan of naïve CD4 T cells contributes to T-cell homeostasis but facilitates development of functional defects,” 106(43): 18333–18338 PNAS (27 October 2009).
Daved F. Tough & Jonathan Sprent, “Lifespan of ?/d cells,” Journal of Experimental Medicine 187(3): 357–365 (2 February 1998).
D.F. Tough & J. Sprent, “Life span of naive and memory T cells,” Stem Cells 13(3):242–249 (May 1995).
T Cells
Delphine Goubau et al, “Antiviral immunity via RIG-I-mediated recognition of RNA bearing 5′-diphosphates,” Nature (10 August 2014).
Ivan Marazzi et al, “Suppression of the antiviral response by an influenza histone mimic,” Nature 483: 428–433 (22 March 2012).
Richard Berry et al, “The structure of the cytomegalovirus-encoded m04 glycoprotein, a prototypical member of the m02 family of immuno-evasins,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry (30 June 2014).
U. Kutschera, “Potato blight: fungus did not cause potato famine,” Nature 494: 314 (21 February 2013).
James P. Scott-Browne et al, “Evolutionarily conserved features contribute to aß T cell receptor specificity,” Immunity (2011).
B Cells
Katelyn M. Spillane & Pavel Tolar, “B cell antigen extraction is regulated by physical properties of antigen-presenting cells,” The Journal of Cell Biology (6 December 2016).
“B cells use mechanical forces to pull antigens from other cell surfaces,” Phys.org (12 January 2017).
Maria Vono et al, “The adjuvant MF59 induces ATP release from muscle that potentiates response to vaccination,” PNAS 110(52): 21095–21100 (24 December 2013).
“Vaccine side effects/risks,” National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (8 March 2012).
Markus Heinze, “How pharmaceutical companies hide the dangers of vaccines from parents,” Vactruth.com (26 September 2013).
B.J. Rolls & E.T. Rolls, Thirst, Cambridge University Press (1982).
Daniel McNeill, The Face, Little Brown & Company (1998).
Janine Willis & Alexander Todorov, “First impressions: making up your mind after a 100-ms exposure to a face,” Psychological Science 17(7): 592–598 (July 2006).
Nikolaas N. Oosterhof & Alexander Todorov, “The functional basis of face evaluation,” PNAS 105(32): 11087–11092 (12 August 2008).
“Facing the truth,” The Economist (21 August 2008).
Roger Highfield et al, “How your looks betray your personality,” New Scientist (11 February 2009).
Justin M. Carré & Cheryl M. McCormick, “In your face: facial metrics predict aggressive behaviour in the laboratory and in varsity and professional hockey players,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 275(1651): 2651–2656 (November 2008).
Alan Booth & James M. Dabbs Jr., “Testosterone and men’s marriages,” Social Forces 72(2): 463–477 (1993).
Mark Synder et al, “Social perception and interpersonal behavior: on the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35(9): 656–666 (September 1977).
Leslie A. Zebrowitz & Joann M. Montepare, “Social psychological face perception: why appearance matters,” Social and Personality Psychology Compass 2(3): 1497–1517 (May 2008).

Intelligence Physiology
Carl D. Perl & Jeremy E. Niven, “Differential scaling within an insect compound eye,” Biology Letters (22 February 2016).
“Scientists discover parts of organs ‘have minds of their own’ when it comes to growth,” Phys.org (16 March 2016).
The Senses
John M. Henshaw, A Tour of the Senses, The John Hopkins University Press (2012).
Lawrence D. Rosenblum, See What I’m Saying, W.W. Norton (2010).
A. Manning & M.S. Dawkins, “Diverse sensory capacities,” in An Introduction to Animal Behavior, Cambridge University Press (1998).
Sam Kean, The Disappearing Spoon, Little, Brown and Company (2010).
D.F. Swaab, We Are Our Brains, Spiegel & Grau (2014).
Pamela J. Hines, “Mind-boggling brain development,” Science 362(6411): 170-171 (12 October 2018).
Ariel Bleicher, “Edges of perception,” Scientific American Mind 23(1): 46-53 (March/April 2012).
T. M. Luhrmann, “Can’t place that smell? you must be American,” The New York Times (5 September 2014).
“Scientists discover an organizing principle for our sense of smell based on pleasantness,” ScienceDaily (26 September 2011).
Hadas Lapid et al, “Neural activity at the human olfactory epithelium reflects olfactory perception,” Nature Neuroscience (25 September 2011).
“Smokers and passive smokers more likely to suffer hearing loss, study shows,” University of Manchester (29 May 2014).
R. Payne, “Acoustic location of prey by barn owls (Tyto alba),” Journal of Experimental Biology 54: 535–573 (1971).
S. Dijkgraaf, “The functioning and significance of the lateral-line organs,” Biological Reviews 38: 51–105 (1962).
B.L. Partridge and T.J. Pitcher, “The sensory basis of fish schools: relative roles of lateral line and vision,” Journal of Comparative Physiology 135: 315–325 (1980).
L. Markl, “Adaptive radiation of mechanoreception,” in Sensory Ecology, edited by M.A. Ali, 49–69, Plenum (1977).
Connie X. Wang et al, “Transduction of the geomagnetic field as evidenced from alpha-band activity in the human brain,” eNeuro (18 March 2019).
Maria Temming, “People can sense Earth’s magnetic field, brain waves suggest,” Science News (18 March 2019).
J. Hurst, “The complex network of olfactory communication in populations of wild house mice Mus domesticus: markings and investigation within family groups,” Animal Behaviour 37: 705–725 (1989).
Michael McCulloch et al, “Diagnostic accuracy of canine scent detection in early- and late-stage lung and breast cancers,” Integrative Cancer Therapies 5–1: 30–39 (March 2006).
Marije K. Bomers et al, “Using a dog’s superior olfactory sensitivity to identify Clostridium difficile in stools and patients: proof of principle study,” British Medical Journal (BMJ) (13 December 2012).
C. Wedekind et al, “MHC-dependent mate preferences in humans,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 260: 245–259 (1995).
“People choose to marry individuals with genetic similarities,” Nature World News (20 May 2014).
“People more likely to choose a spouse with similar DNA, finds CU-Boulder study,” University of Colorado, Boulder (19 May 2014).
Rich Morin, “New academic study links rising income inequality to ‘assortative mating’,” Pew Research Center (29 January 2014).
Annie Murphy Paul, “The real marriage penalty,” The New York Times (19 November 2006).
Bjorn Carey, “The rules of attraction in the game of love,” LiveScience (13 February 2006).
H. Scheih et al, “Electroreception and electrolocation in platypus,” Nature 319: 401 – 402 (30 January 1986).
C.D. Hopkins & A.H. Bass, “Temporal coding of species recognition signals in an electric fish,” Science 212(4490): 85–87 (3 April 1981).
W.M. Masters & A.J.M. Moffat, “Transmission of vibration in a spider’s web,” in Spiders, edited by W.A. Shear, Stanford University Press (1986).
W.M. Masters & H. Markl, “Vibration signal transmission in spider orb web,” Science 213: 363–365 (17 July 1981).
Smell & Taste
“Brain perceives taste with all senses, scientific evidence reveals,” ScienceDaily (31 August 2016).
Roberto Vincis & Alfredo Fontanini, “Associative learning changes cross-modal representations in the gustatory cortex,” eLife (30 August 2016).
Gordon M. Shephard, Neurogastronomy, Columbia University Press (2012).
C. Bushdid et al, “Humans can discriminate more than 1 trillion olfactory stimuli,” Science 343(6177): 1370–1372 (21 March 2014).
David Hänig, “Zur Psychophysik des Geschmackssinnes,” Philosophische Studien 17: 576–623 (1901).
Hojoon Lee et al, “Rewiring the taste system,” Nature (9 August 2017).
Cordella A. Running et al, “Oleogustus: the unique taste of fat,” Chemical Senses 40(7): 507–516 (2015).
Amy Patterson, “Research confirms fat is sixth taste; names it oleogustus,” Purdue University News (23 July 2015).
Trina J. Lapis et al, “Humans can taste glucose oligomers independent of the hT1R2/hT1R3 sweet taste receptor,” Chemical Senses (23 Au-gust 2016).
Jessica Hamzelou, ” There is now a sixth taste – and it explains why we love carbs,” New Scientist (2 September 2016).
Emily Underwood, “Scientists discover a sixth sense on the tongue—for water,” Science (30 May 2017).
Dhruv Zocchi et al, “The cellular mechanism for water detection in the mammalian taste system,” Nature Neuroscience 20; 927–933 (29 May 2017).
Clare E. Turner et al, “Carbohydrate in the mouth enhances activation of brain circuitry involved in motor performance and sensory perception,” Appetite 70: 212–219 (1 September 2014).
Ian Randall, “Tongue has a sixth sense,” Science (5 June 2014).
Kenzo Kurihara & Lloyd M. Beidler, “Taste-modifying protein from miracle fruit,” Science 161 (3847): 1241–1243 (20 September 1968).
Rachel Sugar, “But what does umami taste like?,” Vox (10 December 2018).
Maude W. Baldwin et al, “Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor,” Science 345(6199): 929–933 (22 August 2014).
Liane Schmidt et al, “How context alters value: the brain’s valuation and affective regulation system link price cues to experienced taste pleasantnes,” Scientific Reports 7: 8098 (14 August 2017).
“Why expensive wine appears to taste better: it’s the price tag,” ScienceDaily (14 August 2017).
Asifa Majid & Nicole Kruspe, “Hunter-gatherer olfaction is special,” Current Biology (19 January 2018).
Andy Coghlan, “Some people identify smells as easily as if they were colours,” New Scientist (18 January 2018).
Janelle Weaver, “Bacteria sniff out their food,” Nature (16 August 2000).
Paul Szyszka, “Follow the odor,” Science 344(6191): 1454 (27 June 2014).
Jeffrey A. Riffell et al, ” Flower discrimination by pollinators in a dynamic chemical environment,” Science 344(6191): 1515–1518 (27 June 2014).
Kenneth C. Catania, “Stereo and serial sniffing guide navigation to an odour source in a mammal,” Nature Communications (5 February 2013).
Mona Khan et al, “Regulation of the probability of mouse odorant receptor gene choice,” Cell 147 (4): 907 (2011).
Ana V. Oliveira-Pinto et al, “Sexual dimorphism in the human olfactory bulb: females have more neurons and glial cells than males,” PLoS One (5 November 2014).
Joanna Klein, “Humans have a poor sense of smell? It’s just a myth,” The New York Times (11 May 2017).
Vibration vs. Shape
John Hewitt, “The vibrational theory of olfaction for the win,” Medixal Xpress (31 October 2017).
Klio Maniati et al, “Vibrational detection of odorant functional groups by Drosophila melanogaster,” eNeuro (26 October 2017).
“Nose smells by radiation,” Science News Letter 339 (29 November 1947).
Luca Turin, “A spectroscopic mechanism for primary olfactory reception,” Chemical Senses (Oxford Journals) 21(6): 773–791 (1996).
Y. Oka et al, “Olfactory receptor antagonism between odorants,” The Embo Journal 23–1: 120–126 (2004).
Simon Gane et al, “Molecular vibration-sensing component in human olfaction,” PLoS One (25 January 2013).
Eric Block et al, “Implausibility of the vibrational theory of olfaction,” PNAS (21 April 2015).
John Hewitt, “Plausibility of the vibrational theory of smell,” Phys.org (20 April 2015).
Joonhee Lee et al, “Visualizing vibrational normal modes of a single molecule with atomically confined light,” Nature 568: 78–82 (3 April 2019).
“Scientists are first to observe, image all-important molecular vibrations,” ScienceDaily (3 April 2019).
Amelia C. Whitcomb et al, “Influence of immune-relevant genes on mate choice and reproductive success in wild-spawning hatchery-reared and wild-born coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch),” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (5 March 2014).
Simon Thorpe et al, “Speed of processing in the human visual system,” Nature 381: 520–522 (6 June 1996).
Gabriele Jorda et al, “The dimensionality of color vision in carriers of anomalous trichromacy,” Journal of Vision (July 2010).
Gerald H. Jacobs, “Evolution of colour vision in mammals,” Philosophical Transactions B 364(1531): 2957–2967 (12 October 2009).
The Human Eye
Michel Millodot, “Do blue-eyed people have more sensitive corneas than brown-eyed people?,” Nature 255: 151–152 (8 May 1975).
Davide Castelvecchi, “Quantum technology probes ultimate limits of vision,” Nature (15 June 2015).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Color vision strategy defies textbooks,” Science News (15 October 2016).
Ruanak Sinha et al, “Cellular and circuit mechanisms shaping the perceptual properties of the primate fovea,” Cell (168(3): 413-426 (26 January 2017).
“A close look at sharp vision in eye structure seen only in humans and other primates,” ScienceDaily (22 February 2017).
Vision Processing
Michael M. Bannert & Andreas Bartels, “Decoding the yellow of a gray banana,” Current Biology (18 November 2013).
“The visual brain colors black and white images,” ScienceDaily (31 October 2013).
Yoichi Sugita, “Experience in early infancy is indispensable for color perception,” Current Biology 14(14): P1267-1271 (27 July 2004).
“Scientists probe connection between sight and touch in the brain,” ScienceDaily (8 September 2011).
Susana Martinez-Conde & Stephen L. Macknik, “Shifting focus,” Scientific American Mind 22(5): 45-55 (November/December 2011).
Corie Lok, “Seeing without seeing,” Nature 469: 284-285 (20 January 2011).
Roslyn Dakin et al, “Visual guidance of forward flight in hummingbirds reveals control based on image features instead of pattern velocity,” PNAS (14 June 2016).
“Hummingbird vision wired to avoid high-speed collisions,” ScienceDaily (18 July 2016).
Brian J. Ward et al, “Hummingbirds have a greatly enlarged hippocampal formation,” Biology Letters (22 February 2012).
“Hummingbirds’ huge memory lets them remember the location of every flower in their territory,” Daily Mail (22 February 2012).
Eye Signals
“Whites of their eyes: infants respond to social cues from sclera, study finds,” ScienceDaily (27 October 2014).
Michael Tomasello, “For human eyes only,” The New York Times (13 January 2007).
Sarah Jessena & Tobias Grossmann, “Unconscious discrimination of social cues from eye whites in infants,” PNAS (27 October 2014).
Thomas Euler et al, “Retinal bipolar cells: elementary building blocks of vision,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience (18 July 2014).
Circadian Rhythm
Andrew D. Gaudet et al, “Spinal cord injury in rats disrupts the circadian system,” eNeuro (3 December 2018).
“Spinal injury throws body clocks off schedule,” ScienceDaily (4 December 2018).
Ofer Fridman et al, “Optimization of lag time underlies antibiotic tolerance in evolved bacterial populations,” Nature (25 June 2014).
Frank A. J. L. Scheer et al, “The human endogenous circadian system causes greatest platelet activation during the biological morning independent of behaviors,” PLoS One 6 (9): e24549 (2011).
Lauren Walmsley et al, “Colour as a signal for entraining the mammalian circadian clock,” PLoS Biology (17 April 2015).
L. DiTacchio et al, “Histone lysine demethylase JARID1a activates CLOCK-BMAL1 and influences the circadian clock,” Science 333 (6051): 1881(30 September 2011).
Miho Sato et al, “The role of the endocrine system in feeding-induced tissue-specific circadian entrainment,” Cell Reports (15 June 2014).
Tina H. Saey, “Eggs have own biological clock,” Science News (6 December 2011).
Rajesh Narasimamurthy et al, “Circadian clock protein cryptochrome regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines,” PNAS 109(31): 12662–12667 (31 July 2012).
Jun Z. Li et al, “Circadian patterns of gene expression in the human brain and disruption in major depressive disorder,” PNAS 110(24): 9950–9955 (11 June 2013).
Shih-Kuo Chen et al, “Apoptosis regulates ipRGC spacing necessary for rods and cones to drive circadian photoentrainment,” Neuron 77(3): 503-515 (6 February 2013).
George Thommen, Biorhythms: Is This Your Day?, Crown Publishing Group (1987).
the Skeptic’s Dictionary [http://skepdic.com/biorhyth.html] (undated).
Terence M. Hines, “Comprehensive review of biorhythm theory,” Psychological Reports 83: 19–64 (August 1998).
Nora D. Volkow et al, “Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism,” Journal of the American Medical Association 305 (8): 808-813 (2011).
“Cell phone emissions excite the brain cortex,” Annals of Neurology (26 June 2006).
Evolution of Sight
Gerald H. Jacobs & Jeremy Nathans, “The evolution of primate color vision,” Scientific American (April 2009).
JoAnna Klein, “Owls see the world much like we do,” The New York Times (3 July 2018).
Nathan C. Rockwell et al, “Eukaryotic algal phytochromes span the visible spectrum,” PNAS (24 February 2014).
Michael Le Page, “This single-celled bug has the world’s most extraor-dinary eye,” New Scientist (16 June 2015).
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Tripedalia cystophora photo courtesy of: Jan Bielecki , Alexander K. Zaharoff, Nicole Y. Leung, Anders Garm & Todd H. Oakley.
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Mantis Shrimp Sight
Mantis shrimp eyes photo courtesy of Alexander Vasenin.
Bob Yirka, “Study finds mantis shrimp process vision differently than other organisms,” Phys.org (24 January 2014).
Ben Guarino, “This creature has the oddest eyes in the animal kingdom,” The Washington Post (2 May 2018).
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Hanne H. Thoen et al, “A different form of color vision in mantis shrimp,” Science 343(6169): 411-413 (24 January 2014).
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Kate Shaw Yoshida, “One of the strangest animals on earth gets a little weirder,” Ars Technica (27 January 2014).
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Avian Sight
Eleanor M. Caves et al, “Categorical perception of colour signals in a songbird,” Nature (1 August 2018).
Almut Kelber, “Birds perceive colors in categories,” Nature (1 August 2018).
“Birds categorize colors just like humans do,” Phys.org (1 August 2018).
Simple Eyes
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Spider Eyes
James Gorman, “How the jumping spider sees its prey,” The New York Times (6 November 2018).
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Marie E. Herberstein & Darrel J. Kemp, “A clearer view from fuzzy images,” Science 335(6067): 400-410 (27 January 2012).
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Elsa Youngsteadt, ” Spiders hunt with 3-D vision,” Wired (26 January 2012).
Box Jellyfish
Tripedalia cystophora photo courtesy of Jan Bielecki, Alexander K. Zaharoff, Nicole Y. Leung, Anders Garm, and Todd H. Oakley.
Jan Bielecki et al, “Ocular and extraocular expression of opsins in the rhopalium of Tripedalia cystophora (Cnidaria: Cubozoa),” PLoS One (5 June 2014).
Monkey Vision
Amanda Melin, “Hindsight wasn’t 20/20 nor as colorful: the evolution of primate vision,” AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting (19 February 2017).
Laruel Hamers, “Howler monkeys may owe their color vision to leaf hue,” Science News (21 February 2017).
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Narwhal drawing courtesy of Pearson Scott Foresman.
Joanna Klein, “Narwhals, tusked whales of the Arctic, see with sound. Really well.,” The New York Times (9 November 2016).
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Jens C. Koblitz et al, “Highly directional sonar beam of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) measured with a vertical 16 hydrophone array,” PLoS One (9 November 2016).
Daniel Kish
Lore Thaler et al, “Neural correlates of natural human echolocation in early and late blind echolocation experts,” PLoS One (25 May 2011).
Harbor seal photo courtesy of Andreas Trepte.
Benedikt Niesterok et al, “Hydrodynamic detection and localization of artificial flatfish breathing currents by harbour seals (Phoca vitulina),” Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 174-185 (January 2017).
Snarling dog lithographic image courtesy of Thomas W. Wood; taken from Charles Darwin’s The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872).
Kurtis G. Gruters et al, “The eardrum moves when the eyes move: a multisensory effect on the mechanics of hearing,” bioRxiv (29 June 2017).
Aylin Woodward, “Your eardrums move in sync with your eyes but we don’t know why,” New Scientist (26 July 2017).
Language Sounds
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Fabian Hutmacher & Christof Kuhbandner, “Long-term memory for haptically explored objects: Fidelity, durability, incidental encoding, and cross-modal transfer,” Psychological Science (30 October 2018).
“Touch can produce detailed, lasting memories,” ScienceDaily (27 November 2018).
Derek Cabrera & Laura Colosi, “The world at our fingertips,” Scientific American Mind 21(4): 36-41 (September/October 2010).
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Linda Geddes, “A user’s guide to touch,” New Scientist (27 February 2015).
David J. Linden, Touch: The Science of Hand, Heart, and Mind, Penguin Group (2015).
“Fingertips to hair follicles: why ‘touch’ triggers pleasure and pain,” NPR (3 February 2015).
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“Botulinum toxin type A product approval information – licensing action 4/12/02,” US Food and Drug Administration (2002).
“More than $16 billion spent on cosmetic plastic surgery in 2016,” ScienceDaily (12 April 2017).
“Plastic surgery on the rise – with Botox and breast implants most popular,” The Guardian (31 January 2013).
“Botox popularity continues,” Aesthetic Medicine News (2010).
“Cosmetic procedures and products: a US and European market report” TransWorldNews (2 August 2011).
Skin & Brain
“How we come to know our bodies as our own,” ScienceDaily (17 June 2011).
Deane Juhan, Job’s Body, Barrytown (1998).
Valeria I. Petkova et al, “From part- to whole-body ownership in the multisensory brain,” Current Biology 21(13): 1118–1122 (12 July 2011).
Linda Geddes, “Why your brain needs touch to make you human,” New Scientist (25 February 2015).
“Women tend to have better sense of touch due to smaller finger size,” ScienceDaily (15 December 2009).
Davide Filingeri et al, “Why wet feels wet? A neurophysiological model of human cutaneous wetness sensitivity,” Journal of Neurophysiology 112(6): 1457–1469 (15 September 2014).
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Touch (continued)
“Detecting bugs: why humans have body hair,” The Week (16 December 2011).
“Touching a nerve: how every hair in skin feels touch and how it all gets to the brain,” ScienceDaily (11 January 2012).
Antje Gentsch et al, “Active interpersonal touch gives rise to the social softness illusion,” Current Biology (10 September 2015).
Lydia Denworth, “The social power of touch,” Scientific American Mind 30–39 (July/August 2015).
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Research History
Francis Galton, “Visualised numerals,” Nature 21, 494–495 (25 March 1880).
Julia Simner et al, “Synaesthesia: the prevalence of atypical cross-modal experiences,” Perception 35 (8): 1024–1033 (2006).
The Nervous System
Sandy Fritz, Mosby’s Fundamentals of Therapeutic Massage, Elsevier (2013).
Neuron image courtesy of Quasar Jarosz.
Timothy O’Leary et al, “Cell types, network homeostasis, and pathological compensation from a biologically plausible ion channel expression model,” Neuron 82(4): 809–821 (21 May 2014).
Chongyuan Luo et al, “Single-cell methylomes identify neuronal subtypes and regulatory elements in mammalian cortex,” Science 357(6351): 600-604 (11 August 2017).
The Energy System
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“You are what you eat,” Science 334: 12 (7 October 2011).
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The Feeling of Being Watched
Sahih Muslim, Book 26, Number 5427.
Animal Tales
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The Intelligence System
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The Brain
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Natalie Angier, “A molecule of motivation, dopamine excels at its task,” The New York Times (27 October 2009).
“Chemical signals in brain help guide risky decisions,” ScienceDaily (11 September 2014).
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Raju Tomer et al, “Profiling by image registration reveals common origin of annelid mushroom bodies and vertebrate pallium,” Cell 142(5): 800–809 (3 September 2010).
“Investigating the pleasure centers of the brain: how reward signals are transmitted,” ScienceDaily (27 May 2014).
Thomas A. Harris, I’m Ok, You’re Ok, Galahad Books (2004).
JoAnna Klein, “Hunched Over a microscope, he sketched the secrets of how the brain works,” The New York Times (18 February 2017).
Ashley Yeager, “Rethinking which cells are the conductors of learning and memory,” Science News (11 August 2015).
R. Douglas Fields, The Other Brain, Simon & Schuster (2009).
R. Douglas Fields, “The hidden brain,” Scientific American Mind 22(2): 52-59 (May/June 2011).
Andrew Koob, The Root of Thought: Unlocking Glia, Amazon Digital Services (2009).
Lilach Soreq et al, “Major shifts in glial regional identity are a transcriptional hallmark of human brain aging,” Cell Reports 18(2): 557-570 (10 January 2017).
“Brain’s connective cells are much more than glue: Glia cells also regulate learning and memory,” ScienceDaily (29 December 2011).
Melinda Wenner Moyer, “Without glia, the brain would starve,” Scientific American Mind 23(2): 17 (May/June 2013).
“Glia, not neurons, are most affected by brain aging,” ScienceDaily (10 January 2017).
Martin D. Haustein et al, “Conditions and constraints for astrocyte calcium signaling in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway,” Neuron 82(2): 413–429 (16 April 2014).
“Eavesdropping on brain cell chatter,” ScienceDaily (16 April 2014).
Michael Brooks, “Is quantum physics behind your brain’s ability to think?,” New Scientist (2 December 2015).
Ewen Callaway, “Flashes of light show how memories are made,” Nature (2 June 2014).
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Tina Hesman Saey, “Ions, not neurons, may oversee sleep,” Science News (28 May 2016).
Jae Geun Kim et al, “Leptin signaling in astrocytes regulates hypothalamic neuronal circuits and feeding,” Nature Neuroscience (1 June 2014).
Suzanne L. Dickson et al, “The role of the central ghrelin system in reward from food and chemical drugs,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 340(1): 80–87 (20 June 2011).
Sarah Schwartz, “Scientists still haven’t solved mystery of memory,” Science News (9 March 2016).
“White matter matters in autism,” Nature 509: 136 (8 May 2014).
R. Douglas Fields, “White matter matters,” Scientific American 298(3): 54-61 (March 2008)
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Jerome Clasadonte et al, “Astrocyte control of synaptic NMDA receptors contributes to the progressive development of temporal lobe epilepsy,” PNAS 110(43): 17540–17545 (22 October 2013).
Thomas C. Burdett & Marc. R. Freeman, “Astrocytes eyeball axonal mitochondria,” Science 345(6195): 385–386 (25 July 2014).
Chaya Kalcheim & Hermann Rohrer, “Following the same nerve track towards different cell fates,” Science 345(3192): 32–33 (4 July 2014).
Vyacheslav Dyachuk et al, “Parasympathetic neurons originate from nerve-associated peripheral glial progenitors,” Science 345(3192): 82–87 (4 July 2014).
I. Espinosa-Medina et al, ” Parasympathetic ganglia derive from Schwann cell precursors,” Science 345(3192): 82–87 (4 July 2014).
Woo-Ping Ge et al, “Local generation of glia is a major astrocyte source in postnatal cortex,” Nature 484: 376–380 (19 April 2012).
The earthworm Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively studied as a model organism.
Melinda Wenner Moyer, “Glia spark seizures,” Scientific American Mind (May/June 2013).
Down’s Syndrome
Chen Chen et al, “Role of astroglia in Down’s syndrome revealed by patient-derived human-induced pluripotent stem cells,” Nature Communications (18 July 2014).
“‘Support’ cells in brain play important role in Down syndrome,” ScienceDaily (18 July 2014).
Pam Belluck, “Study finds that brains with autism fail to trim synapses as they develop,” The New York Times (21 August 2014).
Guomei Tang et al, “Loss of mTOR-dependent macroautophagy causes autistic-like synaptic pruning deficits,” Neuron (21 August 201).
Dominik Sakry et al, “Oligodendrocyte precursor cells modulate the neuronal network by activity-dependent ectodomain cleavage of glial NG2” PLoS Biology (11 November 2014).
Gregory Hickok, “It’s not a ‘stream’ of consciousness,” The New York Times (8 May 2015).
Evolutionary Perspective
Christopher S. von Bartheld et al, “The search for true numbers of neurons and glial cells in the human brain: A review of 150 years of cell counting,” The Journal of Comparative Neurology (17 May 2016).
Ferris Jabr, “Know your neurons: what is the ratio of glia to neurons in the brain?,” Scientific American (13 June 2012).
Suzana Herculano-Houzel, “The glia/neuron ratio: how it varies uniformly across brain structures and species and what that means for brain physiology and evolution,” Glia 62(9): 1377-1391 (September 2014).
Tanya Lewis, “How birds got their UV vision,” Live Science (11 February 2013).
Brigette Schoenenmann et al, “Structure and function of a compound eye, more than half a billion years old,” PNAS 114(51): 13489-13494 (19 December 2017).
Cell Types
Amichai M. Labin et al, “Müller cells separate between wavelengths to improve day vision with minimal effect upon night vision,” Nature Communications (8 July 2014).
Andreas Reichenbach & Andreas Bringmann, “New functions for Müller cells,” Glia 61: 651–678 (2013).
Jan Scholz et al, “Training induces changes in white-matter architecture,” Nature Neuroscience 12: 1370–1371 (2009).
Ian A. McKenzie et al, “Motor skill learning requires active central myelination,” Science 346(6207): 318–322 (17 October 2014).
Hiroaki Wake et al, “Nonsynaptic junctions on myelinating glia promote preferential myelination of electrically active axons,” Nature Communications (4 August 2015).
S. Pajevic et al, “Role of myelin plasticity in oscillations and synchrony of neuronal activity,” Neuroscience 12(276): 135–147 (12 September 2014).
Vasily L. Yarnykh et al, “Fast whole-brain three-dimensional macromolecular proton fraction mapping in multiple sclerosis,” Radiology (10 September 2014).
Richard M. Ransohoff & Beth Stevens, “How many cell types does it take to wire a brain?,” Science 333: 1391–1392 (9 September 2011).
Rosa C. Paolicelli et al, “Synaptic pruning by microglia is necessary for normal brain development,” Science 333: 1456–1458 (9 September 2011).
Human astrocyte photo courtesy of Bruno Pascal.
Marco Brancaccio et al, “Cell-autonomous clock of astrocytes drives circadian behavior in mammals,” Science 363(6423): 187-192 (11 January 2019).
Pamela J. Hines, “Astrocytes regulating synaptogenesis,” Science (10 November 2017).
Laura Sanders, “Brain’s support cells play role in hunger,” Science News (1 June 2014).
“Astrocytes control the generation of new neurons from neural stem cells,” ScienceDaily (24 August 2012).
Ulrika Wilhelmsson et al, “Astrocytes negatively regulate neurogenesis through the jagged1-mediated notch pathway,” Stem Cells (20 September 2012).
Melinda Wenner Moyer, “Without glia, the brain would starve,” Scientific American Mind (May/June 2013).
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Hosuk Sean Lee et al, “Astrocytes contribute to gamma oscillations and recognition memory,” PNAS (28 July 2014).
Jing Han et al, “Acute cannabinoids impair working memory through astroglial CB1 receptor modulation of hippocampal LTD,” Cell 148(5): 1039–1050 (2 March 2012).
“How marijuana impairs memory,” ScienceDaily (1 March 2012).
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Tina Hesman Saey, “Mice get brain boost from transplanted human tissue,” Science News (6 April 2013).
“Memory is a dynamic and interactive process, new research shows,” ScienceDaily (28 May 2014).
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Calcium Waves
Ann H. Cornell-Bell et al, “Glutamate induces calcium waves in cultured astrocytes: long-range glial signaling,” Science 247(4941): 470–473 (26 January 1990).
Kelly April Tyrrell, “How plants adapt: calcium waves help the roots tell the shoots,” Phys.org (3 April 2014).
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“Calcium: the secret to honeybees’ memory,” ScienceDaily (17 June 2009).
Donald G. McNeil Jr., “In raising the world’s I.Q., the secret’s in the salt,” The New York Times (16 December 2006).
The Brain Through Life
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Jenni Laidman “Why we forget our earliest years,” Scientific American Mind 25(5): 9 (September–October 2014).
V.S. “Memory milestones,” Scientific American Mind 25(5): 9 (September–October 2014).
“Early life stress can leave lasting impacts on the brain,” ScienceDaily (27 June 2014).
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“Brain differences: Sometimes, adolescents just can’t resist,” ScienceDaily (11 September 2014).
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Laura Sanders, “How the brain shops,” Science News (29 January 2011).
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“Bad boys: research predicts whether boys will grow out of it or not,” ScienceDaily (5 November 2013).
Susan Gaidos, “Cerebral delights,” Science News 179(5): 22–25 (26 February 2011).
Nicole Barger et al, “A comparative volumetric analysis of the amygdaloid complex and basolateral division in the human and ape brain,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 134(3): 392–403 (November 2007).
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The Brain By Gender
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Gregory L. Jantz, “Brain differences between genders,” Psychology Today (27 February 2014).
Lise Eliot, Girl brain, boy brain?, Scientific American (8 September 2009).
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Nicholas J. Strausfeld1 & Frank Hirth, “Deep homology of arthropod central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia,” Science 340(6129): 157-161 (12 April 2013).
“‘Strikingly similar’ brains of human and fly may aid mental health research,” ScienceDaily (11 April 2013).
Brain Baths & Droughts
Pascal Fossat et al, “Anxiety-like behavior in crayfish is controlled by serotonin,” Science 344(6189): 1293–1297 (13 June 2014).
Teresa Romero et al, “Oxytocin promotes social bonding in dogs,” PNAS (9 June 2014).
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Meditation & the Brain
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Jian Xu et al, “Nondirective meditation activates default mode network and areas associated with memory retrieval and emotional processing,” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (26 February 2014).
Brian Stallard, “What your brain does when you meditate,” Nature World News (20 May 2014).
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The Pain of Altruism
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Brain Damage
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Small Intestine
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Gut Flora
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Nicola Davis, “The human microbiome: why our microbes could be key to our health,” The Guardian (26 March 2018).
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The Gut Brain
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The Fat System
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“Small doses of resistant starch encourage the growth of beneficial gut fauna,” Phys.org (22 January 2015).
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Vitamins & Minerals
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Vitamin C
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Vitamin D
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Laura Beil, “Sugar industry shifted health focus,” Science News (15 October 2016).
Anahad O’Connor, “How the sugar industry shifted blame to fat,” The New York Times (12 September 2016).
“Big sugar conspired to conceal health risks,” The Week (30 September 2016).
Susan Donaldson James, “‘Superfood’ acai may not be worth price,” ABC News (12 December 2008).
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Apple photo courtesy of Abhijit Tembhekar.
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Carey Gillam, “Amid health concerns, nonprofit urges EPA to halt apple pesticide that’s already banned in Europe,” Reuters (24 April 2014).
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Kaayla T. Daniel, “Does soy have a dark side?,” Health Impact News Daily (2013).
Kaayla T. Daniel, “Whole soy story: the dark side of America’s favorite health food,” EMR Labs (May/June 2004).
Denice Moffat, “The hazards of soy,” Ezine (21 November 2006).
Emily Singer, “Soy supplements cut sexual behavior in rats,” New Scientist (14 November 2003).
Ben Harder, “Eat broccoli, beat bacteria: plant compound kills microbe behind ulcers and a cancer,” Science News 161(22): 340 (1 June 2002).
“Broccoli’s cleansing effect,” The Week (11 July 2014).
Patricia A. Egner et al, “Rapid and sustainable detoxication of airborne pollutants by broccoli sprout beverage: results of a randomized clinical trial in China,” Cancer Prevention Research (9 June 2014).
Redcliffe Salaman, The History and Social Influence of the Potato, Cambridge University Press (1949).
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Erica M. Goss et al, “The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans originated in central Mexico rather than the Andes,” PNAS (2 June 2014).
“Resistant starch can reduce colorectal cancer risk,” Nature World News (4 August 2014).
John Reader, Potato, Yale University Press (2008).
“Sweet potatoes didn’t originate in the Americas as previously thought,” ScienceDaily (21 May 2018).
Jenni Russell, “Could these foods be giving us cancer?,” The Guardian (14 August 2002).
Charlotte Westney, “Food acrylamide mystery solved,” Nature (1 October 2002).
Erik Vance, ” Decoding Mexico’s city of gods,” Scientific American (17 June 2014).
Ferris Jabr, “Building better fruits and veggies without GMOs,” Scientific American 311(1): 58–61 (July 2014).
Michael D. Kalaras et al, “Mushrooms: a rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione,” Food Chemistry 233: 429-433 (15 October 2017).
Yuan Tian et al, “Prebiotic effects of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) feeding on succinate and intestinal gluconeogenesis in C57BL/6 mice,” Journal of Functional Foods 45: 223-232 (June 2018).
“African bone tools dispute key idea about human evolution,” National Geographic News (8 November 2001).
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Farmed Fish
Lindsay T. Bonito et al, “Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish,” PeerJ (28 January 2016).
United Nations Environment Programme, Annual Report (2010).
“Fisheries factsheet,” The Humane Society of the United States (25 September 2009).
John Hocevar, “12 (not so) fun facts about overfishing,” Greenpeace (19 August 2013).
“Overfishing,” National Geographic (2007).
“Patagonian Toothfish,” Greenpeace (26 August 2003).
Juliet Eilperin, “Down on the farm, more and more fish,” The Washington Post (20 September 2009).
Pablo Trujillo et al, “Fish farms at sea: the ground truth from Google Earth,” PLoS One (8 February 2012).
Emma Marris, “Half our fish are now farmed,” Nature (6 September 2006).
Ken Stier, “Fish farming’s growing dangers,” Time Magazine (19 September 2007).
Lisa Cleary, “Dangers of aquafarmed fish,” NBC News (10 March 2011).
David Robinson Simon, “9 things everyone should know about farmed fish,” MindBodyGreen (7 November 2013).
Rosamond L. Naylor et al, “Effects of aquaculture on world fish supplies,” Nature 405: 1017–1024 (29 June 2000).
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Ronald A. Hites et al, “Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon,” Science 303: 226–229 (9 January 2004)
Elisabeth Rosenthal, “Another side of tilapia, the perfect factory fish,” The New York Times (2 May 2011).
Natasha McDowell, “Steam of escaped farm fish raises fears for wild salmon,” Nature 416: 571 (11 April 2002).
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Martin Krkošek et al, “Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon,” Science 318(5857): 1772–1775 (14 December 2007).
Andrew A. Rosenberg, “The price of lice,” Nature 451: 23–24 (3 January 2008).
Gary D. Marty et al, “Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations,” PNAS 107(52): 22599–22604 (28 December 2010).
Susan Brown, “Lice threaten Canada’s salmon,” Nature (13 December 2007).
Quirin Schiermeier, “Fish farms’ threat to salmon stocks exposed,” Nature 425: 753 (23 October 2003).
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Robert A. Koeth et al, “Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis,” Nature Medicine (7 April 2013).
“Allergen in red meat linked to heart disease,” ScienceDaily (14 June 2018).
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Sabrina Tavernise, “Study finds an increase in arsenic levels in chicken,” The New York Times (11 May 2013).
“Questions and answers regarding 3-nitro (Roxarsone)” US Food and Drug Administration (June 8, 2011).
Fried Chicken
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Ian Sample, “Fried and grilled meat may raise risk of diabetes and dementia,” The Guardian (25 February 2014).
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Robert J. Davis, “Health risks of fried foods may be overblown,” Time Magazine (24 September 2013).
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Stephen Adams, “Fried food heart risk ‘a myth'” The Telegraph (25 January 2012).
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Mark Bittman, “Got milk? You don’t need it,” The New York Times (7 July 2012).
Aaron E. Carroll, “Got milk? Might not be doing you much good,” The New York Times (17 November 2014).
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Jesse Schmitt, “2% milk has more saturated fat than a serving of french fries,” Yahoo Voices (15 June 2010).
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Kate Lowenstein, “Not safe to eat: three foods to avoid,” CNN Health (12 October 2011).
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Miho Aga et al, “Preventive effect of Coriandrum sativum (Chinese parsley) on localized lead deposition in ICR mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77(2–3): 203–208 (October 2001).
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Saurabh Khasnavis & Kalipada Pahan, “Cinnamon treatment upregulates neuroprotective proteins Parkin and DJ-1 and protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease,” Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology (June 2014).
Mint photo courtesy of Kham Tran.
Nutmeg photo courtesy of Ramesh NG.
“Flavored tobacco,” US FDA (21 March 2013).
Mark Kulandsky, Salt, Penguin Books (2002).
Gina Kolata, “Why everything we know about salt may be wrong,” The New York Times (8 May 2017).
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Isabella Gladd, “The storied origins of black pepper,” Lifescript (12 June 2008).
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Dietary Philosophy & Practice
Anand M. Saxena, The Vegetarian Imperative, The John Hopkins University Press (2011).
James A. Foley, “McGaffe: McDonald’s internal site says fast food is unhealthy,” Nature World News (24 December 2013).
Dariush Mozaffarian et al, “Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men,” The New England Journal of Medicine 364: 2392–2404 (23 June 2011).
“Poor diet ups chronic disease risk,” Nature World News (24 June 2014).
Miho Sato et al, “The role of the endocrine system in feeding-induced tissue-specific circadian entrainment,” Cell Reports (15 July 2014).
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The Morality of Diet
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Culum Brown, “Fish intelligence, sentience and ethics,” Animal Cognition (19 June 2014).
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Sarah Boseley, “Study links heavily processed foods to risk of earlier death,” The Guardian (11 February 2019).
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Jascha Hoffman, “Q&A: the nutrient hunter,” Nature (11 July 2014).
Nic Fleming, “Protein mania: The problem with the West’s latest diet obsession,” New Scientist (16 April 2019).
Brian Stallard, “Trans fats could ruin memory,” Nature World News (20 November 2014).
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Conventional versus Organic
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Kenneth Change, “Study of organic crops finds few pesticides and more antioxidants,” The New York Times (11 July 2014).
Damian Carrington & George Arnett, “Clear differences between organic and non-organic food, study finds,” The Guardian (11 July 2014).
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Genetically Modified Foods
Jeffrey M. Smith, Genetic Roulette, Yes! Books (2007).
Jeffrey M. Smith, Seeds of Deception, Yes! Books (2003).
Lucia Graves, “Roundup: birth defects caused by world’s top-selling weedkiller, scientists say,” Huffington Post Green (24 August 2011).
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Laura Beil, “Who’s spiking your supplements?,” Men’s Health (22 June 2011).
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Paul A. Offit & Sarah Erush, “Skip the supplements,” The New York Times (14 December 2013).
Natasha Singer & Peter Lattman, “Is the seller to blame?,” The New York Times (15 March 2013).
US Food and Drug Administration web site (17 December 2010).
Fad Diets
Mary Josephine Scales, Diets in a Nutshell, Apex Publishers (2005).
Gabriel Cousens, Spiritual Nutrition, North Atlantic Books (2005).
Charlotte N. Markey, “Don’t diet!,” Scientific American Mind 26(5): 46-53 (September/October 2015).
Richard L. Veech et al, “Ketone bodies mimic the life span extending properties of caloric restriction,” IUBMB Life (3 April 2017).
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Marie Ng et al, “Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013,” The Lancet (28 May 2014).
Christopher J.L. Murray & Marie Ng, “Nearly one-third of the world’s population is obese or overweight, new data show,” IHME (28 May 2014).
Ami Sedghi, “Obesity worldwide: the map of the world’s weight,” The Guardian (19 February 2013).
Anup Shah, “Obesity,” Global Issues.org (21 November 2010).
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Marlene Cimons, “What’s the best time of day to exercise, morning or evening?,” The Washington Post (21 July 2019).
Mathew P. White et al, “Spending at least 120 minutes a week in nature is associated with good health and wellbeing,” Scientific Reports (13 June 2019).
Christopher Ingraham, “People who spend more time outdoors lead more fulfilling lives, new research shows,” The Washington Post (19 June 2019).
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“Science finds why exercise energizes us,” Nature World News (11 February 2014).
Paige Fowler, “How exercise re-programs your body’s chemistry,” Men’s Health (28 February 2014).
Gretchen Reynolds, “How testosterone may alter the brain after exercise,” The New York Times (12 September 2012).
M. Okamoto et al, “Mild exercise increases dihydrotestosterone in hippocampus providing evidence for androgenic mediation of neurogenesis,” PNAS (17 July 2012).
Line Pedersen et al, “Voluntary running suppresses tumor growth through epinephrine- and il-6-dependent NK cell mobilization and redistribution,” Cell Growth (16 February 2016).
“A run a day keeps the tumour at bay,” The Economist (27 February 2016).
Physical Exercise
Gretchen Reynolds, “The mysterious interior world of exercise,” The New York Times (24 January 2018).
Congcong He et al, “Exercise-induced BCL2-regulated autophagy is required for muscle glucose homeostasis,” Nature (22 February 2012).
Ken Garber, “Explaining exercise,” Science 335: 281 (20 January 2012).
Bernard M.F.M. Duvivier et al, “Minimal intensity physical activity (standing and walking) of longer duration improves insulin action and plasma lipids more than shorter periods of moderate to vigorous exercise (cycling) in sedentary subjects when energy expenditure is comparable,” PLoS One (13 February 2013).
Stephen M. Roth, “Why does lactic acid build up in muscles? And why does it cause soreness?,” Scientific American (23 January 2006).
Gretchen Reynolds, “Running 5 minutes a day has long-lasting benefits,” The New York Times (30 July 2014).
Mental Exercise
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Debra Anderson et al, “Can physical activity prevent physical and cognitive decline in postmenopausal women?,” Maturitas (20 June 2014).
“Exercise does a body — and a mind – good,” ScienceDaily (25 September 2012).
Gretchen Reynolds, “How intense study may harm our workouts,” The New York Times (2 October 2013).
Jo Barton & Jules Pretty, “What is the best dose of nature and green exercise for improving mental health? A multi-study analysis,” Environmental Science & Technology (25 March 2010).
James Vlahos, “Is sitting a lethal activity?,” The New York Times (14 April 2011).
“Standing orders,” The Economist (10 August 2013).
Aviroop Biswas et al, “Sedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality, and hospitalization in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Annals of Internal Medicine (20 January 2015).
Gloria A. Di Lullo et al, “Mapping the ligand-binding sites and disease-associated mutations on the most abundant protein in the human, type I collagen,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277: 4223-4231 (8 February 2002).
Carlos H. Schenck, Sleep, Avery (2007).
Michael Finkel, “Want to fall asleep? Read this story,” National Geographic (August 2018).
B. van Swinderen, “1.28 – Sleep in Invertebrates,” in Evolution of Nervous Systems, Elseivier (2007).
Andy Coghlan, “Trees seen resting branches while ‘asleep’ for the first time,” New Scientist (28 May 2016).
Eetu Puttonen et al, “Quantification of overnight movement of birch (Betula pendula) branches and foliage with short interval terrestrial laser scanning,” Frontiers in Plant Science (29 February 2016).
Andrew J. K. Phillips et al, “Mammalian sleep dynamics: how diverse features arise from a common physiological framework,” PLoS Computational Biology (24 June 2010).
Carl Zimmer, “Hot heads: why mammals need R.E.M. sleep,” The New York Times (7 June 2018).
Niels C. Rattenborg et al, “Evidence that birds sleep in mid-flight,” Nature Communications (3 August 2016).
“Birds engage in all types of sleep in flight, but in remarkably small amounts,” Phys.org (3 August 2016).
Richard M. Coleman, Wide Awake at 3:00 A.M., W.H. Freeman and Company (1986).
Christian Cajochen et al, “Evidence that the lunar cycle influences human sleep,” Current Biology (25 July 2013).
Tego Huber et al, “Sleep homeostasis in Drosophila melanogaster,” Sleep 27(4) (2004).
Bruce Hecker, “How do whales and dolphins sleep without drowning?,” Scientific American (2 February 1998).
Sarah Schwartz, “Dragons sleep like mammals, birds,” Science News (28 May 2016).
Andrea Anderson, “Half asleeep,” Scientific American Mind 22(4): 9 (September/October 2011).
“New research suggests we also dream during non-REM sleep cycles,” Medical Xpress (11 April 2017).
Jennifer L. Lapierre et al, “Symmetrical serotonin release during asymmetrical slow-wave sleep: implications for the neurochemistry of sleep–waking states,” The Journal of Neuroscience 33(6): 2555–2561 (6 February 2013).
David R. Samson & Charles L. Nunn, “Sleep intensity and the evolution of human cognition,” Evolutionary Anthropology (12 December 2015).
Carl Zimmer, “Down from the trees, humans finally got a decent night’s sleep,” The New York Times (17 December 2015).
Laura Sanders, “Left brain stands guard while asleep,” Science News (28 May 2016).
Serge Daan et al, “Warming up for sleep? — ground squirrels sleep during arousals from hibernation,” Neuroscience Letters 128(2): 265–268 (22 July 1991).
Mark Peplow, “The anatomy of sleep,” Nature 497: 82–83 (23 May 2013).
Christof Koch, “To sleep with half a brain,” Scientific American Mind (September/October 2016).
Annie Bernier et al, “Relations between physiological and cognitive regulatory systems: infant sleep regulation and subsequent executive functioning,” Child Development 81(6): 1739–1752 (November/December 2010).
Christopher M. Depner et al, “Ad libitum weekend recovery sleep fails to prevent metabolic dysregulation during a repeating pattern of insufficient sleep and weekend recovery sleep,” Current Biology (28 February 2019).
Melinda Beck, “The sleepless elite,” The Wall Street Journal (5 April 2011).
Melinda Wenner Moyer, “The hidden risks of poor sleep in women,” Scientific American Mind (September/October 2016).
Aimee Cunningham, “Lack of sleep is tied to increases in two Alzheimer’s proteins,” Science News (24 January 2019).
Andrea Anderson, “Why we toss andn turn in an unfamiliar bed,” Scientific American Mind (September/October 2016).
“Westerners sleep more than people from Eastern nations,” Science News (29 June 2014).
“Who gets the most sleep?,” Scientific American Mind (September/October 2016).
June C. Lo et al, “Young adults’ sleep duration on work days: Differences between East and West,” Frontiers in Neurology (30 April 2014).
Maria Antonietta Tosches et al, “Melatonin signaling controls circadian swimming behavior in marine zooplankton,” Cell 159(1): 46–57 (25 September 2014).
“From learning in infancy to planning ahead in adulthood: sleep’s vital role for memory,” ScienceDaily (8 April 2014).
Lulu Xie et al, “Sleep drives metabolite clearance from the adult brain,” Science 342(6156): 373–377 (18 October 2013).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Sleep allows brain to wash out junk,” Science News (16 November 2013).
Matthew Walker, “Wake-up call: how a lack of sleep can cause Alzheimer’s,” New Scientist (11 October 2017).
“To sleep, perchance to clean,” Science 342: 1440 (20 December 2013).
Laura Saunders, “Sleep strengthens brain connections,” Science News 186(1): 8 (12 July 2014).
Steven J. Frenda, “Sleep deprivation and false memories,” Psychological Science (16 July 2014).
Alan R. Tall & Sanja Jelic, “How broken sleep promotes cardiovascular disease,” Nature (13 February 2019).
Susanne Diekelmann et al, “Sleep improves prospective remembering by facilitating spontaneous-associative retrieval processes,” PLoS One (15 October 2013).
Kerri Smith, “Off to night school,” Nature 497: S4–S5 (23 May 2013).
Delphine Oudiette et al, “The role of memory reactivation during wakefulness and sleep in determining which memories endure,” The Journal of Neuroscience 33(15): 6672–6678 (10 April 2013).
S. Groch et al, “The role of REM sleep in the processing of emotional memories: evidence from behavior and event-related potentials,” Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 99: 1–9 (January 2013).
Jakke Tamminen et al, “Sleep spindle activity is associated with the integration of new memories and existing knowledge,” The Journal of Neuroscience 30(43): 14356–14360 (27 October 2010).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Sleep makes the memory,” Science News (24 January 2011).
Susanne Diekelmann & Jan Born, “The memory function of sleep,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 11: 114–126 (February 2010).
Karen Debas et al, “Off-line consolidation of motor sequence learning results in greater integration within a cortico-striatal functional network,” NeuroImage 99(1): 50–58 (1 October 2014).
“Learning to play the piano? Sleep on it!,” ScienceDaily (21 August 2014).
Ines Wilhelm et al, “The sleeping child outplays the adult’s capacity to convert implicit into explicit knowledge,” Nature Neuroscience 16(4): 391–393 (April 2013).
“Poor sleep in old age prevents the brain from storing memories,” ScienceDaily (27 January 2013).
Anat Arzi et al, “Humans can learn new information during sleep,” Nature Neuroscience (26 August 2012).
James W Antony et al, “Cued memory reactivation during sleep influences skill learning,” Nature Neuroscience (26 June 2012).
Dylan C. Barnes & Donald A. Wilson, “Slow-wave sleep-imposed replay modulates both strength and precision of memory,” The Journal of Neuroscience 34(15): 5134–5142 (9 April 2014).
Daniel Bendor & Matthew A Wilson, “Biasing the content of hippo-campal replay during sleep,” Nature Neuroscience 15(10): 1439–1444 (October 2012).
Michele Bellesi et al, “Effects of sleep and wake on oligodendrocytes and their precursors,” The Journal of Neuroscience 33(36): 14288–14300 (4 September 2013).
David R. Euston & Hendrik W. Steenland, “Memories – getting wired during sleep,” Science 344(6188): 1087–1088 (6 June 2014).
Guang Yang et al, “Sleep promotes branch-specific formation of dendritic spines after learning,” Science 344(6188): 1173–1178 (6 June 2014).
Ut Na Sio et al, “Sleep on it, but only if it is difficult: effects of sleep on problem solving,” Memory & Cognition 41(2): 159–166 (February 2013).
Edward F. Pace-Schott et al, “Sleep-dependent modulation of affec-tively guided decision-making,” Journal of Sleep Research (27 April 2011).
John M. Grohol, “Why ‘sleeping on it’ helps,” LiveScience (26 October 2009).
B. Wood et al, “Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression,” Applied Ergonomics (31 July 2012).
Anahad O’Connor, “Really? Using a computer before bed can disrupt sleep,” The New York Times (10 September 2012).
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Ayako Suzuki et al, ” Behavioral and biochemical dissociation of arousal and homeostatic sleep need influenced by prior wakeful experience in mice,” PNAS 110(25): 10288–10293 (18 June 2013).
“The better off sleep better,” ScienceDaily (7 March 2011).
“Living in poor neighborhood linked to unhealthy sleeping habits,” Nature World News (5 July 2014).
John Axelsson et al, “Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people,” BMJ 341:c6614 (2010).
Katrin Ackermann et al, “Diurnal rhythms in blood cell populations and the effect of acute sleep deprivation in healthy young men,” Sleep 35(7): 933–940 (2012).
Alice Park, “Less sleep pushes your brain to age faster,” Time Magazine (2 July 2014).
Bryce A. Mander et al, “Prefrontal atrophy, disrupted NREM slow waves and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory in aging,” Nature Neuroscience 16: 357–364 (2013).
Jane E. Brody, “Cheating ourselves of sleep,” The New York Times (17 June 2013).
Yo-El S. Ju et al, “Sleep quality and preclinical Alzheimer disease,” JAMA Neurology 70(5): 587–593 (May 2013).
Nadine Petrovsky et al, “Sleep deprivation disrupts prepulse inhibi-tion and induces psychosis-like symptoms in healthy humans,” The Journal of Neuroscience 34(27): 9134–9140 (2 July 2014).
Rebecca A. Bernert et al, “Association of poor subjective sleep quality with risk for death by suicide during a 10-year period,” JAMA Psychiatry (13 August 2014).
Mo Costandi, “Why poor sleep and forgetfulness plague the ageing brain,” Nature News (27 January 2013).
“Obesity, depression found to be root causes of daytime sleepiness,” ScienceDaily (13 June 2012).
James Mitchell Crow, “Insomnia: chasing the dream,” Nature 497: S16–S18 (23 May 2013).
“People with insomnia have hyperactive brains,” Phys.org (1 May 2014).
Vivek Pillai et al, “Moderators and mediators of the relationship between stress and insomnia: stressor chronicity, cognitive intrusion, and coping,” Sleep 37(7): 1199–1208 (July 2014).
Jeanne F. Duffy et al, “Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system,” PNAS 108 (13 September 2011).
“Meditation practice may decrease risk for cardiovascular disease in teens,” ScienceDaily (7 June 2012).
J.W. Anderson et al, “Blood pressure response to Transcendental Meditation: a meta-analysis,” American Journal of Hypertension 21(3): 310–316 (2008).
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Psychoactive Substances
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Kopi Luwak
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Health Effects
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Passive Damage
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