Spokes 5: Notes

Spokes 5: The Echoes of the Mind   Research References   (Table of Contents)

Common knowledge for Spokes obtained from various encyclopedias and dictionaries, including Encyclopedia Britannica, Everipedia, New World Encyclopedia, Wikipedia, World Book Encyclopedia, Scholarpedia, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary, Dictionary.com, and a plethora of Internet sites. (General information found on the Internet is cross-referenced for veracity.)

Sam Atkinson et al (editors), The Psychology Book, DK (2012).
Lisa J. Cohen, The Handy Psychology Answer Book,Visible Ink (2016).
Joseph G. Johnson, Introduction to Psychology, Collins (2006).
David G. Myers, Psychology, Worth Publishers (2004).
Ellen E. Pastorino & Susann M. Doyle-Portillo, What Is Psychology?, Wadsworth (2012).
Wade E. Pickren, The Psychology Book, Sterling (2014).
Daniel L. Schacter et al, Psychology, Worth Publishers (2011).
Philip G. Zimbardo et al, Psychology (Core Concepts), Pearson (2009).
Richard A. Griggs, Psychology (A Concise Introduction), Worth Publishers (2012).
Henry Gleitman et al, Psychology, W.W. Norton & Company (2010).
Christian Jarrett, The Rough Guide to Psychology, Guides (2011).
Susan T. Fiske et al, Handbook of Social Psychology, John Wiley & Sons (2010).
Nancy Melucci, Barron’s E-Z Psychology, Barron’s (2010).
Andrea Bonior, Psychology: Essential Thinkers, Classic Theories, and How They Inform Your World , Zephyros Press (2016).
Soctt O. Lilienfeld et al, 50 Great Myths Of Popular Psychology, Wiley-Blackwell (2010).
Alison Gopnik, The Philosophical Baby, Farrar, Straus and Giroux (2009).
Kritine Krapp (editor), Psychologists & Their Theories, Thomson Gale (2005).
Robert V. Kail & John C. Cavanaugh, Human Development: A Life-Span View, Wadsworth Publishing (2010).
Gerald M. Edelman, Second Nature: Brain Science and Human Knowledge, Yale University Press (2006).
Cordelia Fine, A Mind of its Own, W.W. Norton (2006).
Scott O. Lilienfeld et al, “50 differences that make a difference: a compendium of frequently confused term pairs in psychology,” Frontiers in Education (20 July 2017).
Charles T. Tart, “Multiple personality, altered States and virtual reality: the world simulation process approach,” Dissociation 3(4): 222-233 (December 1990).
Bruce Hood, “Re-creating the real world,” Scientific American Mind 23(4): 42-45 (September/October 2012).
Barbara Gilliam, “Geometrical illusions,” Scientific American 242: 102–111 (January 1980).
Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Diane Rogers-Ramachandran, “Reading between the lines,” Scientific American Mind 21(4): 18-19 (September/October 2010).
Ralph Weidner & Gereon R. Fink, “The neural mechanisms underlying the Müller-Lyer illusion and its interaction with visuospatial judgments,” Cerebral Cortex 17: 878–884 (April 2007).
Gavin Buckingham et al, “The size-weight illusion induced through human echolocation,” Psychological Science (19 December 2014).
Stephen L. Macknik & Susana Martinez-Conde, “In plain sight,” Scientific American Mind 25(3): 21-23 (May/June 2014).
Claire Wilson, “Our brains prefer invented visual information to the real thing,” New Scientist (19 May 2017).
Benedikt V. Ehinger et al, “Humans treat unreliable filled-in percepts as more real than veridical ones,” eLife (16 May 2017).
The Moon Illusion
Lloyd Kaufman & James H. Kaufman, “Explaining the moon illusion,” PNAS 97(1): 500–505 (4 January 2000).
Joshua O. Goh & Denise C. Park, “Culture sculpts the perceptual brain,” Progress in Brain Research 178: 95–111 (2009).
M. Bonte, “The reaction of two African societies to the Müller-Lyer illusion,” Journal of Social Psychology 56: 265–268 (1962).
S. Richardson, “The Müller-Lyer Illusion: a cross-cultural study in Singapore,” Ergonomics 15(3): 293–298 (1972).
John W. Berry, “Müller-Lyer susceptibility: culture, ecology or race?,” International Journal of Psychology 6(3): 193–197 (1971).
Darhl M. Pedersen & John Wheeler, “The Müller-Lyer illusion among Navajos,” The Journal of Social Psychology 121(1): 3–6 (1983).

History of Psychology
Henri F. Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry, Basic Books (1970).
John G. Benjafield, A History of Psychology, Allyn and Bacon (1996).
Raymond E. Fancher, Pioneers of Psychology, W.W. Norton & Company (1990).
B.R. Hergenhahn, An Introduction to the History of Psychology, Wadsworth (2001).
David Hothersall, History of Psychology, Random House (1984).
Morton Hunt, The Story of Psychology, Anchor Books (2007).
Noel Sheehy, Fifty Key Thinkers in Psychology, Routledge (2004).
Daniel N. Robinson, An Intellectual History of Psychology, The University of Wisconsin Press (1995).
Roger R. Hock, Forty Studies that Changed Psychology: Explorations into the History of Psychological Research, Prentice Hall (2008).
Robert N. McCauley & Joseph Henrich, “Susceptibility to the Müller-Lyer illusion, theory-neutral observation, and the diachronic penetrability of the visual input system,” Philosophical Psychology 19(1): 79–101 (2006).
Megan R. Holmes, “The sleeper effect of intimate partner violence exposure: long-term consequences on young children’s aggressive behavior,” The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (29 March 2013).
Christopher C. Henrich & Golan Shahar, “Effects of exposure to rocket attacks on adolescent distress and violence: a 4-year longitudinal study,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 52(6): 619–627 (June 2013).
“After the shooting, political violence lives on in kids’ behavior problems,” ScienceDaily (1 July 2013).
I. Shalev et al, “Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study,” Molecular Psychiatry 18: 576–581 (May 2013).
Jon McGinnis, Avicenna (Great Medieval Thinkers), Oxford University Press (2010).
Lenn E. Goodman, Avicenna, Cornell University Press (2005).
Avicenna & Laleh Bakhitar, Avicenna On the Science of the Soul, Kazi Publications (2013).
Christopher de Bellaigue, The Islamic Enlightenment: The Modern Struggle Between Faith and Reason, Liveright (2017).
“The Islamic Enlightenment: a counter-argument to the ‘clash of civilisations’,” The Economist (18 February 2017).
Rene Descartes
C.F. Fowler, Descartes on the Human Soul, Springer (1999).
Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651).
George Berkeley
George Berkeley, A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710).
Baruch Spinoza
Micheal Morgan (editor), Spinoza: Complete Works, Hackett Publishing (2002).
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant, Kant (complete works).
“Kant,” Encyclopaedia Britannica (1952).
Joseph L. Hunter, “Kant’s doctrine of schemata,” Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (25 August 1999).
B.B. Wolman, Historical Roots of Contemporary Psychology, Harper & Row (1968).
Johann Friedrich Herbart
Johann Friedrich Herbart (translated by Margaret K. Smith), A Textbook in Psychology, 2nd edition (1834).
Franz Joseph Gall
Gall physiognomy skull photo courtesy of Bullenwächter.
William James
William James, Principles of Psychology, William Benton (1890).
B.F. Skinner
B.F. Skinner photo courtesy of Silly rabbit, with additional thanks to Esquilo.
Jean Piget
Jean Piaget, The Child’s Conception of the World, Routledge (1967).
Ulrich Müller et al, “The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget: a quinquagenary retrospective,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 34(1): 52–55 (January–February 2013).
Robert L. Campbell, “Jean Piaget’s genetic epistemology: appreciation and critique,” lecture at the Institute of Objectivist Studies Summer Seminar (8 July 1997).
Robert V. Kail, John C. Davanaugh, Human Development: A Life-Span View, Wadsworth Publishing (2008).
Erin M. Anderson et al, “Comparison within pairs promotes analogical abstraction in three-month-olds,” Cognition 176: 74-86 (July 2018).
“Three-month-old infants can learn abstract relations before language comprehension,” ScienceDaily (3 April 2018).
Brock Ferguson et al, “Very young infants learn abstract rules in the visual modality,” PLoS One (2 January 2018).
“Infants are able to learn abstract rules visually,” ScienceDaily (22 February 2018).
Alison Gopnik, “Scientific thinking in young children: theoretical advances, empirical research, and policy implications,” Science 337(6102): 1623-1627 (28 September 2012).
Alison Gopnik & Elizabeth Seiver, “Reading minds: how infants come to understand others,” Berkeley University (September 2009).
Rachel Ehrenberg, “Babies may sense others’ worldviews earlier than thought,” Science News (23 December 2010).
Jennifer L. Jipson & Susan A. Gelman, “Robots and rodents: children’s inferences about living and nonliving kinds,” Child Development 78(6): 1675–1688 (November/December 2007).
Janet Wilde Astington & Margaret J. Edward, “The development of theory of mind in early childhood,” Social Cognition (August 2010).
Janet Wilde Astington, The Child’s Discovery of the Mind, Harvard University Press (1993).
Amanda C. Brandone, “The development of intention understanding in the first year of life: an exploration of infants’ understanding of successful vs. failed intentional actions,” PhD dissertation – Doctor of Philosophy (Psychology), University of Michigan (2010).
Charlotte Grosse Wiesmann et al, “White matter maturation is associated with the emergence of theory of mind in early childhood,” Nature Communications (21 March 2017).
Xiao Pan Ding et al, “Theory-of-mind training causes honest young children to lie,” Psychological Science (2 October 2015).
“Understanding others’ thoughts enables young kids to lie,” ScienceDaily (6 October 2015).
Catharine Paddock, “The importance of relating to others: why we only learn to understand other people after the age of four,” ScienceDaily (27 March 2017).
Regina Paxton Gazes et al, “Transitive inference of social dominance by human infants,” Developmental Science (16 November 2015).
“Babies have logical reasoning before age one,” ScienceDaily (18 November 2015).
Alison Gopnik, “How babies think,” Scientific American (July 2010).
Sophie Steelandt et al, “Decision-making under risk of loss in children,” PLoS One (9 January 2013).
Cognitive Psychology
Robert J. Sternberg, Cognitive Psychology, Wadsworth (2006).
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Oliver Burkeman, “Therapy wars: the revenge of Freud,” The Guardian (7 January 2016).
“Whether to pick sides in psychology today,”The Guardian (12 January 2016).
David M. Alexander et al, “Traveling waves and trial averaging: the nature of single-trial and averaged brain responses in large-scale cortical signals,” NeuroImage 73: 95–112 (June 2013).
Paul Broca
S.J. Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, Norton (1981).
Sigmund Freud
Diane Jonte-Pace (editor), Teaching Freud, Oxford University Press (2003).
Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams (1900).
Sigmund Freud, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1904).
Sigmund Freud, Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious (1905).
Sigmund Freud, Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1910).
Sigmund Freud, Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920).
Sigmund Freud, The Ego and the Id (1923).
Sigmund Freud, The Future of an Illusion (1927).
Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents (1930).
Sigmund Freud, New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1933).
Sigmund Freud, An Outline of Psycho-Analysis (1949).
James Strachey (editor), The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Hogarth Press (1974).
Carl Jung
L.J. Stricker & J. Ross, “An assessment of some structural properties of the Jungian personality typology,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 68: 62–71 (1964).
Ira Progoff, Jung Synchronicity and Human Destiny, Dell Delta (1973).
Karen Horney
Karen Horney photograph courtesy of her daughter, Renate Horney Patterson.
Evolutionary Psychology
Michael T. Ghiselin, “Darwin and evolutionary psychology,” Science 179(4077): 964-968 (9 March 1973).
Jerome H. Barkow, Leda Cosmides & John Tooby, The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and The Generation of Culture, Oxford University Press (1992).
William R. Clark & Michael Grunstein, Are We Hardwired? The Role of Genes in Human Behavior, Oxford University Press (2000).
Susan Oyama, The Ontogeny of Information: Developmental Systems and Evolution, Duke University Press (2000).
David J. Buller, “Four fallacies of pop evolutionary psychology,” Scientific American (January 2009).
Treatment of Mental Illness – United States
Dorothea Dix photo courtesy of Samuel Broadbent.
Samantha Raphelson, “How the loss of U.S. psychiatric hospitals led to a mental health crisis,” NPR (30 November 2017).
SCOTUS, Olmstead v. L.C. (200 US 321) (1999).
Gary Fields & Erica E. Phillips, “The new asylums: jails swell with mentally ill,” The Wall Street Journal (25 September 2013).
“Locked in,” The Economist (3 August 2013).
Samantha Raphelson, “How the loss of u.s. psychiatric hospitals led to a mental health crisis, NPR (30 November 2017).
Web site of the U.S. Veterans Health Administration (2013).

Jerome Kagan, What Is Emotion?, Yale University Press (2007).
Stanley I. Greenspan, The Growth of the Mind, Addison-Wesley (1997).
Stuart Walton, A Natural History of Human Emotions Grove Press (2004).
Katharina Gapp et al, “Early life stress in fathers improves behavioural flexibility in their offspring,” Nature Communications (18 November 2014).
Gary D. Sherman et al, “The faintest speck of dirt,” Psychological Science (5 November 2012).
Piera Filippi et al, “Humans recognize emotional arousal in vocalizations across all classes of terrestrial vertebrates: evidence for acoustic universals,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (26 July 2017).
Bob Yirka, “People found able to recognize emotional arousal in vocalizations of land vertebrate,” Phys.org (26 July 2017).
Alison Jing Xu & Aparna A. Labroo, “Incandescent affect: Turning on the hot emotional system with bright light,” Journal of Consumer Psychology 24(2): 207-216 (April 2014).
“The way a room is lit can affect the way you make decisions,” ScienceDaily (20 February 2014).
Erica Goode, “The right says it’s happy; the left acts it, studies find,” The New York Times (12 March 2015).
Sean P. Wojcik et al, “Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness,” Science 347(6227): 1243–1246 (13 March 2015).
Ariel Knafo et al, “The developmental origins of a disposition toward empathy: genetic and environmental contributions,” Emotion 8(60: 737-752 (2008).
David Comer Kidd & Emanuele Castano, “Reading literary fiction improves theory of mind,” Science 342(6156): 377-380 (18 October 2013).
Philippe Verdyn & Saskia Lavrijsen, “Which emotions last longest and why: the role of event importance and rumination,” Motivation and Emotion 1: 119-127 (February 2015).
Jenna Iacurci, “Why sadness lasts 240 times longer than other emotions,” Nature World News (31 October 2014).
Jesse Bering, “That’s disgusting,” Scientific American Mind (November/December 2013).
Bruce Bower, “Kids face up to disgust surprisingly late,” Science News (28 May 2010).
Valier Curtis, “Manners maketh man: how disgust shaped human evolution,” New Scientist (24 September 2013).
Val Curtis & Mícheál de Barra, “The structure and function of pathogen disgust,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences (4 June 2018).
“The six common types of disgust that protect us from disease revealed,” ScienceDaily (3 June 2018).
Cecile Sarabian et al, “Feeding decisions under contamination risk in bonobos,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences (4 June 2018).
“A sense of disgust in bonobos?,” ScienceDaily (3 June 2018).
Jealousy & Envy
Jan Cursius & Thomas Mussweiler, “Untangling envy,” Scientific American Mind 24(5): 35-37 (November/December 2013).

The Mind
Richard M. Restak, The Mind, Bantam Books (1988).
Clive Wilkins & Nicola S. Clayton, “Mind tricks,” Science 364(6445): 1038 (14 June 2019).
“Children notice what adults miss, study finds,” ScienceDaily (10 April 2017).
Daniel J. Plebanek & Vladimir M. Sloutsky, “Costs of selective attention: when children notice what adults miss,” Psychological Science (7 April 2017).
Tarek Amer & Lynn Hasher, “Conceptual processing of distractors by older but not younger adults,” Psychological Science (6 November 2014).
Kalina Christoff et al,”Mind-wandering as spontaneous thought: a dynamic framework,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience (22 September 2016).
Kerri Smith, “Idle minds,” Nature 489: 356–358 (3 July 2014).
Timothy D. Wilson et al, “Just think: the challenges of the disengaged mind,” Science 345(6192): 75–77 (4 July 2014).
Lauren Hitchings, “Idle minds succumb to temptation of electric shocks,” New Scientist (4 July 2014).
Heidi Ledford, “We dislike being alone with our thoughts,” Nature (3 July 2014).
Timothy D. Wilson, Strangers to Ourselves, Belknap Press (2002).
Feriss Jabr, “Speak for yourself,” Scientific American Mind 25(1): 45-51 (January/February 2014).
George Makari, Soul Machine: The Invention of the Modern Mind, W.W. Norton & Company (2015).
The Subconscious
Leonard Mlodinow, Subliminal: How Your Unconscious Mind Rules Your Behavior, Pantheon (2012).
Roger Koenig-Robert & Joel Pearson, “Decoding the contents and strength of imagery before volitional engagement,” Scientific Reports (5 March 2019).
Lachlan Gilbert, “Our brains reveal our choices before we’re even aware of them, study finds,” Medical Xpress (6 March 2019).
Wolfgang Stroebe, “The subtle power of hidden messages,” Scientific American Mind 23(2): 46-51 (May/June 2012).
Jessica J. Ellis et al, “Eye movements reveal solution knowledge prior to insight,” Consciousness and Cognition (26 January 2011).
Simon Makin, “Decode social signals,” New Scientist (1 October 2016).
Diana Kwon, “Predict the future,” New Scientist (1 October 2016).
Anil Ananthaswamy, “Keep track of the body in space,” New Scientist (1 October 2016).
Joseph Ledoux, The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life, Simon & Schuster (1998).
Freud’s Trinity of Consciousness
Sigmund Freud, A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis, Horace Liveright (1920).
Judy Siegel-Itzkovich, “Freud’s theory of repression should be dropped,” The Jerusalem Post (13 April 2008).
Mark Vernon, “100 years old and making a comeback – Freud’s theories of the unconscious,” The Guardian (30 November 2015).
Sam McLeod, “Unconscious mind,” Simply Psychology (2015).
Dual Processing
William B. Carpenter, Principles of mental physiology: with their applications to the training and discipline of the mind, and the study of its morbid conditions, Henry S. King & Co. (1874).
Implicit Motives
Oliver C. Schultheiss & Martin G. Köllner, “Implicit motives, affect, and the development of competencies: a virtuous-circle model of mo-tive-driven learning,” in Handbook of Emotions and Education, edited by Reinhard Pekrun & Lisa Linnenbrink-Garcia, Routledge (2014).
Oliver Schultheiss & Joachim Brunstein, Implicit Motives, Oxford University Press (2010).
The Power of the Mind
“Man with tiny brain shocks doctors,” New Scientist (20 July 2007).
Louis Buckley, “The man with a hole in his brain,” Nature (20 July 2007).
Helen Thomson, “Woman of 24 found to have no cerebellum in her brain,” New Scientist (10 September 2014).
Hermann Nabi et al, “Increased risk of coronary heart disease among individuals reporting adverse impact of stress on their health: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study,” European Heart Journal (26 June 2013).
Elliot D. Freeman et al, “Sight and sound out of synch: fragmentation and renormalisation of audiovisual integration and subjective timing,” Cortex 49(10): 2875–2887 (November–December 2013).
Vanessa Harrar & Charles Spence, “The taste of cutlery: how the taste of food is affected by the weight, size, shape, and colour of the cutlery used to eat it,” BioMed Central (26 June 2013).
Barn Swallows
Barn swallow photo courtesy of Katsura Miyamoto.
Maren N. Vitousek et al, “Female plumage colour influences seasonal oxidative damage and testosterone profiles in a songbird,” Biology Letters (21 August 2013).
John E. Sarno, The Divided Mind: The Epidemic of Mindbody Disorders, Harper (2006).
Suzanne O’Sullivan, Is It All in Your Head?: True Stories of Imaginary Illness, Other Press (2017).

Richard L. Gregory (editor), The Oxford Companion to the Mind, Oxford University Press (2004).
M.H. Ashcraft, Fundamentals of Cognition, Longman (1998).
Jerome S. Bruner et al, A Study of Thinking, John Wiley & Sons (1956).
Keith J. Holyoak & Robert G. Morrison (editors), The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning, Cambridge University Press (2005).
Stepen K. Reed, Cognition: Theories and Applications, Wadsworth Publishing (2012).
Karla Hoff et al, “Mind, society, and behavior,” World Bank (2015).
Nick Chater & George Loewenstein, “The under-appreciated drive for sense-making,” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 126: 137-154 (2016).
“Human nature: Behavioral economists create model of our desire to make sense of it all,” ScienceDaily (9 May 2016).
William B. Irvine, On Desire, Oxford University Press (2006).
James Shah et al, “Performance incentives and means: how regulatory focus influences goal attainment,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74(2): 285–293 (1998).
Charles S. Carver, “Approach, avoidance, and the self-regulation of affect and action,” Motivation and Emotion 30(2): 105–110 (June 2006).
James F. Cavanagh et al, “Conflict acts as an implicit cost in reinforcement learning,” Nature Communications (4 November 2014).
David C. McClelland, Human Motivation, Scott, Foresman and Company (1985).
Robin R. Vallacher & Daniel M. Wegner, “What do people think they’re doing? Action identification and human behavior,” Psychological Review 94(1): 3–15 (January 1987).
Maël Lebreton et al, “Your goal is mine: unraveling mimetic desires in the human brain,” The Journal of Neuroscience 32(21): 7146–7157 (23 May 2012).
Caleb Warren & Margaret C. Campbell, “What makes things cool? How autonomy influences perceived coolness,” Journal of Consumer Research (August 2007).
Illusion of Control
Ellen J. Langer, “The illusion of control,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32: 311-328 (1975).
Suzanne C. Thompson, “Illusions of control: how we overestimate our personal influence,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 8(6): 187-190 (1 December 1999).
Dan P. McAdams et al, “Social motives and patterns of friendship,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47(4): 828–838 (October 1984).
Joris Lammer et al, “Power increases hypocrisy,” Psychological Science 21(5): 737-744 (May 2010).
“Global surveys show environment ranks low among public concerns,” ScienceDaily (25 February 2013).
Adele Diamond, “Executive functions,” Annual Review of Psychology 64:135-168 (2013).
Terrie E. Moffitt et al, “A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety,” PNAS 108(7): 2693-2698 (15 February 2011).
Bruce Bower, “Stage set early for success, or failure,” Science News (24 January 2011).
Neeltje J. Boogert et al, “Song repertoire size in male song sparrows correlates with detour reaching, but not with other cognitive measures,” Animal Behavior 81(6): 1209-1216 (June 2011).
Evan L. MacLean et al, “The evolution of self-control,” PNAS (21 April 2014).
Federica Amaici et al, “Fission-fusion dynamics, behavioral flexibility, and inhibitory control in primates,” Current Biology 18(18): 1415-1419 (23 September 2008).
Celeste Kidd et al, “Rational snacking: young children’s decision-making on the marshmallow task is moderated by beliefs about environmental reliability,” Cognition 126(1): 109–114 (January 2013).
“The marshmallow study revisited: delaying gratification depends as much on nurture as on nature,” ScienceDaily (11 October 2012).
Brian Resnick, “The myth of self-control,” Vox (24 November 2016).
B.M. Galla & A.L. Duckworth, “More than resisting temptation: Beneficial habits mediate the relationship between self-control and positive life outcomes,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 109(3): 508-525 (September 2015).
W. Hofmann et al, “Everyday temptations: an experience sampling study of desire, conflict, and self-control,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102(6): 1318-1335 (June 2012).
Françoise Mouly, “Walter Mischel, the marshallow test, and self-control,” The New Yorker (9 October 2014).
Shannon B.Wanless et al, “Gender differences in behavioral regulation in four societies: The United States, Taiwan, South Korea, and China,” Early Childhood Research Quarterly 28(3): 621-623 (3rd Quarter 2013).
Thomas F. Denson et al, “Self-control and aggression,” Current Directions in Psychological Science (31 January 2012).
“Want to limit aggression? Practice self-control,” ScienceDaily (8 March 2012).
Kiara R. Timpano & Norman B. Schmidt, “The relationship between self-control deficits and hoarding: A multimethod investigation across three samples,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 122(1): 13-25 (February 2013).
Kentaro Fujita & Jessica J. Carnevale, “Transcending temptation through abstraction: the role of construal level in self-control,” Current Directions in Psychological Science (25 July 2012).
Stephen K. Reed, Cognition: Theories and Applications, Wadsworth (2010).
Enrst Cassirer, “A clue to the nature of man: the symbol,” in Readings in Introductory Sociology, edited by Dennis H. Wrong & Harry L. Gracey, Macmillian (1972).
John Campbell, Reference and Consciousness, Clarendon Press (2002).
Jonah Berger & Chip Heath, “Where consumers diverge from others: identity signaling and product domains,” Journal of Consumer Research (August 2014).
Sergey Blok et al, “Inferences about personal identity,” Northwestern University (2001).
Sergey Blok et al, “Individuals and their concepts,” Northwestern University (2005).
Yinnon Dolev & Ximena J. Nelson, “Innate pattern recognition and categorization in a jumping spider,” PloS One (3 June 2014).
Julie V. Bednarski et al, “Optical cues used in predation by jumping spiders, Phidippus audax (Araneae, Salticidae),” Animal Behavior 84(5): 1221-1227 (November 2012).
Shannon P. Callahan & ALison Ledgerwood, “On the psychological function of flags and logos: group identity symbols increase perceived entitativity,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 100(4): 528-550 (April 2016).
Mental Maps
Arul Mishra & Himanshu Mishra, “Border bias: the belief that state borders can protect against disasters,” Psychological Science (13 October 2010).
Wray Herbert, “Border bias,” Scientific American Mind 22(1): 65-66 (March/April 2011).
Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Mental Models: Towards a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference, and Consciousness, Harvard University Press (1983).
“Gestures and visual animations reveal cognitive origins of linguistic meaning,” ScienceDaily (25 April 209).
Lyn Tieu et al, “Linguistic inferences without words,” PNAS (24 April 2019).
Body of Thought
Siri Carpenter, “Body of thought,” Scientific American Mind 21(6): 38-45 (January/February 2011).
Natlie Angier, “Abstract thoughts? The body takes them literally,” The New York Times (2 February 2010).
Ben Shneiderman & Pattie Maes, “Direct manipulation vs. interface agents,” Interactions 4(6): 42–61 (November/December 1997).
Ben Shneiderman, “Looking for the bright side of user interface agents,” Interactions (January 1995).
Shaun Nichols & Stephen P. Stich, Mindreading: An Integrated Account of Pretence, Self-Awareness, and Understanding Other Minds, Oxford University Press (2003).
Maria Legerstee, “The role of person and object in eliciting early imitation,” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 51(3): 423–433 (June 1991).
Margaret T. Crichton & Chris Lange-Kuttner, “Animacy and propulsion in infancy: tracking, waving and reaching to self-propelled and induced moving objects,” Developmental Science 2(3): 318–324 (August 1999).
Bertenthal et al, “Infant sensitivity to invariant structure revealed through motion,” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 37: 213–230 (1984).
Steven Mithen, The Prehistory of the Mind: The Cognitive Origins of Art, Religion and Science, Thames & Hudson (1996).
Anna McAlister & Candida Peterson, “A longitudinal study of child siblings and theory of mind development,” Cognitive Development 22(2): 258–270 (June 2007).
Jennifer M. Jenkins & Janet Wilde Astington, “Cognitive factors and family structure associated with theory of mind development in young children,” Developmental Psychology 32(1): 70–78 (January 1996).
“Study finds graspable objects grab attention more than images of objects do,” MedicalXpress (15 December 2017).
Hazel R. Markus & Shinobu Kitayama, “Culture and the self: implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation,” Psychological Review 98(2): 224–253 (April 1991).
Don Cohen & Alex Gunz, “As seen by the other… : perspectives on the self in the memories and emotional perceptions of Easterners and Westerners,” Psychological Science 13(1): 55–59 (January 2002).
S. Wu & B. Keysar, “Cultural effects on perspective taking,” Psychological Science, 18: 600–606 (2007).
Kevin K.S. Luk et al, “Cultural effect on perspective taking in Chinese–English bilinguals,” Cognition 124(3): 350–355 (September 2012).
Heather M. Gray et al, “Dimensions of Mind Perception,” Science 315(5812): 619 (2 February 2007).
Amy J.C. Cuddy et al, “Aid in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Inferences of secondary emotions and intergroup helping,” Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 10(1): 107–118 (2007).
Douglas L. Medin & Scott Atran, The Native Mind and the Cultural Construction of Nature, Bradford (2010).
Nicholas Epley, “Solving the (real) other minds problem,” Social and Personality Psychology Compass 2: 1455–1474 (2008).
Bernard Weiner, Judgments of Responsibility, Guilford Press, (1995).
Betram F. Malle & Ruth E. Bennett, “People’s praise and blame for intentions and actions: implications of the folk concept of intentionality,” Technical Report 02-2, Institute of Cognitive and Decision Sciences (2002).
“Pain hurts more if person hurting you means it,” ScienceDaily (20 December 2008).
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Objects versus Processes
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Data Quality
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Cosmic Inflation
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NASA’s Climate Orbiter
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Douglas Isbell et al, “Mars climate orbiter team finds likely cause of loss,” Mars Polar Lander press release (30 September 1999).
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Irving M. Copi & Carl Cohen, Introduction to Logic, Prentice Hall (2008).
John Stuart Mill, A System Of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive (1843).
Clinton B. DeSoto et al, “Social reasoning and spatial paralogic,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2: 513–521 (1965).
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Herbert H. Clark, “Linguistic processes in deductive reasoning,” Psychological Review 7(6): 387–404 (1969).
Robert S. Siegler, “Individual differences in strategy choices: Good students, not-so-good students, and perfectionists,” Child Development 59: 833–851 (1988).
Robert J. Sternberg, “Representation and process in linear syllogistic reasoning,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 109: 119–159 (1980).
H. Markovits, “The development of deductive reasoning,” in The Nature of Reasoning, edited by J.P. Leighton & R.J. Sternberg, Cambridge University Press (2004).
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Keith J. Holyoak & Patricia W. Cheng, “Pragmatic reasoning with a point of view,” Thinking and Reasoning 1(4): 289–313 (1995).
Causal Reasoning
Hillel J. Einhorn & Robin M. Hogarth, “Judging probable cause,” Pscyhological Bulletin 99(1): 3–19 (1986).
David M. Sobel & Natasha Z. Kirkham, “Blickets and babies: the development of causal reasoning in toddlers and infants,” Developmental Psychology 42: 1103–1115 (November 2006).
Roberta Corrigan & Peggy Denton, “Causal understanding as a developmental primitive,” Developmental Review 16(2): 162–202 (June 1996).
Nathan J. Emery & Nicola S. Clayton, “The mentality of crows: convergent evolution of intelligence in corvids and apes,” Science 306(5703): 1903–1907 (10 December 2004).
Aaron P. Blaisdell et al, “Causal reasoning in rats,” Science 311(5763): 1020–1022 (17 February 2006).
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Lee Jussim & Kent D. Harber, ” Teacher expectations and self-fulfilling prophecies: knowns and unknowns, resolved and unresolved controversies,” Personality and Social Psychological Review 9(2): 131–155 (May 2005).
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Dan Ariely, Predictably Irrational, Harper Collins (2008).
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Bo Bennett, Logically Fallacious: The Ultimate Collection of Over 300 Logical Fallacies, eBookIt.com (2013).
David Hackett Fischer, Historians’ Fallacies: Toward a Logic of Historical Thought, Harper & Row (1970).
Cognitive Dissonance
Leon Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Stanford University Press (1957).
Leon Festinger, “Cognitive dissonance”, Scientific American 207(4): 93–106 (October 1962).
Jack W. Brehm, “Postdecision changes in the desirability of alternatives,” The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 52(3): 384–389 (May 1956).
Leon Festinger & James M. Carlsmith, “Cognitive consequences of forced compliance,” The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 58(2): 203–210 (March 1959).
Leon Festinger, “Some attitudinal consequences of forced decisions,” Acta Psychologica 15: 389–390 (1959).
Elliot Aronson & Judson Mills, “The effect of severity of initiation on liking for a group,” The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 59(2): 177–181 (1959).
Harold B Gerard & Grover C. Mathewson, “The effects of severity of initiation on liking for a group: a replication,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 2(3): 278–287 (July 1966).
Problem Solving
Karl Duncker, On Problem Solving, The American Psychological Association (1945).
Jill Larkin et al, “Expert and novice performance in solving physics problems,” Science 208(4450): 1335–1342 (20 June 1980).
Mechanized Mind
Merim Bilalic et al, “The mechanism of the Einstellung (set) effect – a pervasive source of cognitive bias,” Current Directions in Psychological Science (10 May 2010).
Patrick Weber et al, “Why can only 24% solve Bayesian reasoning problems in natural frequencies: frequency phobia in spite of probability blindness,” Frontiers in Psychology (12 October 2018).
“Why don’t we understand statistics? Fixed mindsets may be to blame,” MedicalXpress (12 October 2018).
Stephan Arra, “Einstellung effect: what you already know can hurt you,” Exaptive (12 August 2015).
Catherine Brahic, “Daydream believers: is imagination our greatest skill?,” New Scientist (20 September 2014).
Paul L. Harris, The Work of the Imagination, Wiley-Blackwell (2000).
Ruth M.J. Byrne, The Rational Imagination: How People Create Alternatives to Reality, Bradford (2007).
David Lewis, Counterfactuals, Wiley-Blackwell (2001).
David R. Mandel, “Effect of counterfactual and factual thinking on causal judgments,” Thinking & Reasoning 9: 245–265 (2003).
David R. Mandel, “Counterfactuals, emotions, and context,” Cognition and Emotion 17 (1): 139–159 (2003).
Neal J. Roese, “Counterfactual thinking,” Psychological Bulletin 121(1): 133–148 (1997).
Tobias Gerstenberg et al, “Eye-tracking causality,” Psychological Science (17 October 2017).
Srini Narayanan, “Mind changes: a simulation semantics account of counterfactuals,” ICSI & UC Berkeley thesis (3 November 2010).
Kai Epstude & Neal J. Roese, “The functional theory of counterfactual thinking,” Personality & Social Psychology Review 12(2): 168–192 (May 2008).
Sarah R. Beck & Kevin J. Riggs, “Developing thoughts about what might have been,” Child Development Perspectives 8(3): 175–179 (2014).
Neal J. Roese et al, “The mechanics of imagination: automaticity and control in counterfactual thinking,” in The New Unconscious, Oxford University Press (2005).
Marjorie Taylor et al, “Paracosms: the imaginary worlds of middle childhood,” Child Development (15 October 2018).
“Imaginary worlds of children reflect positive creativity,” ScienceDaily (18 November 2018).
Gary L. Wells & Igor Gavanski, “Mental simulation of causality,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56(2): 161–169 (February 1989).
Philip E. Tetlock & Richard N. Lebow, “Poking counterfactual holes in covering laws: cognitive styles and historical reasoning,” American Political Science Review 95(4): 829–843 (December 2001).
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Janet Landman & Jean D. Manis, “What might have been: Counter-factual thought concerning personal decisions,” British Journal of Psychology 83(4): 473–477 (November 1992).
Daniel Kahneman & Dale T. Miller, “Norm theory: comparing reality to its alternatives,” Psychological Review 93(2): 136–153 (April 1986).
Keith D. Markman et al, “The impact of perceived control on the imagination of better and worse possible worlds,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 21(6): 588–595 (June 1995).
Keith D. Markman et al, “The mental simulation of better and worse possible worlds,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 29(10): 87–109 (January 1993).
D.S. Boninger et al, “Counterfactual thinking: from what might have been to what may be,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67: 297–307 (1994).
Julie Feldman et al, “Are actions regretted more than inactions?,” Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes 78(3): 232–255 (1999).
Felipe De Brigard, “Why we imagine,” Scientific American Mind 26(6): 28-35 (November/December 2015).
Denise Beike et al, “What we regret most are lost opportunities: a theory of regret intensity,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 35(3): 385–397 (December 2009).
Vittorio Girotto et al, “Event controllability in counterfactual think-ing,” Acta Psychologica 78(1-3): 111–133 (December 1991).
Robert J. Sternberg & Joyce Gastel, “If dancers ate their shoes: inductive reasoning with factual and counterfactual premises,” Memory & Cognition 17(1): 1–10 (1989).
Amy Summerville & Neal J. Roese, “Dare to compare: fact-based versus simulation-based comparison in daily life,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44(3): 664–671 (May 2008).
D.A. Leontiev, “Three facets of meaning,” Journal of Russian and East European Psychology 43(6): 45–72 (November-December 2005).
Laura J. Kray et al, “Thinking within the box: the relational processing style elicited by counterfactual mind-sets,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91(1): 33–48 (January 2006).
Laura J. Kray et al, “From what might have been to what must have been: counterfactual thinking creates meaning,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98(1): 106–118 (January 2010).
Nicola S. Clayton et al, “Can animals recall the past and plan for the future?,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 685–691 (August 2003).
Nicola S. Clayton & Anthony Dickinson, “Episodic-like memory during cache recovery by scrub jays,” Nature 395: 272–274 (17 September 1998).
John Marzluff & Tony Angell, Gifts of the Crow, Free Press (2012).
Michelle Nijhuis, “Friend or foe? Crows never forget a face, it seems,” The New York Times (26 August 2008).
Christopher C. Berger & H. Henrik Ehrsson, “Mental imagery changes multisensory perception,” Current Biology (27 June 2013).
“Imagination cna change what we hear and see,” ScienceDaily (27 June 2013).
Janet Landman, Regret: The Persistence of the Possible, Oxford University Press (1993).
Robert J. Sternberg et al, Creativity, in The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning, Cambridge University Press (2005).
Arnold M. Ludwig, The Price of Greatness: Resolving the Creativity and Madness Controversy, The Guilford Press (1995).
James C. Kaufman, “Genius, lunatics, and poets: mental illness in prize-winning authors,” Imagination Cognition and Personality 20(4):305–314 (June 2001).
Rod A. Martin, The Psychology of Humor, Elsevier (2007).
Gina C. Mireault, “Laughing matters,” Scientific American Mind 28(3):45-49 (May 2017).
Robert Roy Britt, “No joke: animals laugh, too,” Live Science (31 March 2005).
Daniel Wickberg, The Senses of Humor, Cornell University Press (1998).
Leigh Hunt, Wit and Humour Selected from the English Poets, Smith, Elder (1846).
Francis Hutcheson, Reflections Upon Laughter: And Remarks Upon The Fable Of The Bees (1750).
Christie Nicholson, “The humor gap,” Scientific American Mind 21(2): 38-45 (May/June 2010).
Henri Bergson et al Laughter: An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic, Kessinger Publishing (2010).
What’s Funny?
OLiver Wheaton, “The ten funniest jokes ever (according to science),” Metro (26 November 2015).
R.I.M Dunbar et al, “The complexity of jokes is limited by cognitive constraints on mentalizing,” Human Nature (23 November 2015).
“Complex humor is no laughing matter,” ScienceDaily (24 November 2015).
Alan Baddeley et al, Memory, Psychology Press (2009).
Daniel L. Schacter, The Seven Sins of Memory, Houghton Mifflin (2001).
“Brain constantly upgrades memories,” Nature World News (5 February 2014).
“The human brain works backwards to retrieve memories,” MedicalXpress (14 January 2019).
Maria Cohut, “How do our brains remember?,” Medical News Today (15 January 2019).
“Evidence that neural information flow is reversed between object perception and object reconstruction from memory,” Nature Communications (14 January 2019).
Thomas S. Hyde & James J. Jenkins, “Recall for words as a function of semantic, graphic, and syntactic orienting tasks,” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 12(5: 471–480 (October 1973).
Christopher N. Wahlheim & Jeffrey M. Zacks, “Memory guides the processing of event changes for older and younger adults,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (9 July 2018).
“Unless we spot changes, most life experiences are fabricated from memories,” ScienceDaily (24 July 2018).
Anthony J. Greene, “Making connections,” Scientific American Mind 21(3): 22-29 (July/August 2010).
Christopher Chabris & Daniel Simons, The Invisible Gorilla, Crown (2011).
Vishnu P. Murty et al, “The simple act of choosing influences declarative memory,” The Journal of Neuroscience (22 April 2015).
Aimee E. Stahl & Lisa Feigenson, “Observing the unexpected enhanc-es infants’ learning and exploration,” Science 348(6230): 91–94 (3 April 2015).
Laura Schulz, “Infants explore the unexpected,” Science 348(6230): 42–43 (3 April 2015).
Ross Flom et al, “The effects of exposure to dynamic expressions of affect on 5-month-olds’ memory,” Infant Behavior and Development 37(4): 752-759 (November 2014).
“Babies remember nothing but a good time, study says,” ScienceDaily (24 November 2014).
“How stress hormones promote brain’s building of negative memories,” ScienceDaily (23 July 2014).
Amy F. T. Arnsten, “The biology of being frazzled,” Science 280(5370): 1711–1712 (12 June 1998).
“Being in the ‘no’: questions influence what we remember,” ScienceDaily (14 September 2011).
“Conscious and unconscious memory linked in storing new information,” ScienceDaily (4 April 2006).
Geoffrey K. Aguirre & Mark D’Esposito, “Topographical disorientation: a synthesis and taxonomy,” Brain 122 (9): 1613-1628 (1999).
Ian S. Howard et al, “The value of the follow-through derives from motor learning depending on future actions,” Current Biology (8 Jan-uary 2015).
Angela D. Friederici et al, “Lexical integration: Sequential effects of syntactic and semantic information,” Memory & Cognition 27(3): 438–453 (May 1999).
David E.Meyer & Roger W. Schvaneveldt, “Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations,” Journal of Experimental Psychology 90(2): 227–234 (October 1971).
Lia Kvavilashvili, “Remembering intention as a distinct form of memory,” British Journal of Psychology 78: 507 – 518 (1987).
Thomas T. Hills et al, “Optimal foraging in semantic memory,” Psychological Review 119(2): 431-440 (April 2012).
“People forage for memories in the same way birds forage for berries,” ScienceDaily (14 February 2012).
Nelson Cowan, “What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?,” Progress in Brain Research 169: 323–338 (2008).
Nicolas Schweighofer et al, “Mechanisms of the contextual interference effect in individuals poststroke,” Journal of Neurophysiology 106(5): 2632–2641 (1 November 2011).
“Motor memory: the long and short of it,” ScienceDaily (13 September 2011).
Working Memory
George A. Miller, “The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information,” Psychological Review 63(2): 81–97 (March 1956).
Gordon Parker, “Acta is a four-letter word,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandi-navica 126(6): 476–478 (December 2012).
“Four is the magic number,” ScienceDaily (27 November 2012).
R.C. Atkinson & R.M. Shiffrin, “Human memory: a proposed system and its control processes,” in Psychology of Learning and Motivation (Volume 2), edited by K.W.Spence & J.T. Spence: 89–195, Academic Press, (1968).
“Psychologists link emotion to vividness of perception and creation of vivid memories,” ScienceDaily (20 August 2012).
Rebecca M. Todd et al, “Psychophysical and neural evidence for emotion-enhanced perceptual vividness,” The Journal of Neuroscience 32(33): 11201–11212 (15 August 2012).
“New understanding of how we remember traumatic events,” The Queensland Brain Institute (23 October 2008).
Bradley R. Buchsbaum et al, “The neural basis of vivid memory is patterned on perception,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 24(9): 1867–1883 (September 2012)..
“Why does a vivid memory ‘feel so real?’,” ScienceDaily (23 July 2012).
“Familiar songs act as strong memory cues, k-state researcher finds,” ScienceDaily (28 May 2005).
Processing Paradox Bias
Katherine Duncan et al, “Memory’s penumbra: episodic memory decisions induce lingering mnemonic biases,” Science 337 (6093): 485–487 (27 July 2012).
Veronique Greenwood, “Are you sure that’s the guy?,” Scientific American Mind 27(3): 17 (May/June 2016).
Hui Chen & Brad Wyble, “Amnesia for object attributes,” Psychological Science (6 January 2015).
Alan D. Castel et al, “Fire drill: inattentional blindness and amnesia for the location of fire extinguishers,” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 74(7): 1391–1396 (October 2012).
Adam Piore, “Totalling recall,” Scientific American Mind 22(6): 40-45 (January/February 2012).
“Did you see that? How could you miss it?,” ScienceDaily (26 November 2012).
Brice A. Kuhl et al, “Fidelity of neural reactivation reveals competition between memories,” PNAS 108(14): 5903–5908 (5 April 2011).
Nancy Shute, “Our brains rewrite our memories, putting present in the past,” NPR (5 February 2014).
“Memory is a dynamic and interactive process, new research shows,” ScienceDaily (28 May 2014).
Ingfei Chen, “A feeling for the past,” Scientific American Mind 22(6): 24-31 (January/February 2012).
“Your memory is like the telephone game, altered with each retelling,” ScienceDaily (19 September 2012).
Donna J. Bridge & Joel L. Voss, “Hippocampal binding of novel information with dominant memory traces can support both memory stability and change,” The Journal of Neuroscience 34(6): 2203–2213 (5 February 2014).
Donna J. Bridge and Ken A. Paller, “Neural correlates of reactivation and retrieval-induced distortion,” The Journal of Neuroscience 32(35): 12144–12151 (29 August 2012).
Yadin Dudai & Mark Eisenberg, “Rites of passage of the engram: reconsolidation and the lingering consolidation hypothesis,” Neuron 44(1): 93–100 (30 September 2004).
Daniel Kahneman et al, “When more pain is preferred to less: adding a better end,” Psychological Science 4: 401–405 (November 1993).
Donna J. Bridge & Joel L. Voss, “Hippocampal binding of novel information with dominant memory traces can support both memory stability and change,” The Journal of Neuroscience 34(6): 2203-2213 (5 February 2014).
Greg Miller, “How our brains make memories,” Smithsonian (May 2010).
“Your memory is no video camera: it edits the past with present experiences,” ScienceDaily (4 February 2014).
Eyewitness Misinformation
Jason C.K. Chan et al, “Recalling a witnessed event increases eyewit-ness suggestibility,” Psychological Science 20(1): 66–73 (January 2009).
Memory Conformity
Emilie A. Caspar et al, “Coercion changes the sense of agency in the human brain,” Current Biology 26: 1-8 (7 March 2016).
Micah Edelson et al, “Following the crowd: brain substrates of long-term memory conformity,” Science 333(6038): 108–111 (1 July 2011).
False Memories
Alan Scoboria et al, “A mega-analysis of memory reports from eight peer-reviewed false memory implantation studies,” Memory (28 November 2016).
“Why false memories sometimes feel like they are absolutely true,” ScienceDaily (8 November 2007).
Elizabeth F. Loftus, “Creating false memories,” Scientific American 277(3): 70–75 (September 1997).
Roni Jacobson, “Fanciful recall,” Scientific American Mind 25(5): 8 (September/October 2014).
Pedro M. Paz-Alonso et al, “Age differences in hippocampus-cortex connectivity during true and false memory retrieval,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 19(10): 1031–1041 (November 2013).
C.J. Brainerd et al, “Developmental reversals in false memory: effects of emotional valence and arousal,” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 107(2): 137-154 (October 2010).
“Adults recall negative events less accurately than children, study finds,” ScienceDaily (23 July 2010).
“False memories: the hidden side of our good memory,” ScienceDaily (5 February 2014).
Lawrence Patihis et al, “False memories in highly superior autobio-graphical memory individuals,” PNAS 110(52): 20947–20952 (24 December 2013).
Daniel L. Schacter et al, “Neuroanatomical correlates of veridical and illusory recognition memory: evidence from positron emission tomography,” Neuron 17(2): 267–274 (August 1996).
Kathryn Hunt & Lars Chittka, “False memory susceptibility is correlated with categorisation ability in humans,” F1000 Research (4 July 2014).
“False memories could be a side-effect of human ability to learn rules,” ScienceDaily (24 September 2014).
“Widespread mistaken beliefs about memory, U.S. national survey reveals,” ScienceDaily (4 August 2011).
Daniel J. Simons & Christopher F. Chabris, “What people believe about how memory works: a representative survey of the U.S. population,” PLoS One (3 August 2011).
Kathryn L. Hunt & Lars Chittka, “Merging of long-term memories in an insect,” Current Biology 25(6): 741-745 (16 March 2015).
Involuntary Memory
Ingrid Wickelgren, “Tyring to forget,” Scientific American Mind 226(6): 32-39 (January/February 2012).
L. Kvailashvili & G. Mandler, “Out of one’s mind: a study of involuntary semantic memories,” Cognitive Psychology, 48: 47–94 (2004).
“Different signal paths for spontaneous and deliberate activation of memories,” ScienceDaily (13 March 2010).
Mind Pops
Ferris Jabr, “Mind pops,” Scientific American (August 2012).
Ferris Jabr, “Mind pops: psychologists begin to study an unusual form of Proustian memory,” Scientific American (23 May 2012).
Ia Elua et al, “From mind-pops to hallucinations? A study of involuntary semantic memories in schizophrenia,” Psychiatry Research 196: 165–170 (2012).
Memory Inflation
Isabel Lindner et al, “Observation inflation,” Psychological Science 21(9): 1291–1299 (September 2010).
Maryanne Garry et al, “Imagination inflation: imagining a childhood event inflates confidence that it occurred,” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 3(2): 208–214 (1996).
Jennifer Nagel, Knowledge: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press (2014).
R.P. Abelson, “Psychological status of the script concept, American Psychologist 36: 715-729 (1981).
Marvin Minsky, “A framework for representing knowledge,” in The Psychology of Computer Vision, edited by P. Winston, McGraw-Hill (1975).
Caroline Williams, “Harness the power of knowledge,” New Scientist (7 October 2014).
Lera Boroditsky et al, “The roles of body and mind in abstract thought,” Psychological Science 13(2): 185-189 (1 March 2002).
Lisa Fazio, “Why you stink at fact-checking,” The Conversation (29 March 2018).
Thomas D. Erickson & Mark E. Mattson, “From words to meaning: a semantic illusion,” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 20(5): 540-551 (October 1981).
Illusion of Knowledge
Steven Sloman & Philip Fernbach, The Knowledge Illusion: Why We Never Think Alone, Riverhead (2017).
“Crowd force: you’re not as smart as you think,” The Economist (8 April 2017).
Jessica Schmerler, “You don’t know as much as you think,” Scientific American Mind 26(1): 13 (January/February 2016).
Micheal Brooks, “Is scientific knowledge special?,” New Scientist (1 April 2017).
Adam L. Alter et al, “Missing the trees for the forest: a construal level account of the illusion of explanatory depth,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 99(3): 436-451 (2010).
Richard Webb, “How much can we ever know?,” New Scientist (1 April 2017).
Sean O’Neill, “How much can one person know?,” New Scientist (1 April 2017).
“Study shows that humans struggle to remember sounds,” Nature World News (3 May 2014).
James Bigelow & Amy Poremba, “Achilles’ ear? Inferior human short-term and recognition memory in the auditory modality,” PLoS One 9(2): e89914 (February 2014).
Victoria M. Indivero, “Seeing is not remembering,” Penn State News (21 January 2015).
Benedict Carey, “Forget what you know about good study habits,” The New York Times (6 September 2010).
David J. Herzfeld et al, “A memory of errors in sensorimotor learning,” Science 345(6202): 1349-1353 (12 September 2014).
“Memories of errors foster faster learning,” ScienceDaily (14 August 2014).
Susan Engel, The Hungry Mind The Origins of Curiosity in Childhood, Harvard University Press (2015).
Shirlene Wade & Celeste Kidd, “The role of prior knowledge and curiosity in learning,” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (11 May 2019).
“What we think we know — but might not — pushes us to learn more,” ScienceDaily (23 May 2019).
Matthias J. Gruber et al, “States of curiosity modulate hippocampus-dependent learning via the dopaminergic circuit,” Neuron (October 2014).
Collin M. McCabe et al, “Infectious disease, behavioural flexibility and the evolution of culture in primates,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (3 December 2014).
Ian Leslie, Curious: The Desire to Know and Why Your Future Depends On It, Basic Books (2014).
The Uncanny
Benedict Carey, “How nonsense sharpens the intellect,” The New York Times (5 October 2009).
Travis Proulx & Mark J. Brandt, “Bbeyond threat and uncertainty: the underpinnings of conservatism,” Social Cognition 35: 313-323 (2017).
Mark J. Landau et al, “Motivated cultural worldview adherence and culturally loaded test performance,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (22 January 2009).
Jacob B. Hirsh & Michael Inzlicht, “Error-related negativity predicts academic performance,” Psychophsiology (7 August 2009).
Sigmund Freud, “The Uncanny” (1919).
David G. Myers, Intuition – Its Power and Perils, Yale University Press (2002).
Kenneth S. Bowers et al, “Intuition in the context of discovery,” Cognitive Psychology 22:72-110 (1990).
David G. Rand et al, “Spontaneous giving and calculated greed,” Nature 489: 427–430 (20 September 2012).
“Spontaneous thoughts are perceived to reveal meaningful self-insight,” ScienceDaily (27 May 2014).
Carey K. Morewedge et al, “The (perceived) meaning of spontaneous thoughts,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143(4): 1742–1754 (August 2014).
Roni Jacobson, “Is eureka right?,” Scientific American 314(5): 18 (May 2014).
Timothy M. Osberg, & J. Sidney Shrauger, “Self-prediction:exploring the parameters of accuracy,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(5): 1044–1057 (November 1986).
J. Sidney Shrauger & Timothy M. Osberg, “The relative accuracy of self-predictions and judgments by others in psychological assessment,” Psychological Bulletin 90(2): 322–351 (1981).
Connie S.K. Poon et al, “On the psychology of self-prediction: consideration of situational barriers to intended actions,” Judgment and Decision Making 9(3): 207–225 (May 2014).
Derek J. Koehler & Connie S.K. Poon, “Self-predictions overweight strength of current intentions,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 42(4): 517–524 (July 2006).
Shelley E. Taylor & Jonathon D. Brown, “Illusion and well-being: a social psychological perspective on mental health,” Psychological Bulletin 103(2): 193–210 (1988).
Anne E. Wilson & Michael Ross, “From chump to champ: people’s appraisals of their earlier and present selves,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80(4): 572–584 (April 2001).
Daniel Offer et al, “The altering of reported experiences,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 39(6): 735–742 (June 2000).
D.R. Wixon & James D. Laird, “Awareness and attitude change in the forced-compliance paradigm: the importance of when,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34(3): 376–384 (September 1976).
Diane Holmberg & John G. Holmes, “Reconstruction of relationship memories: a mental models approach,” in Autobiographical Memory and the Validity of Retrospective Reports, edited by N. Schwarz & S. Sudman, Springer-Verlag (1994).
Itamar Simonson, “The effect of purchase quantity and timing on variety-seeking behavior,” Journal of Marketing Research 27(2): 150–162 (1990).
Sarah J. Ward & Laura A. King, “Individual differences in intuitive processing moderate responses to moral transgressions,” Personality and Individual Differences 87: 230-235 (December 2015).
Richard Patterson et al, “Reasoning, cognitive control, and moral intuition,” Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience (4 August 2012).
“People who rely on their intuition are, at times, less likely to cheat,” ScienceDaily (24 November 2015).
Antti Kauppinen, “Moral intuition in philosophy and psychology,” Academia.edu (13 May 2013).
Matt Bedke, “Ethical intuitions: what they are, what they are not, and how they justify,” Academia.edu (2008).
Timothy D. Wilson & Yoav Bar-Anan, “The unseen mind,” Science 321(5892): 1046–1047 (22 August 2008).
Paul Slovic, “Cigarette smokers: rational actors or rational fools?,” in Smoking Risk, Perception, and Policy, Sage Publications (2001).
“Knowing me, myself and I: what psychology can contribute to self-knowledge,” ScienceDaily (8 September 2009).
Stephen M. Fleming, “The power of reflection,” Scientific American Mind 25(5): 31–37 (September/October 2014).
Stephen M. Fleming et al, “Relating introspective accuracy to individ-ual differences in brain structure,” Science 329 5998 1541–1543 (17 September 2010).
Janet Metcalfe, “Evolution of metacognition,” Columbia University (undated).
Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy D. Wilson “Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes,” Psychological Review 84(3): 231–259 (March 1977).
Peter A. White, “Knowing more about what we can tell: ‘Introspective access’ and causal report accuracy 10 years later,” British Journal of Psychology 79(1): 13–45 (February 1988).
“A person has two reasons for doing anything: a good reason and the real reason,” Quote Investigator (26 March 2014).
Shane Legg & Marcus Hutter, “A collection of definitions of intelligence,” Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications 157: 17–24 (2007).
Howard Gardner, Frames of Mind, Basic Books (2004).
Moshe Zeidner et al, What We Know About Emotional Intelligence, MIT Press (2009).
Carroll E. Izard, “Emotional intelligence or adaptive emotions?,” Emotion 1(3): 249-257 (2001).
Wayne Leon Payne, “A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence,” Dissertation, University of Michigan (1986).
Sarah Griffiths, “Are we becoming more STUPID? IQ scores are decreasing – and some experts argue it’s because humans have reached their intellectual peak,” Mail Online (21 August 2014).
Richard Lynn & Tatu Vanhanen, IQ and the Wealth of Nations, Praeger/Greenwood (2002).
Richard Niolon, “Are IQ tests biased,” psychpage.com (August 2005).
James R. Flynn, “Are we really getting smarter?,” The Wall Street Journal (21 September 2012).
Berys Gaut & Dominic McIver Lopes (editors), The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics, Routledge (2005).
Albert Hofstadter & Richard Kuhns, Philosophies of Art and Beauty: Selected Readings in Aesthetics from Plato to Heidegger, University of Chicago Press (2009).
Stephen David Ross, Art and Its Significance: An Anthology of Aesthetic Theory, State University of New York Press (1994).
Piero Ferrucci, Beauty and the Soul, Penguin (2009).
Gyorgy Doczi, The Power of Limits, Shambhala (2005).
Ernst Gombrich, The Story of Art, Phaidon Press (1995).
Stephen Davies, The Philosophy of Art, Blackwell Publishing (2006).
Kelly LeRoux & Anna Bernadska, “Impact of the arts on individual contributions to U.S. civil society,” (2012).
“Interest in arts predicts social responsibility: study,” UIC today (16 August 2012).
Helmut Leder, “Thinking by design,” Scientific American Mind 22(3): 42-47 (July/August 2011).
“Evolutionary psychology: the idea that women are cyclical cuckolders bites the dust,” The Economist (10 May 2018).
The Human Being
Pablo P.L. Tinio & Helmut Leder, “Just how stable are stable aesthetic features? Symmetry, complexity, and the jaws of massive familiarization,” Acta Psychologica 130: 241-250 (March 2009).
Marieke de Vries et al, “Happiness cools the warm glow of familiarity: psychophysiological evidence that mood modulates the familiarity-affect link,” Psychological Science 21(3): 321-328 (2010).
Carrie Arnold, “My, what a big salad you have,” Scientific American Mind 22(1): 14 (March/April 2011).
Larua Germine et al, “Individual aesthetic preferences for faces are shaped mostly by environments, not genes,” Current Biology 25: 2684-2689 (19 October 2015).
Ian Sample, “If the fact fits: science of attraction is based on personal experience – study,” The Guardian (1 October 2015).
Back Story
David M.G. Lewis et al, “Lumbar curvature: a previously undiscovered standard of attractiveness,” Evolution & Human Behavior 36(5): 345-350 (September 2015).
“Men’s preference for certain body types has evolutionary roots,” EurekAlert! (19 March 2015).
Vilaynur S. Ramachandran & Diane Rogers-Ramachandran, “The power of symmetry,” Scientific American Mind 20: 20-22 (2009).
Tom Jacobs, “The surprising power of symmetry,” Pacific Standard (20 March 2014).
Ker Than, “Symmetry in nature: fundamental fact or human bias?,” Live Science (21 December 2005).
Tommy Dreyfus & Theodore Eisenberg, “On symmetry in school mathematics,” Symmetry: Culture and Science 9(2-4): 189-197 (1998).
Viren Swami & Adrian Furnham, “The effects of symmetry and personality on aesthetic preferences,” Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 32(1): 2012-2013 (2012).
Beauty in Science
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, “Beauty and the quest for beauty in science,” Fermilab (undated).
Joseph Silk, “The impulse of beauty,” Nature 523: 156-157 (9 July 2015).
David H. Foster & Sergio M.C. Nascimento, “Relational color constancy from invariant cone-excitation ratios,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B 257(1349: 115–121 (September 1994).
Steven Bleicher, Contemporary Color: Theory and Use, Delmar Cengage Learning (2011).
Rudolf Steiner, Color, Rudolf Steiner Press (1997).
Rolf G. Kuehni, Color: An Introduction to Practice and Principles, Wiley (2012).
Jordana Cepelewicz, “Our innate sense of color,” Scientific American Mind 27(3): 13 (May/June 2016).
Alice E. Skelton et al, “Biological origins of color categorization,” PNAS (8 May 2017).
Stephen L. Macknick & Susana Martinez-Conde, “Colors out of space,” Scientific American Mind 22(2): 18-20 (May/June 2011).
Color Psychology
Faber Birren, Color Psychology and Color Therapy, University Books (1961).
T.W.A. Whitfield & T.J. Wiltshire, “Color psychology: a critical review,” Genetic Social and General Psychology Monographs 116(4): 385-411 (December 1990).
Lauren I. Labrecque & George R. Milne, “Exciting red and competent blue: the importance of color in marketing,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 40(5): 711–727 (September 2012).
Adam D. Pazda et al, “Sexy red: perceived sexual receptivity mediates the red-attraction relation in men viewing woman,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48(3): 787-790 (May 2012).
Daniel Strain, “The red-dress effect,” Science (27 February 2012).
Adam D. Pazda et al, “Red and romantic rivalry: Viewing another woman in red increases perceptions of sexual receptivity, derogation, and intentions to mate-guard,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (11 July 2014).
Warner & Raymond Franzen, “Value of color in advertising,” Journal of Applied Psychology 31(3): 260–270 (June 1947).
Anton J.M. de Craen et al, “Effect of colour of drugs: systematic review of perceived effect of drugs and of their effectiveness,” BMJ (21 December 1996).
Carol J. Auster & Claire S. Mansbach, “The gender marketing of toys: an analysis of color and type of toy on the Disney store website,” Sex Roles 67(7): 375–388 (October 2012).
Chris Piotrowski & Terry Armstrong, “Color red: implications for applied psychology and marketing research,” Psychology and Education: an Interdisciplinary Journal 49(1–2): 55–57 (2012).
Susan Martinez-Conde & Stephen L. Macknik, “Seeing red,” Scientific American Mind 25(6): 21-23 (November/December 2014).
Masahiro Shibasaki & Nobuo Masataka, “The color red distorts time perception for men, but not for women,” Scientific Reports (31 July 2014).
Russell A. Hill & Robert A. Barton, “Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests,” Nature (18 May 2005).
John A. Caldwell & Gary E. Jones, “The effects of exposure to red and blue light on physiological indices and time estimation,” Perception, 14(1): 19–29 (February 1985).
A.J. Elliot & M.A. Maier, “Color and psychological functioning,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 16(5): 250-254 (2007).
Andrew J. Elliot, “Color and psychological functioning: a review of theoretical and empirical work,” Frontiers in Psychology (2 April 2015).
Kendra Cherry, “Can color really change how you feel and act?,” VeryWell.com (23 August 2016).
P.J.B. Slater, “Birdsong repertoires: their origins and use,” in The Origins of Music, edited by N.L. Wallin et al, MIT Press (2000).
Deryck Cooke, The Language of Music, Oxford University Press (1959).
Leonard B. Meyer, Emotion and Meaning in Music, The University of Chicago Press (1956).
Rhimmon Simchy-Gross & Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis, “The sound-to-music illusion: repetition can musicalize non-speech sounds,” Music & Science (2018).
“Repetition can make sounds into music,” ScienceDaily (4 December 2017).
Jesse Berezovsky, “The structure of musical harmony as an ordered phase of sound: A statistical mechanics approach to music theory,” Science Advances (17 May 2019).
“Phase transitions: the math behind the music,” ScienceDaily (23 May 2019).
Marisa Hoeschele et al, “Searching for the origins of musicality across species,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2 February 2015).
Hauke Egermann et al, “Music induces universal emotion-related psychophysiological responses: comparing Canadian listeners to Congolese Pygmies,” Frontiers in Psychology (7 January 2015).
William P. Malm, Music Cultures of the Pacific, the Near East, and Asia, Prentice Hall (1967).
Dennis Y. Hsu et al, “The music of power: perceptual and behavioral consequences of powerful music,” Social Psychological and Personality Science 6(1): 75–83 (January 2015).
“Pump up the music – especially the bass – to make you feel powerful,” ScienceDaily (5 August 2014).
“A spine-tingling and blissful infinity,” The Economist (3 January 2015).
Stefan Koelsch et al, “Processing of hierarchical syntactic structure in music,” PNAS (3 September 2013).
William Forde Thompson & Gottfried Schlaug, “The healing power of music,” Scientific American Mind 26(2): 33-41 (March/April 2015).
Kelly Jakubowski et al, “Dissecting an earworm: melodic features and song popularity predict involuntary musical imagery,” Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts 11(2): 122-135 (May 2017).
“Why certain songs get stuck in your head,” ScienceDaily (3 November 2016).
Chan Tu, “Why do songs get stuck in our heads?,” Science Friday (28 May 2014).
Preferences by Personality
“Personality predicts musical preference,” The Economist (5 April 2018).
Jane Collingwood, “Preferred music style is tied to personality,” PsychCentral (2008).
David M. Greenberg et al, “Musical preferences are linked to cognitive style,” PLoS One (22 July 2015).
David M. Greenberg, “What your musical taste says about your personality,” The Conversation (25 November 2015).
Adrian C. North et al, “Musical preference, deviance, and attitudes towards music celebrities,” Personality and Individual Differences 38(8): 1903-1914 (June 2005).
Adrian North & David Hargreaves, The Social and Applied Psychology of Music, Oxford University Press (2008).
Whale Songs
“Secrets of whales’ long-distance songs are being unveiled,” ScienceDaily (2 March 2005).
Philip Ball, “Sounding out the science of whale song,” Nature (5 November 1999).
“Whale ‘pop songs’ spread across the ocean,” Science 332(6028): 405 (22 April 2011).
Susan Milius, “Humpback whale alters song if another one sings along,” Science News (7 November 2009).
“Do whales speak in many tongues?,” Science 263: 753 (11 February 1994).
Anita Murray et al, “Minimal similarity in songs suggests limited exchange between humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the southern Indian Ocean,” Marine Mammal Science (15 June 2011).
Michael J. Noad et al, “Cultural revolution in whale songs,” Nature 408: 537 (30 November 2000).
Patricia M. Gray et al, “The music of nature and the nature of music,” Science 291(5501): 52–54 (5 January 2001).
Dancer image modified from an image courtesy of mobgraphics.Kristofor McCary et al, “Optimal asymmetry and other motion parameters that characterise high-quality female dance,” Scientific Reports (9 February 2017).
Steph Yin, “What makes a woman a good dancer? Watch the hips, a study says,” The New York Times (9 February 2017).
Nick Neave et al, “Male dance moves that catch a woman’s eye,” Biology Letters (8 September 2010).
“Lord of the dance: the dance moves that make men attractive to women,” The Economist (8 September 2010).
Joseph T. Hallinan, Kidding Ourselves: The Hidden Power of Self-Deception Crown Publishers (2014).
E.H. Hess, “Puilometrics,” in Handbook of Psychophysiology, edited by N. Greenfield & R. Sternback, Rinehart and Winston (1972).
Filip Gesiarz et al, “Evidence accumulation is biased by motivation: A computational account,” PLoS Computational Biology (27 June 2019).
“People’s motivations bias how they gather information,” ScienceDaily (27 June 2019).
“Researchers find everyone has a bias blind spot,” Phys.org (8 June 2015).
Adam Bear & Joshua Knobe, “Normality: part descriptive, part prescriptive,” Cognition (11 November 2016).
Adam Bear & Joshua Knobe, “The normalization trap,” The New York Times (28 January 2017).
Katherine Hansen et al, “People claim objectivity after knowingly using biased strategies,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (21 February 2014).
“Time is not money,” The Economist (5 October 2013).
Shlomi Sher & Craig R.M. McKenzie, “Information leakage from logically equivalent frames,” Cognition 101: 467–494 (2006).
Francine Russo, “The sexes are not equally swayed,” Scientific American Mind 26(4): 12 (July/August 2015).
Gerd Gigerenzer, Gut Feelings, Viking (2007).
Benedetto De Martino et al, “Frames, biases, and rational decision-making in the human brain,” Science 313: 684–687 (4 August 2006).
Nidhya Logeswaran & Joydeep Bhattacharya, “Crossmodal transfer of emotion by music,” Neuroscience Letters 455(2): 129–133 (15 May 2009).
“Beware of Beethoven,” The Economist (23 August 2014).
Sunk Cost
Brian M. Sweis et al, “Sensitivity to “sunk costs” in mice, rats, and humans,” Science 361(6398): 178-181 (13 July 2018).
John Paul Schott et al, “Casualties of war and sunk costs: Implications for attitude change and persuasion,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 47(6): 1134-1145 (November 2011).
“Death tolls spur pro-war stance, study finds,” EurekAlert! (7 September 2011).
Alexander Lanoszka & Michael A. Hunzeker, “Why the First World War lasted so long,” The Washington Post (11 November 2018).
Joshua Knobe, “Intentional action and side effects in ordinary language,” Analysis (July 2003).
Joshua Knobe, “Intentional action in folk psychology,” Philosophical Psychology 16(2): 309-324 (2003).
Frank Kindriks, “Normativity in action: how to explain the Knobe effect and its relatives,” Mind & Language (February 2011).
Fiery Cushman et al, “Moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments,” Cognition 108(1):281-289 (August 2008).
Adam Feltz, “The Knobe effect: a brief overview,” Journal of Mind and Behavior (June 2007).
Ryan Wasserman, “Intentional action and the unintentional fallacy,” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 92(4):524-534 (December 2011).
Bertram F. Malle, “Intentional action folk psychology,” in A Companion to the Philosophy of Action, edited by T. O’Connor and C. Sandis, Wiley-Blackwell (2010).
Joshua Knobe & Sean D. Kelly, “Can one act for a reason without acting intentionally,” in New Essays on the Explanation of Action Palgrave Macmillan (2009).
Dan Jones, “The good, the bad and the intentional,” The Psychologist 22(80): 666-669 (August 2009).
Jenifer Nado, “Effects of moral cognition on judgments of intentionality,” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59(4): 709-731 (December 2008).
Edward T. Cokely & Adam Feltz, “Individual differences, judgment biases, and theory-of-mind: Deconstructing the intentional action side effect asymmetry,” Journal of Research in Personality, (2008).
Steven David Sverdlik, “Intentionality and moral judgments in commonsense thought about action,” Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 24 (2):224-236 (2004).
Shaun Nichols & Joseph Ulatowski, “Intuitions and individual differences: the Knobe effect revisited,” Mind and Language (June 2007).
Jason Turner, “Folk intuitions, asymmetry, and intentional side effects,” Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 24(2):214-219 (January 2004).
Crime & Punishment
Dorit Kliemann et al, “The influence of prior record on moral judgment,” Neuropsychologia 46(12): 2949-2957 (July 2008).
Fiery Cushman, “Crime and punishment: distinguishing the roles of casual and intentional analyses in moral judgment,” Cognition 108: 353-380 (2008).
Lawrence J. Sanna et al, “When debiasing backfires: accessible content and accessibility experiences in debiasing hindsight,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 28(3): 497–502 (2002).
Michael Kranish, “Trump’s week reveals bleak view, dubious statements in ‘alternative universe'” The Washington Post (24 September 2016).
Charles G. Lord et al, “Biased assimilation and attitude polarization: The effects of prior theories on subsequently considered evidence,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37(11): 2098–2109 (November 1979).
Daniel T. Gilber, “How mental systems believe,” American Psychologist (February 1991).
Marie Johoda, Current Concepts of Positive Mental Health, Basic Books (1958).
Michael A. Busseri, “How dispositional optimists and pessimists evaluate their past, present and anticipated future life satisfaction: a lifespan approach,” European Journal of Personality 27(2): 185–199 (March/April 2013).
John H. Flavell et al, “Young children’s understanding of different types of beliefs,” Child Development 63(4) (1 August 1992).
Jared Parker Friedman & Anthony Ian Jack, “What makes you so sure? Dogmatism, fundamentalism, analytic thinking, perspective taking and moral concern in the religious and nonreligious,” Journal of Religion and Health (10 June 2017).
“Why some people are so sure they’re right, even when they are not,” ScienceDaily (26 July 2017).
Hindsight Bias
David Wasserman et al, “Hindsight and causality,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 17(1): 30–35 (February 1991).
Baruch Fischhoff, “The effect of temporal setting on likelihood estimates,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 15(2): 180–194 (April 1976).
Baruch Fischhoff, “For those condemned to study the past: heuristics and biases in hindsight,” in Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, Cambridge University Press (1982).
Neal J. Roese & James M. Olson, “Counterfactuals, causal attributions, and the hindsight bias: a conceptual integration,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 32: 197–227 (1996).
Richard H. Thaler, “From homo economicus to homo sapiens,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 14(1): 133–141 (2000).
Dalmatian image courtesy of Ronald C. James.
Niloy J. Mitra et al, “Emerging images,” ACM Transactions on Graphics 28(5) (December 2009).
Michael Ross & Ian R. Newby-Clark, “Construing the past and future,” Social Cognition 16: 133–150 (1998).
Future Bias
Anne S. Rasmussen & Dorthe Berntsen, “The reality of the past versus the ideality of the future: emotional valence and functional differences between past and future mental time travel.,” Memory & Cognition 41(2):187–200 (February 2013).
Michael A. Busseri et al, “Subjective temporal trajectories for subjective well-being,” The Journal of Positive Psychology 7)(1): 1–15 (2012).
Ursula M. Staudinger et al, “Looking back and looking ahead: adult age differences in consistency of diachronous ratings of subjective well-being,” Psychology and Aging 18:(1): 13–24 (2003).
Ben Cohen, “Does the ‘hot hand’ exist in basketball,” The Wall Street Journal (27 February 2014).
Jonathan Koehler “The “hot hand” myth in professional basketball”. Journal of Sport Psychology 2(25): 253–259 (2003).
Timothy D Wilson & Daniel T Gilbert, “Affective forecasting,” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 35: 345–411 (2003).
Thomas Gilovich & Christine Douglas, “Biased evaluations of randomly determined gambling outcomes,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 22(3): 228–241 (May 1986).
Thomas Gilovich, “Biased evaluation and persistence in gambling,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44(6): 1110–1126 (1983).
Emotional Bias
Norbert Schwarz et al, “Soccer, rooms, and the quality of your life: mood effects on judgments of satisfaction with life in general and with specific domains,” European Journal of Social Psychology 17(1): 69–79 (January/March 1987).
George Loewenstein, “Hot-cold empathy gaps and medical decision making,” Health Psychology 24(4): S49-S56 (2005).
Gwen Dewar, “The hot-cold empathy gap: why even smart, sensitive people make bad judgments,” Parenting Science (2013).
Joesph P. Forgas, “The influence of mood on social interactions,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 20(6): 497–513 (November 1984).
David A. Schkade & Daniel Kahneman, “Does living in California make people happy?,” Psychological Science 9(5): 340–346 (September 1998).
W. Keith Campbell & Constantine Sedikides, “Self-threat magnifies the self-serving bias: a meta-analytic integration,” Review of General Psychology 3: 23–43 (1999).
Gwen Dewar, “The hot-cold empathy gap,” Parenting Science (2013).
Self-Esteem Bias
Matthijs van Veelen & Martin A. Nowak, “Selection for postive illusions,” Nature 477: 282-283 (15 September 2011).
Dmonic D.P. Johnson & James H. Fowler, “The evolution of overconfidence,” Nature 477: 317-320 (15 September 2011).
Andreas Kappes et al, “Concern for others leads to vicarious optimism,” Psychological Science (30 January 2018).
“We view ourselves and those we care about through ‘rose-tinted glasses’, study says,” ScienceDaily (2 February 2018).
“How the brain filters bad news,” The Guardian (25 September 2012).
Soo Kim & David Gal, “From compensatory consumption to adaptive consumption: the role of self-acceptance in resolving self-deficits,” Journal of Consumer Research 41(2): 526-542 (August 2014).
Harvey Black, “Life at the top,” Scientific American Mind 23(1): 7 (March/April 2012).
Thomas C. Shelling, Micromotives and Macrobehavior, W.W. Norton & Company (2006).
Social Bias
Lee Ross, “The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: distor-tions in the attribution process”. in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, edited by Leonard Berkowitz, Academic Press (1977).
B. Mullen & C.A. Riordin, “Self-serving attributions for performance in naturalistic settings: a meta-analytic review,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 18: 3–22 (1988).
Michael Ross & Fiore Sicoly, “Egocentric biases in availability and attribution,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37: 322–336 (1979).
J. Kruger & T. Gilovich, “‘Naïve cynicism’ in everyday theories of responsibility assessment: on biased assumptions of bias,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76: 743–753 (1999).
Janice D. Gary & Roxane Cohen Silver, “Opposite sides of the same coin: former spouses divergent perspectives in coping with their divorce,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59: 1180–1191 (1990).
Raymond Baumhart, An Honest Profit: What Businessmen Say About Ethics in Business, Holt, Rinehart & Winston (1968).
Yoshiaki Imai, “Effects of influencing attempts on the perceptions of powerholders and the powerless,” Journal of Social Behavior & Personality 9(3): 455–468 (September 1994).
Robert M. Arkin & Geoffrey M. Maruyama, “Attribution, affect, and college exam performance,” Journal of Educational Psychology 71: 85–93 (1979).
Robert Arkin et al, “A statistical review of the literature concerning the self-serving attribution bias in interpersonal influence situations,” Journal of Personality 48: 435–448 (December 1980).
Bruce Headey & Alex Wearing, “The sense of relative superiority – central to well-being,” Social Indicators Research 20: 497–516 (1987).
“Vanity fare,” Public Opinion (August- September 1984).
Ola Svenson, “Are we all less risky and more skillful than our fellow drivers?,” Acta Psychologica 47(2): 143–148 (2 February 1981).
Jerry Suls et al, “False consensus and false uniqueness in estimating the prevalence of health-protective behaviors,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 18(1): 66–79 (January 1988).
R.M. Dawes, “The potential non-falsity of the false consensus effect,” in Insights in Decision Making, University of Chicago Press (1990).
Lee Ross et al, “The ‘false consensus effect’: An egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 13(3): 279–301 (May 1977).
Judith Martin & Gloria Kamen, Miss Manners’ Guide to Excruciatingly Correct Behavior, W.W. Norton & Company (2005).
Mark G. Frank & Thomas Gilovich, “The dark side of self- and social perception: black uniforms and aggression in professional sports,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54(1): 74–85 (1988).
Corinne F. David & Janet A. Kistner, “Do positive self-perceptions have a “dark side”? Examination of the link between perceptual bias and aggression,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 28(4): 327–337 (August 2000)..
John Wilson et al, “Racial bias in judgments of physical size and formidability: from size to threat,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (13 March 2017).
“People see black men as larger, more threatening than same-sized white men,” American Psychological Association press release (13 March 2017).
Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow, Farrar, Straus and Giroux (2011).
Joachim Krueger, “Personal beliefs and cultural stereotypes about racial characteristics,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71(3): 536–548 (1996).
Daniel Kahneman & Amos Tversk, “Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk,” Econometrica 47(2): 263–292 (March 1979).
Hillel J. Einhorn et al, “Confidence in judgment: persistence of the illusion of validity,” Psychological Review 85(5): 395-416 (1978).
Daniel Gilbert, “Buried by bad decisions,” Nature (16 June 2011).
Tim McClure & Roy Spence, Don’t Mess with Texas: The Story Behind the Legend Idea City Press (2006).
Claudia R. Schneider et al, “The influence of anticipated pride and guilt on pro-environmental decision making,” PLoS One (30 November 2017).
“Pride tops guilt as a motivator for environmental decisions,” ScienceDaily (13 February 2018).
John M.C. Hutchinson, & Gerd Gigerenzer, “Simple heuristics and rules of thumb: where psychologists and behavioural biologists might meet,” Behavioural Processes 69(2): 97–124 (31 May 2005).
Wray Herbert, On Second Thought, Crown Publishers (2010).
Kensuke Nakata et al, “Using past experience in web relocation decisions enhances the foraging efficiency of the spider Cyclosa argenteoalba,” Journal of Insect Behavior 16(3): 371–380 (May 2003).
R.M. Gibson & J.W. Bradbury, “Sexual selection in lekking sage grouse: phenotypic correlates of male mating success,” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 18: 117–123 (1985).
H. Richner & P. Heeb, “Communal life: honest signaling and the recruitment center hypothesis,” Behavioral Ecology 7: 115–118 (1996).
H. Clutton-Brock & S.D. Albon, “The roaring of red deer and the evolution of honest advertisement,” Behaviour 69: 145-170 (1979).
Natash Mhatre et al, “Changing resonator geometry to boost sound power decouples size and song frequency in a small insect,” PNAS (30 April 2012).
Eamonn B. Mallon & Nigel R. Franks, “Ants estimate area using Buffon’s needle,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 267: 765–770 (August 2000).
S.T. Mugford et al, “The accuracy of Buffon’s needle: a rule of thumb used by ants to estimate area,” Behavioral Ecology 12(6): 655–658 (2001).
A. Dornhaus et al, “Ants move to improve: colonies of Leptothorax albipennis emigrate whenever they find a superior nest site,” Animal Behaviour 67(5): 959–963 (May 2004).
Thomas Seeley, “Measurement of nest cavity volume by the honey bee (Apis mellifera),” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 2(2): 201–227 (1977).
Hans S. Schroder et al, “When the rules are reversed: action-monitoring consequences of reversing stimulus–response mappings,” Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience 12(4): 629–643 (December 2012).
“Brain power shortage: applying new rules is mentally taxing and costly,” ScienceDaily (16 July 2012).
Amos Tversky & Daniel Kahneman “Judgment under uncertainty: heuristics and biases,” Science 185: 1124–1131 (27 September 1974).
Amos Tversky & Daniel Kahneman, “Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: the conjunction fallacy in probability judgment,” Psychological Review, Vol 90(4): 293–315 (October 1983).
A. Tversky & D. Kahneman, “Judgments of and by representativeness,” in Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, edited by D. Kahneman et al, Cambridge University Press (1982).
“Younger children tend to make more informed decision,” MedicalXpress (19 July 2019).
Samantha Gualtieri & Stephanie Denison, “The development of the representativeness heuristic in young children,” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 174: 60-76 (October 2018).
Felicia Pratto & John A. Bargh, “Stereotyping based on apparently individuating information: trait and global components of sex stereotypes under attention overload,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 27(1): 26-47 (January 1991).
Ziva Kunda et al, “Stereotypes and the construal of individuating information,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 19(1): 90-99 (1 February 1993).
Chin-Shan Wu et al, “The role of Internet buyer’s product familiarity and confidence in anchoring effect,” Behaviour & Information Technology 31(9): 829–838 (2012).
Paul Slovic & Sarah Lichtenstein, “Comparison of Bayesian and regression approaches to the study of information processing in judgment,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 6(6): 649–744 (1971).
Maya Bar-Hillel, “On the subjective probability of compound events,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 9(3): 396–406 (June 1973).
John Cohen et al, “A confirmation of the inertial-? effect in sequential choice and decision,” British Journal of Psychology 63(1): 41–46 (Feb-ruary 1972).
Subconscious Input
Saul McLeod, “Unconsious mind,” Simply Psychology (2015).
R.B. Zajonc, “Feeling and thinking: preferences need no inferences,” American Psychologist 35: 151–175 (1980).
Laura Cacciamani et al, “Semantic access occurs outside of awareness for the ground side of a figure,” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics (August 2014).
Benjamin Libet, “Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action,” The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:529-566 (1985).
Tomm Stafford, “Why do we intuitively believe we have free will?,” BBC (7 August 2015).
Kerri Smith, “Neuroscience vs philosophy: taking aim at free will,” Nature 477:23-25 (31 August 2011).
Ari N. Schulman, “Can neuroscientists measure free will?,” Big Questions Online (21 September 2017).
Eddy Nahmias, “Why we have free will,” Scientific American (1 January 2015).
Tom Chivers, “Neuroscience, free will and determinism: ‘I’m just a machine’,” The Telegraph (12 October 2010).
Sam Harris, The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values, Free Press (2010).
Peter Voss, “The nature of free will,” (July 1997).
Correlation & Causality
Thomas Gilovich, How We Know What Isn’t So, The Free Press (1991).
Burton G. Malkiel, A Random Walk Down Wall Street, (1989).
Global Warming
Isaac M. Held, “The cause of the pause,” Nature 501: 318–319 (19 September 2013).
“Who pressed the pause button?,” The Economist (8 May 2014).
“Ocean current slowing climate change,” The Week (12 September 2014).
Proof Positive Cards
P.C. Wason, “Reasoning,” in New Horizons in Psychology, edited by B.M. Foss, Penguin (1966).
Economic Decisions
George A. Akerlof & Robert J. Shiller, Animal Spirits, Princeton University Press (2009).
John von Neumann & Oskar Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, Princeton University Press (1944).
Timothy Elliot Dahlstrom, “Development of utility theory and utility paradoxes,” Lawrence University (2016).
Roger Lowenstein, “Exuberance is rational,” The New York Times Magazine (17 February 2001).
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Hersh Shefrin & Meir Statman, “The disposition to sell winners too early and ride losers too long: theory and evidence,” The Journal of Finance 15(3): 777–790 (July 1985).
“Lottery fans drawn to bigger prices,” San Diego Union-Tribune (20 March 2002).

David Krech & Richard S. Crutchfield, Theory and Problems of Social Psychology, McGraw-Hill (1948).
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Jesse Bering, The Belief Instinct, W.W. Norton (2010).
“Half of people believe fake facts, ‘remember’ events that never happened,” ScienceDaily (7 December 2016).
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Lee Ross et al, “Perseverance in self-perception and social perception: biased attributional processes in the debriefing paradigm,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32(5): 880–892 (November 1975).
Robert P. Abelson, “Beliefs are like possessions,” Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 16(3): 223–250 (October 1986).
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The Future
Katharine H. Greenaway et al, “Loss of control increases belief in precognition and belief in precognition increases control,” PLoS One (8)8: e71327 (August 2013).
“Belief in precognition increases sense of control over life,” ScienceDaily (7 August 2013).
Chris Mooney, “More and more Americans think astrology is science,” Mother Jones (11 February 2014).
“Superstitions held by Americans in 2014, by religious affiliation,” Statista.com (February 2014).
“Superstitions: why you believe,” CBS News (28 October 2012).
John Bargh, “At Yale, we conducted an experiment to turn conservatives into liberals. The results say a lot about our political divisions.,” The Washington Post (22 November 2017).
L.G. Jones, “A thirst for god or consumer spirituality? Cultivating disciplined practices of being engaged by god,” Modern Theology 13(1): 3–28 (January 1997).
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Bruce G. Trigger, Understanding Early Civilizations, Cambridge University Press (2007).
Lindsay Jones (editor), Encyclopedia of Religion, MacMillan Reference (2005).
Christopher Partidge (editor), Introduction To World Religions, Fortress Press (2005).
Allan Menzies, History of Religion: A Sketch of Primitive Religious Beliefs and Practices, and of the Origin and Character of the Great Systems, Palala Press (2016).
Allan Menzies, History of Religion, CreateSpace (2015).
Scott Atran, In Gods We Trust: The Evolutionary Landscape of Religion, Oxford University Press (2002).
Thomas Römer, The Invention of God, Harvard University Press (2015).
Dominic Johnson, God Is Watching You, Oxford University Press (2016).
Richard Dawkins, The God Delusion, Houghton Mifflin (2006).
Ernest Becker, The Denial of Death, Free Press Paperbacks (1973).
Victor J. Stenger, Timeless Reality, Prometheus Books (2000).
Paula Quinon, “Investigating the afterlife,” Science 359(6374): 398 (26 January 2018).
Azim F. Shariff & Ara Norenzayan, “God is watching you,” Psychological Science 18(9): 803-809 (2007).
Lizzie Wade, “Birth of the moralizing gods,” Science 349(6251): 919-922 (28 August 2015).
Nicolas Baumard, “Why are religions so judgemental? Ask evolution,” New Scientist (27 April 2016).
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Mairi Macleod, “Die young, live fast: the evolution of an underclass,” New Scientist (14 July 2010).
“Affluence, not political complexity, explains rise of moralizing world religions,” ScienceDaily (11 December 2014).
Nicolas Baumard et al, “Increased affluence explains the emergence of ascetic wisdoms and moralizing religions,” Current Biology (11 December 2014).
Lizzie Wade, “Birth of the moralizing gods,” Science 349(6251): 919-922 (28 August 2015).
Richard Blanton & Lane Fargher, “With moralizing gods, exclusion reigns,” Science 350(6259): 393 (23 October 2015).
Lizzie Wade, “Wealth may have driven the rise of today’s religions,” Science (11 December 2014).
Mark R. Leary & Robin Mark Kowalski, Social Anxiety, The Guildford Press (1995).
Kevin J. Haley & Daniel M.T. Fessler, “Nobody’s watching? Subtle cues affect generosity in an anonymous economic game,” Evolution and Human Behavior 26: 245–256 (2005).
J.M. Bering et al, Reasoning about dead agents reveals possible adaptive trends,” Human Nature 16: 60–81 (2005).
R. Sosis, & B. Ruffle, “Ideology, religion, and the evolution of cooperation: field tests on Israeli kibbutzim,” Research in Economic Anthropology 23: 89–117 (2004).
David S. Wilson, Darwin’s Cathedral: Evolution, Religion, and the Nature of Society, University Of Chicago Press (2003).
W. Irons, “How did morality evolve?,” Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 26: 49–89 (1991).
Dominic Johnson & Jesse Bering, “Hand of God, mind of man: punishment and cognition in the evolution of cooperation,” Evolutionary Psychology 4: 219–233 (2006).
Dominic D.P. Johnson & Oliver Krüger, “The good of wrath: supernatural punishment and the evolution of cooperation,” Political Theology 5: 159–176 (2004).
Azim F. Shariff & Ara Norenzayan, “God is watching you: priming God concepts increases prosocial behavior in an anonymous economic game,” Psychological Science 18(9): 803–809 (September 2007).
Michal Bauer et al, “Can war foster cooperation,” NBER (June 2016).
Ara Norenzayan & Azim F. Shariff, “The origin and evolution of religious prosociality,” Science 322(5898): 58–62 (3 October 2008).
Bernard Crespi & Kyle Summers, “Inclusive fitness theory for the evolution of religion,” Animal Behavior (13 March 2014).
Kurt Gray & Daniel M. Wegner, “Blaming God for our pain: human suffering and the divine mind,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 14(1): 7–16 (2010).
Religion & Cognition
“Big people, big gods: what came first: all-seeing gods or large societies?,” The Economist (21 March 2019).
Karl Jaspers, Way to Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy, Yale University Press (2003).
Religion & Cognition
Jared P. Friedman & Anthony I. Jack, “What makes you so sure? Dogmatism, fundamentalism, analytic thinking, perspective taking and moral concern in the religious and nonreligious,” Journal of Religion and Health (10 June 2017).
Anthony Ian Jack et al, “Why do you believe in God? Relationships between religious belief, analytic thinking, mentalizing and moral concern,” PLoS One (23 March 2016).
“Conflict between science, religion lies in our brains,” ScienceDaily (23 March 2016).
“Why some people are so sure they’re right, even when they are not,” ScienceDaily (26 July 2017).
Jacob B. Hirsh et al, “Spiritual liberals and religious conservatives,” Social Psychological and Personality Science (24 April 2012).
“Moments of spirituality can induce liberal attitudes, researchers find,” ScienceDaily (25 February 2013).
Religion & Cooperation
Robin Wright, The Evolution of God, Back Bay Books (2010).
Dominic D.P. Johnson, “Hand of the gods in human civilization,” Nature (10 February 2016).
Benjamin Grant Purzycki et al, “Moralistic gods, supernatural punishment and the expansion of human sociality,” Nature (10 February 2016).
Dominic D.P. Johnson & Oliver Krüger, “The good of wrath: supernatural punishment and the evolution of cooperation,” Political Theology (2004).
“Could biology explain the evolution of religion,” Phys.org (28 May 2014).
Kevin J. Haley & Daniel M.T. Fessler, “Nobody’s watching? Subtle cues affect generosity in an anonymous economic game,” Evolution and Human Behavior 26: 246-256 (2005).
Dominic Johnson & Jesse Bering, “Hand of God, mind of man: punishment and cognition in the evolution of cooperation,” Evolutionary Psychology 4: 219-233 (2006).
Peter Russell, “Belief in a deity helps humans cooperate and live in large groups, studies say,” Phys.org (1 August 2016).
Michal Bauer et al, “Can war foster cooperation?,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 30(3): 249-274 (Summer 2016).
Tatsuya Sasaki & Satoshi Uchida, “The evolution of cooperation by social exclusion,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (5 December 2012).
Klaus K. Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism, SUNY Press (2007).
Vijay Nath, “From ‘Brahmanism’ to ‘Hinduism’: negotiating the myth of the great tradition,” Social Scientist 29(3-4): 19–50 (2001).
John M. Roberts, History of the World, Oxford University Press (1993).
Robert E. Buswell, Jr. (editor), Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Thomson Gale (2003).
The Bible
D. Barrett et al, World Christian Encyclopedia, Oxford University Press (2001).
Reza Aslan, Zealot: The Life and Times of Jesus of Nazareth, Random House (2013).
Catherine Nixey, The Darkening Age: The Christian Destruction of the Classical World, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2018).
Antonio Pinero, “Seeking the hidden gospels,” National Geographic History 3(1): 54-63 (March-April 2017).
James Carroll, “Who was Mary Magdalene?,” Smithsonian Magazine (June 2006).
Laurie Goodstein, “A faded piece of papyrus refers to Jesus’ wife,” The New York Times (18 September 2012).
Elisabetta Povoledo, “Vatican says papyrus referring to Jesus’ wife is probably fake,” The New York Times (28 September 2012).
“Jesus: brideshead revisted,” The Economist (22 September 2012).
Robin M. Jensen, “Five myths about the cross,” The Washington Post (14 April 2017).
Charles McGrath, “Why the King James Bible endures,” The New York Times (23 April 2011).
Joanne M. Pierce, “What is heaven?,” The Conversation (19 July 2018).
Job 38: 4–7, The Bible.
T.J. Wray & Gregory Mobley, the birth of Satan, Palgrave MacMillian (2005).
Elaine Pagels, The Origin of Satan, Vintage Books (1995).
Marina Montesano, “The Devil in the medieval mind: horns, hooves, and Hell,” National Geographic History (September/October 2018).
“Most American Christians do not believe that Satan or the Holy Spirit exist,” Barna Group (10 April 2009).
Calvin Woodward, “Poll: most Americans believe in angels,” Associated Press (24 December 2006).
Religion & Morality
Philip Jenkins, “Dark passages,” The Boston Globe (8 March 2009).
Harriet Sherwood, “Religious children are meaner than their secular counterparts, study finds,” The Guardian (6 November 2015).
Jean Decety et al, “The negative association between religiousness and children’s altruism across the world,” Current Biology (16 November 2015).
“Worldwide, many see belief in God as essential to morality,” Pew Research Center (27 May 2014).
Frank Newport, “More than 9 in 10 Americans continue to believe in God,” Gallup (3 June 2011).
Tom W. Smith, “Beliefs about God across time and countries,” NORC/University of Chicago (18 April 2012).
Susan Jones, “Poll: Americans’ belief in God is strong – but declining,” CNS News (17 December 2013).
“Survey shows belief in God declining worldwide,” National Secular Society (20 April 2012).
Susan Brooks Thistlethwaite, “Why the faithful approve of torture,” The Washington Post (3 May 2009).
Karen Armstrong, Fields of Blood: Religion and the History of Violence, Bodley Head (2014).
“The dark side of religion: trouble and strife,” The Economist (20 December 2014).

Hilary Putnam, The Faces of Realism, Open Court (1987).
Martin Gerlach et al, “A robust data-driven approach identifies four personality types across four large data sets,” Nature Human Behavior 2: 735–742 (17 September 2018).
Laura Blue & John Cloud, “Our personalities are constantly changing, even if we think they’re not,” Time (4 January 2013).
Christopher J. Boyce et al, “Is personality fixed? Personality changes as much as “variable” economic factors and more strongly predicts changes to life satisfaction,” Social Indicators Research 111(1): 287-305 (March 2003).
Jordi Quoidbach et al, “The end of history illusion,” Science 339: 96-98 (4 January 2013).
John Tierney, “Why you won’t be the person you expect to be,” The New York Times (3 January 2013).
“Personality change key to improving well-being,” University of Manchester (5 March 2012).
Amanda L. Chan, “Personality can change over time, study suggests,” The Huffington Post (5 March 2012).
“How personalities evolve,” The Week (10 March 2017).
Shaoni Bhattacharya, “Personality changes throughout life,” New Scientist (11 May 2003).
Rudolf Steiner, The Four Temperaments, Anthroposophic Press (1987).
Vassilis Saroglou, “Are we born to be religious?,” Scientific American Mind 23(2): 52-57 (May/June 2012).
Vassilis Saroglou, “Religiousness as a cultural adaptation of basic traits: a five-factor model perspective,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 14(1): 108-125 (2010).
Roy F. Baumeister, “Self-control: the secret to life’s successes,” Scientific American (17 March 2015).
Kathleen H. Corriveau et al, “‘If it’s in your mind, it’s in your knowledge’: children’s developing anatomy of identity,” Cognitive Development 20: 321–340 (2005).
William Wan & Sarah Kaplan, “Why are people still racist? What science says about America’s race problem,” The Washington Post (14 August 2017).
David Brooks, “The quiet death of racial progress,” The New York Times (12 July 2018).
Victor of Aveyron
Michael Newton, Savage Girls And Wild Boys: A History Of Feral Children, Faber (2002).
Jean Marc Gaspard Itard, The Wild Boy of Aveyron, Meredith Publishing (1962).
Harlan Lane, The Wild Boy of Aveyron, Harvard University Press (1979).
Laurie Ahern, “Orphanages are no place for children,” The Washington Post (9 August 2013).
Mass Media
Joanne Cantor, “The psychological effects of media violence on children and adolescents,” yourmindonmedia.com – Joanne Carter’s web site (2002).
Joanne Cantor, “Media violence,” Journal of Adolescent Health 27: 30–34 (August 2000).
L.R. Huesmann et al, ” Longitudinal relations between children’s exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992,” Developmental Psychology 39: 201–221 (2003).
Barbara J. Wilson et al, “Violence in children’s television program-ming: assessing the risks,” Journal of Communication 52(1): 5–35, (January 2002).
Joanne Cantor, “Media violence and children’s emotions: beyond the “smoking gun,” Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (5 August 2000).
Nina Strohminger & Shaun Nichols, “The essential moral self,” Cognition 131(1): 159–171 (April 2014).
Christy A. Blevins et al, “Construct validity of three depersonalization measures in trauma-exposed college students,” Journal of Trauma & Dissociation (18 September 2012).
Mauricio Sierra et al, “Depersonalization disorder and anxiety: a special relationship?,” Psychiatry Research 197(1–2): 123–127 (15 May 2012).
Helen Thomson, “The woman who was dropped into her body,” New Scientist (25 April 2013).
William E. Lee et al, “Prevalence and childhood antecedents of depersonalization syndrome in a UK birth cohort,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 47(2): 253–261 (February 2012).
Nick Medford, “Emotion and the unreal self: depersonalization disorder and de-affectualization,” Emotion Review 4(2): 139–144 (April 2012).
William B. Gudykunst, Intercultural Communication Theory, Sage (1983).
J.L. Allen et al, “Verbal and nonverbal orientations toward communi-cation and the development of intracultural and intercultural relationships,” Journal of Intercultural Communication Research 32: 129–160 (September-December 2003).
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J. Szapocznik, “Research on disclosure of HIV status: cultural evolution finds an ally in science,” Health Psychology 14(1): 4–5 (January 1995).
Sidney Marshall Jourard, Self-disclosure, Wiley (1971).
D.R. Shaffer et al, “When boy meets girl (revisited): gender, gender role orientation, and prospect of future interaction as determinants of self-disclosure among same- and opposite-sex acquaintances,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 22: 495–506 (1996).
S. Sprecher, “The effects of self-disclosure given and received on affect for an intimate partner and stability of the relationship,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 4: 115–127 (1987).
Mirra Komarovsky, Blue-Collar Marriage, Random House (1987).
M. Argyle & M. Henderson, The Anatomy of Relationships, Heinemann (1985).
Fathali M. Moghaddam & Donald M. Taylor, Social Psychology in Cross-Cultural Perspective, Worth Publishers (1992).
Valerian J. Derlega et al, “Gender effects in an initial encounter: a case where men exceed women in disclosure,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 2(1): 25–44 (March 1985).
James C. McCroskey & Lawrence Wheeless, Introduction to Human Communication, Allyn & Bacon (1976).
Joseph A. DeVito, Interpersonal Messages, Pearson Education (2008).
Kensy Cooperrider & Rafeal Nunez, “How we make sense of time,” Scientific American Mind (November/December 2016).
Laura Spinney, “The time illusion: How your brain creates now,” New Scientist (7 January 2015).
A. Kösem et al, “Encoding of event timing in the phase of neural oscillations,” Neuroimage 92:274–284 (15 May 2014).
Scott L. Fairhall et al, “Temporal integration windows for naturalistic visual sequences,” PLoS One (10 July 2014).
Marc Wittman, “Moments in time,” Frontiers in Integrative Neurosci-ence (18 October 2011).
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Philip G. Zimbardo & John N. Boyd, “Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77(6): 1271–1288 (December 1999).
“Why is everyone so busy?,” The Economist (20 December 2014).
Alexander Gonzalez & Philip G. Zimbardo, “Time in perspective,” in The Nonverbal Communication Reader, edited by Laura K. Guerrero & Michael L. Hech, Waveland Press (2008).
James M. Broadway & Brittiney Sandoval, “Why does time seem to speed up with age?,” Scientific American Mind 27(4): 73 (July/August 2016).
Edward T. Hall, The Dance of Life, Anchor Press (1983).
Edward T. Hall & Mildred Reed Hall, “Monochronic and polychronic time,” in The Nonverbal Communication Reader, edited by Laura K. Guerrero & Michael L. Hech, Waveland Press (2008).
“An estimated 1 in 10 U.S. adults report depression,” U.S. Center for Disease Control (20 April 2012).
Daniel Goleman, “Women’s depression rate is higher,” The New York Times (6 December 1990).
Sebastian T. Philipp et al, “Enhanced tactile acuity through mental states,” Scientific Reports (27 August 2015).
“How the mind sharpens the senses,” ScienceDaily (27 August 2015).
Ashley B. LeBaron et al, “Money over marriage: marriage importance as a mediator between materialism and marital satisfaction,” Journal of Family and Economic Issues (30 December 2017).
“Can’t buy me love: materialism in marriage linked to devaluation of marriage,” ScienceDaily (13 February 2018).
Thomas S. Szasz, The Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct, Harper Perennial (2010).
Emily Pronin et al, “You don’t know me, but i know you: the illusion of asymmetric insight,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81(4): 639-656 (2001).
Martha Stout, The Socipath Next Door Broadway Books (2005).
Robert D. Hare, Without Conscience: The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths Among Us, The Guilford Press (1999).
Kathryn L. Humphreys et al, “High-quality foster care mitigates callous-unemotional traits following early deprivation in boys: a randomized controlled trial,” Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 54(12): 977-983 (December 2015).
Kurt Gray et al, “Distortions of mind perception in psychopathology,” PNAS 108(2): 477-479 (11 January 2011).
“Don’t want to raise a psychopath? Be sensitive to a child’s distress,” ScienceDaily (3 December 2015).
Kent A. Kiehl & Joshua W. Buckholtz, “Inside the mind of a psychopath,” Scientific American Mind 21(4): 22-29 (September/October 2010).
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History of Sociology
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Susan Hoecker-Drysdale, Harriet Martineau, First Woman Sociologist, St. Martin’s Press (1992).
Mark Dingemanse & N.J. Enfield, “Let’s talk,” Scientific American Mind 25(5): 64–69 (September/October 2014).
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Guy Oakes, “Max Weber on value rationality and value spheres,” Journal of Classical Sociology (2003).
Gwilym Mumford, “Natalie Portman: ‘It’s dangerous when you can’t separate the emotion from the business’,” The Guardian (13 September 2018).

Peter Marsh, Eye to Eye: How People Interact, Salem House (1988).
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John J. Macionis, Sociology, Pearson (2008).
John J. Macionis, Sociology 2nd edition, Prentice-Hall (1989).
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William Kornblum, Sociology In a Changing World, Pearson (2008).
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Betty Yorburg, Sociological Reality: A Brief Introduction, The Dushkin Publishing Group (1995).
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Kathy Stolley, The Basics of Sociology, Greenwood Press (2005).
Dennis H. Wrong & Harry L. Gracey, Readings in Introductory Sociology, Macmillan (1972).
Desmond Morris, Manwatching, Harry N. Abrams (1977).
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Lydia Denworth, “With a little help from our friends,” Scientific American Mind 27(3): 50-57 (May/June 2016).
J. Kiley Hamlin et al, “Social evaluation by preverbal infants,” Nature (22 November 2007).
Janelle Weaver, “Social before birth,” Scientific American Mind 21(6): 13 (January/February 2011).
Jamil Zaki, “What, me care?,” Scientific American Mind 21(6): 14-15 (January/February 2011).
Francesco Margoni et al, “Infants distinguish between leaders and bullies,” PNAS (4 September 2018).
Maria Konnikova, “How we learn fairness,” The New Yorker (7 January 2016).
Rick Nauert, “Is sense of fairness innate?,” Psych Central (24 August 2012).
Rawan Charafeddine et al, “Children’s allocation of resources in social dominance situations,” Developmental Psychology (26 September 2016).
“Birth of politics in children: the case of dominance,” ScienceDaily (26 September 2016).
Chris Hedges, Empire of Illusion, Nation Books (2009).
Reality via Sociality
Jesse J. Prinz, Beyond Human Nature, W.W. Norton & Company (2012).
Michele Lamont, “Meaning-making in cultural sociology: broadening our agenda,” Contemporary Sociology 29: 602 – 607 (July 2000).
Karl Marx, Die Frühschriften, Kröner (1953).
Herbert Bloomer, Studies in Symbolic Interaction, Prentice Hall (1969).
Peter L. Berger & Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, Anchor (1967).
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Edward E. Jones & Keith E. Davies, “From acts to dispositions: the attribution process in person perception,” in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, edited by Leonard Berkowitz, Academic Press (1965).
Fritz Heider, The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, Wiley (1958).
“People who believe they were ‘born that way’ more inclined to blame God for bad behavior,” ScienceDaily (18 February 2015).
Joshua Grubbs et al, “Why did God make me this way? Anger at god in the context of personal transgressions,” Journal of Psychology and Theology (February 2015).
David N. Sudnow, Passing On: The Social Organization of Dying, Prentice-Hall (1967).
Albert Hastorf & Hadley Cantril, “They saw a game: a case study,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 40(2): 139–134 (1654).
Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture, Anchor Books (1976).
Howard F. Taylor, “Inequality and the Bell curve: analyzing the heritability and race-gender bias of cognitive test scores,” Princeton University Department of Sociology (2003).
Suzanne Romain, Communicating Gender, Lawrence Erlbaum (1999).
Leon Festinger et al, “The role of proximity on friendship patterns,” (1950).
Mady W. Segal, “Alphabet and attraction: an unobtrusive measure of the effect of propinquity in a field setting.,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 30(5): 654–657 (November 1974).
Shelly E. Taylor et al, Social Psychology, Prentice Hall (2003).
Richard L. Moreland & Scott R. Beach, “Exposure effects in the classroom: the development of affinity among students,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 28: 255–276 (1992).
Robert B. Zajonc, “Attitudinal effects of mere exposure,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (1968).
Elizabeth A. Archie et al, “Social affiliation matters: both same-sex and opposite-sex relationships predict survival in wild female baboons,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (10 September 2014).
Irwin Altman, Environment and Social Behaviour, Brooks/Cole (1976).
Erving Goffman, Relations in Public: Microstudies of the Public Order, Harper Collins (1971).
Herb Childress, “Teenagers, territory and appropriation of space,” Childhood 11(2): 195–205 (May 2004).
Karl Sigmund, The Calculus of Selfishness, Princeton University Press (2010).
Mike Mesterton-Gibbons, “Why fairness pays,” Nature (29 April 2010).
Sarah F. Brosnan & Frans B.M. de Waal, “Evolution of responses to (un)fairness,” Science Xpress (18 September 2014).
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Oliver Schülke et al, “Social bonds enhance reproductive success in male macaques,” Current Biology 20(24): 2207–2210 (21 December 2010).
“Evolutionary psychologists study the purpose of punishment and reputation,” ScienceDaily (26 September 2012).
“The more people rely on their intuitions, the more cooperative they become,” ScienceDaily (19 September 2012).
Paul Raeburn & Kevin Zollman, “Can kids really learn to cooperate?,” Scientific American Mind 27(3): 78 (September/October 2014).
Ariel Knafo, “Are people inclined to act cooperatively or selfishly?,” Scientific American Mind 25(5): 56-61 (March/April 2016).
“Male–male bonds as a key to the evolution of complex social systems,” ScienceDaily (10 September 2014).
Sarah F. Brosnan et al, “Human and monkey responses in a symmetric game of conflict with asymmetric equilibria,” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 142: 293-306 (October 2017).
Angelo Romano & Daniel Balliet, “Reciprocity outperforms conformity to promote cooperation,” Psychological Science (6 September 2017).
“Cooperation driven by reciprocity, not conformity,” ScienceDaily (11 September 2017).
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David A. Norton et al, “The devil you (don’t) know: interpersonal ambiguity and inference making in competitive contexts,” Journal of Consumer Research 40(2): 239-254 (1 August 2013).
Jeff Grabmeier, “Competition changes how people view strangers online,” Ohio State News (12 August 2013).
Markus Baer et al, “Intergroup competition as a double-edged sword: how sex composition regulates the effects of competition on group creativity,” Organization Science (20 December 2013).
“Highly competitive environments hurt creativity of women in teams, research suggests,” ScienceDaily (11 August 2014).
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Thomas W. Schubert, “Your highness: vertical positions as perceptual symbols of power,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89(1): 1–21 (July 2006).
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Nancy M. Henley, Body Politics: Power, Sex, and Nonverbal Communication, Prentice-Hall (1977).
Tyler G. Okimoto Victoria L. Brescoll, “The price of power: power seeking and backlash against female politicians,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 36(7): 923-936 (2 June 2010).
Martin S. Remland, “The implicit ad hominem fallacy: nonverbal displays of status in argumentative discourse,” Journal of the American Forensic Association 19: 79–86 (1982).
Albert Mehrabian, Public Places and Private Spaces, Basic Books (1980).
Anne Haas & Stanford W. Gregory, “The impact of physical attractiveness on women’s social status and interactional power,” Sociological Forum 20(3): 449–471 (September 2005).
Daniel Gavron, The Kibbutz: Awakening from Utopia, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers (2000).
Lawrence Rifkin, “Adult children of the dream,” The Jerusalem Post (5 June 2010).
Amnon Rubinstein, “Return of the kibbutzim,” The Jerusalem Post (10 July 2007).
Thomas D. Seeley, The Wisdom of the Hive, Harvard University Press (1996).
Elliot Sober & David Solan Wilson, Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior, Harvard University Press (1999).
Aggression & Violence
Robert A. Baron & Deborah R. Richardson, Human Aggression, Plenum Press (1994).
Jim Sidanius & Felicia Pratto, Social Dominance: An Intergroup Theory of Social Hierarchy and Oppression, Cambridge University Press (2001).
Dean Falk & Charles Hildebolt, “Annual war deaths in small-scale versus state societies scale with population size rather than violence,” Current Anthropology (13 October 2017).
“Twist on evolutionary theory could help explain racism and other forms of prejudice,” ScienceDaily (29 April 2015).
D.B. Krupp & Peter D. Taylor, “Social evolution in the shadow of asymmetrical relatedness,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (29 April 2015).
Dacher Keltner & Robert J. Robinson “Extremism, power, and the imagined basis of social conflict,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 5: 101–105 (1996).
Aldous Huxley, The Human Situation, Chatto & Windus (1959).
Jill N. Kearns & Frank D. Fincham, “Victim and perpetrator accounts of interpersonal transgressions: self-serving or relationship-serving biases?,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31(3): 321–333 (March 2005).
Soctt O. Lilienfeld & Hal Arkowitz, “Are men the more belligerent sex?,” Scientific American Mind 21(2): 64-65 (May/June 2010).
John Dollard et al, Frustration and Aggression, Yale University Press (1939).
L.R. Huesmann et al, “The stability of aggression over time and generation,” Developmental Psychology 20(6): 1120–1134 (1984).
Dan Olweus, “Stability of aggressive patterns in males. A review,” Psychological Bulletin 86(4): 852–875 (July 1979).
Alice H. Eagly & Valerie J. Steffen, “Gender and aggressive behavior: a meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature,” Psychological Bulletin 100(3): 300–309 (November 1986).
Kirsti M. J. Lagerspetz et al, “Is indirect aggression typical of females? gender differences in aggressiveness in 11- to 12-year-old children,” Aggressive Behavior 14(6): 403–414 (1988).
Kaj Björkqvist et al, “Do girls manipulate and boys fight? developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression,” Aggressive Behavior 18(2): 117–127 (1992).
Ann Frodi et al, “Are women always less aggressive than men? A review of the experimental literature,” Psychological Bulletin 84: 634–660 (1977).
A. Campbell & S. Muncer, “Sex differences in aggression: social representation and social roles,” British Journal of Social Psychology 33(2): 233–240 (June 1994).
A. Campbell et al, “Sex and social representations of aggression: a communal-agentic analysis,” Aggressive Behavior 19: 125–135 (1993).
H. Driscoll et al, “Gender differences in social representations of aggression: the phenomenological experience of differences in inhibi-tory control?,” British Journal of Psychology 97(2): 139–153 (2006).
Miller Dollard et al, Frustration and Aggression, Yale University Press (1939).
Leonard Berkowitz, “The frustration-aggression hypothesis revisited,” in Roots of Aggression, edited by Leonard Berkowitz, Atherton Press (1969).
H.A. Dengerink et al, “Individual differences in aggressive responses to attack: internal-external locus of control and field dependence-independence,” Journal of Research into Personality 9(3): 191–199 (September 1975).
R.F. Baumeister et al, “Victim and perpetrator accounts of interpersonal conflict: autobiographical narratives about anger,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59(5): 994–1005 (November 1990).
Michael F.M. Sancilio et al, “Friendship and aggression as determinants of conflict outcomes in middle childhood,” Developmental Psychology 25(5): 812–819 (1989).
Kenneth A. Dodge & John D. Coie, “Social information-processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53: 1146–1158 (1967).
Kenneth A. Dodge et al, “Social information-processing bases of aggressive behavior in children,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychol-ogy 10: 389–410 (1990).
Edwin I. Megargee, “Undercontrolled and overcontrolled personality types in extreme antisocial aggression,” Psychological Monographs 80(3): 1–29 (1966).
L.S. Subotnik, “Men who batter women: from overcontrolled to undercontrolled in anger expression,” in Violence in Intimate Rela-tionships, edited by Gordon W. Russell, PMA Publishing (1989).
L.G. Schultz, “The wife assaulter,” Journal of Social Therapy 6: 103–111 (1960).
D.R. Cherek et al, Effects of alcohol on human aggressive behavior,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol 46: 321–328 (1985).
S.P. Taylor & J.D. Sears, “The effects of alcohol and persuasive social pressure on human physical aggression,” Aggressive Behavior 14: 237–243 (1988).
Lowell W. Gerson & Donald A. Preston, “Alcohol consumption and the incidence of violent crime,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol 40: 307–312 (1979).
B. Roslund & C.A. Larson, “Crimes of violence and alcohol abuse in Sweden,” The International Journal of the Addictions 14: 1103–1115 (1979).
C.L. Muehlenhard & M.A. Linton, “Date rape and sexual aggression in dating situations: incidence and risk factors,” Journal of Counseling Psychology 34: 186–196 (1987).
B.A. Miller et al, “Spousal violence among alcoholic women as compared to a random household sample of women,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol 50: 533–540 (189).
Hans Toch, “The catalytic situation in the violence equation,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 15(2): 105–123 (March 1985).
Hans Toch, Men in Crisis: Human Breakdowns in Prison, Aldine (1975).
Hans Toch, Violent Men, Aldine (1969).
Albert Bandura, Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory, Prentice-Hall (1986).
Dominique Muller et al, “Are people more aggressive when they are worse off or better off than others?,” Social Psychological and Personality Science (15 February 2012).
US murder statistics from the US Department of Justice and the Uniform Crime Reporting Program.
Edward Donnerstein, “Aggressive erotica and violence against women,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39(2): 269–277 (August 1980).
Neil M. Malamuth, “Aggression against women: cultural and individual causes,” in Pornography and Sexual Aggression, edited by N.M Malamuth & E. Donnerstein, Academic Press (1984).
Neil M. Malamuth & James V.P. Check, “The effects of mass media exposure on acceptance of violence against women: a field experiment,” Journal of Research in Personality 15(4): 436–446 (December 1981).
Anthony R. Pratkanis et al, Attitude Structure and Function, Psychology Press (1989).
Ronald W. Rogers, “Race variables in aggression,” in Aggression: Theoretical and Empirical Reviews, edited by R.G. Green & E.I. Donnerstein, Academic Press (1983).
J.F. Dovidio & S.L. Gaertner (editors), Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism, Academic Press (1986).
Lorene Wilson & Ronald W. Rogers, “The fire this time: effects of race of target insult, and potential retaliation on black aggression,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32: 857–864 (1975).
R.W. Genthner et al, “Racial prejudice, belief similarity, and human aggression,” Journal of Psychology 91: 229–234 (November 1975).
Naomi Struch Shalom H. Schwartz, “Intergroup aggression: its predictors and distinctness from in-group bias,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56(3): 364–373 (March 1989).
Martin Ehala & Anastassia Zabrodskaja, “The impact of inter-ethnic discordance on subjective vitality perceptions,” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 32(2): 121–136 (2011).
R. Birdwhistell, “Contributions of linguistic-kinesic studies to understanding of schizophrenia,” in Schizophrenia: An Integrate Approach, edited by A. Auerback, Ronald Press (1959).
David W. Carroll, Psychology of Language, Cengage Learning (2007).
Em Griffin, A First Look at Communication Theory, McGraw-Hill (2014).
Daniel J. Canary & Kathryn Dindia (editors), Sex Differences and Similarities in Communication, Routledge (2006).
Dominic A. Infante & Andrew S. Rancer, Building Communication Theory, Waveland (2003).
Judee K. Burgoon et al, “Mindfulness and interpersonal communication,” Journal of Social Issues 56(1): 105–127 (Spring 2000).
Charles R. Berger & Richard J. Calabrese, “Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication,” Human Communication Research 1(2): 99–112 (December 1975).
Charles R. Berger, “Communicating under uncertainty,” in Interpersonal Processes: New Directions in Communication Research, edited by Michael Roloff & Gerald Miller, Sage (1987).
Leanne K. Knobloch, “Uncertainty reduction theory,” in Engaging Theories in Interpersonal Communication: Multiple Perspectives, edited by Leslie A. Baxter and Dawn O. Braithwaite, Sage (2008).
B. Aubrey Fisher & Katherine L. Adams, Interpersonal Communication: Pragmatics of Human Relationships, McGraw Hill (1994).
B. Aubrey Fisher, Perspectives on Human Communication, Macmillan (1978).
Lars Skyttner, General Systems Theory, World Scientific (2005).
Donald M. MacKay, Information, Mechanism and Meaning, MIT Press (1969).
Colin Cherry, On Human Communication, MIT Press (1968).
Cultural Context
Myron W. Lustig & Jolene Koester, Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures, Pearson (2009).
R.E. Nisbett et al, “Culture and systems of thought: holistic versus analytic cognition,” Psychological Review 108: 291–310 (2001).
S. Elliot et al, “Perceptions of reticence: a cross-cultural investigation,” in Communication Yearbook, edited by M. Burgoon, Transaction Books (1982).
Paul Watzlawick et al, Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes, Norton (2011).
Ed McDaniel & Peter A. Andersen, “Intercultural variations in tactile communication: a field study,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 22(1): 59–75 (March 1998).
N.J. Enfield, How We Talk: The Inner Workings of Conversation, Basic Books (2017).
Margaret L. McLaughlin, Conversation: How Talk is Organized, Sage (1984).
P.D. Krivonos & M.L. Knapp, “Initiating conversation: what do you say when you say hello?,” Central States Speech Journal 26: 115–125 (1975).
Eugene A. Weinstein & Paul Deutscheberger, “Some dimensions of altercasting,” Sociometry 26: 454–166 (1963).
“The importance of pauses in conversation,” The Economist (14 December 2017).
Gender Differences
“Male and female communication: differences worth noting,” Value Options (12 July 2013).
John Gray, Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus, Harper Collins (2004).
Deoborah Tannen, You Just Don’t Understand, Harper Collins (2007).
Mark Dingemanse et al, “Universal principles in the repair of communication problems,” PLoS One (16 September 2015).
“Universal patterns for the “repair” of human communication discovered,” Phys.org (17 September 2015).
Shlomo Hareli, “Excuses, emotions and in between – the viewpoint of the listener,” International Society for Research on Emotions Conference (1996).
C.R. Snyder et al, Excuses: Masquerades In Search of Grace, Wiley (1983).
Kathleen Doheny, “Simple or contrived, excuses are a fact of life,” Los Angeles Times (7 November 1988).
Charles R. Synder, “Excuses, excuses,” Psychology Today (1984).
Megan L. Robbins & Alexander Karan, “Who gossips and how in everyday life?,” Social Psychological and Personality Science (2 May 2019).
Donna Eder & Janet Lynne Enke, “The structure of gossip: opportunities and constraints on collective expression among adolescents,” American Sociological Review 56: 41–57 (1991).
Robert Paine, ” What is gossip about? An alternative hypothesis,” Man: The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 2(2): 278–285 (June 1967).
David Sloan Wilson et al, “Gossip and other aspects of language as group-level adaptations,” in The Evolution of Cognition, edited by Cecilia Heyes & Ludwig Huber, MIT Press (2000).
Ralf D. Sommerfeld et al, “Gossip as an alternative for direct observation in games of indirect reciprocity,” PNAS 104(44): 17435–17440 (30 October 2007).
Jerry M. Suls, “Gossip as social comparison,” Journal of Communication, 27(1): 164–169 (1 March 1977).
Sarah R. Wert & Peter Salovey, “A social comparison account of gossip,” Review of General Psychology 8(2): 122–137 (June 2004).
Nonverbal Communication
Mark L. Knapp & Judith A. Hall, Nonverbal Behavior in Human Interaction, Wadsworth Cengage (2010).
Laura K. Guerrero & Michael L. Hech, The Nonverbal Communication Reader (3rd edition), Waveland Press (2008).
Peter A. Anderson, Nonverbal Communication: Forms and Functions, Waveland Press (2008).
Erving Goffman & Joel Best, Interaction Ritual: Essays in Face to Face Behavior, Aldine Transaction (2005).
Michael Argyle, Bodily Communication, Methuen (1988).
Jurgen Ruesch & Weldon Kees, Nonverbal Communication: Notes on the Visual Perception of Human Relations, University of California Press (1956).
Ray L. Birdwhistell, Kinesics and Context, University of Pennsylvania Press (1970).
Clara M. Chent & Tanya L. Chartrand, “Self-monitoring without awareness: using mimicry as a nonconscious affiliation strategy,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85(6): 1170-1179 (December 2003).
J.L. Lakin & T.L. Chartrand, “Using nonconscious behavioral mimicry to create affiliation and rapport,” Psychological Science 14(4): 334–339 (2003).
Naline Ambady & Max Weisbuch, “Nonverbal behavior,” in Handbook of Social Psychology, Volume 1, 5th edition, John Wiley & Sons (2010).
Geoffrey Beattie & Heather Shovelton, “Blue-eyed boys? A winning smile? An experimental investigation of some core facial stimuli that may affect interpersonal perception,” Semiotica 2002(139):1–21 (March 2002).
G.L. Gladstone & G.B. Parker, “When you’re smiling, does the whole world smile with you?,” Australasian Psychiatry 10: 144–146 (June 2002).
Fernando Poyatos, Paralanguage: A linguistic and interdisciplinary approach to interactive speech and sounds, John Benjamins (1993).
George L. Trager, “Paralanguage: a first approximation,” Studies in Linguistics 13: 1–12 (1958).
George L. Trager, “The typology of paralanguage,” Anthropological Linguistics 3: 17–21 (1961).
D.C. Albas et al, “Perception of the emotional content of speech: a comparison of two Canadian groups,” Journal of CrossCultural Psychology 7: 481–490 (December 1976).
K.R. Scherer, “Vocal affect expression,” Psychological Bulletin 99: 143–165 (1986).
Miron Zuckerman et al, “The vocal attractiveness stereotype replication and elaboration,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 14(2): 77–112 (Summer 1990).
David W. Addington, “The relationship of selected vocal characteristics to personality,” Speech Monographs 35(4): 492–505 (November 1968).
W. Barnett Pearce, “The effect of vocal cues on credibility and attitude change,” Western Speech 35(3): 176–184 (1971).
Miron Zuckerman & Robert E. Driver, “What sounds beautiful is good: the vocal attractiveness stereotype,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 13(2): 67–82 (Summer 1989).
Francesca Gino, “The surprising benefits of sarcasm,” Scientific American Mind 27(3): 20-21 (May/June 2016).
Crowd of penguins picture courtesy of Polar Cruises.
Gender Differences
Indian woman smiling photo courtesy of Yosarian. The woman is not known.
Kathryn Dindia, “The effects of sex of subject and sex of partner on interruptions,” Human Communication Research 13(3): 345–371 (March 1987).
Judith K. Burgoon et al, Nonverbal Communications: The Unspoken Dialogue, McGraw-Hill (1996).
Mary Crawford, Talking Difference: On Gender and Language, Sage (1995).
Ralph Keyes, The Height of Your Life, Warner Books (1980).
J.E. Brody, “Notions of beauty transcend culture, new study suggests,” The New York Times (21 March 1994).
The Body
Patricia Vertinsky, “Physique as destiny: William H. Sheldon, Barbara Honeyman Heath and the struggle for hegemony in the science of somatotyping,” Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 24(2): 291-316 (2007).
“In memoriam: Barbara Honeyman Heath Roll (1910–1988)”, American Journal of Human Biology 11: 429-431 (1999).
Alan Feingold, “Good-looking people are not what we think,” Psychological Bulletin 111(2): 304–341 (March 1992).
Michael G. Efran, “The effect of physical appearance on the judgment of guilt, interpersonal attraction, and severity of recommended punishment in a simulated jury task,” Journal of Research in Personality 8(1): 45–54 (June 1974).
Ying Hu et al, “First impressions of personality traits from body shapes,” Psychological Science (22 October 2018).
Ellen Berscheid & Harry R. Reis, “Attraction and class relationships,” in The Handbook of Social Psychology, edited by Darniel T. Gilber et al, Oxford University/McGraw-Hill (1998).
Stephen Worchel et al, Social Psychology, Wadsworth (2000).
Adam Marcus, “Pull up a chair,” Scientific American Mind 224(4): 10 (September/October 2011).
M.W. Boyce, “Physical attractiveness – a source of teacher bias?,” Australian Journal of Teacher Education 4(1): 41–45 (1979).
Robert Rosenthal & Lenore Jacobson, Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectation and Pupils’ Intellectual Development, Crown House Publishing (2003).
Margaret M. Clifford & Elaine Walster, “Research note: the effects of physical attractiveness on teacher expectations,” Sociology of Education 46(2): 248–258 (Spring 1973).
William Sheldon, The Varieties of Human Physique, Harper (1940).
William Sheldon, The Varieties of Temperament, Harper (1943).
P.A. Anderson & G.W. Singleton, “The relationship between body-type and communication avoidance,” Eastern Communication Association convention (March 1978).
J.P. Spiegel & P. Machotka, Messages of the Body, Free Press (1974).
William D. Wells & Bertram Siegel, “Stereotyped somatotypes,” Psychological Reports 8: 77–78 (1961).
Brent A. Scott & Timothy A. Judge, “Beauty, personality, and affect as antecedents of counterproductive work behavior receipt,” Human Performance 26:93-113 (2013).
E.J. Portnoy, “The impact of body type on perceptions of attractiveness by older individuals,” Communication Reports 6: 101–108 (1993).
E.J. Portnoy & J.M. Gardner, “A perceptual measure of children’s development of somotypic preferences,” Eastern Communication Association convention (April 1980).
P.A. Anderson, “The trait debate: a critical examination of the individual differences paradigm in intercultural communication,” in Progress in Communication Sciences, edited by Brenda L. Dervin & M.J. Voigt (1987).
Vicki Ritts et al, “Expectations, impressions and judgments of physically attractive students,” Review of Educational Research 62(4): 413–426 (Winter 1992).
R. Rosenthal & L. Jacobson, Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectations and Pupils’ Intellectual Development, Holt, Rinehart & Winston (1968).
Nalini Ambady & Robert Rosenthal, “Thin slices of expressive behavior as predictors of interpersonal consequences: a meta-analysis,” Psychological Bulletin 111(2): 256-274 (1992).
Jean A. Graham & Michael Argyle, “The effects of different patterns of gaze, combined with different facial expressions, on impression formation,” Journal of Movement Studies 1: 178–181 (1975).
Jean A. Graham et al, “A cross-cultural study of the communication of emotion by facial, and gestural cues,” Journal of Human Movement Studies 1: 68–77 (1975).
The Face
Karen L. Schmidt & Jeffrey F. Cohn, “Human facial expression as adaptations: evolutionary questions in facial expression research,” Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 44: 3–24 (2001).
Facial Expressions
Paul Ekman & William V. Friesen, Unmasking the Face: A Field Guide to Recognizing Emotions from Facial Clues, Prentice-Hall (1975).
P. Ekman & D. Keltner, “Universal facial expressions of emotion: an old controversy and new findings,” in Nonverbal Communication: Where Nature Meets Culture, edited by Ullica Segerstrle et al, Psy-chology Press (1997).
Alan J. Fridlund, “Evolution and facial action in reflex, social motive, and paralanguage,” Biological Psychology 32(1): 3–100 (February 1991).
Mark G. Frank et al, “Behavioral markers and the recognizability of the smile of enjoyment,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64(1): 83–93 (January 1993).
Brian Parkinson, “Do facial movements express emotions or com-municate motives?,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 9: 278–311 (2005).
R.S. Feldman, Development of Nonverbal Behavior in Children, Springer (1982).
Linda A. Camras et al, “Production of emotional facial expressions in European, American, Japanese, and Chinese infants,” Developmental Psychology 34(4):616–628 (July 1998).
Martin G. Beaupré & Ursula Hess, “Cross-cultural emotion recognition among Canadian ethnic groups,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 36(3): 355–370 (May 2005).
L. Ellis, “Gender differences in smiling: an evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory,” Physiology and Behavior 88: 303–308 (2006).
Naomi B. McCormick & Andrew J. Jones, “Gender differences in nonverbal flirtation,” Journal of Sex Education and Therapy 15(4): 271–282 (1989).
Karl Grammer et al, “Non-verbal behavior in courtship signals: the role of control and choice in selecting partners,” Evolution & Human Behavior 21(6): 371–390 (November 2000).
Eric J. Coats & Robert S. Feldman, “Gender differences in nonverbal correlates of social status,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 22(10): 1014–1022 (October 1996).
Ursula Hess et al, “Who may frown and who should smile? Dominance, affiliation, and the display of happiness and anger,” Cognition and Emotion 19(4): 515–536 (2005).
Sara B. Algoe et al, “Gender and job status as contextual cues for the interpretation of facial expressions of emotion,” Sex Roles 42(3–4): 183–208 (February 2000).
Samuel Putnam & Marsha A. Gartstein, “Why are Russians so stingy with their smiles?,” The Conversation (27 June 2018).
“Americans and social trust: who, where and why,” Pew Research Center (22 February 2007).
The Eyes
Michael Tomasello, “For human eyes only,” The New York Times (13 January 2007).
Daniel H. Lee & Adam K. Anderson, “Reading what the mind thinks from how the eye sees,” Psychological Science (2017).
Roderick I. Swaabb & Dick F. Swaab, “Sex differences in the effects of visual contact and eye contact in negotiations,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology (19 July 2008).
Anna Batki et al, “Is there an innate gaze module? Evidence from human neonates,” Infant Behavior and Development 23(2): 223–229 (February 2000).
Teresa Farroni et al, “Newborns’ preference for face-relevant stimuli: effects of contrast polarity,” PNAS 102(47): 17245–17250 (22 November 2005).
Manuela Lavelli & Alan Fogel, “Developmental changes in the relationship between the infant’s attention and emotion during early face-to-face communication: the 2-month transition,” Developmental Psychology 41(1): 265–280 (January 2005).
Shiri Einav & Bruce M. Hood, “Children’s use of the temporal dimension of gaze for inferring preference,” Developmental Psychology 42(1): 142–152 (January 2006).
Judee K. Burgoon et al, “Communicative effects of gaze behavior,” Human Communication Research 12(4): 495–524 (June 1986).
Judee K. Burgoon et al, “Effects of gaze on hiring, credibility, attraction and relational message interpretation,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 9(3): 133–146 (Fall 1985).
Allan Mazur et al, “Physiological aspects of communication via mutual gaze,” American Journal of Sociology 86(1): 50–74 (July 1980).
C.L. Kleinke & D.A. Springer, “Influence of gaze on compliance with demanding and conciliatory requests in a field setting,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 5: 386–390 (July 1979).
M. Argyle & M. Henderson, “Gaze, mutual gaze and distance,” Semiotica (1972).
W. Lawson, “Blips on the gaydar,” Psychology Today 38: 30 (2005).
C.L. Nicholas, “Gaydar: eye-gaze as identity recognition among gay men and lesbians,” Sexuality and Culture: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly 8: 60–86 (Winter 2004).
Adam Kendon, “Some functions of gaze-direction in social interaction,” Acta Psychologica 26: 22–63 (1967).
Roderick I. Swaab & Dick F. Swaab, “Sex differences in the effects of visual contact and eye contact in negotiations,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45: 129–136 (2009).
A. Mulac et al, “Male/female gaze in same-sex and mixed-sex dyads: gender-lined differences in mutual influence,” Human Communication Research 13: 323–343 (1987).
Rupert Sheldrake, The Sense of Being Stared At: And Other Aspects of the Extended Mind Harmony (2003).
Rupert Sheldrake, “The sense of being stared at,” Journal of Consciousness Studies 12: 10-31 (2005).
William Braud, “The sense of being stared at: fictional, physical, perceptual, or attentional/intentional,” InclusivePsychology.com(undated).
Rupert Sheldrake, “Research on the feeling of being stared at,” Skeptical Inquirer (March/April 2001).
Ilan Shrira, “How you know eyes are watching you,” Psychology Today (16 February 2011).
Nick Enoch, “Think someone’s staring at you? You’re not paranoid… it’s ‘hard-wired’ into our brains,” Daily Mail (12 April 2013).
Yasuko Omori & Yo Miyata, “Estimates of impressions based on the frequency of blinking,” Social Behavior and Personality 29(2): 159–168 (2001).
D.B. Buller & Judee K. Burgoon, “Emotional expression in the deception process,” in Handbook of Communication and Emotion: Research Theory, Applications, and Contexts, edited by Peter A. Anderson & Linda K. Guerrero, Academic (1998).
The Pupils
W.E. Hensley, “Pupillary dilation revisited: the constriction of a nonverbal cue,” in Replication Research in the Social Sciences, edited by J.W. Neuliep, Sage (1991).
Waitsang Keung et al, “Regulation of evidence accumulation by pupil-linked arousal processes,” Nature Human Behavior (11 March 2019).
Peter A. Anderson et al, “The effects of pupil dilation in physical, social, and task attraction,” Australian Scan: Journal of Human Communication 7&8: 89–95 (1980).
Ekhard H. Hess, “The role of pupil size in communication,” Scientific American 233: 110–119 (1975).
Ekhard H. Hess & S.B. Petrovich, “Pupillary behavior in communica-tion,” in Nonverbal Behavior and Communication, edited by A.W. Siegman & S. Feldstein, Erlbaum (1987).
Ekhard H. Hess & E. Goodwin “The current state of pupilometrics,” in Pupillary Dynamics and Behavior, edited by M.P. Janisse, Plenum (1974).
Edward Sapir, “The unconscious patterning of behavior in society,” in Selected Writings of Edward Sapir in language, culture, and personality, edited by D.G. Mandelbaum, University of California Press (1949).
Susan Goldin-Meadow, “Hands in the air,” Scientific American Mind 21(4): 48-55 (September/October 2010).
Geoffrey Beattie & Heather Shovelton, “An exploration of the other side of semantic communication: how the spontaneous movements of the human hand add crucial meaning to narrative,” Semiotica 2011(184): 33–51 (March 2011).
Paul Ekman & Wallace V. Friesen, “The repertoire of nonverbal behavior: categories, origins, usage, and coding,” Semiotica 1: 49–98 (1969).
Nicole Branan, “Chimps talk with their hands,” Scientific American Mind 21(1): 7 (March/April 2010).
Interactional Synchrony
W.S. Condon & W.D. Ogston, “Sound film analysis of normal and pathological behavior patterns,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 143(4): 338–347 (1966).
James Joseph Thompson, Beyond Words: Nonverbal Communication in the Classroom, MacMillan (1973).
Robert B. Bechtel & Arza Churchman, Handbook of Environmental Psychology, Wiley (2002).
Linda K. Guerrero, “Nonverbal involvement across interactions with same-sex friends, opposite-sex friends, and romantic partners: consistency or change,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 14: 31–59 (1997).
Bernice Kanner, “Color schemes,” New York Magazine (3 April 1989).
Body Adornments
Kirby Farrell, “If tattoos could talk,” Psychology Today (14 October 2013).
Michael R. Mantell, “The psychology of tattoos,” San Diego Magazine (August 2009).
Paul Mellars, “Neanderthal symbolism and ornament manufacture: The bursting of a bubble?,” PNAS 107(47): 20147–20148 (23 No-vember 2011).
Reef Karim, “Tattoo psychology: art or self destruction? Modern-day social branding,” Huffpost Healthy Living (9 November 2012).
Brian Handwerk, “Tattoos – from taboo to mainstream,” National Geographic News (11 October 2002).
“One in five U.S. adults now has a tattoo,” Harris Poll (23 February 2012).
Vinita Mehta, “Why are women with tattoos seen as promiscuous?,” Psychology Today (20 May 2013).
Nicolas Guéguen, “Effects of a tattoo on men’s behavior and attitudes towards women: an experimental field study,” Archives of Sexual Behavior 42(8): 1517–1524 (November 2013).
Anna Edwards, “Why a tattoo really is a ‘tramp stamp’: study suggests men more likely to try and chat up a painted lady because they think is she is promiscuous,” Mail Online (8 June 2013).
Nicolas Guéguen, “Tattoos, piercings, and sexual activity,” Social Behavior and Personality 40(9) (2012).
Krzysztof Nowosielski et al, “Tattoos, piercing, and sexual behaviors in young adults,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 9(9): 2307–2314 (September 2012).
D.R. Drews et al, “Behavioral and self-concept differences in tattooed and nontattooed college students,” Psychological Reports, 86: 475–481 (April 1986).
Wendy Heywood et al, “Who gets tattoos? Demographic and behavior-al correlates of ever being tattooed in a representative sample of men and women,” Annals of Epidemiology 22(1): 51–56 (January 2012).
Viren Swami, “Marked for life? A prospective study of tattoos on appearance anxiety and dissatisfaction, perceptions of uniqueness, and self-esteem,” Body Image 8(3): 237–244 (June 2011).
Myrna L. Armstrong et al, “Motivation for contemporary tattoo removal,” Archives of Dermatology 144(7): 879–884 (July 2008).
John T. Molloy, Molloy’s Live for Success, William Morrow & Co. (1981).
Richard L. Johannesen, “The functions of silence: a plea for communi-cation research,” Western Speech 38(1): 25–35 (Winter 1974).
Adam Jaworski, The Power of Silence: Social and Pragmatic Perspectives, Sage (1992).
Peter Ehrenhaus, “Silence and symbolic expression,” Communication Monographs 55: 41-57 (March 1988).
Wayne A. Beach, “Avoiding ownership for alleged wrongdoings,” Research on Language and Social Interaction 24: 1–36 (1990).
Tomohiro Hesegawa & William B. Gudykunst, “Silence in Japan and the United States,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 29: 668-684 (1998).
Ashley Montagu, Touching: The Human Significance of the Skin, William Morrow (1986).
Katherine Harmon, “How important is physical contact with your infant?,” Scientific American (6 May 2010).
Evan L. Ardiel, & Catharine H. Rankin, “The importance of touch in development,” Paediatrics & Child Health 15(3): 153–156 (March 2010).
Alison B. Wismer Fries et al, “Early experience in humans is associated with changes in neuropeptides critical for regulating social behavior,” PNAS 102(47): 17237–17240 (22 November 2005).
T. Field, “Infants’ need for touch,” Human Development 45: 100–103 (2002).
Alvin Powell, “Children need touching and attention, Harvard researchers say,” Harvard University Gazette (9 April 1998).
L.K. Frank, “Tactile communication,” Genetic Psychology Monographs 56: 209–255 (1957).
“Global Study on Homicide,” United Nations (2014).
F.N. Willis & H. Hamm, “The use of interpersonal touch in security compliance,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 5: 49–55 (1980).
David E. Smith et al, “Interpersonal touch and compliance with a marketing request,” Basic and Applied Social Psychology 3(1): 35–38 (1982).
Jeremy Nicholson, “How to influence and persuade with touch,” Psychology Today (8 February 2012).
F.N. Willis & V.A. Rawdon, “Gender and national difference in attitude toward same-gender touch,” Perceptual and Motor Skills 78: 1027 – 1034 (1994).
Jeffrey D. Fisher et al, “Hands touching hands: affective and evaluative effects of an interpersonal touch,” Sociometry 39(4): 416–421 (December 1976).
A. Boderman et al, “Touch me, like me: testing an encounter group assumption,” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 8: 527–533 (1972).
April H. Crusco & Christopher G. Wetzel, “The Midas touch: the effects of interpersonal touch on restaurant tipping,” Personality and Social Psychology 10(4): 512–517 (1984).
Chris L. Kleinke, “Compliance to requests made by gazing and touching experimenters in field settings,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 13(3): 218–223 (May 1977).
E.R. McDaniel & P.A. Anderson, “Intercultural variations in tactile communication: a field study,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 22: 59–75 (1988).
“S. Korea’s domestic violence,” The Korea Herald (7 March 2013).
Lisa Goebel, “Cultural differences of rules of touch in Mexico and Hawaii,” USCS thesis (13 June 1997).
Peter A. Andersen & Kenneth Leibowitz, “The development and nature of the construct touch avoidance,” Environmental Psychology and Nonverbal Behavior 3: 89–106 (1978).
Laura K. Guerrero & Peter A. Anderson, “Patterns of matching and initiation: touch behavior and avoidance across romantic relationship stages,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 18(2): 137–153 (Summer 1994).
Brenda Major, “Gender patterns in touching behavior,” Gender and Nonverbal Behavior 15–37 (1981).
Brenda Major et al, “Gender patterns in social touch: the impact of setting and age,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58(4): 634–643 (April 1990).
D.S. Stier & J.A. Hall, “Gender differences in touch: an empirical and theoretical review,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47(2): 440–459 (1984).
Frank N. Willis Jr. & Leon F. Briggs, “Relationships and touch in public settings,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 16(1): 55–63 (Spring 1992).
Valerian J. Derlega et al, “Gender differences in the initiation and attribution of tactile intimacy,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 13(2): 83–96 (Summer 1989).
Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Gender, Interaction, and Inequality, Springer (2010).
Kevin Lee Johnson & Renee Edwards, “The effects of gender and type of romantic touch on perceptions of relationship commitment,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 15(1): 43–54 (Spring 1991).
Karl Grammer et al, “Non-verbal behavior as courtship signals: the role of control and choice in selecting partners,” Evolution and Human Behavior 21(6): 371–390 (November 2000).
Gender Differences
Barbara Bate & Judy Bowker, Communication and the Sexes, Wave-land (1996).
Robert Rosenthal (editor), Skill in Nonverbal Communication: Individual Differences, Oelgeschlager,Gunn & Hain (1980).
Patricia Noller, Sex differences in nonverbal communication: advantage lost or supremacy regained?,” Australian Journal of Psychology 38(1): 22–32 (April 1986).
R. Buck et al, “Sex, personality, and physiological variables in the communication of affect via facial expression,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 30(4): 587–596 (October 1974).
Judith A. Hall, “Gender effects in decoding nonverbal cues,” Psychological Bulletin 85(4): 845–857 (July 1978).
J.C. Pearson et al, Gender and Communication, William C. Brown (1995).
Dean H. Zimmerman and Candace West, “Sex roles, interruptions and silences in conversation,” in Towards a Critical Sociolinguistics, edited by Rajendra Singh, John Benjamin (1996).
Kriss A. Drass, ” The effect of gender identification on conversation,” Social Psychology 49: 394–301 (December 1986).
Esther Blank Greif, “Sex differences in parent-child conversations,” Women’s Studies International Quarterly 3(2-3): 253–258 (1980).
Mary I. Bresnahan & Deborah H. Cai, “Gender and aggression in the recognition of interruption,” Discourse Processes 21(2): 171–189 (1996).
John T. Molloy, Molloy’s Live For Success, William Morrow & Co. (1981).
Chris L. Kleinke, Meeting and Understanding People, W.H. Freeman (1986).
J.P. Dillard & L.J. Marshall, “Persuasion as a social skill,” in Handbook of Communication and Social Interaction Skills, edited by J.O. Green & B.R. Burleson, Erlbaum (2003).
C.E. Johnson, “An introduction to powerful and powerless talk in the classroom,” Communication Education 36: 167–172 (1987).
Marc F. Luxen, “Gender differences in dominance and affiliation during a demanding interaction,” The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied 139(4): 331–347 (July 2005).
Robin Tolmach Lakoff, Language and Woman’s Place, HarperCollins (September 1989).
Lindsay Timmerman, “Comparing the production of power in language on the basis of sex,” in Interpersonal Communication Research: Advances Through Meta-Analysis, Erlbaum (2002).
Theodor Schaarschmidt, “Power moves,” Scientific American Mind 28(3): 51-55 (May/June 2017).
Michael Lewis & Carolyn Saami (editors), Lying and Deception in Everyday Life, The Guilford Press (1993).
Charles V. Ford, Lies! Lies!! Lies!!!: The Psychology of Deceit, American Psychiatric Publishing (1999).
David Buller & Judee Burgoon, “Interpersonal deception theory,” in A First Look at Communication Theory (2005).
Todd Rogers et al, “Artful paltering: the risks and rewards of using truthful statements to mislead other,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (12 December 2016).
Theodor Schaarschmidt, “The art of lying,” Scientific American Mind (September 2018).
“True lies: people who lie via telling truth viewed harshly, study finds,” ScienceDaily (14 December 2016).
Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, “Why we lie,” National Geographic (June 2017).
Deborah A. Kashy & Bella M. DePaulo, “Who lies?,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70(5): 1037–1051 (May 1996).
Bella M. DePaulo, “The many faces of lies,” in The Social Psychology of Good and Evil, A.G. Miller (editor), Guilford Press (2004).
Ferric C. Fang & Arturo Casadevall, “Why we cheat,” Scientific American Mind 23(3): 31-37 (May/June 2013).
A.J. Jacobs, “I think you’re fat,” Esquire (24 July 2007).
Adam Grant, “Unless you’re Oprah, ‘be yourself’ is terrible advice,” The New York Times (4 June 2016).
R.E. Kraut, “Humans a lie detectors: some second thoughts,” Journal of Communication 30(4): 209–218 (1980).
Thomas H. Feeley & Melissa J. Young, “Humans as lie detectors: some more second thoughts,” Communication Quarterly 46(2): 109–126 (1998).
“A tissue of lies,” The Economist (9 June 2012).
Donald Trump photo courtesy of Gage Skidmore.
Connie Schultz, “It’s time to call Donald Trump a liar,” Dallas News (25 January 2017).
Ed O’Keefe, “Bernie Sanders calls Donald Trump a ‘pathological liar’,” The Sydney Morning Herald (13 February 2017).
Paul Krugman, “Donald Trump’s ‘big liar’ technique,” The New York Times (9 September 2016).
Samantha Lachman, “Here’s more proof Donald Trump is a serial liar,” The Huffington Post (18 May 2016).
Lizzy Acker, “Oregon congressman calls Donald Trump ‘Liar in Chief’ on Twitter,” The Oregonian (23 January 2017).
Sandy Fitzgerald, “New York Times headline once again calls Trump a liar,” Newsmax (24 January 2017).
Aaron Barlow, “Donald Trump is a big fat liar — and the unquestioned heir to 50 years of GOP whoppers,” Salon (16 October 2016).
Kevin Drum, “The case for Donald Trump being a liar is overwhelming,” Mother Jones (24 November 2015).
Daniel W. Drezner, “Donald Trump is constantly lying,” The Washington Post (23 November 2015).
“How political leaders shape public opinion,” The Economist (3 January 2018).
Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Man-Made World; or, Our Androcentric Culture (1911).
Julia T. Wood & Natalie Fixmer-Oraiz, Gendered Lives, Cengage Learning (2014).
Julia T. Wood, Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender, and Culture, Wadsworth (1994).
Steven Goldberg, Why Men Rule, A Theory of Male Dominance, Open Court (1993).
Steven Goldberg, Fads and Fallacies in the Social Sciences, Humanity/Prometheus (2003).
Steven Goldberg, “Reaffirming the obvious,” Society (September-October 1986).
Steven Goldberg, The Inevitability of Patriarchy, Morrow (1974).
Cynthia Fuchs Epstein, Deceptive Distinctions Sex, Gender, and the Social Order, Yale University Press (1988).
Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Framed by Gender, Oxford University Press (2011).
Cynthia Fuchs Epstein, “Similarity and difference: the sociology of gender distinction.” in Handbook of the Sociology of Gender, edited by Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, (1999).
Laurie A. Rudman & Peter Glick, The Social Psychology of Gender, The Guilford Press (2008).
Linda D. Molm, “book review of Deceptive Distinctions: Sex, Gender, and the Social Order,” American Journal of Sociology by Cynthia Fuchs Epstein 95(2) (September 1989).
Susan Goldberg & Michael Lewis, “Play behavior in the year-old infant: early sex differences,” Child Development, 40:21–31 (March 1969).
Sue W. Williams & E.M Blunk, “Sex differences in infant-mother attachment,” Psychology Reports 92(1):84–88 (February 2003).
Beverly I. Fagot et al, “Differential reactions to assertive and communicative acts of toddler boys and girls.” Child Development 56:1499–1505 (1985).
Diana T. Sanchez et al, “Sexual submissiveness in women: costs for sexual autonomy and arousal,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32: 512-524 (2006).
L. Connors, “Gender of infant differences in attachment: associations with temperament and caregiving experiences,” Annual Conference of the British Psychological Society (1996).
Melissa W.Clearfield & Naree M. Nelson, “Sex differences in mothers’ speech and play behavior with 6-, 9-, and 14-month-old infants.” Sex Roles, 54(1-2): 127–137 (January 2006).
Lin Bian et al, “Gender stereotypes about intellectual ability emerge early and influence children’s interests,” Science 355: 389-391 (27 January 2017).
Nick Anderson, “Research shows young girls are less likely to think of women as ‘really, really smart’,” The Washington Post (26 January 2017).
Lise Eliot, “The truth about boys and girls,” Scientific American Mind 21(2): 22-29 (May/June 2010).
Michael Kimmel, “Almost all violent extremists share one thing: their gender,” The Guardian (8 April 2018).
A Woman’s Figure
Carole Jahme, “Breast size: a human anomaly,” The Guardian (14 May 2010).
Devendra Singh, “Female health, attractiveness, and desirability for relationships: Role of breast asymmetry and waist-to-hip ratio,” Ethology and Sociobiology 16(6): 465-481 (November 1995).
Anders Pape Moller et al, “Breast asymmetry, sexual selection, and human reproductive success,” Ethology and Sociobiology 16(3): 207-219 (May 1995).
Geoffrey Miller, The Mating Mind: How Sexual Choice Shaped the Evolution of Human Nature, Doubleday (2000).
Packaging Femininity
Louisa Lim, “Painful memories for China’s footbinding survivors,” NPR (19 March 2007).
Janina Seubert et al, “Odor valence linearly modulates attractiveness, but not age assessment, of invariant facial features in a memory-based rating task,” PLoS One 9(5): e98347 (May 2014).
“Pleasant smells increase facial attractiveness,” ScienceDaily (29 May 2014).
Aki Peritz & Tara Maller, “The Islamic state of sexual violence,” Foreign Policy (16 February 2014).
Ezra Levant, “Pakistan’s troubling rape problem,” Toronto Sun (8 September 2014).
“A series of grotesque rapes infuriates Indians—again,” The Economist (28 April 2018).
Bethany Blankley, “As Christianity exits Europe, ‘criminal Muslims’ fill void with rabid violence,” The Washington Times (29 December 2014).
Azam Khan, “Zero-conviction rate for rape: senator proposes constitu-tional changes,” The Express Tribune (30 June 2014).
Dale Hurd, “Culture crisis: Norway tackles Muslim immigration,” CBN News (20 August 2011).
Nicolai Sennels, “Sexual abuse widespread among Muslims,” EuropeNews (5 February 2010).
Gijsbert Stoet & David C. Geary, “Sex differences in academic achievement are not related to political, economic, or social equality,” Intelligence 48: 137–151 (January–February 2015).
Deborah Tannen, You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation, William Morrow (2007).
John Gray, Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus, Harper (1997).
Gender & Status
Alice H. Eagly & Wendy Wood, “The origins of sex differences in human behavior: evolved dispositions versus social roles,” American Psychologist 54(6): 408–423 (June 1999).
Don Sabo & Terry A. Kupers , Prison Masculinities, Temple University Press (2001).
Tracy Slater, “Teaching gender issues to inmates,” The Chronical of Higher Education (1 September 2006).
Virginia Valian, Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women, The MIT Press (1999).
Gerda Lerner, The Creation of Patriarchy, Oxford (1986).
“Not just a pretty face, although that helps female politicians on election day,” Phys.org (15 May 2014).
Claire Cain Miller, “It’s not just Fox: why women don’t report sexual harassment,” The New York Times (10 April 2017).
Mindy E. Bergman et al, “The (un)reasonableness of reporting: antecedents and consequences of reporting sexual harassment,” Journal of Applied Psychology 87(2): 230-242 (2002).
Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “When it comes to scandal, girls won’t be boys,” The New York Times (11 June 2011).
Claire Cain Miller, “What politicians’ reactions to the Trump video reveal about sexism,” The New York Times (12 October 2016).
Maria L La Ganga & Ben Jacobs, “Trump campaign rocked by new wave of sexual harassment allegations,” The Guardian (13 October 2016).
Ben Mathis-Lilley, “Trump was recorded in 2005 bragging about grabbing women ‘by the pussy’,” The Slatest (7 October 2016).
Kurt Eichenwald, “Donald the destroyer,” Newsweek, (4 November 2016).
Somini Sengupta, “U.N. picks powerful feminist (Wonder Woman) for visible job (mascot),” The New York Times (12 October 2016).
Erin McCann, “U.N. drops Wonder Woman as an amabassador,” The New York Times (15 December 2016).
“Reconsider the choice of wonder woman as the UN’s honorary ambassador for the empowerment of women and girls,” care2 Petitions (November 2016).
Liz Ford, “Threats of death and violence common for women in politics, report says,” The Guardian (26 October 2016).
“Sexism, harassment and violence against women parliamentarians,” Inter-Parliamentary Union (October 2016).
Alice H. Eagly & Linda L. Carli, “The female leadership advantage: an evaluation of the evidence,” The Leadership Quarterly 14: 807–834 (2003).
Alice H. Eagly & Steven J. Karau, “Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders,” Psychological Review 109(3): 573–598 (2002).
Cynthia Fuchs Epstein, “Great divides: the cultural, cognitive, and social bases of the global subordination of women,” American Sociological Review 72(1): 1–22 (February 2007).
“Geena’s war on movie sexism,” The Week (21 April 2017).
Jennifer Raymond, “Most of us are biased,” Nature 495: 33–34 (7 March 2013).
Ernesto Reuben et al, “How stereotypes impair women’s careers in science,” PNAS 111(12): 4403–4408 (25 March 2014).
“University challenge,” The Economist (17 January 2015).
Claire Cain Miller, “Is the professor bossy or brilliant? Much depends on gender,” The New York Times (6 February 2015).
Claire Cain Miller, “Technology’s man problem,” The New York Times (5 April 2014).
Helen Shen, “Mind the gender gap,” Nature 495: 22–23 (7 March 2013).
Alison McCook, “Barred from the boardroom,” Nature 495: 25–27 (7 March 2013).
Silvia Knobloch-Westerwick et al, “The Matilda effect in science communication,” Science Communication 35(5): 603–625 (October 2013).
Jonathan Martin, “Glass ceilings in statehouses in the Northeast,” The New York Times (18 May 2014).
Jessica Hamzelou, “Be a player, hate the game: beating sex discrimi-nation,” New Scientist (13 May 2014).
“Silicon Valley boom eludes many, drives income gap,” Phys.org (6 March 2014).
“Promotion and self-promotion,” The Economist (31 August 2013).
Sally Haslanger, “Women in philosophy? Do the math,” The New York Times (2 September 2013).
Jennifer Schuelssler, “A star philosopher falls, and a debate over sexism is set off,” The New York Times (2 August 2013).
Shiza Shahid, “3 reasons why men run Wall Street,” Fortune (27 January 2015).
Corrine A. Moss-Racusin et al, “Science faculty’s subtle gender biases favor male students,” PNAS 109(41): 16474 –16479 (9 October 2012).
Alice H. Eagly et al, “Gender and the evaluation of leaders: a meta-analysis,” Psychological Bulletin 111(1): 3–22 (1992).
“WMC’s research shines light on gender bias in major U.S. broadcast, print, online, & wire outlets,” Women’s Media Center (3 April 2014).
Ewan Murray, “LPGA commissioner criticizes Gold Digest over Paula Gretzky photos,” The Guardian (5 April 2014).
“Low female sports coverage in media due to gender bias,” Science 2.0 (20 November 2014).
May. M Narahara, “Gender stereotypes in children’s picture books,” thesis, University of California (1998).
“International literacy data 2013,” UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2013).
Victor Lavy & Edith Sand, “On the origins of gender human capital gaps: short and long term consequences of teachers’ stereotypical biases,” National Bureau of Economic Research (January 2015).
Rebecca Ratcliffe, “Sexual harassment and assault rife at United Nations, staff claim,” The Guardian (18 January 2018).
Claire Cain Miller, “How elementary school teachers’ biases can discourage girls from math and science,” The New York Times (6 Feb-ruary 2015).
Corrine A. Moss-Racusin et al, “Can evidence impact attitudes? Public reactions to evidence of gender bias in STEM fields,” Psychology of Women Quarterly (2015).
Kirsten Isgro & Mari Castañeda, “Mothers in U.S. academia: insights from lived experiences,” Women’s Studies International Forum (20 January 2015).
Haya Stier & Meir Yaish, “Occupational segregation and gender inequality in job quality: a multi-level approach,” Work Employment & Society 28(2): 225–246 (April 2014).
P.H.M. Geiler & L.D.R. Renneboog, “Are female top managers really paid less?,” Tilburg University (2014).
“Women’s jobs are poorer paid, less flexible, more stressful,” ScienceDaily (4 March 2014).
Kieran Snyder, “The abrasiveness trap: high-achieving men and women are described differently in reviews,” Fortune (26 August 2014).
J.K. Swim & L.J. Sanna, “He’s skilled, she’s lucky: a meta-analysis of observers’ attributions for women’s and men’s successes and failures,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 22: 507–519 (1996).
K. Deaux & T. Emswiller, “Explanations of successful performance on sex-linked tasks: what is skill for the male is luck for the female,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 29: 80–85 (1974).
“Equality in Politics and Government” in The State of the World Children 2007, The United Nations Children’s Fund (2007).
Pamela Paxton et al, “Gender in politics,” Annual Review of Sociology 33: 263–284 (August 2007).
Tabby Biddle, “Why aren’t there more women in leadership positions?,” Huff Post Impact (26 April 2012).
Andy Coghlan, “Why women don’t start wars,” New Scientist (21 September 1996).
Steven Hill, “Why does the US still have so few women in office?,” The Nation (7 March 2014).
“Women and politics: realities and myths,” World Values Survey (June 2006).
Jerry Coyne, “Yes, there is a war between science and religion,” The Conversation (21 December 2018).
Nicholas C. DiDonato, “Religion: is it sexist?,” Patheos (30 March 2012).
“The Sexist Bible,” Religious Criticism (undated).
Shoba Narayan, “In Hinduism, respect the sacred, ignore the sexism,” The New York Times (9 January 2013).
Lydia Green, ” Is Islam a sexist religion?,” New Religion (5 February 2013).
Robert Mackey, “Saudi women free after 73 days in jail for driving,” The New York Times (12 February 2015).
“Beyond fear: the psychology of terrorism,” Scientific American Mind 27(3): 32-49 (May/June 2016).
Sex Objects
Sarah J. Gervais et al, “Seeing women as objects: the sexual body part recognition bias,” European Journal of Social Psychology (29 June 2012).
“How our brains see men as people and women as body parts: both genders process images of men, women differently,” ScienceDaily (25 July 2012).
Renata Bongiorno et al, “When sex doesn’t sell: using sexualized images of women reduces support for ethical campaigns,” PLoS One (18 December 2013).
“Study: does sex always sell?,” Phys.org (19 December 203).
Sexual Violence
Susan Brownmiller, Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape Ballantine Books (1993).
Alice Vachss, Sex Crimes, Henry Hold and Company (1994).
Claire Laurent et al, editors, Femicide, Academic Council on the United Nations System Vienna Liaison Office (2013).
Frances Perraudin, “Femicide in UK: 76% of women killed by men in 2017 knew their killer,” The Guardian (18 December 2018).
Bree McEwan & SHannon L. Johnson, “Relational violence: the darkest side of haptic communication,” in The Nonverbal Communication Reader, Waveland Press (2008).
Dorothy L. Espelage et al, “Understanding types, locations, & perpetrators of peer-to-peer sexual harassment in U.S. middle schools: A focus on sex, racial, and grade differences,” Children and Youth Services Review 71: 174-183 (December 2016).
Kate Lamb, “Indonesian women suffering ‘epidemic’ of domestic violence, activists warn,” The Guardian (18 July 2019).
Drew Harwell, “Fake-porn videos are being weaponized to harass and humiliate women: ‘Everybody is a potential target’,” The Washington Post (30 December 2018).
Pamela Duncan & Alexandra Topping, “Men underestimate level of sexual harassment against women – survey,” The Guardian (6 December 2018).
Martie G. Haselton, “The sexual overperception bias: evidence of a systematic bias in men from a survey of naturally occurring events,” Journal of Research in Personality 37(1): 34–47 (February 2003).
Sarah Marsh, “Hundreds of sexual harassment claims against male police officers,” The Guardian (25 December 2018).
Carlotta Cogoni et al, “Reduced empathic responses for sexually objectified women: an fMRI investigation,” Cortex 99: 258-272 (February 2018).
Carmen Kohl & Julia Robertson, ” The sexual overperception bias: an exploration of the relationship between mate value and perception of sexual interest,” Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences 8(1): 31–43 (January 2014).
Amanda Erickson, “A 7-year-old Pakistani girl was raped, strangled and left in a dumpster,” The Washington Post (10 January 2018).
Tom Lutz, “Aly Raisman: USA Gymnastics told me to be quiet about Larry Nassar abuse,” The Guardian (17 January 2018).
Laurel Watson et al, “Understanding the relationships among white and African-American women’s sexual objectification experiences, physical safety anxiety, and psychological distress,” Sex Roles (15 January 2015).
“Sexual objectification increases women’s fear of crime,” ScienceDaily (14 January 2015).
Maurice J. Levesque et al, “Toward an understanding of gender differences in inferring sexual interest,” Psychology of Women Quar-terly 30(2): 150–158 (June 2006).
E. Koukounas & N.M. Letch, “Psychological correlates of perception of sexual intent in women,” Journal of Social Psychology 141(4): 443–456 (August 2001).
Emma C. Howell et al, “The sexual overperception bias is associated with sociosexuality,” Personality and Individual Differences 53(8): 1012–1016 (December 2012).
David Dryden Henningsen et al, “The perceptions of verbal and nonverbal flirting cues in cross-sex interactions,” Human Communication 12(4): 371–381 (December 2009).
D.T. Sanchex et al, “Sexual submissiveness in women: costs for sexual authonomy and arousal,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 32(4): 512–524 (April 2006).
Lilia M. Cortina & Vicki J. Magley, “Raising voice, risking retaliation: events following interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace,” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 8(4): 247-265 (2003).
John A. Bargh & Paula Raymond, “The naive misuse of power: nonconscious sources of sexual harassment,” Journal of Social Issues 51(1): 85–96 (Spring 1995).
Jill M. Leibold, & Allen R. McConnell, “Women, sex, hostility, power and suspicion: sexually aggressive men’s cognitive associations,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 40(2): 256–263 (March 2004).
Dan Bilefsky, ” In Strauss-Kahn trial, France discards a privacy taboo,” The New York Times (19 February 2015).
John Lichfield, “Dominique Strauss-Kahn ‘had brutal anal sex with prostitute at orgy’, pimping trial hears,” The Independent (10 February 2015).
Dan Bilefsky, “Dominique Strauss-Kahn’s Defense: he didn’t know prostitutes were at the orgies,” The New York Times (10 February 2015).
“Strauss-Kahn: Only 12 sex parties in three years,” BBC News (10 February 2015).
Barbara L. Fredrickson & Dnaiel Kahneman, “Duration neglect in retrospective evaluations of affective episodes,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65(1): 45–55 (July 1993).
Joanna Bourke, Rape, Counterpoint (2007).
Chaminda Jayanetti, “Revealed: scale of police sexual abuse claims,” The Guardian (18 May 2019).
Gwyn Topham, “Sexual offences on UK railways more than double in five years,” The Guardian (12 March 2018).
Rhitu Chatterjee, “A new survey finds 81 percent of women have experienced sexual harassment,” NPR (21 February 2018).
Nick Anderson, “These colleges have the most reports of rape,” The Washington Post (7 June 2016).
Kelly Oliver, “There is no such thing as ‘nonconsensual’ sex. It’s violence.,” The New York Times (21 November 2016).
Kimerby Matus, “I was groped on the subway,” The New York Times (13 May 2013).
Simon Romero & Taylor Barnes, “American woman gang-raped and beaten on Brazilian transit van,” The New York Times (1 April 2013).
Simon Romero, “Public rapes outrage Brazil, testing ideas of image and class,” The New York Times (24 May 2013).
Irene H. Frieze, Hurting the One You Love: Violence in Relationships, Cengage Learning (2004).
Ludovics Iaccino, “Top 5 countries with the highest rates of rape,” International Business Times (29 January 2014).
“Too much of a bad thing,” The Economist (10 September 2013).
Andy Coghlan, “A quarter of men in some parts of Asia admit to rape,” New Scientist (10 September 2013).
Yvonne Roberts, “India’s daughter: ‘I made a film on rape in India. Men’s brutal attitudes truly shocked me’,” The Guardian (28 Febru-ary 2015).
Ellen Barry & Mansi Choksi, “Gang rape in India, routine and invisible,” The New York Times (26 October 2013).
Sarah E. Ullman & Raymond A. Knight, “A multivariate model for predicting rape and physical injury outcomes during sexual assaults,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 59(5): 724–731 (October 1991).
Jamie Grierson, “Hundreds of police officers accused of sex abuse, inquiry finds,” The Guardian (7 December 2016).
David Batty et al, “Sexual harassment ‘at epidemic levels’ in UK universities,” The Guardian (5 March 2017).
Jack Healy, “Accusation in Montana of treating rape lightly stirs unlikely public fight,” The New York Times (12 April 2014).
Jennifer Steinhauer & Richard Pérez-Peña, “University’s image suffers after campus rape report,” The New York Times (24 November 2014).
Walt Bogdanich, “Reporting rape, and wishing she hadn’t,” The New York Times (12 July 2014).
Richard Pérez-Peña & Kate Taylor, “Fight against sex assaults holds colleges to account,” The New York Times (3 May 2014).
Deborah Tuerkheimer, “We preach ‘no means no’ for sex, but that’s not what the law says,” The Guardian (12 January 2014).
Anna Bahr, “Accessible, prompt and equitable?,” The Blue and White (Columbia University) (March 2014).
Richard Pérez-Peña, “Christian school faulted for halting abuse study,” The New York Times (11 February 2014).
“One in three U.S. youths report being victims of dating violence,” The New York Times (31 July 2013).
Katelyn Sack, “Reform campus rape policy to prevent complaints becoming a ‘second assault’,” The Guardian (18 November 2012).
“Former Penn State president charged in Jerry Sandusky sex abuse case,” The Guardian (1November 2012).
“Many teens admit to coercing others into sex,” NPR (October 2013).
Betty Grayson & Morris I. Stein, “Attracting assault: victims’ nonverbal cues,” Journal of Communication 31(1): 68–75 (March 1981).
Jennifer Murzynski & Douglas Degelman, “Body language of women and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 26(18): 1617–1626, (September 1996).
Lynne Richards et al, “Perceptions of submissiveness implications for victimization,” The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied 125(4): 407–411 (1991).
Ed M. Edmonds & Delwin D. Cahoon, “Attitudes concerning crimes related to clothing by female victims,” Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24(6): 444–446 (1986).
Jeremy Haken, Transnational Crime In The Developing World, Global Financial Integrity (February 2011).
Ian Sample, “Democrats ‘less inclined to cheat on spouses than Republicans’,” The Guardian (19 July 2018).
Kodi B. Arfer & Jason J. Jones, “American political-party affiliation as a predictor of usage of an adultery website,” Archives of Sexual Behavior 48(3): 715-723 (April 2019).
Megan Specia & Tariro Mzezewa, “Adventurous. Alone. Attacked.,” The New York Times (25 March 2019).
The Friendly Skies
Christopher Mele, “Sexual assault on flights: experts recommend ways to stay safe and combat it,” The New York Times (23 March 2019).
Avi Selk, “She says she was groped on a Delta flight — then told to sit down and ‘let it roll off your hack’,” The Washington Post (28 February 2018).
Ruth Styles, “Mother flying first class with teen daughter sues Delta Airlines after a drunk passenger ‘touched her breast and groped her’ and a flight attendant refused to intervene because the assailant was a ‘platinum member’,” Daily Mail (23 June 2017).
US Military
Frances Stead Sellers & Dan Lamothe, “Sexual assaults in the military spiked nearly 38 percent last year, Pentagon says,” The Washington Post (2 May 2019).
Helene Cooper, “Unreported sexual assaults surge at military academies, Pentagon finds,” The New York Times (31 January 2019).
Craig Whitlock, “In the military, trusted officers have become alleged assailants in sex crimes,” The Washington Post (19 October 2017).
“Breaking the silence,” The Economist (19 October 2013).
Peter Bradshaw, “The Invisible War review – ‘rape in the US military is a secret epidemic’,” The Guardian (6 March 2014).
Jennifer Steinhauer, “Reports of military sexual assault rise sharply,” The New York Times (7 November 2013).
“US Navy sexual assault reports rise 50%,” BBC News (11 September 2013).
Jennifer Steinhauer, “Hagel tries to blunt effect of Obama words on sexual assault cases,” The New York Times (14 August 2013).
Jennifer Steinhauer, “Pentagon study finds sharp rise in military sexual assaults,” The New York Times (7 May 2013).
Matthew Rosenberg, “Women in military cite retaliation after assault complaints,” The New York Times (1 May 2015).
“For military women, rape is more likely than KIA,” The Week (24 February 2012).
Anne G. Sadler et al, “Factors associated with women’s risk of rape in the military environment,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 43: 252–273 (2003).
“Obama defense nominee vows to fight sexual assault in military,” The New York Times (5 February 2015).
Michi Fu & Tracy Sbroco (editors), “Special issue: military sexual trauma,” Psychological Services 12(4) (November 2015).
“Military sexual trauma: prevalent and under-treated,” ScienceDaily (3 November 2015).
Jennifer Steinhauer, “Veterans testify on rapes and scant hope of justic,” The New York Times (13 March 2013).
Jackie Speier, “Why rapists in the military get away with it,” CNN (21 June 2012).
Thom Shanker, “Sex assault charges dropped at Annapolis,” The New York Times (10 January 2014).
Amanda Holpuch, “Hagel critical of military’s ‘retaliation’ culture over sexual assault reporting,” The Guardian (16 January 2015).
“Good, bad news in military sexual assault report,” The New York Times (4 December 2014).
BriGette McCoy, “The military’s sexual assault response is a catastrophic blight on our service,” The Guardian (2 May 2014).
Jennifer Steinhauer, “Intrusive grilling in rape case raises alarm on military hearings,” The New York Times (20 September 2013).
Alan Blinder & Richard A. Oppel Jr., “How a military sexual assault case foundered,” The New York Times (12 March 2014).
“Sexual assaults by US military in Japan unlikely to end in prison,” The Guardian (9 February 2014).
Emily Cochrane & Jennifer Steinhauer, “Senator Martha McSally says superior officer in the Air Force raped her,” The New York Times (6 March 2019).
Felicia Sonmez, “Sen. Martha McSally, a former fighter pilot, says she was raped while serving in the military,” The Washington Post (6 March 2019).
“Military justice ‘broken’, say sexual assault survivors at Senate hearing,” The Guardian (13 March 2013).
“Head of US air force sexual assault prevention unit charged with groping,” The Guardian (7 May 2013).
Rachel Weiner & Matt Zapotosky, “Air Force colonel acquitted in assault trial,” The Washington Post (13 November 2013).
Karen McVeigh, “Obama administration sued by veterans over military sexual assault,” The Guardian (30 April 2014).
US Olympic Gymnast Sex Abuse
Tim Evans et al, “A 20-year toll: 368 gymnasts allege sexual exploitation,” Indy Star (March 2017)).
Juliet Macur, “Facing Congress, some sports officials (not all) begin to confront sexual abuse,” The New York Times (29 March 2017).
John Branch, “Steve Penny resigns as U.S.A. gymnastics president,” The New York Times (16 March 2017).
Jessica Howard, “Cracking down on abuse in U.S. gymnastics,” The New York Times, (15 March 2017).
Will Hobson, “At Larry Nassar sentencing hearing, a parade of horror and catharsis,” The Washington Post (18 January 2018).
Catholic Priest Sex Abuse
Chico Harlan & Stefano Pitrelli, “Ex-Pope Benedict contradicts Pope Francis in unusual intervention on sexual abuse,” The Washington Post (11 April 2019).
Anthony Faiola et al, “‘The pope ignored them’: Alleged abuse of deaf children on two continents points to Vatican failings,” The Washington Post (19 February 2019).
Laurie Goodstein & Sharon Otterman, “‘They hid it all’: Catholic priests abused 1,000 children in Pennsylvania, report says,” The New York Times (14 August 2018).
Randy Thornhill & Craig T. Palmer, A Natural History of Rape, MIT Press (2000).
Michael D’Antonio, Mortal Sins: Sex, Crime, and the Era of Catholic Scandal, St. Martin’s Griffin (2014).
Thomas P. Doyle and A.W. Richard Sipe, Sex, Priests, and Secret Codes: The Catholic Church’s 2,000 Year Paper Trail of Sexual Abuse, Taylor Trade Publishing (2006).
Leon J. Podles, Sacrilege: Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church, Crossland Press (2008).
Paul Vallely, “Vatican missteps and U.N. blunders,” The New York Times (11 February 2014).
Richard Scorer, Betrayed: The English Catholic Church and the Sex Abuse Crisis, Biteback (2014).
Laurie Goodstein, “New sexual abuse files cast shadow on legacy of Los Angeles cardinal,” The New York Times (22 January 2013).
Laurie Goodstein, “Defying civil and canon laws, church failed to stop a priest,” The New York Times (7 September 2012).
Katharine Q. Seelye, ” 21 priests suspended in Philadelphia,” The New York Times (28 March 2011).
Laurie Goodstein, “Church abuse report authors defend findings as critics weigh in,” The New York Times (18 May 2011).
Laurie Goodstein, “Church report cites social tumult in priest scandals,” The New York Times (17 May 2011).
Erik Eckholm, “Suit says Jesuits ignored warnings about priest,” The New York Times (28 March 2011).
Mitch Smith, “Catholic archdiocese in Minnesota charged over sex abuse by priest,” The New York Times (5 June 2015).
Sex Trafficking
“Sex trafficking factsheet,” Equality Now (2013).
Sanctuary for Families web site.
“Fact sheet: sex trafficking,” U.S. Department of Health & Human Services – Administration for Children & Families (2 August 2012).
Female Genital Mutilation
“Female genital mutilation,” World Health Organization (February 2014).
“Female genital mutilation/cutting,” Unicef (July 2013).
Celia W. Dugger, “Report finds gradual fall in female genital cutting in Africa,” The New York Times (22 July 2013).
Honor Killings
Honour Related Violence, Kvinnoforum (2005).
Ahmed Maher, “Many Jordan teenagers ‘support honour killings’,” BBC News (20 June 2013).
Katherine Zoepf, “A dishonorable affair,” The New York Times (23 September 2007).
Ishaan Tharoor, “Husband of Pakistani ‘honor killing’ victim killed his first wife, police say,” The Washington Post (29 May 2014).
Elif Shafak, “‘Honour killings’: murder by any other name,” The Guardian (30 April 2012).
Jasmine Coleman, “‘Honour’ crimes: six cases,” The Guardian (3 December 2011).
Harriet Sherwood, “Death in the West Bank: the story of an ‘honour’ killing,” The Guardian (30 June 2011).
Katie Falkenberg, “Pakistani women victims of ‘honor.'” Washington Times (23 July 2008).
Suzanne Ruggi, “Commodifying honor in female sexuality,” Middle East Report 28 (Spring 1998).
Ellen Barry, “Policing village moral codes as women stream to India’s cities,” The New York Times (19 October 2013).
Phyllis Chesler and Nathan Bloom, “Hindu vs. Muslim honor killings,” The Middle East Quarterly 19(3): 43–52 (Summer 2012).
David M. Buss, The Murderer Next Door: Why the Mind Is Designed to Kill, Penguin Books (2006).
Margo I. Wilson & Martin Daly, “Male sexual proprietariness and violence against wives,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 5(1): 2–7 (February 1996).
Martin Daly et al, ” “Male sexual jealousy,” Ethology & Sociobiology, 3(1): 11–27 (1982).
David M. Buss et al, “Sex differences in jealousy: evolution, physiology, and psychology,” Psychological Science 3(4): 251–255 (July 1992).
Brad J. Sagarin et al, “Sex differences (and similarities) in jealousy: the moderating influence of infidelity experience and sexual orientation of the infidelity,” Evolution and Human Behavior 24: 17–23 (2003).
Rosanna E. Guadagno & Brad J. Sagarin, “Sex differences in jeal-ousy: an evolutionary perspective on online infidelity,” Journal of Applied Psychology 40(10): 2636–2655 (2010).
David DeSteno et al, “Jealousy and the threatened self: getting to the heart of the green-eyed monster,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91(4): 626–641 (October 2006).
David DeSteno et al, “Sex differences in jealousy: evolutionary mechanism or artifact of measurement,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83(5): 1103–1116 (2002).
Bram P. Buunk et al, “Sex differences in jealousy in evolutionary and cultural perspective,” Psychological Science 7(6): 359–363 (November 2006).
John E. Edlund et al, “Sex differences in jealousy in response to actual infidelity,” Evolutionary Psychology 4: 462–470 (2006).
John Archer “Cross-cultural differences in physical aggression between partners: a social role analysis,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 10(2): 133–153 (2006).
C.L. Yodanis, “Gender inequality, violence against women, and fear: a cross-national test of the feminist theory of violence against women,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 19(6):655–675 (June 2004).
T.R. Simon et al, “Attitudinal acceptance of intimate partner violence among U.S. adults,” Violence and Victims, 16(2):115–126 (April 2001).
Amanda Prowse, “One billion rising: domestic violence is a middle class problem too,” The Telegraph (14 February 2013).
“Domestic violence among middle classes grows,” The Telegraph (3 October 2011).
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Nicholas A. Christakis & James H. Fowler, Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives,, Little, Brown (2009).
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Nicholas A. Christakis & James H. Fowler, “Friendship and natural selection,” PNAS (14 July 2014).
Rosie Ifould, “Acting on impulse: the science behind first impressions,” The Guardian (27 November 2016).
Masanori Kimura et al, “Expressivity halo effect in the conversation about emotional episodes,” Japanese Journal of Research on Emotions 12(1): 12-23 (2005).
Andrew J. Howell et al, “Guilt, empathy, and apology,” Personality and Individual Differences 53(7): 917-922 (November 2012).
Laruen F. Friedman, “Why some people say “sorry” before others,” Scientific American Mind (1 November 2011).
“Why males prioritize sex,” The Week (7 November 2014).
Robert Greene, The Art of Seduction, Penguin Book (2003).
Carol Tavris & Carole Wade, The Longest War: Sex Differences in Perspective, Harcourt (1984).
Michael J. Marks & R. Chris Fraley, “The sexual double standard: fact or fiction?,” Sex Roles 52(3-4): 175–186 (February 2005).
Jennifer S. Aubrey, “Sex and punishment: an examination of sexual consequences and the sexual double standard in teen programming,” Sex Roles 50(7-8): 505–514 (2004).
Mary Crawford & Danielle Popp, “Sexual double standards: a review and methodological critique of two decades of research,” The Journal of Sex Research 40(1): 13–26 (February 2003).
Aaron Sell, “Cues of upper body strength account for most of the variance in men’s bodily attractiveness,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (13 December 2017).
P. Pollard, “Judgements about victims and attackers in depicted rapes: a review,” British Journal of Social Psychology 31(4): 307–326 (December 1992).
Dominic Abrams et al, “Perceptions of stranger and acquaintance rape: the role of benevolent and hostile sexism in victim blame and rape proclivity,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84(1): 111–125 (January 2003).
Laurie A. Rudman & Stephanie A. Goodwin, “Gender differences in automatic in-group bias: why do women like women more than men like men?,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87(4): 494–509 (October 2004).
Jennifer J. Bussell et al, “Abdominal-B neurons control Drosophila virgin female receptivity,” Current Biology 24(14): 1584–1595 (21 July 2014).
Arthur Aron et al, “Reward, motivation, and emotion systems associated with early-state intense romantic love,” Journal of Neurophysiology 94: 327–337 (July 2005).
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Alan Feingold, “Gender differences in effects of physical attractive-ness on romantic attraction: a comparison across five research para-digms,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59(5): 981–993 (November 1990).
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Harold R. Baize & Jonathan E. Schroeder, “Personality and mate selection in personal ads: evolutionary preferences in a public mate selection process,” Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 10(3):517–536 (September 1995).
Helen Fisher, Anatomy of Love: A Natural History of Mating, Marriage, and Why We Stray, Ballantine Books (1994).
Douglas T. Kenrick & Richard C. Keefe, “Age preferences in mates reflect sex differences in human reproductive strategies,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15: 75–137 (March 1992).
Jane E. Smith et al, “Single White male looking for thin, very attractive…,” Sex Roles 23(11-12): 675–685 (December 1990).
David M. Buss, “Sex differences in human mate preferences: evolu-tionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 21: 5–47 (1989).
Ellen Berscheid & Elaine Walster, Interpersonal Attraction, Longman Higher Education (1978).
Alan Feingold, “Matching for attractiveness in romantic partners and same-sex friends: a meta-analysis and theoretical critique,” Psychological Bulletin 104(2): 226–235 (September 1988).
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Ellen Berscheid et al, “Physical attractiveness and dating choice: a test of the matching hypothesis,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 7(2): 173–189 (March 1971).
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“Survey links equality, sexual satisfaction,” USA Today (20 April 2006).
Martie G. Haselton et al, “Ovulatory shifts in human female orna-mentation: near ovulation, women dress to impress,” Hormones and Behavior 51: 40–45 (2007).
Randy Thornhill et al, “Major histocompatibility complex genes, symmetry, and body scent attractiveness in men and women,” Behavioral Ecology 14 (5): 668–678 (2003).
A. Rikowski and Karl Grammer, “Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 266(1422): 869–874 (7 May 1999).
“A wife’s happiness is more crucial than her husband’s in keeping marriage on track,” ScienceDaily (12 September 2014).
Deborah Carr et al, “A wife’s happiness is more crucial than her husband’s in keeping marriage on track,” Journal of Marriage and Family 76(5): 930–948 (October 2014).
Romantic Love
Malcolm Kahn, “Nonverbal communication and marital satisfaction,” Family Process 9(4): 449–456 (December 1970).
Malika Ihle et al, “Fitness benefits of mate choice for compatibility in a socially monogamous species,” PLoS Biology (14 September 2015).
“Birds reveal the evolutionary importance of love,” Phys.org (14 September 2015).
Patricia Noller & Melodie Ruzzene, “Communication in marriage: the influence of affect and cognition,” in Cognition in Close Relationships, Lawrence Erlbaum (1991).
Arthur Aron et al, “Inclusion of other in the self scale and the struc-ture of interpersonal closeness,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63(4): 596–612 (October 1992).
Arthur Aron et al, ” Close relationships as including other in the self,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60(2): 241–253 (February 1991).
Sandra L. Murray, Interdependent Minds: The Dynamics of Close Relationships, The Guilford Press (2011).
Edward P. Lemay & Margaret S. Clark, “How the head liberates the heart: projection of communal responsiveness guides relationship promotion, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94(4): 647–671 (April 2008).
Sandra L. Murray et al, “Kindred spirits? The benefits of egocentrism in close relationships,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82(4): 563–581 (April 2002).
K.A. Martin et al, “The sexual socialization of young children: setting the agenda for research,” in Advances In Group Processes, edited by S. Correll, Elsevier (2007).
Cynthia Whissell, “Mate selection in popular women’s fiction,” Human Nature 7(4): 427–447 (1996).
P.G. Davies et al, “Consuming images: how television commercials that elicit stereotype threat can restrain women academically and professionally,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28: 1615–1628 (2002).
Vaishali Shrikhande, Stereotyping of women in television advertisements,” thesis at Louisiana State University, University of Pune, India (August 2003).
A. Furnham & T. Mak, “Sex-role stereotyping in television commercials: a review and comparison of fourteen studies done on five continents over 25 years,” Sex Roles 41: 413–437 (1999).
Kay Bussey & Albert Bandura, “Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation,” Psychological Review 106: 617 – 713 (1999).
Friedrich Heer, Medieval World: Europe 1100–1350, New American Library (1962).
Lisa Adkins & Vicki Merchant, Sexualizing the Social: Power and the Organization of Sexuality, St. Martin’s Press (1996).
Mia Fontaine, “America has an incest problem,” The Atlantic (24 January 2013).
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Stephanie Coontz, Marriage, a History: How Love Conquered Marriage, Penguin Books (2006).
“The state of marriage as an institution,” The Economist (25 November 2017).
“For richer: marriage in the West,” The Economist (23 November 2017).
“A distorted sex ratio is playing havoc with marriage in China,” The Economist (23 November 2017).
“Marriage in Japan: I don’t,” The Economist (1 September 2016).
“Why the Japanese are having so few babies,” The Economist (24 July 2014).
“Marriage in India is becoming less traditional,” The Economist (25 November 2017).
“Marriage in Iran: the No. 1 mullahs dating agency,” The Economist (7 February 20157).
Lizzy Davies et al, “Marriage falls out of favour for young Europeans as austerity and apathy bite,” The Guardian (25 July 2014).
“Marriage rates lowest in a century,” ScienceDaily (18 July 2013).
Sebastian Lippold et al, “Human paternal and maternal demographic histories: insights from high-resolution Y chromosome and mtDNA sequences,” 5(13) Investigative Genetics (2014).
“New analysis of human genetic history reveals female dominance,” ScienceDaily (24 September 2014).
“How marriage has changed over the centuries,” The Week (1 June 2012).
Richard Thurnwald, Banaro Society, Corinthian Press (1916).
Bernard Juillerat, “Do the Bonaro really exist? Going back after Richard Thurnwald, Oceania 71(1): 46–66 (September 2000).
“The link between polygamy and war,” The Economist (19 December 2017).
“Often decried, polygyny may sometimes have advantages,” ScienceDaily (29 October 2015).
Laurie Goodstein, “It’s official: Mormon founder had up to 40 wives,” The New York Times (10 November 2014).
A.J. Blow & K. Hartnett, “Infidelity in committed relationships II: a substantive review,” Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 31(2): 217–233 (April 2005).
“Cheating wives on the rise,” The Huffington Post (3 July 2013).
M.A. Whisman & D.K. Snyder, “Sexual infidelity in a national survey of American women: Differences in prevalence and correlates as a function of method of assessment,” Journal of Family Psychology 21(2): 147–154 (June 2007).
Mary R. Jackman, The Velvet Glove: Paternalism and Conflict in Gender, Class, and Race Relations, University of California Press (1996).
Mark Lino, “Expenditures on children by families, 2002,” U.S. Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, Miscellaneous Publication No. 1528-2002 (2003).
Kim Clark, “Bankrupt lives,” U.S News & World Report 133(10): 52–54 (16 September 2002).
Marilyn B. Snell, “The purge of nurture,” New Perspectives Quarterly 7(1): 1–2 (Winter 1990).
Freya L. Sonenstein et al, “Primary child care arrangements of employed parents: findings from the 1999 national survey of America’s families,” The Urban Institute (12 September 2002).
“Newborn babies may cry in their mother tongues,” Science News (5 November 2009).
John Matson, “Fact or fiction: do babies resemble their fathers more than their mothers?,” Scientific American (18 June 2011).
Anahad O’Connor, “The claim: babies tend to look like their fathers,” The New York Times (22 March 2005).
Nicholas J. S. Christenfeld & Emily A. Hill, “Whose baby are you?,” Nature 378: 699 (14 December 1995).
James J. Crowley et al, “Analyses of allele-specific gene expression in highly divergent mouse crosses identifies pervasive allelic imbalance,” Nature Genetics (2 March 2015).
“Genetically speaking, mammals are more like their fathers,” ScienceDaily (2 March 2015).
Wilfred Bion
Wilfred R. Bion, Experiences in Groups, and Other Papers, Basic Books (1961).
Derek Hendrikz, “Group dynamics – behavioral dynamics of groups,” (1999).
“The Tavistock method,” Center for the Study of Groups and Social Systems (undated).
Antony Froggett, “What is a group? A discussion of Bion’s experiences in groups,” (2005).
“‘Bickering’ flies make evolutionary point,” Phys.org, (1 December 2016).
Graham Lawton, “Effortless thinking: adapting our need to feel part of the gang,” New Scientist (13 December 2017).
J.B. Saltz, “Genetic variation in social environment construction influences the development of aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster, Heredity (16 November 2016).
Charles Efferson et al, “The coevolution of cultural groups and ingroup favoritism,” Science 321: 1844-1849 (26 September 2008).
“Group memberships boost self-esteem more than friends alone,” ScienceDaily (15 June 2015).
Jolanda Jetten et al, “Having a lot of a good thing: multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem,” PLoS One (27 May 2015).
A.M. Rosenthal et al, Thirty-Eight Witnesses: The Kitty Genovese Case, Melville House (2008).
John M. Darley & Bib Latané, “Bystander intervention in emergencies: diffusion of responsibility,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 8(4): 377–383 (April 1968).
Maria Plötner et al, “Young children show the bystander effect in helping situations,” Psychological Science (19 March 2015).
Boris Bizumic, “Who coined the concept of ethnocentrism? A brief report,” Journal of Social and Political Psychology (2)1 (2014).
Affect Towards Groups
David Livingstone Smith, Less Than Human: Why We Demean, Enslave, and Exterminate Others, St. Martin’s Press (2011).
Jillian J. Jordan et al, “Development of in-group favoritism in children’s third-party punishment of selfishness,” PNAS 111(35): 12710-12715 (2 September 2014).
Daniel Yudkin, “How political tribalism can be explained using social science,” The Guardian (27 March 2018).
Joachim Krueger, “On the perception of social consensus,” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 30: 163–240 (1998).
Philip Rucker, “‘Like a dog’: Trump has a long history of using canine insults to dehumanize enemies,” The Washington Post (14 August 2018).
“Infants show racial bias toward members of own ethnicity, against those of others,” ScienceDaily (11 April 2017).
Naiqui G. Xiao et al, “Infants rely more on gaze cues from own-race than other-race adults for learning under uncertainty,” Child Development (10 April 2017).
Naiqui G. Xiao et al, “Older but not younger infants associate own-race faces with happy music and other-race faces with sad music,” Developmental Science (January 2017).
“The content of our cooperation, not the color of our skin,” Phys.org (11 February 2014).
J.P. Mitchell et al, “Dissociable medial prefrontal contributions to judgments of similar and dissimilar others,” Neuron 50: 655–663 (2006).
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G. Tendayi Viki et al, “Beyond secondary emotions: the infrahumani-zation of outgroups using words,” Social Cognition 24(6): 753–775 (2006).
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Phillip A. Goff et al, “Not yet human: implicit knowledge, historical dehumanization, and contemporary consequences,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94(2): 292–306 (February 2008).
Emanuele Castano & Roger Giner-Sorolla, “Not quite human: infrahumanization as a response to collective responsibility for intergroup killing,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 90(5): 804–818 (May 2006).
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Jacquie D. Vorauer et al, “How do individuals expect to be viewed by members of lower status groups? Content and implications of meta-stereotypes,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75(4): 917– 937 (October 1998).
Jacquie D. Vorauer & Stacey J. Sasaki, “Helpful only in the abstract? Ironic effects of empathy in intergroup interaction,” Psychological Science 20(2): 191-197 (February 2009).
Jacquie D. Vorauer & Yumiko Sakamoto, “I thought we could be friends, but… systematic miscommunications and defensive distancing as obstacles to cross-group friendship formation,” Psychological Science 17(4): 326-331 (April 2006).
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Lawrence Bobo & J.R. Kleugel, “Modern American prejudice: stereotypes, social distance, and perceptions of discrimination towards Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians,” American Sociological Association convention (1991).
J.R. Kleugel & Bobo Lawrence, “Dimensions of Whites beliefs about the Black-White socioeconomic gap,” in Race and Politics in American Society, edited by P. Sniderman et al, Stanford University Press (1993).
African Americans
Anthony G. Greenwald et al, “A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept,” Psychological Review 109(1): 3–25 (January 2002).
Anthony G. Greenwald et al, “Targets of discrimination: effects of race on responses to weapons holders,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 39: 399–405 (2003).
Joshua Correll et al, “The police officer’s dilemma: using ethnicity to disambiguate potentially threatening individuals,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83(6): 1314 – 1329 (December 2002).
B. Keith Payne, “Weapon bias: split-second decisions and unintended stereotyping,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 15(6): 287–291 (December 2006).
Jennifer L. Eberhardt et al, “Looking deathworthy: perceived stereo-typicality of Black defendants predicts capital-sentencing outcomes,” Psychological Science 17(5): 383–386 (May 2006).
“Marking murder: lynching in the South,” The Economist (21 February 2015).
Max Margolis & Alexander Marx, A History of the Jewish People, Scribner (1969).
Vamberto Morais, A Short History of Anti-Semitism, W.W. Norton & Company (1976).
Abba Eban, Heritage: Civilization and the Jews, Summit Books (1984).
Gerard S. Sloyan “Christian persecution of Jews over the centuries,” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (19 January 2007).
“Jews who fled Nazis revolutionized US science, Stanford economist says,” Phys.org (12 August 2014).
“Fear of a new darkness: anti-Semitism in Europe,” The Economist (21 February 2015).
Colby Itkowitz, “‘Every person deserves to rest in peace’: American Muslims raising money to repair vandalized Jewish cemetery,” The Washington Post (22 February 2017).
“Old ties, new interest: decades after the Jews went into exile, some Arabs want them back,” The Economist (4 April 2019).
Harrison M. Trice & Janice M. Beyer, “Cultural leadership in organization,” Organization Science 2(2): 149–169 (May 1991).
Ralph M. Stodgill, Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Theory and Research, Free Press (1974).
Timoth A. Judge & Daniel M. Cable, “The effect of physical height on workplace success and income: preliminary test of a theoretical model,” Journal of Applied Psychology 89(3): 428–441 (June 2004).
Lloyd T.Howells & Selwyn W. Becker, “Seating arrangement and leadership emergence,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 64:148–150 (February 1962).
Michael S. Olmsted & A. Paul Hare, The Small Group, Random House (1978).
Robert F. Bales, Interaction Process Analysis, Addison-Wesley (1950).
Robert F. Bales, “The equilibrium problem in small groups.” in Working Papers in the Theory of Action, edited by Talcott Parsons et al, Free Press, 1953:111-115.
Russell N. Cassel, “Examining the basic principles for effective leadership,” College Student Journal, 33(2): 288–301 (June 1999).
Darwin Cartwright & Alvin Zander, editors, Group Dynamics, Peterson (1968).
Kurt Lewin et al, “Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates,” Journal of Social Psychology 10: 271–301 (1939).
Ronald Lippett & Ralph K. White, “An experimental study of leadership and group life,” in Readings in Social Psychology, edited by Eleanor E. Maccoby et al, Holt, Rinehart and Winston (1958).
Everett Rogers, A History of Communication Study: A Biological Approach, The Free Press (1994).
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Sage Publications (2012).
John W. Gardner, On Leadership, Free Press (1993).
Aliana Burks, Leadership Styles: Benefits, Deficiencies & Their Influence on an Organization, Amazon Digital Services (2011).
Jonathan Sandling, Leading with Style: The Comprehensive Guide to Leadership Styles, Amazon Digital Services (2014).
Arthur Jenness, “The role of discussion in changing opinion regarding a matter of fact,” Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology 27(3):279-296 (October 1932).
Muzafer Sherif, “A study of some social factors in perception,” Archives of Psychology 27(187): 23-46 (1935).
S.E. Asch, “Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgments,” in Groups, leadership and men, US Office of Naval Rsearch, edited by H. Guetzkow, Carnegie Press. (1951).
Herbert C. Kelman, “Compliance, identification, and internalization three processes of attitude change,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 2: 51–60 (1958).
Emily Pronin, et al, “Alone in a crowd of sheep: asymmetric perceptions of conformity and their roots in an introspection illusion,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92(4): 585-595 (2007).
Solomon E. Asch, “Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgments,” in Groups, Leadership And Men; Research In Human Relations, edited by Harold Guetzkow, Carnegie Press (1951).
Bret Stetka, “Conformity starts young,” Scientific American Mind 26(2): 9 (March/April 2015).
Daniel B.M. Haun et al, “Children conform to the behavior of peers; other great apes stick with what they know,” Psychological Science 25(2): 2160-2167 (2014).
Daniel B.M. Huan & Michael Tomasello, “Conformity to peer pressure in preschool children,” Child Development 82(6): 1759-1767 (November/December 2011).
Cass R. Sunstein & Reid Hastie, “Four failures of deliberating groups,” University of Chicago Law & Economics (April 2008).
Saul McLeod, “What is conformity?,” Simply Psychology (2016).
Stephen Reicher & S. Alexander Haslam, “Culture of shock,” Scientific American Mind 22(5): 56-61 (November/December 2011).
Stanley Milgram, Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View, Harper Perennial Modern Classics (reprint edition) (2009).
Lecia Bushak, “Conformity is unique to humans, integral in most social interactions, and it begins as early as 2 years old,” Medical Daily (1 November 2014).
Group Decisions
Janis A. Cannon-Bowers & Eduardo Salas, “Individual and team decision making under stress: theoretical underpinnings,” in Making Decisions Under Stress: Implications For Individual And Team Training, APA Press (1998).
Samuel T. Shelton “Jury decision making: using group theory to improve deliberation,” Politics & Policy 34(4): 706–725 (December 2006).
Samuel R. Sommers, “On racial diversity and group decision making: identifying multiple effects of racial composition on jury deliberations,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(4): 597–612 (April 2006).
Jason L. Jensen, “Getting one’s way in policy debates: influence tactics used in group decision-making settings,” Public Administration Review 67(2): 216–227 (March-April 2007).
I.L. Janis, “Groupthink”, Psychology Today 5(43-46): 74–76 (1971).
US Military Groupthink
Kurt Eichenwald, “The deafness before the storm,” The New York Times (10 September 2012).
“Bush Warned of Hijackings Before 9-11,” ABC News (15 May 2012).
Paul Thompson, “They tried to warn us: foreign intelligence warnings before 9/11,” History Commons (undated).
Donté Stallworth, “Here’s why 9/11 conspiracy theories still thrive in America,” Huff Post Politics (2 December 2014).
Joshua Norman, “9/11 conspiracy theories won’t stop,” CBS News (11 September 2011).
Arnaud de Borchgrave, “Cynical scenarios still soar,” The Washington Times (11 September 2009).
“The evolution of a conspiracy theory,” BBC News (4 July 2008).
Michael Powell, “The 9/11 conspiracy plots thicken,” The Seattle Times (8 September 2006).
“The 11 most compelling 9/11 conspiracy theories,” NewsOne (11 September 2012).
Pat Paterson, “The truth about Tonkin,” U.S. Naval Institute (Febru-ary 2008).
Steve Watson, “De-classified Vietnam-era transcripts show senators knew gulf of Tonkin was a staged false flag event,” Infowars.com (15 July 2010).
“Gulf of Tonkin incident: the appraisal 40 years later,” The Quarterly Journal of Military History (12 June 2006).
James Risen, “Iraqi says he made up tale of biological weapons before war,” The New York Times (15 February 2011).
Editorial Board, “Retroactively authorizing war,” The New York Times (31 January 2015).
Editorial Board, “The truth about the war,” The New York Times (6 June 2008).
Julian Borger, “There were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq,” The Guardian (7 October 2004).
Richard Norton-Taylor, ” MI6 and CIA were told before invasion that Iraq had no active WMD,” The Guardian (18 March 2013).
Martin Chulov & Helen Pidd, “Defector admits to WMD lies that triggered Iraq war,” The Guardian (15 February 2011).
Ewen MacAskill, “Obama releases Bush torture memos,” The Guardian (16 April 2009).
Ewen MacAskill, “Torture techniques endorsed by the Bush administration,” The Guardian (17 April 2009).
Associated Press, “Memo shows US official disagreed with Bush administration’s view on torture,” The Guardian (3 April 2012).
Ken Gude, “The worst of the worst,” The Guardian (15 July 2009).
Brian Beutler, “Pleading ignorance on torture,” The Guardian (19 June 2008).
Tom Wright, “U.S. Defends itself on inmate abuse,” The New York Times (9 May 2006).
Matt Apuzzo & James Risen, “C.I.A. first planned jails abiding by U.S. standards,” The New York Times (10 December 2014).
Charlie Savage, “Guantánamo inmate’s case reignites fight over detentions,” The New York Times (23 May 2014).
David Stout, “U.S. tells U.N. that it continues to oppose torture in any situation,” The New York Times (7 May 2005).
Charlie Savage, “U.N. Commission presses U.S. on torture,” The New York Times (13 November 2014).
Columbia Space Shuttle
Richard Luscombe, “Columbia anniversary: Nasa managers struggled with telling crew of danger,” The Guardian (1 February 2013).
David Rose, “How warning signs were ignored before disaster shuttle’s launch,” The Guardian (21 June 2003).
John Schwartz, “Report on Columbia details how astronauts died,” The New York Times (31 December 2008).
Ralph Vartabedian & Scott Gold, “New questions on shuttle tile safety raised,” Los Angeles Times (27 February 2003).
Matthew L. Wald & John Schwartz, “Alerts were lacking, NASA shuttle manager says,” The New York Times (23 July 2003).
“Discrimination and racism in the UK,” Internations (2017).
Henry Louis Gates Jr., Stony the Road: Reconstruction, White Supremacy and the Rise of Jim Crow Penguin Press (2019).
Robert J. Washington, “Employment discrimination in the US and UK – more similar than we think?,” Lexology (7 November 2012).
Holly Wallis & Stephen Robb, “Workplace discrimination prompts ‘whitened’ job applications,” BBC News (7 December 2012).
Emily Dugan, “More than half of women are discriminated against at work,” Independent (29 December 2013).
Alex “Sandy” Pentland, “Betting on people power,” Scientific American Mind (September/October 2016).
Trained Incapacity
Erin Wais, “Trained incapacity: Thorstein Veblen and Kenneth Burke,” The Journal of the Kenneth Burke Society (Fall 2005).
Herman Kahn, “The expert and educated incapacity,” Hudson Institute (1 June 1979).
Ferdinand Tönnies, Community and Society (Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft), Transaction Publishers (1988).
Georg Simmel, The Philosophy of Money, Routledge (2004).
C. Wright Mills, White Collar: The American Middle Classes, Oxford University Press (2002).
Francis Fukuyama, Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity, Penguin Putnam (1995).
Richard E. Nisbett & Yuri Miyamoto, “The influence of culture: holistic versus analytic perception,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9(10): 467–473 (October 2005).
Sea Gypsies
Anna Gislén et al, “Superior underwater vision in a human population of Sea Gypsies,” Current Biology 13(10): 833–836 (13 May 2003).
Societies – Types
Robert Redfield, The Primitive World and its Transformations, Cornell (1977).
Evolution of Societies
Peter Turchin et al, “War, space, and the evolution of Old World complex societies,” PNAS (23 September 2013).
Frederic L. Pryor, “The invention of the plow,” Comparative Study of Society and History 27(4): 727-743 (October 1985).
Laura Spinney, “Empires, bureaucracies and religion arise from war,” Nature News (23 September 2013).
“World urbanization prospects,” United Nations (2014).
Sandro Galea, “Shaping the urban brain,” Scientific American Mind 28(2): 20-21 (March/April 2017).
Diana Kwon, “Does city life pose a risk to mental health,” Scientific American (20 May 20016).
Cultural Dimensions
Geert Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, McGraw-Hill (2010).
Simon Gächter & Jonathan F. Schulz, “Intrinsic honesty and the prevalence of rule violations across societies,” Nature (9 March 2016).
Simon Makin, “National corruption breeds personal dishonesty,” Scientific American Mind (March/April 2017).
Jürgen Heinze, “Conflict and conflict resolution in social insects,” in Animal Behaviour: Evolution and Mechanisms, edited by Peter Kappeler (2010).
Susan T. Fiske, “Interpersonal stratification,” in Handbook of Social Psychology, Volume 2, 5th edition, John Wiley & Sons (2010).
Gerda Lerner, Black Women in White America: A Documentary History, Pantheon Books (1972).
Kenneth M. Stampp, The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South, Vintage Books (1956).
“Almost 36m people live in modern slavery – report,” BBC News (17 November 2014).
“Slavery in the modern age,” The New York Times (1 July 2011).
Larry Elliot, “Modern slavery affects more than 35 million, report finds,” The Guardian (17 November 2014).
“The Global Slavery Index”, www.GlobalSlaveryIndex.org (2014).
Manali S. Deshpande, “History of the Indian caste system and its impact on India today,” dissertation – California Polytechnic State University (Fall 2010).
“Can’t change caste, SC to college student,” The Times of India (1 December 2007).
Graham Allan & Rebecca G. Adams, Placing Friendship in Context, Cambridge University Press (1998).
Graham Allan, “Friendship, sociology and social structure,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 15: 685–702 (1998).
“An hereditary meritocracy,” The Economist (24 January 2015).
“Smart enough to know better: intelligence is not a remedy for racism,” Phys.org (11 August 2013).
The Sinking of the Titanic
Titanic sinking illustration courtesy of Willy Stöwer.
Mike Savage, “A new model of social class? Findings from the bbc’s great British class survey experiment,” Sociology 47(2): 219–250 (April 2013).
Guy Standing, “The Precariat – the new dangerous class,” Policy Network (24 May 2011).
Paul Kerswill, “Socio-economic class,” in The Routledge Companion to Sociolinguistics, edited by Carmen Llamas & Peter Stockwell, Routledge (2006).
Andrew Sullivan, “What we look up to now,” The New York Times (15 November 1998).
Lynsey Hanley, “Why class won’t go away,” The Guardian (27 September 2016).
Lynsey Hanley, Respectable: The Experience of Class, Allen Lane (2016).
Social Stratification
Dacher Keltner et al, “Power, approach, and inhibition,” Psychological Review 110(2): 265–284 (April 2003).
Susan T. Fiske, “Controlling other people: the impact of power on stereotyping,” American Psychologist 48(6): 621–628 (June 1993).
Janet B. Ruscher & Susan T. Fiske, “Individuating processes in competition: interpersonal versus intergroup,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58(5):832–843 (May 1990).
Steven L. Neuberg & Susan T. Fiske, “Motivational influences on impression formation: outcome dependency, accuracy-driven attention, and individuating processes,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53(3): 431–444 (September 1987).
Ralph Erber & Susan T. Fiske, “Outcome dependency and attention to inconsistent information,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47(4): 709–726 (October 1984).
Dacher Keltner & Robert J. Robinson, “Defending the status quo: power and bias in social conflict,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 23(10): 1066–1077 (October 1997).
Adam D. Galinsky et al, “Power and perspectives not taken,” Psychological Science 17(12): 1068–1074 (December 2006).
Gerben A. van Kleef et al, “Power, distress, and compassion: turning a blind eye to the suffering of others,” Psychological Science 19(12): 1315–1322 (December 2008).
Adam D. Galinsky et al, “Perspective-takers behave more stereotypi-cally,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95(2): 404–419 (August 2008).
Deborah H. Gruenfeld et al, “Power and the objectification of social targets,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95: 111–127 (2008).
Kathleen D. Vohs et al, “The psychological consequences of money,” Science 314(5802): 1154–1156 (17 November 2006).
Jennifer R. Overbeck & Bernadette Park, “Beyond “high” versus “low”: power effects on individuation as a function of the interaction context,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 99: 227–243 (2006).
Cynthia L. Pickett et al, “Getting a cue: The need to belong and enhanced sensitivity to social cues,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30: 1095–1107 (September 2004).
William Douglas, “Uncertainty, information-seeking, and liking during initial interaction,” Western Journal of Speech Communication 54(1): 66–81 (1990).
E.T. Higgins, “Knowledge activation: accessibility, applicability, and salience,” in Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles, Guilford Press (1996).
William B. Gudykunst & Tsukasa Nishida, “Individual and cultural influences on uncertainty reduction,” Communication Monographs 51(1): 23–36 (1984).
William Douglas, “Initial interaction scripts: when knowing is behaving,” Human Communication Research 11(2): 203–211 (December 1984).
E.T. Higgins et al, “The ‘communication game’: goal-directed encoding and cognitive consequences,” Social Cognition 1: 21–37 (1982).
Nicholas Epley et al, “Creating social connection through inferential reproduction: loneliness and perceived agency in gadgets, gods, and greyhounds,” Psychological Science 19(2): 114–120 (February 2008).
Peter H. Kim et al, “Power as an emotional liability: Implications for perceived authenticity and trust after a transgression,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 146(10): 1379-1401 (October 2017).
“Emotions: not for the powerful,” ScienceDaily (4 January 2018).
“Study: money affects children’s behavior, even if they don’t understand its value ,” University of Minnesota (2 December 2015).
Agata Gasslorowska et al, “Money cues increase agency and decrease prosociality among children: early signs of market mode behaviors,” Pscyhological Science (2015).
Group Attitudes Abet Stratification
Kenneth B. Clark & Mamie P. Clark, “Racial identification and preference in Negro children,” The Journal of Negro Education 19(3): 341-350 (Summer 1950).
Curtis W. Branch & Nora Newcombe, “Racial attitude development among young black children as a function of parental attitudes: a longitudinal and cross-sectional study,” Child Development 57: 712-721 (June 1986).
Stratification & Violence
Wendy Wood & Alice H. Eagly, “A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: implications for the origins of sex differences,” Psychological Bulletin 128(5): 699–727 (September 2002).
Joseph A. Vandello & Dov Cohen, “Male honor and female fidelity: implicit cultural scripts that perpetuate domestic violence,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84(5): 997–1010 (May 2003).
Herding Honor
Richard E. Nisbett, “Violence and U.S. regional culture,” American Psychologist 48(4):441–449 (April 1993).
Dov Cohen et al, “Insult, aggression, and the Southern culture of honor: an ‘experimental ethnography’,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70(5): 945–959 (May 1996).
Dov Cohen & Richard E. Nisbett, “Self-protection and the culture of honor: explaining southern violence,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 20(5): 551–567 (October 1994).
Group Affinity
Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations, Sage (2001).
T. Talhelm et al, “Large-scale psychological differences within China explained by rice versus wheat agriculture,” Science 344(6184): 603–608 (9 May 2014).
Joseph Henrich, “Rice, psychology, and innovation,” Science 344(6184): 593–594 (9 May 2014).
Guo-Ming Chen & William J. Starosta Codgell, Foundations of Intercultural Communication, University Press of America (2005).
Myron W. Lustig & Jolene Koester, Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures, Pearson (2009).
Alan Lomax, Folk Song Style And Culture, Transaction Books (1978).
Robert N. Bellah et al, Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life, University of California Press (2007).
Daniel Judah Elazar, American Federalism: A View from the States, Crowell (1972).
Cultural Gender Orientation
Joni Seager, The Penguin Atlas of Women in the World, Penguin Books (2008).
Peter A. Anderson & H. Wang, “Unraveling cultureal cues: dimensions of nonverbal communication across cultures,” in Intercultural Communication: A Reader, edited by L.A. Samovar, Wadsworth (2006).
Takayoshi Kano, “Male rank order and copulation rate in a unit-group of bonobos at Wamba, Zaïre,” in Great Ape Societies, edited by William C. McGrew, 135–145, Cambridge University Press (1996).
“Bonobos will share with strangers before acquaintances,” ScienceDaily (2 January 2013).
Jingzhi Tan & Brian Hare, “Bonobos share with strangers,” PLoS One (2 January 2013).
“Bonobos predisposed to show sensitivity to others,” ScienceDaily (30 January 2013).
Frans de Waal, The Bonobo and the Atheist: In Search of Humanism among the Primates, W.W. Norton & Company (2014).
Zanna Clay & Frans B. M. de Waal, “Development of socio-emotional competence in bonobos,” PNAS 110(45): 18121–18126 (5 November 2013).
Zanna Clay & Frans B. M. de Waal, “Bonobos respond to distress in others: consolation across the age spectrum,” PLoS One (30 January 2013).
Martin Surbeck & Gottfried Hohmann, “Intersexual dominance relationships and the influence of leverage on the outcome of conflicts in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus),” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67(11): 1767–1780 (November 2013).
Herbert J. Gans, “The uses of poverty: the poor pay all,” Social Policy (July/August 1971).
Social Stability – India & Pakistan
Paul R. Brass, “The partition of India and retributive genocide in the Punjab, 1946–47: means, methods, and purposes,” Journal of Genocide Research 5(1): 71–101 (2003).
The Amish
William I. Schreiber, Our Amish Neighbors, The University of Chicago Press (1962).
Steven M Nolt, A History of the Amish, Good Books (2004).
Charles E. Hurst & David L. McConnell, An Amish Paradox: Diversity and Change in the World’s Largest Amish Community, Johns Hopkins University Press (2010).
Donald B. Kraybill et al, Amish Grace: How Forgiveness Transcended Tragedy, Jossey-Bass (2012).
“Fatal shooting at US Amish school,” BBC News (3 October 2006).
“A lesson of forgiveness,” ABC News (2 October 2007).
In Money We Trust
Gabriele Camera et al, “Money and trust among strangers,” PNAS (26 August 2013).
Ian Morris, War! What Is It Good For?, Farrar, Straus and Giroux (2014).
John Keegan, A History of Warfare, Alfred A. Knopf (1993).
Anthony Stevens, The Roots of War and Terror, Continuum (2004).
Alessandro Dal Lago & Salvatore Palidda, Conflict, Security and the Reshaping of Society: The Civilization of War, Routledge (2010).
Scott Atran & Jeremy Ginges, “Religious and sacred imperatives in human conflict,” Science 336: 855-856 (18 May 2012).
Matthew Hutson, “Seeds of destruction,” Scientific American Mind 22(4): 13 (September/October 2011).
The US Invasion of Afghanistan
James Glanz & Richard A. Oppel Jr., “Panel questions State Dept. role in Iraq oil deal,” The New York Times (3 July 2008).
Philip Sherwell, “Osama bin Laden killed: behind the scenes of the deadly raid,” The Telegraph (7 May 20111).
Ken Dilanian, “CIA led U.S. special forces mission against Osama bin Laden,” Los Angeles Times (2 May 2011).
Mark Johnson, Morality for Humans, University of Chicago Press (2014).
Jonathan Haidt & Selin Kesebir, “Morality,” in Handbook of Social Psychology, John Wiley & Sons (2010).
Elizabeth Landau, “Morality: it’s not just for humans,” CNN (19 January 2013).
James R. Anderson et al, “Third-party social evaluations of humans by monkeys and dogs,” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (7 January 2017).
Bob Yirka “Experiments suggest dogs and monkeys have a human-like sense of morality,” Phys.org (15 February 2017).
J. Kiley Hamlin et al, “Three-month-olds show a negativity bias in their social evaluations,” Developmental Science 13(6): 923–929 (November 2010).
Guillermo P. Murphy & Susan A. Dudley, “Kin recognition: competition and cooperation in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae),” American Journal of Botany 96(11) (November 2009).
Meghan A. Duffy, “It helps to be well connected,” Science 344(6189): 1229–1230 (13 June 2014).
Qiang He et al, “Global shifts towards positive species interactions with increasing environmental stress,” Ecology Letters (30 January 2013).
Kurt Gray et al, “Mind perception is the essence of morality,” Psychological Inquiry 23: 101-124 (2012).
Molly J. Crockett et al, “Harm to others outweighs harm to self in moral decision making,” PNAS (17 November 2014).
Molly J. Crockett, “Behind the scenes of a ‘shocking’ new study on human altruism,” The Guardian (22 November 2014).
Geoffrey P. Goodwin et al, “Moral character predominates in person perception and evaluation,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 106(1): 148–168 (January 2014).
Jesse Graham, “Morality beyond the lab,” Science 345(6202): 1242 (12 September 2014).
Nicholas Epley & David Dunning, “Feeling “holier than thou”: Are self-serving assessments produced by errors in self- or social prediction?,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79(6): 861–875 (December 2000).
Wilhelm Hofmann et al, “Morality in everyday life,” Science 345(6202): 1340–1343 (12 September 2014).
Jim A.C. Everett et al, “Inference of trustworthiness from intuitive moral judgments,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145(6): 772-787 (2016).
Clayton R. Critcher et al, “How quick decisions illuminate moral character,” Social Psychological and Personality Science (28 August 2012).
Eric Luis Uhlmann et al, “When it takes a bad person to do the right thing,” Cognition 126(2): 326-334 (February 2013).
Development of Morality
L. Kohlberg, “The claim to moral adequacy of a highest stage of moral judgment,” Journal of Philosophy 70(18): 630–646 (25 October 1973).
Kendra Cherry, “Kohlberg’s theory of moral development,” VeryWell (5 September 2016).
Saul McLeod, “Kohlberg – moral development,” Simply Psychology (2013).
Carol Gilligan, “In a different voice: women’s conceptions of self and of morality,” Harvard Educational Review 47(4): 481-517 (1977).
Carol Gilligan, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development, Harvard University Press (1982).
Robert N. Barger, “A summary of Lawrence Kohlberg’s stages of moral development,” University of Notre Dame (2000).
J. Snarey & P. Samuelson, “Moral education in the cognitive developmental tradition,” in Handbook of Moral and Character Education Routledge (2008).
The Evolution of Human Morality
Richard Gray, “Animals can tell right from wrong,” The Telegraph (23 May 2009).
Ian Morris, “Morality is rooted in the way societies get their energy,” New Scientist (20 April 2015).
“‘Snot fair!,” The Economist (21 June 2012).
“Moral evaluations of harm are instant and emotional,” ScienceDaily (28 November 2012).
Jean Decety & Stephanie Cacioppo, “The speed of morality: a high-density electrical neuroimaging study,” Journal of Neurophysiology 108: 3068–3072 (5 September 2012).
Jay J. Van Bavel et al, “The importance of moral construal: moral versus non-moral construal elicits faster, more extreme, universal evaluations of the same actions,” PLoS One (28 November 2012).
Alain Cohn et al, “Business culture and dishonesty in the banking industry,” Nature (19 November 2014).
“Lying, cheating bankers,” The Economist (22 November 2014).
“What wealth does to your soul,” The Week (31 December 2014).
Moral Reasoning
Jonathan Haidt, “The emotional dog and its rational tail: a social intuitionist approach to moral judgment,” Psychological Review 108(4): 814–834 (2001).
“Moral judgments quicker, more extreme than practical ones, but also flexible,” ScienceDaily (28 November 2012).
Lars Hall et al, “Lifting the veil of morality: choice blindness and attitude reversals on a self-transforming survey,” PLoS One 7(9): e45457 (September 2012).
Zoë Corbyn, “How to confuse a moral compass,” Nature (19 September 2012).
Albert Costa et al, “Your morals depend on language,” PLoS One 9(4): e94842 (April 2014).
Joshua Rust & Eric Schwitzgebel, “Ethicists’ and nonethicists’ responsiveness to student e-mails: relationships among expressed normative attitude, self-described behavior, and empirically observed behavior,” Metaphilosophy 44(3): 350–371 (April 2013).
Andrea Anderson, “Dirty money appeals more to the righteous, Scientific American Mind 24(5): 13 (November/December 2013).
Cultural Morality
“When good people do bad things: being in a group makes some people lose touch with their personal moral beliefs,” ScienceDaily (12 June 2014).
“Wearing two different hats: moral decisions may depend on the situation,” ScienceDaily (23 May 2012).
M. Cikara et al, “Reduced self-referential neuralresponse during intergroup competition predicts competitor harm,” NeuroImage 96: 36–43 (1 August 2014).
Thomas Shultz et al, “Why is ethnocentrism more common than humanitarianism?,” Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (2009).
Artem Kaznatcheev, “Robustness of ethnocentrism to changes in interpersonal interactions,” Complex Adaptive Systems – AAAI Fall Symposium (March 2010).
Alexander Haslam & Stephen Reicher, “Just obeying orders? Rethinking obedience and atrocity,” New Scientist (12 September 2014).
Cards & Culture
William Vitka, “Poker’s popularity surging,” CBS News (25 December 2004).
Lee Davy, “The popularity of poker is receding,” Calvin Ayre.com (4 March 2013).
Political Morality
Jonathan Haidt & Jesse Graham, “When morality opposes justice: conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize,” Social Justice Research (2006).
John T. Jost et al, “Political conservatism as motivated social cognition,” Psychological Bulletin 129(3): 339–375 (2003).
Jim Rutenberg et al, “At Fox News, kisses, innuendo, propositions and fears of reprisal,” The New York Times (24 July 2016).
Alan Yuhas, “Roger Ailes accused in new harassment claim of proposing ‘sexual alliance’,” The Guardian (9 August 2016).
“Roger Ailes: kingmaker no more,” The Economist (23 July 2016).
Jane Hall, “The world Roger Ailes created,” The New York Times (22 July 2016).
John Koblin & Michael M. Grynbaum, “Fox News, in naming leaders, sends signal: ‘stay the course’,” The New York Times (12 August 2016).
Michael M. Grynbaum et al, “Harassment crisis builds at Fox News, despite its swift response,” The New York Times (10 August 2016).
Paul Farhi, “Fox News confronts (but just barely) a scandal in its own house,” The Washington Post (14 August 2016).
“Rupert Murdoch’s phone-hacking scandal: a timeline,” The Week (4 April 2012).
Amy Qin, “Fraud scandals sap China’s dream of becoming a science superpower,” The New York Times (13 October 2017).
‘Deeply shameful’: 258 runners caught cheating in Shenzhen’s half marathon,” The Guardian (29 November 2018).
Christina Boyle, “British phone-hacking scandal was a low point for Rupert Murdoch,” Los Angeles Times (11 June 2015).
Simon Gachter & Jonathan F. Schulz, “Intrinsic honesty and the prevalence of rule violations across societies,” Nature (9 March 2016).
Shaul Shalvi, “Corruption corrupts,” Nature (9 March 2016).
The Collective
C. Daryl Cameron et al, “Empathy is hard work: People choose to avoid empathy because of its cognitive costs.,” Journal of Experimental Psychology (18 April 2019).
“Empathy often avoided because of mental effor,” ScienceDaily (22 April 2019).
Catherine Saint Louis, “Rise in infant drug dependence is felt most in rural areas,” The New York Times (12 December 2016).
Bruce Bower, “Long-lasting mental health isn’t normal,” Science News (7 February 2017).
Molly Worthen, “The evangelical roots of our post-truth society,” The New York Times (13 April 2017).
Jeremy Sherman, “Magical thinking is really common in contemporary society—that’s a serious problem,” Alternet (27 April 2018).
David N. Rapp, “The consequences of reading inaccurate information,” Current Directions in Psychological Science (10 August 2016).
Thomas Mussweiler & Fritz Strack, “The use of category and exemplar knowledge in the solution of anchoring tasks,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78(6): 1038-1052 (2000).
Social Media
Hannah Natanson, “Yes, teens are texting and using social media instead of reading books, researchers say,” The Washington Post (20 August 2018).
Jean M. Twenge, iGen: Why Today’s Super-Connected Kids Are Growing Up Less Rebellious, More Tolerant, Less Happy – and Completely Unprepared for Adulthood – and What That Means for the Rest of Us, Atria Books (2017).
“WhatsApp: Mark Zuckerberg’s other headache,” The Economist (27 January 2018).
“Teens post online content to appear interesting, popular and attractive,” ScienceDaily (16 February 2018).
George Soros, “Remarks delivered at the World Economic Forum,” GeorgeSoros.com (25 January 2018).
James Vincent, “Former Facebook exec says social media is ripping apart society,” The Verge (11 December 2017).
Julia Carrie Wong, “Former Facebook executive: social media is ripping society apart,” The Guardian (12 December 2017).
Sheera Frenkel & Katie Benner, “To stir discord in 2016, Russians turned most often to Facebook,” The New York Times (17 February 2018).
“Once considered a boon to democracy, social media have started to look like its nemesis,” The Economist (4 November 2017).
Lev Muchnik et al, “Social influence bias: a randomized experiment,” Science (9 August 2013).
Adam D. I. Kramer et al, “Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks,” PNAS (22 July 2014).
Joachim Mathiesen et al, “Excitable human dynamics driven by extrinsic events in massive communities,” PNAS (10 October 2013).
Ethan Kross et al, “Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults,” PLoS One (14 August 2013).
“Information technology amplifies irrational group behavior,” ScienceDaily (11 April 2013).
Pelle G. Hansen et al, “Infostorms,” Metaphilosophy (3 April 2013).
Aline Vater et al, “Does a narcissism epidemic exist in modern western societies? Comparing narcissism and self-esteem in East and West Germany,” PLoS One (24 January 2018).
“Do western societies promote narcissism?,” ScienceDaily (25 January 2018).
Kali Holloway, “Trump isn’t crazy, he’s just a terrible person: leading psychiatrist,” Alternet (21 January 2018).
Emily Grijalva et al, “Gender differences in narcissism: a meta-analytic review,” Psychological Bulletin 141(2): 261-310 (March 2015).
“Study: men tend to be more narcissistic than women,” University of Buffalo (4 March 2015).
Jeffrey Kluger, “Why men are more narcissistic than women,” Time (5 March 2015).
Emma G. Fitzsimmons, “A scourge is spreading. M.T.A.’S cure? Dude, close your legs.,” The New York Times (20 December 2014).
Matthew Hutson, “The two faces of narcissism,” Scientific American Mind 26(3): 15 (May/June 2015).
Narcissism on Tour
“Millennials admit to being narcissists, but don’t you dare call them that,” ScienceDaily (24 March 2016).
Doreen Carvajal, “In tourist destinations, a picture of excess,” The New York Times (11 July 2015).
Brian Bevilacqua, “Violence is our plague,” The Massachusetts Daily Collegian (28 October 2013).
“Road rage rampant,” The Week (5 August 2016).
Teddy Wayne, “Clicking their way to outrage,” The New York Times (3 July 2014).
Rui Fan et al, “Anger is more influential than joy: sentiment correlation in Weibo,” arXiv:1309.2402v1 (10 September 2013).
Ryan C. Martin et al, “Anger on the Internet: the perceived value of rant-sites,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 16(2): 119-122 (2013).
Eliyahu Federman, “United Airlines is innocent,” Fox News (11 April 2017).
American Terror
Michael Cohen, “America rots from the inside, while overreacting to threats from outside,” The Guardian (25 July 2012).
Julia Jones & Eve Bower, “American deaths in terrorism vs. gun violence in one graph,” CNN (30 December 2015).
Domenico Montanaro, “Here’s just how little confidence Americans have in political institutions,” NPR (17 January 2018).
Roxanne Roberts, “We live in uncivil times. Two former White House social secretaries offer a cure,” The Washington Post (17 January 2018).
Nathan Gardels, “The world is returning to pluralism after American hegemony, says German philosopher,” The Washington Post (17 January 2018).
Julian Borger, “World’s confidence in US leadership under Trump at new low, poll finds,” The Guardian (18 January 2018).
Robert Mai & Stefan Hoffmann, “How to combat the unhealthy = tasty intuition: the influencing role of health consciousness,” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 34(1): 63-83 (Spring 2015).
Robert Mai & Stefan Hoffmann, “Taste lovers versus nutrition fact seekers: How health consciousness and self-efficacy determine the way consumers choose food products,” Journal of Consumer Behaviour (10 July 2012).
“Health consciousness: do consumers believe healthy food always tastes bad?,” Phys.org (21 January 2015).
“Highly processed foods dominate U. S. grocery purchases,” ScienceDaily (29 March 2015).
Philip B. Maffetone et al, “Overfat and underfat: new terms and definitions long overdue,” Frontiers in Public Health (3 January 2017).
David S. Ludwig & Kenneth S. Rogoff, “The toll of America’s obesity,” The New York Times (9 August 2018).
“Deeper than obesity: A majority of people is now overfat,” ScienceDaily (3 January 2017).
Craig M. Hales et al, “Trends in obesity and severe obesity prevalence in US youth and adults by sex and age, 2007-2008 to 2015-2016,” JAMA (23 March 2018).
Matt Richtel & Andrew Jacobs, “American adults just keep getting fatter,” The New York Times (23 March 2018).
Nicola Slawson, “Eight in 10 middle-aged Britons ‘are overweight or exercise too little’,” The Guardian (28 December 2016).
Ying-xiu Zhang et al, “Trends in overweight and obesity among rural children and adolescents from 1985 to 2014 in Shandong, China,” European Journal of Preventive Cardiology (26 April 2016).
“China pays price of western lifestyle with soaring childhood obesity,” ScienceDaily (26 April 2016).
“Obesity: chubby little emperors,” The Economist (14 June 2014).
“Diabetes, obesity more common in socioeconomically deprived regions,” ScienceDaily (28 February 2014).
Sarah Nassauer, “When the box says ‘protein’, shoppers say ‘I’ll take it’,” The Wall Street Journal (26 March 2013).
Laura Beil, “Typical American diet can damage immune system,” Science News (18 May 2015).
Ishi Nobu, Spokes of the Wheel 4: The Ecology of Humans (2018).
“Global status report on alcohol and health 2014,” Whold Health Organization (2014).
Sandi Doughton, “Global cigarette consumption, number of smokers climbing,” The Seattle Times (8 January 2014).
Matt Richtel, “More than 10 percent of world’s population is obese, study finds,” The New York Times (12 June 2017).
Frank Newport, “In U.S., 5% consider themselves vegetarians,” Gallup (26 July 2012).
Anna-Louise Taylor, “Rise of the ‘semi-vegetarians’,” BBC (25 August 2012).
“Obesity and overweight, fact sheet N°311,” World Health Organization (January 2015).
Christopher J.L. Murray & Marie Ng, ” Nearly one-third of the world’s population is obese or overweight, new data show,” IHME (2015).
Marie Ng et al, “Global, regional, and national prevalence of over-weight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013,” The Lancet 385(9945): 766–781 (30 August 2014).
“Report: health of U.S. workforce declining,” Society for Human Resource Management (1 October 2009).
Julie Jargon, “At McDonald’s, salads just don’t sell,” The Wall Street Journal (18 October 2013).
Lisa Farrell et al, “The socioeconomic gradient in physical inactivity: Evidence from one million adults in England,” Social Science & Medicine 123: 55-63 (December 2014).
Jamie Doward, “Nation’s exercise levels ‘shockingly low’,” The Observer (10 August 2013).
“Study reveals extent of physical inactivity disparities in England,” University of Bristol (1 August 2013).
Deborah Netburn, “Obesity: we’re not overeating, we’re under-exercising, study suggests,” Los Angeles Times (08 July 2014).
NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, “Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants,” The Lancet 387: 1377-1396 (2 April 2016).
“There are more obese people in the world than underweight people, new study reveals,” Nature World News (3 April 2016).
Sarah Boseley, “World hunger on the rise as 820m at risk, UN report finds,” The Guardian (15 July 2019).
Mental Health
Sophie Kevany, “Mental health disorders on rise among children,” (22 November 2018).
Edmund S. Higgins, “Is mental health declining?,” Scientific American Mind (January/February 2017).
Carrie Gann, “Study shows more mental illness, but decline in getting help,” ABC News (23 September 2011).
“Inside a killer drug epidemic: a look at America’s opiod crisis,” The New York Times (6 January 2017).
Gillian Mohney, “Premature deaths rise in US as opioid epidemic worsens, report finds,” ABC News (29 March 2017).
Robert Gebelhoff, “The opioid epidemic could turn into a pandemic if we’re not careful,” The Washington Post (9 February 2017).
Sean X. Luo, “A hidden force of habit,” Scientific American Mind (January/February 2017).
Lynn O’Shaughnessy, “College freshmen’s mental health hits new low,” CBS MoneyWatch (6 February 2015).
Jean Twenge, “Why it matters that teens are reading less,” The Conversation (20 August 2018).
Holly Lennon, “In numbers: young Scots’ declining mental health,” The Scotsman (27 October 2015).
Silvia S. Martins & Lilian A. Ghandour, “Nonmedical use of prescription drugs in adolescents and young adults: not just a Western phenomenon,” World Psychiatry (26 January 2017).
“Mental health declining in American teenagers,” Medical Life Sciences News (28 June 2005).
Humankind in Decline
“More than 50% of Americans now have at least one chronic health condition, mental disorder or substance-use issue,” ScienceDaily (25 October 2016).
Elizabeth Reisinger Walker & Benjamin G. Druss, “Cumulative burden of comorbid mental disorders, substance use disorders, chronic medical conditions, and poverty on health among adults in the U.S.A.,” Psychology, Health & Medicine (3 September 2016).
Constantina Theofanopoulou et al, “Self-domestication in Homo sapiens: Insights from comparative genomics,” PLoS One (18 October 2017).
“Did humans domesticate themselves?,” ScienceDaily (15 February 2018).
Simon Gottschalk, “The infatilization of Western culture,” The Conversation (1 August 2018).
“Life expectancy in American has declined for two years in a row,” The Economist (4 January 2018).
Gerald R. Crabtree, “Our fragile intellect. Part I,” Trends in Genetics, 29(1): 1–3 (13 November 2012).
Gerald R. Crabtree, “Our fragile intellect. Part II,” Trends in Genetics, 29(1): 3–5 (13 November 2012).
“Globally, 1.4 billion adults at risk of disease from not doing enough physical activity,” Medical Xpress (5 September 2018).
Regina Guthold et al, “Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants,” The Lancet Global Health (4 September 2018).
Ian J. Dreary et al, “Outsmarting mortality,” Scientific American Mind 22(3): 49-55 (July/August 2011).
Dhaval M. Dave & Jose M. Fernandez, “Rising autism prevalence: real or displacing other mental disorders? Evidence from demand for auxiliary healthcare workers in California,” Economic Inquiry (25 August 2014).
Associate Press, “Uptick in US pedestrian deaths could be linked to cellphone use, researchers say,” The Guardian (30 March 2017).
Keith E. Stanovich, “Why do people discard scientific rigor in favor of someone’s opinion?,” Scientific American Mind 25(6): 72 (November/December 2015).
Daniel Loxton, “Is there a rising tide of irrationality?,” The Guardian (15 November 2012).
Sarah Boseley, “World in mental health crisis of ‘monumental suffering’, say experts,” The Guardian (9 October 2018).
Jean Twenge, “The mental health crisis among America’s youth is real – and staggering,” The Conversation (14 March 2019).
Haroon Siddique, “Mental health disorders on rise among children,” The Guardian (22 November 2018).
Denis Campbell, “One in three young people have mental health troubles, survey finds,” The Guardian (18 October 2018).
Denis Campbell, “Mental health issues in young people up sixfold in England since 1995,” The Guardian (11 September 2018).
Dominic Johnson, God Is Watching You: How the Fear of God Makes Us Human, Oxford University Press (2015).
“Most atheists believe in the supernatural, despite trusting science,” New Scientist (30 May 2019).
Public Knowledge
“What Americans know about science,” ScienceDaily (28 March 2019).
Rhett Allain, “Can forces be transferred?,” Wired (21 October 2014).
Andrew Shtulman, Scienceblind: Why Our Intuitive Theories About the World Are So Often Wrong, Basic Books (2017).
“Students have trouble judging the credibility of information online, researchers find,” ScienceDaily (23 November 2016).
Sam Wineburg et al, “Evaluating information: the cornerstone of civic online reasoning,” Stanford University Education Group (2016).
Andrew Shtulman & Kelsey Harrington, “Tensions between science and intuition across the lifespan,” Topics in Cognitive Science (27 November 2015).
Lizzie Wade, “Beliefs in aliens, Atlantis are on the rise,” Science 364(6436): 110-111 (12 April 2019).
Graham Lawton, “Folk knowledge,” New Scientist (13 December 2017).
Deborah Zaitchik & Gregg E.A. Solomon, “Animist thinking in the elderly and in patients with Alzheimer’s disease,” Cognitive Neuropsychology 25(1): 27-37 (2008).
William R.L. Anderegg & Gregory R. Goldsmith, “Public interest in climate change over the past decade and the effects of the ‘climategate’ media event,” Environmental Research Letters (20 May 2014).
Jenna Iacurci, “Climate change: a ‘fleeting’ fad among the public,” Nature World News (21 May 2014).
Adam Corner, “Climate science: why the world won’t listen,” New Scientist (23 September 2013).
Owen Bowcott, “Climate change concern declines in poll,” The Guardian (23 May 2010).
National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators, National Science Foundation (2014).
Carter T. Butts, “Why I know but don’t believe,” Science 354(6310): 286-287 (21 October 2016).
Anna Quigley et al, “Public attitudes to science 2014,” Ipsos MORI (14 March 2014).
Alice Bell, “How to read the latest data on public attitudes to science,” The Guardian (14 March 2014).
Eoin Lettice, “Survey suggests half of EU citizens believe scientists are ‘dangerous’,” The Guardian (24 March 2010).
Brian Stallard, “Too many Americans think the earth is the center of our solar system,” Nature World News (9 March 2015).
Cary Funk, “How much does science knowledge influence people’s views on climate change and energy issues?,” Pew Research Center (22 March 2017).
Tia Ghose, “4 in 10 Americans believe God created earth 10,000 years ago,” LiveScience (5 June 2014).
Frank Newport, “In U.S., 46% hold creationist view of human origins,” Gallup (1 June 2012).
“Public views on human evolution,” Pew Research Center (30 December 2013).
Michael Goyanes, “An empirical study of factors that influence the willingness to pay for online news,” Journalism Practice (11 February 2014).
“Knowledge or entertainment: Which would you pay for?,” ScienceDaily (30 May 2014).
“Most atheists believe in the supernatural, despite trusting science,” New Scientist (30 May 2019).

Parallel postulate diagram courtesy of Harkonnen2.
Henry A. Murray
James William Anderson, “Henry A. Murray’s early career: a psychobiographical exploration,” Journal of Personality (March 1988).
Charles D. Laughlin Jr., “Discussion: The influence of Whitehead’s organism upon Murray’s personology,” The History of Behavioral Sciences (July 1973).
Alston Chase, “Harvard and the making of the Unabomber,” The Atlantic (June 2000). A.