Spokes 6: Notes

Spokes 6: The Fruits of Civilization   Research References   (Table of Contents)

Common knowledge for Spokes obtained from various encyclopedias and dictionaries, including Encyclopedia Britannica, Everipedia, New World Encyclopedia, Wikipedia, World Book Encyclopedia, Scholarpedia, Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary, Dictionary.com, and a plethora of Internet sites. (General information found on the Internet is cross-checked for veracity.)

Bradley J. Cardinale et al, “Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity,” Nature 486: 59–67 (7 June 2012).
A.S. MacDougall et al, “Diversity loss with persistent human disturbance increases vulnerability to ecosystem collapse,” Nature 494: 86–89 (7 February 2013).
Dakota M. Spear et al, “Asteraceae pollen provisions Protect Osmia mason bees (hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from brood parasitism,” The American Naturalist (6 April 2016).

Patricia S. Daniels & Stephen G. Hyslop, Almanac of World History, National Geographic (2003).
Neil Kagan (editor), Concise History of the World, National Geographic (2006).
Klaus Berndl et al, Visual History of the World, National Geographic (2005).
Edward McNall Burns, Western Civilizations, W.W. Norton & Company (1963).
Albert M. Craig et al, The Heritage of World Civilizations, Prentice Hall (2007).
Philip J. Alder, World Civilizations, West Publishing Company (1996).
John M. Roberts, History of the World, Oxford University Press (1993).
William H. McNeill, A World History, Oxford University Press (1967).
Arnold J. Toynbee, A Study of History, Oxford University Press (1962).
Will & Ariel Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster (1950).
Trevor I. Williams, A History of Invention, Checkmark Books (2004).
Robert C. Scharff & Val Dusek (editors), Philosophy of Technology, John Wiley & Sons (2014).
Susan Hitchcock (editor), Science of Everything, National Geographic (2013).
Peter James & Nick Thorpe, Ancient Inventions, Random House (1994).
John Brockman, The Greatest Inventions of the Past 2000 Years, Phoenix (2001).
Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought: The History and Future of Mind-Expanding Technology, The MIT Press (2000).
Robert C. Scharff & Val Dusek (editors), Philosophy of Technology, Wiley Blackwell (2014).
Julian Birkinshaw, “Why corporate giants fail to change,” Fortune (8 May 2013).
Washington Post Staff, “The history of the mobile phone,” The Washington Post (9 September 2014).
“5 major moments in cellphone history,” CBC News (3 April 2015).
WebdesignerDepot staff, “The evolution of cell phone design between 1983 – 2009,” WebdesignerDepot (22 May 2009).
Alexandra Chang, “5 reasons why Nokia lost its handset sales lead and got downgraded to ‘junk’,” Wired (27 April 2012).
Sam Grobart, “How Samsung became the world’s No. 1 smartphone maker,” Bloomberg (2016).
Patrick Greenfield, “Apple apolgises for slowing down older iPhones,” The Guardian (29 December 2017).
Paul Thorrott, “Analysis: Microsoft is scaling back on Windows phone dramatically,” Thorrot (8 July 2015).
Zach Epstein, “Microsoft CEO tries to convince the world that Windows phone’s failure doesn’t matter,” BGR (31 December 2015).
Brian S. Hall, “The real reason Windows phone is failing,” Readwrite (4 April 2013).
Joe Wilcox, “The measure of Windows phone’s failure is…,” Betanews (2013).
Enrica N. Ruggs et al, “Weight isn’t selling: the insidious effects of weight stigmatization in retail settings,” Applied Psychology 100(5): 1483–1496 (September 2015).
Heat Engines
Robert Henry Thurston, A History of the Growth of the Steam-Engine, D. Appleton and Company (1886).
“Average operating heat rate for selected energy sources,” US Energy Information Administration (2014).
Internal Combustion Engines
Nick Georgano (editor), The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile, Routledge (2000).
Stan Augarten, Bit by Bit, Tichnor & Fields (1984).
George Ifrah, The Universal History of Computing, John Wiley & Sons (2001).
Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought, MIT Press (2000).
George Dyson, Turing’s Cathedral, Pantheon Books (2012).
Ron White, How Computers Work, Que (2015).
Personal Computers
Paul Frieberger, Fire in the Valley, Osborne/McGraw-Hill (1984).
Ted Nelson, Geeks Bearing Gifts, Mindful Press (2009).
Daniel Ichbiah & Susan Knepper, The Making of Microsoft, Prima Lifestyles (1991).
Apple Computer
Original Macintosh computer photo courtesy of w:User:Grm wnr.
“Does Apple’s boss have a Plan B in China?,” The Economist (30 May 2019).
Kathleen Burton, “Anatomy of a Colossus, Part II,” PC Magazine (February 1983).
Martyn Williams & Paul Kallender, “China’s Lenovo to buy IBM’s PC business,” InfoWorld (7 December 2004).
Bill Synder, “IBM says bye-bye to hardware and hello to the cloud,” InfoWorld (25 February 2015).
Edsger W. Dijkstra, “Go to statement considered harmful,” Communications of the ACM 11(3): 147–148 (March 1968).
Clive Thompson, Coders: The Making of a New Tribe and the Remaking of the World, Penguin Press (2019)
Noam Cohen, Silicon Valley is not your friend,” The New York Times (13 October 2017).
Software History
Donald E. Knuth, “Structured programming with go to statements,” Computing Surveys 6(4): 261–301 (1974).
Object Orientation
Ann L. Winblad et al, Object-Oriented Software, Addison-Wesley (1990).
Margaret A. Ellis & Bjarne Stroustrup, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual, AT&T (1990).
Stephen C. Dewhurst & Kathy T. Stark, Programming in C++, Prentice-Hall (1989).
Mark D. Gerl, “As easy as A, B, OOPC?,” MacTech (January 1993).
Sonya E. Keene, Object-Oriented Programming in Common Lisp, Addison-Wesley (1989).
Andreas Paepcke, Object-Oriented Progamming – The CLOS Perspective, MIT Press (1993).
Gary Odom, “Comparing C-based object systems,” MacTech (November 1992).
The Internet
James Gillies & Robert Cailliau, how the web was born, Oxford University Press (2000).
Stephen Bryant, The Story of the Internet, Pearson Education (2000).
Katie Hafner & Matthew Lyon, Where Wizards Stay Up Late, Simon & Schuster (1996).
John S. Quarterman & Smoot Carl-Mitchell, The Internet Connection, Addison-Wesley (1994).
“From diggers to data centres,” The Economist (2 January 2016).
“Internet world stats,” http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm (2017).
World Wide Web
Dave Raggett et al, “Raggett on HTML,” Addison Wesley Longman (1998).
Tim Berners-Lee, “Information management: a proposal,” (May 1990).
Donelle Gan, “May 26, 1995: Gates, Microsoft Jump on ‘Internet Tidal Wave’,” Wired (26 May 2010).
Adobe Flash
Peter Bright, “Adobe ending Flash support at the end of 2020,” Ars Technica (25 July 2017).
Peter Bright, “Chrome 69 will take the next step to killing Flash, roll out new design,” Ars Technica (21 August 2018).
“Adobe updates Flash amid renewed exploit fear,” Phys.org (28 December 2015).
Steve Jobs, “Thoughts on Flash,” HotNews on Apple.com (10 April 2010).
John Sullivan, “Pot, meet kettle: a response to Steve Jobs’ letter on Flash,” Ars Technica (30 April 2010).
Terri Stone, “Creative suite pricing varies throughout world,” Creative-Pro.com (8 May 2007).
John Hock, “Adobe ate me baby!!,” John Hock on Adobe (28 December 2007).
Mike Masnick, “Adobe spying on its customers,” TechDirt (28 December 2007).
Edd Bott, “Adobe and Skype top my Foistware Hall of Shame,” The Ed Bott Report (28 April 2011).
Bill Brenner, “That was stupid, Adobe,” CSO (14 May 2012).
Thomas Brewster, “Adobe backtracks on patching ‘PR disaster’,” TechWeek Europe (14 May 2012).
Luke Hopewell, “Don’t believe the Adobe price cut hype, it’s still gouging you silly,” Gizmodo Australia (13 February 2013).
Ben Grubb, “Adobe has its head in the clouds over pricing,” The Age – Digital Life (15 February 2013).
David Kocieniewski, “Adobe announces security breach,” The New York Times (3 October 2013).
“Adobe in source code and customer data security breach,” BBC News (4 October 2013).
Woody Leonhard, “Adobe fesses up to hack but fudges on details,” InfoWorld (4 October 2013).
Barb Darrow, “Ruh-roh: Adobe breach is just the beginning, researcher says,” Gigaom Research (7 October 2013).
Jeremy Kirk, “Adobe’s source code was parked on hackers’ unprotected server,” PC World (11 October 2013).
Rachel King, “Adobe security breach actually affected closer to 38 million users,” ZDNet (29 October 2013).
“Adobe hack: at least 38 million accounts breached,” BBC News (30 October 2013).
Gareth Halfacree, “Adobe data breach far worse than first claimed,” Bit-Tech (5 November 2013).
Jim Finkle, “Trove of Adobe user data found on Web after breach: security firm,” Reuters (7 November 2013).
Mark Bowden, “The worm that nearly ate the Internet,” The New York Times (29 June 2019).
Steven Aftergood, “Governments want your smart devices to have stupid security flaws,” Nature (28 August 2018).
Hayley Tsukayama, “On a Mac running High Sierra? Update now,” The Washington Post (29 November 2017).
Craig Timberg, “A flaw in the design,” The Washington Post (30 May 2015).
“A third of the Internet is under attack,” ScienceDaily (1 November 2017).
Michael E. Whitman & Herbert J. Mattord, Principles of Information Security, Course Technology (2014).
Gary McGraw, Software Security: Building Security In, Addison-Wesley (2006).
Jason Grembi, Secure Software Development: A Security Programmer’s Guide, Delmar Cengage Learning (2008).
Matt Bishop, Computer Security: Art and Science, Addison-Wesley (2002).
Barry K. Shelton & Chris R. Johnson, “A brief history of encryption,” TechNewsWorld (19 July 2010).
Tony M. Damico, “A brief history of cryptography,” Student Pulse (2009).
Jeremy Kirk, “LogJam is closely related to the FREAK security vulnerability and involves downgrading TLS connections to a weak key,” InfoWorld (20 May 2015).
Timothy B. Lee, “How a grad student trying to build the first botnet brought the Internet to its knees,” The Washington Post (1 November 2013).
Brian X. Chen, “Apple account break-in highlights security weakness,” The New York Times (6 August 2012).
Brendan Sasso, “The NSA Isn’t just spying on us, it’s also undermining internet security,” National Journal (29 April 2014).
Robert Lemos, “More than 80% of mobile apps have encryption flaws, study finds,” eWeek (3 December 2015).
Jacob Aron, “Five ways to rob a bank using the internet,” New Scientist (3 October 2013).
“Oracle says Micros credit card readers hacked,” Phys.org (9 August 2016).
“Cybercrime costs up to $500 bn: study,” Phys.org (22 July 2013).
Dan Tynan, “The state of cyber security: we’re all screwed,” The Guardian (8 August 2016).
“When back doors backfire,” The Economist (2 January 2016).
Neil MacFarquhar, “A Russian cybersleuth battles the ‘Dark Ages’ of the Internet,” The New York Times (10 June 2016).
Nicole Perlroth, “Internet attack spreads, disrupting major websites,” The New York Times (21 October 2016).
Sam Thielman & Chris Johnston, “Major cyber attack disrupts internet service across Europe and US,” The New York Times (22 October 2016).
David E. Sanger & Nicole Perlroth, “A new era of internet attacks powered by everyday devices,” The New York Times (22 October 2016).
Nicky Woolf, “DDoS attack that disrupted internet was largest of its kind in history, experts say,” The Guardian (26 October 2016).
“The hacking epidemic,” The Week (4 November 2016).
“Internet of Things: the web’s Achilles’ heel?,” The Week (4 November 2016).
David Glance, “Is someone really trying to find out if they can destroy the internet?,” The Conversation (4 November 2016).
David Pogue, “What happened to user manuals?,” Scientific American (April 2017).
Technical Support
Kate Murphy, “Why tech support is (purposely) unbearable,” The New York Times (3 July 2016).
Faith in Techology
Brent B. Clark et al, “The technology effect: how perceptions of technology drive excessive optimism,” Journal of Business and Psychology 31(1): 87-102 (March 2016).
“Overconfidence in new technologies can influence decision-making,” ScienceDaily (8 April 2015).

“China’s statistics are bad. Many criticisms of them are worse,” The Economist (7 July 2018).
2015 GDP per capita map courtesy of Rossenne, based upon World Bank data.
Thomas Sowell, Basic Economics, Basic Books (2015).
Thomas Sowell, Economic Facts and Fallacies, Basic Books (2011).
Jeffry A. Frieden, Global Capitalism, W.W. Norton & Company (2006).
E.J. Mishan, Thirteen Persistent Economic Fallacies, Praeger (2009).
Dave E. O’Connor, The Basics of Economics Greenwood Press (2004).
Ha-Joon Change, 23 Things They Don’t Tell You About Capitalism, Bloomsbury Press (2010).
Richard A. Posner, A Failure of Capitalism, Harvard University Press (2009).
Charles H. Ferguson, Predator Nation, Crown Business (2012).
John Cassidy, How Markets Fail, Farrar, Straus and Giroux (2009).
Matt Taibbi, Grifopia, Random House (2010).
Niall Kishtainy et al, The Economics Books, DK (2012).
Donella H. Meadows et al, The Limits to Growth, Potamac Associates (1972).
William Stanley Jevons, Theory of Political Economy (1871).
Martin Ravallion, The Economics of Poverty, Oxford University Press (2016).
“Scientists discover evidence of early human innovation, pushing back evolutionary timeline,” Phys.org (15 March 2018).
William J. Bernstein, The Birth of Plenty, MacGraw-Hill (2004).
Ha-Joon Chang, Economics: The User’s Guide, Bloomsbury Press (2014).
Joyce Appleby, The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism, W.W. Norton & Company (2010).
Jeffry A. Frieden, Global Capitalism, W.W. Norton & Company (2007).
Joshua B. Freeman, Behemoth: A History of the Factory and the Making of the Modern World, W. W. Norton & Company (2018).
Jeff Madrick, Age of Greed, Alfred A. Knopf (2011).
Robert C. Allen, Global Economic History: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press (2011).
Robert J. Samuelson, The Great Inflation and its Aftermath, Random House (2010).
Nathan Nunn & Nancy Qian, “The Columbian exchange: a history of disease, food, and ideas,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 24(2): 163-188 (Spring 2010).
Michael S. Rosenwald, “Columbus brought measles to the New World. It was a disaster for Native Americans.,” The Washington Post (5 May 2019).
The Founding of Economics
Rondo Cameron, A Concise Economic History of The World, Oxford University Press (1993).
Alan Beattie, False Economy: A Surprising Economic History of the World, Riverhead Books (2010).
Ethical Qualms
Jerry Z. Muller, The Mind and the Market: Capitalism in Western Thought, Anchor (2003).
William Ebenstein & Alan O. Ebenstein, Great Political Thinkers, Harcourt Brace (1951).
Stephen King, When the Money Runs Out: The End of Western Affluence, Yale University Press (2013).
“Measuring economies: the trouble with GDP,” The Economist (30 April 2016).
Diane Coyle, GDP: A Brief but Affectionate History, Princeton University (2014).
Nicholas Oulton, “Gauging national performance,” Science 344(6186): 811-812 (23 May 2014).
Ernestine Giesecke, From Seashells to Smart Cards, Heinemann Library (2003).
Christine Desan, Making Money: Coin, Currency and the Coming of Capitalism, Oxford University Press (2015).
Frank W. Elwell, Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change, Au Press (2013).
Nur Balkan-Atli, “One of the earliest centers of obsidian trade: Göllü Dag (Central Anatolia),” in Volume 3 of Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East (May 2009).
Vincent Lannoye, The History of Money for Understanding Economics, Vincent Lannoye (2011).
Felix Martin, Money: The Unauthorized Biography, Alfred A. Knopf (2013).
Catherine Eagleton & Jonathan Williams, Money: A History, British Museum Press (2007).
Glyn Davies, A History of Money: From Ancient Times to the Present Day, University of Wales Press (2002).
Jonathan Williams (editor), Money: A History, St. Martin’s Press (1997).
Jack Weatherford, The History of Money, Crown Publishers (1997).
Niall Ferguson, The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World, Penguin Books (2008).
Christine Desan, Making Money: Coin, Currency, and the Coming of Capitalism, Oxford University Press (2015).
Niall Ferguson, The Cash Nexus, Basic Books (2002).
C.L. Fábri, “The punch-marked coins: a survival of the Indus civilization,” The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 2: 307–318 (April 1935).
“The history of money,” Nova (26 October 1996).
Charles James Jackson, English Goldsmiths and Their Marks, Macmillan and Co. (1905).
Walter Thornbury, Old and New London: Volume 1, Cassell, Petter & Galpin, London (1878).
Andrew Lawler, “Uncovering civilization’s roots,” Science 335 (6070): 790–793 (17 February 2012).
Peter L. Bernstein, Against the Gods, John Wiley & Sons (1996).
“On the origin of specie,” The Economist (18 August 2012).
“The origins of money: means of exchange,” The Economist (14 February 2015).
E. Berger et al, “Smoking gun or smoldering embers? A possible r-process kilonova associated with the short-hard GRB 130603b,” arXiv:1306.3960v1 [astro-ph.HE] (17 June 2013).
“Earth’s gold came from colliding dead stars,” ScienceDaily (17 July 2013).
Waterwheels & Windmills
Roger D. Hansen, “Water wheels,” WaterHistory.org (undated).
Industrial Innovation
Theodore A. Wertime, The Coming of the Age Of Steel, University of Chicago (1962).
Méline Tariff
“Agriculture and demography: the toll of tariffs,” The Economist (16 April 2016).
India Child Labor
Shilpa Kannan, “Child labour: India’s hidden shame,” BBC News (5 February 2014).
Jim Yardley, “Maid’s cries cast light on child labor in India,” The New York Times (4 April 2012).
Simon Denyer, “India slowly confronts epidemic of missing children,” The Washington Post (22 September 2012).
Jillian Ambrose, “Hopes for climate progress falter with coal still king across Asia,” The Guardian (15 June 2019).
Chris Mooney & Brady Dennis, “In blow to climate, coal plants emitted more than ever in 2018,” The Washington Post (25 March 201
Somini Sengupta, “The world needs to quit coal. Why is it so hard?,” The New York Times (24 November 2018).
Zoë Carpenter, “Big Coal is bankrupt. Who will pay to clean up its mess?,” The Nation (22 March 2016).
“W. Va. spill exposes a new risk to water from coal,” Phys.org (18 January 2014).
Michael Corkery, “Regulators fear $1 billion coal cleanup bill,” The New York Times (6 June 2016).
Ottmar Edenhofer, “King Coal and the queen of subsidies,” Science 349(6254): 1286–1287 (18 September 2015).
Suzanne Goldenberg & Helena Bengtsson, “Biggest US coal company funded dozens of groups questioning climate change,” The Guardian (13 June 2016).
“Solar energy: follow the sun,” The Economist (16 April 2016).
Sharon Kelly, “Bosses at world’s most ambitious clean coal plant kept problems secret for years,” The Guardian (2 March 2018).
Darren Samuelsohn, “Billions over budget. Two years after deadline. What’s gone wrong for the ‘clean coal’ project that’s supposed to save an industry?,” Politico (26 May 2015).
“If an electromagnetic pulse took down America’s electricity grid: the disaster that could follow from a ?ash in the sky,” The Economist (13 July 2017).
Nuclear Power
Gregory Jaczko, “I oversaw the U.S. nuclear power industry. Now I think it should be banned.,” The Washington Post (17 May 2019).
“The world relies on Russia to build its nuclear power plants,” The Economist (2 August 2018).
James Mahaffey, Atomic Awakening: A New Look at the History and Future of Nuclear Power, Pegasus (2010).
James Mahaffey, Atomic Accidents, Pegasus Books (2014).
Michael H. Fox, Why We Need Nuclear Power, Oxford University Press (2014).
Helen Caldicott, Nuclear Power Is Not The Answer, The New Press (2006).
Martin Cohen & Andrew McKillop, The Doomsday Machine: The High Price of Nuclear Energy, The World’s Most Dangerous Fuel, Palgrave Macmillan (2012).
Charles D. Ferguson, Nuclear Energy, Oxford University Press (2011).
“Backgrounder on nuclear waste,” United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (April 2015).
“The long term storage of radioactive waste: safety and sustainability,” International Atomic Energy Agency (June 2003).
“Nuclear power: still not viable without subsidies,” Union of Concerned Scientists (February 2011).
“Direct federal financial interventions and subsidies in energy in fiscal year 2013,” US Department of Energy (March 2015).
“Federal electricity subsidies,” United States Government Accountability Office (October 2007).
“Relative subsidies to energy sources: GSI estimates,” International Institute for Sustainable Development (19 April 2010).
Doug Koplow, “Subsidies to nuclear power in the United States,” UNEP Energy Policy Discussion (27 May 2008).
Adam Vaughan, “Westinghouse bankruptcy move casts shadow over world nuclear industry,” The Guardian (29 March 2017).
Diane Cardwell & Jonathan Soble, “Westinghouse files for bankruptcy, in blow to nuclear power,” The New York Times (29 March 2017).
Steven Powell, “Chernobyl, three decades on,” Phys.org (26 April 2016).
“Chernobyl 30 years on: Soviet apocalypse,” The Economist (30 April 2016).
Nuclear Power in Japan
“Nuclear power in Japan,” World Nuclear Association (April 2016).
Mark Willacy, “Japan nuclear companies stacked public meetings,” ABC News (2 October 2011).
Rebecca Smith et al, “Japan plant had troubled history,” The Wall Street Journal (21 March 2011).
Chester Dawson, “Japan plant had earlier alert,” The Wall Street Journal (15 June 2011).
“Fukushima disaster was preventable, study suggests,” ScienceDaily (21 September 2015).
Costas Synolakis & Utku Kânoglu, “The Fukushima accident was preventable,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A (21 September 2015).
Richard Stone, “Near miss at Fukushima is a warning for U.S.,” Science 352(6289): 1039–1040 (27 May 2016).
“Experts link higher incidence of children’s cancer to Fukushima radiation,” Science Alert (12 October 2015).
Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu et al, “An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident,” Environment International 85: 213–228 (December 2015).
“Fukushima water handling ‘sloppy’: nuclear watchdog,” Phys.org (29 August 2013).
“Japan’s nuclear future: don’t look now,” The Economist (20 April 2013).
Norimitsu Onishi & Martin Fackler, “In nuclear crisis, crippling mistrust,” The New York Times (12 June 2011).
Steve Featherstone, “Fukushima: five years later,” Popular Science (March/April 2016).
“Japan reverses its withdrawal from nuclear power,” Haberler.com (13 April 2014).
Eric Lipton, “Offshore oil and gas operators want less regulation, but surprise inspections find serious safety problems,” The New York Times (18 March 2018).
Janis Searles Jones & Philippe Cousteau, “This is the worst oil disaster you’ve never heard of,” The Guardian (28 December 2018).
Jie Jenny Zou, “8 years after Deepwater Horizon explosion, is another disaster waiting to happen?,” NPR (20 April 2018).
“Western Isles: thousands of litres of diesel lost from grounded rig,” The Guardian (11 August 2016).
“U.S. Coast Guard orders energy company to clean up massive 14-year-long oil spill in Gulf of Mexico or face $40,000-a-day fine,” The Washington Post (20 November 2018).
Adam Nagourney et al, “Oil again fouling California coast near site of historic spill,” The New York Times (21 May 2015).
Elaine Landau, Oil Spill!: Disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, Millbrook Press (2011).
Daniel Jacobs, Blowout: The Inside Story of the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Brookings Institution Press (2016).
Richard C. Bishop et al, “Putting a value on injuries to natural assets: the BP oil spill,” Science 356(6335): 253-254 (21 April 2017).
Stephen Testa & James Jacobs, Oil Spills and Gas Leaks: Environmental Response, Prevention and Cost Recovery, McGraw-Hill Education (2014).
Cheryl McMahon Anderson et al, “Update of occurrence rates for offshore oil spills,” Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, US Department of the Insurance (June 2012).
“Leak blamed as Mexico explosion death toll rises,” The Guardian (11 August 2016).
Olvier Milman, “Shell working to repair leak that spilled 2,000 barrels of oil into Gulf of Mexico,” The Guardian (16 May 2016).
John Vidal, “Niger delta oil spill clean-up launched – but could take quarter of a century,” The Guardian (1 June 2016).
Barbara Fraser, “Oil in the forest,” Science 353(6300): 641–643 (12 August 2016).
Joshua Robertson, “Great Barrier Reef oil spill: foreign ship faces prosecution after 12-month hunt,” The Guardian (27 July 2016).
Sarah L. Alderman, “Effects of diluted bitumen exposure on juvenile sockeye salmon,” Environmental Toxicology (22 June 2016).
Michael Bloch, “Effects of oil spills,” Green Living Tips (4 August 2010).
Renewable Energy
Mason Inman, The Oracle of Oil, W.W. Norton & Company (2016).
Thomas Sumner, “Pioneering geophysicist’s theory of peak oil still debated,” Science News (29 May 2016).
Andrew Morriss et al, The False Promise of Green Energy, Cato Institute (2011).
Ozzie Zehner, Green Illusions, University of Nebraska Press (2012).
Robert Bryce, Power Hungry, Public Affairs (2010).
Vaclav Smil, Energy Myths and Realities, The AEI Press (2010).
John Matson, “Renewable energy’s hidden costs,” Scientific American (October 2013).
Jörn P.W. Scharlemann & William F. Laurance, “How green are biofuels?,” Science 319(5859): 43–44 (4 January 2008).
Joseph Fargione et al, “Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt,” Science 319(5867): 1235–1238 (29 February 2008).
Duncan Graham-Rowe, “Agriculture: beyond food versus fuel,” Nature (22 June 2011).
“What happened to biofuels?,” The Economist (7 September 2013).
David Tilman et al, “Carbon-negative biofuels from low-input high-diversity grassland biomass,” Science 314(5805): 1598 –1600 (8 December 2006).
Timothy Searchinger et al, “Use of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change,” Science 319(5867): 1238 –1240 (29 February 2008).
Damian Carrington, “Only a third of world’s great rivers remain free flowing, analysis finds,” The Guardian (8 May 2019).
G. Grill et al, “Mapping the world’s free-flowing rivers,” Nature (8 May 2019).
“Droughts boost emissions as hydropower dries up,” Phys.org (21 December 2018).
Isabel L. Jones et al, “Extinction debt on reservoir land-bridge islands,” Biological Conservation 199: 75–83 (July 2016).
Melanie Mueller et al, “The effects of weirs on structural stream habitat and biological communities,” Journal of Applied Ecology (26 July 2011).
“Aquatic species decline at dams and weirs documented,” ScienceDaily (14 September 2011).
“Current list of hydro power plants,” Global Energy Observatory (1 June 2016).
T.I.E. Veldkamp et al, “Water scarcity hotspots travel downstream due to human interventions in the 20th and 21st century,” Nature Communications (15 June 2017).
Fred Pearce, “Billion-dollar dams are making water shortages, not solving them,” New Scientist (15 June 2017).
Wind Power
Chinese wind farm photo courtesy of Chris Lim.
John Schwartz, “When bats look for meals near wind power, bats die,” The New York Times (7 November 2016).
Manuel Roeleke et al, “Habitat use of bats in relation to wind turbines revealed by GPS tracking,” Scientific Reports (4 July 2016).
“Bats take dangerous flight into the wind farm,” ScienceDaily (8 July 2016).
Paul R. Lintott et al, “Ecological impact assessments fail to reduce risk of bat casualties at wind farms,” Current Bilogy 26(21): R1135–R1136 (7 November 2016).
“Companies sued over bird deaths,” The Guardian (14 January 2004).
J.W. Pearce-Higgins et al, “Towards understanding the population-level effects of wind farms on birds,” Journal of Applied Ecology 49: 386–394 (April 2012).
Severin Carrell, “Windfarms do not cause long-term damage to bird populations, study finds,” The Guardian (12 April 2012).
Jessica Shankleman, “Seabirds ‘steer clear’ of offshore wind farms Seabirds ‘steer clear’ of offshore wind farms,” The Guardian (18 December 2014).
Patrick Barkham, “It’s not just rightwingers – gannets hate wind farms too,” The Guardian (28 September 2015).
Tom Zeller Jr., “For those near, the miserable hum of clean energy,” The New York Times (5 October 2010).
Rupert Neate, “Germany delays windfarm over threat to porpoises,” The Guardian (16 August 2012).
Amanda S. Adams & David W. Keith, “Are global wind power resource estimates overstated?,” Environmental Research Letters (25 February 2013).
“Rethinking wind power,” ScienceDaily (13 February 2013).
“Energy subsidies in the European Union: a brief overview,” European Environmental Agency (2 June 2004).
Randy T. Simmons, “What do we have to show for government subsidies of wind power?,” TheHill.com (24 February 2015).
Fiona Harvey, “The truth behind the wind power subsidies row,” The Guardian (13 February 2015).
Stanley Reed, “Britain plans to cut subsidies for renewable energy,” The New York Times (22 July 2015).
“Earlier end to subsidies for new UK onshore wind farms,” BBC News (18 June 2015).
Louise Lerner, “Solar panel manufacturing is greener in Europe than China, study says,” Argonne National Laboratory (29 May 2014).
Dajun Yue et al, “Domestic and overseas manufacturing scenarios of silicon-based photovoltaics: Life cycle energy and environmental comparative analysis,” Solar Energy 105: 669–678 (July 2014).
Luc Viatour, “Potential environmental impacts and obstacles of solar energy,” Reset.org (1 July 2013).
Erik A. Alsema & Mariska J. de Wild-Scholten, “Environmental impacts of crystalline silicon photovoltaic module production,” CIPR International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering (31 May 2006).
“Potential health and environmental impacts associated with the manufacture and use of photovoltaic cells,” Electric Power Research Institute (November 2003).
“Toward a just and sustainable solar energy industry,” Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (14 January 2009).
Dustin Mulvaney, “Hazardous materials used in silicon PV cell production: a primer,” Solar Industry Magazine Sl1309 (2013).
Jenq Renn Chen, “Characteristics of fire and explosion in semiconduc-tor fabrication processes,” Process Safety Progress 21(1): 19–25 (March 2002).
Jenq Renn Chen et al, “Analysis of a silane explosion in a photovoltaic fabrication plant,” Process Safety Progress 25(3): 237–244 (Septem-ber 2006).
Yo-Yu Chang et al, “Revisiting of a silane explosion in a photovoltaic fabrication plant,” Process Safety Progress 26(2): 155–158 (June 2007).
Christina Nunez, “How green are those solar panels, really?,” National Geographic (11 November 2014).
W. Lloyd Warner & Paul S. Lunt, The Status System of a Modern Community, Yale University Press (1942).
“Penury portrait,” The Economist (27 July 2013).
The Early Modern Period
Edward E. Baptist, “Toxic debt, liar loans and securitized human beings: the panic of 1837 and the fate of slavery,” Common-Place 10(3) (April 2010).
W.G. Beasley, The Rise of Modern Japan, St. Martin’s Press (2000).
Kyoji Fukao et al, “Real GDP in pre-war east Asia: a 1934-36 bench-mark purchasing power parity comparison with the US,” Hitotsubashi University (February 2007).
Takatoshi Ito & Frederic S. Mishkin, “Two decades of Japanese monetary policy and the deflation problem,” National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER Working Paper No. 10878) (November 2004).
“Japan nears deflation as consumer prices stop rising,” BBC News (27 March 2015).
“Ending deflation in Japan: an old problem,” The Economist (10 February 2011).
Kenji Nishizaki et al, “Chronic deflation in Japan,” Bank of International Settlements (2012).
Masazumi Harada et al, Minamata Disease, Minamata Disease Patients Alliance (2004).
The 1997 East Asian Crisis
Stanley Fischer, “The IMF and the Asian crisis,” International Monetary Fund (20 March 1998).
Gareth Austin, “African economic development and colonial legacies,” International Development Policy, The Graduate Institute, Geneva (January 2010).
“Dark days ahead,” The Economist (30 May 2015).
“A glimpse of Africa’s future,” The Economist (11 July 2015).
Amadou Sy, “Five questions answered on Africa’s rising economic growth,” Brookings (3 February 2014).
Mark Anderson, “Aid to Africa: donations from west mask ‘$60bn looting’ of continent,” The Guardian (15 July 2014).
“No need to dig,” The Economist (2 November 2013).
“The twilight of the resource curse?,” The Economist (10 January 2015).
“Few and far between,” The Economist (24 October 2015).
“Africa to spew half world’s particle pollution by 2030, study says,” Phys.org (11 March 2014).
“The humble hero,” The Economist (18 May 2013).
The Gold Standard
Kwasi Kwarteng, War and Gold, Public Affairs (2014).
“Inside vaults of Bank of England,” The Sun (2 February 2012).
“Status report of U.S. government gold reserve,” Bureau of the Fiscal Service, U.S. Department of the Treasury (29 February 2016).
Nikolai Kondratiev, The World Economy and its Conjunctures During and After the War (1922).
“Like chess, only without the dice,” The Economist (20 April 2013).
Hamza Shaban, “Bitcoin’s astronomical rise last year was buoyed by market manipulation, researchers say,” The Washington Post (14 June 2018).
Economic Cycles
Joseph Kitchin, “Cycles and trends in economic factors,” Review of Economics and Statistics 5(1): 10–16 (1923).
“Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (% of GDP),” The World Bank (2015).
Network Effects
“Free exchange: The consensus crumbles,” The Economist (2 July 2016).
Daron Acemoglu et al, “Networks and the macroeconomy: an empirical exploration,” National Bureau of Economic Research (July 2015).
“How network effects hurt economies: study reveals how woes in one industry can harm others, too,” ScienceDaily (6 April 2016).
Wenzhou, China
“Wenzhou’s economy: it once was lost,” The Economist (11 June 2016).
Joseph E. Stiglitz and Members of a UN Commission of Financial Experts, The Stiglitz Report, The New Press (2010).
The Great Depression
Saral Sarkar, The Crises of Capitalism, Counterpoint (2012).
Robert A. Margo, “Employment and unemployment in the 1930s,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 7(2): 41–59 (Spring 1993).
Charles P. Kindleberger, The World in Depression 1929–1939, Allen Lane (1973).
Jose´ A. Tapia Granadosa & Ana V. Diez Roux, “Life and death during the Great Depression,” PNAS 106(41): 17290-17295 (13 October 2009).
Ben Bernanke & Harold James, “The gold standard, deflation, and financial crisis in the Great Depression: an international comparison,” NBER (January 1991).
Oil Shock
Terry Macalister, “Background: what caused the 1970s oil price shock?,” The Guardian (3 March 2011).
Evans Witt, “Energy crisis still doubted by public,” Associated Pres (4 May 1979).
Black Monday (19 October 1987)
“Wall Street: the lessons of Black Monday,” The Week (27 October 2017).
Donald Bernhardt & Marshall Eckblad, “Black Monday: the stock market crash of 1987,” Federal Reserve History (22 November 2013).
C. Eugene Emery Jr. “Loughlin says Reagan’s 1981 tax cuts led to exponential economic growth,” Politifact Rhode Island (5 September 2010).
” Reagonomics or ‘voodoo economics’?,” BBC News (5 June 2004).
Jeff Macke, “Black Monday: The 1987 market crash revisited,” Yahoo! Finance (19 October 2012).
William Glaberson, “The market plunge; fall stuns corporate leaders,” The New York Times (20 October 1987).
“Group of 7, meet the group of 33,” The New York Times (26 December 1987).
The Dot-Com Bubble
Gary Rivlin, “A retail revolution turns 10,” The New York Times (10 July 2005).
Ernst Malmstn et al, Boo Hoo : A dot.com Story from Concept to Catastrophe, Random House (2001).
America Online
Tom Johnson, “That’s AOL folks,” CNN Money (20 January 2000).
Mark Sweney, “Yahoo parent Verizon cuts value of media brands by $4.6bn,” The Guardian (12 December 2018).
“Microsoft wants to purchase Yahoo,” BBC News (1 February 2008).
“Suveillance: Yahoo’s email snooping,” The Week (21 October 2016).
Reuters & Nicky Woolf, “Yahoo secretly monitored emails on behalf of the US government – report,” The Guardian (4 October 2016).
Dominic Rushe, “US threatened Yahoo with $250,000 daily fine over NSA data refusal,” The Guardian (11 September 2014).
“Online surveillance: they’re watching Yahoo,” The Economist (8 October 2016).
Vindu Goel, “Yahoo says 1 billion user accounts were hacked,” The New York Times (14 December 2016).
“Reports: Microsoft and Yahoo end on-again off-again talks to combine forces,” Associated Press (4 May 2007).
Ina Fried, “Microsoft bids $44.6 billion for Yahoo,” CNET (1 February 2008).
Juan Carlos Perez & Elizabeth Montalbano, “Microsoft offers to buy Yahoo for $44.6 billion,” Macworld (1 February 2008).
Dino Grandoni, “Hackers exploit ‘Flash’ vunerability in Yahoo ads,” The New York Times (3 August 2015).
Vindu Goel, “Verizon announces $4.8 billion deal for Yahoo’s internet business,” The New York Times (25 July 2016).
“Verizon buys Yahoo: does it ad up?,” The Economist (30 July 2016).
Dominic Rushe, “Marissa Mayer hits out at ‘gender bias’ as Yahoo is sold for $5bn,” The Guardian (25 July 2016).
Vindu Goel & Michael J. de la Merced, “Verizon to pay $4.8 billion for Yahoo’s core business,” The New York Times (24 July 2016).
“Through the portal: Verison calls time on Yahoo by buying it,” The Economist (25 July 2016).
“What went wrong at Yahoo?,” The Week (22 April 2016).
John Herrman, “Marissa Mayer’s media problem at Yahoo is now Verizon’s to solve,” The New York Times (26 July 2016).
Ben Rooney, “Verizon buys AOL for $4.4 billion,” CNN Money (12 May 2015).
“The parable of Yahoo: from dotcom hero to zero,” The Economist (30 June 2016).
“Yahoo CEO could get $555M in severance pay in potential sale,” Phys.org (29 April 2106).
John Markoff, Google cars drive themselves, in traffic,” The New York Times (9 October 2010).
Elizabeth Gibney, “Google masters Go,” Nature 529: 445–446 (28 January 2016).
David Silver et al, “Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search,” Nature 529: 484–489 (28 January 2016).
Tom DeGrace, “The dot com bubble burst that caused the 2000 stock market crash,” StockPicksSystem (11 April 2011).
Gary P. Pisano & Willy C. Shih, “Restoring American competitiveness,” Harvard Business Review (July-August 2009).
Michael McLeay et al, “Money creation in the modern economy,” Quarterly Bulletin of the Bank of England (Q1 2014).
Rana Foroohar, “Moving money to make money,” The Week (27 May 2016).
Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, The Financial Crisis Inquiry Report; Final Report of the National Commission on the Causes of the Financial And Economic Crisis in the United States, US Government Printing Office (January 2011).
Matt Taibbi, Griftopia, Spiegel & Grau (2010).
Alain Cohn et al, “Business culture and dishonesty in the banking industry,” Nature (20 November 2014).
Richard Gray, “Banking turns people into rotten cheats,” The Guardian (20 November 2014).
“Five banks fined £2bn by regulators over forex failings,” BBC News (12 November 2014).
Ben Protess & Jessica Silver-Greenberg, “Big banks face another round of U.S. charges,” The New York Times (6 October 2014).
Ian Robertson, “Bankers and the neuroscience of greed,” The Guardian (2 July 2012).
Damian Paletta, “How regulators, Republicans and big banks fought for a big increase in lucrative but risky corporate loans,” The Washington Post (6 April 2019).
Tweaking Financial Vitality
Renae Merle, “Fed proposes easing post-crisis rules for big banks,” The Washington Post (8 April 2019).
“Slaves of the markets,” The Economist (13 February 2016).
“How does the Fed determine interest rates to control the money supply?,” Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (February 2005).
“What are the tools of U.S. monetary policy?,” Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (6 February 2004).
“Calling to accounts,” The Economist (5 October 2013).
American Property Bubbles
“Betting the house,” The Economist (6 April 2013).
The 2008 Recession
David Leonhardt, “The experts keep getting the economy wrong,” The New York Times (11 March 2019).
Wolfgang Münchau, The Meltdown Years, McGraw Hill (2010).
“Tax model,” Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy (3 June 2003).
Gwynn Guilford, “The ‘prime’ mortgage crisis,” The Week (15 September 2017).
Nathaniel Popper, “Goldman mortgage settlement is much less than meets the eye,” The New York Times (11 April 2016).
Jessica Silver-Greenberg & Ben Protess, “JPMorgan settlement offers look into mortgage machine,” The New York Times (19 November 2013).
“Dealing with household debt,” International Monetary Fund (April 2012).
Kirk Shinkle, “The crash of 2008,” U.S. News & World Report (17 October 2008).
Thomas M. Hoenig, “Too big has failed,” The New York Times (6 March 2009).
“America’s housing market: wehre it all began,” The Economist (20 August 2009).
“Between a rock and a living space,” The Economist (3 March 2011).
“Bricks and slaughter,” The Economist (3 March 2011).
“When the roof fell in,” The Economist (3 March 2011).
Robin Sidel & Damian Paletta, “Industry is remade in a wave of mergers,” The Wall Street Journal (30 September 2008).
Nathaniel Popper & Peter Eavis, “Regulators warn 5 top banks they are still too big to fail,” The New York Times (14 April 2016).
Mark J. Perry & Robert Dell, “How government failure caused the great recession,” American Enterprise Institute (26 December 2010).
Jack Rasmus, Epic Recession, Pluto Press (2010).
Gretchen Morgenson & Louise Story, “Naming culprits in the financial crisis,” The New York Times (13 April 2011).
Bess Levin, “Is Wall Street comprised of a bunch of crackwhores who can’t help themselves, crying out for help? John Mack says yes,” Dealbreaker (19 November 2009).
“Stagnant thinking,” The Economist (7 December 2013).
Niall Ferguson, The Great Degeneration, Penguin Press (2013).
William Greider, Secrets of the Temple: How the Federal Reserve Runs the Country, Simon & Schuster (1989).
Jack Rasmus, Epic Recession, Pluto Press (2010).
“Banks: trillions in secret loans from the Fed,” The Week (2 December 2011).
sources for average US wealth chart: Edward N. Wolff, “Recent trends in household wealth in the United States,” Levy Economics Institute at Bard College (March 2010)
“Survey of consumer finances,” Federal Reserve Board, Washington D.C..
“The slow recovery of the labor market,” Congressional Budget Office (4 February 2014).
“Seven years since the recession began: how America is faring,” The Economist (6 December 2014).
Wells Fargo
Renae Merle, “Wells Fargo CEO Tim Sloan to step down immediately,” The Washington Post (28 March 2019).
Stacy Cowley & Emily Flitter, “Wells Fargo agrees to pay $575 million to resolve state investigations,” The New York Times (28 December 2018).
“Wells Fargo to pay $575m settlement for setting up fake banking accounts,” The Guardian (28 December 2018).
Julia Horowitz, “Wells Fargo to pay $2.09 billion fine in mortgage settlement,” CNN (1 August 2018).
Stacy Cowley, “Wells Fargo review finds 1.4 million more suspect accounts,” The New York Times (31 August 2017).
Uri Berliner, “Wells Fargo Admits to nearly twice as many possible fake accounts — 3.5 million,” NPR (31 August 2017).
Gretchen Morgenson, “Wells Fargo borrower got unneeded insurance, and ruined credit,” The New York Times (18 August 2017).
Gretchen Morgen, “Wells Fargo, awash in scandal, faces violations over car insurance refunds,” The New York Times (07 August 2017).
Chris Arnold, “Wells Fargo to pay $142 million to customers hurt by bogus accounts,” NPR (10 July 2017).
Gretchen Morgenson, “Wells Fargo is accused of making improper changes to mortgages,” The New York Times (14 June 2017).
Stacy Cowley & Jennifer A Kingson, “Wells Fargo to claw back $75 million from 2 former executives,” The New York Times (10 April 2017).
Stacy Cowley & Matthew Goldstein, “Accusations of fraud at Wells Fargo spread to sham insurance policies,” The New York Times (9 December 2016).
Stacy Cowley, “‘Lions hunting zebras’: ex-Wells Fargo bankers describe abuses,” The New York Times (20 October 2016).
Michael Corkery, “Wells Fargo fined $185 million for fraudulently opening accounts,” The New York Times (8 September 2016).
Bill Chappell, “Wells Fargo fined $185 million over creation of fake accounts for bonuses,” NPR (8 September 2016).
Kathy Kristof, “Wells Fargo fined for opening millions of fake accounts,” The Washington Post (8 September 2016).
“Wells Fargo scandal: protecting your accounts,” The Week (7 October 2016).
Kate Gibson, “Wells Fargo slapped for cheating student borrowers,” CBS News (22 August 2016).
Chris Arnold, “Who snatched my car? Wells Fargo did,” NPR (2 August 2017).
Lonnie Shekhtman, “Wells Fargo to pay $4.1 million fine for cheating student borrowers,” The Christian Science Monitor (23 August 2016).
William D. Cohan, “Wells Fargo scandal may be sign of a poisonous culture,” The New York Times (16 September 2016).
Michael Corkery & Stacy Cowley, “Wells Fargo warned workers against sham accounts, but ‘they needed a paycheck’,” The New York Times (16 September 2016).
Stacy Cowley, ” Wells Fargo workers claim retaliation for playing by the rules,” The New York Times (26 September 2016).
Michael Corkery & Stacy Cowley, “Wells Fargo chief abruptly steps down,” The New York Times (12 October 2016).
“Wells Fargo’s boss stands down: Stumpfed,” The Economist (15 October 2016).
Credit Card Companies
David Stout, “Senate passes bill to restrict credit card practices,” The New York Times (19 May 2009).
Ylan Q. Mui, “Final phase of federal law restricting credit card fees, interest rates begins,” The Washington Post (22 August 2010).
Leah McGrath Goodman, “The new loan sharks,” Newsweek (26 August 2016).
Bernard Shusman, “US credit card debt nears $1 trillion,” VOA (7 April 2016).
Fred Imbert, “US credit card debt balloons to $917B: what it means,” CNBC (10 March 2016).
Jessica Silver-Greenberg, “Problems riddle moves to collect credit card debt,” The New York Times (12 August 2012).
“California accuses JPMorgan of fraud in credit-card-debt collection,” CNN Money (9 May 2013).
Michael Corkery & Ben Protess, “Rigging of foreign exchange market makes felons of top banks,” The New York Times (20 May 2015).
Liz Moyer, “Barclays to pay $150 million more in currency inquiry,” The New York Times (18 November 2015).
“Rousseau, Marx and Nietzsche: The prophets of illiberal progress,” The Economist (6 September 2018).
“The status of economists: the power of self-belief,” The Economist (6 December 2014).
Marion Foucade et al, “The superiority of economists,” MaxPo (November 2014).
Thomas Sowell, On Classical Economics, Yale University Press (2006).
Harry Landreth & David C. Colander, History of Economic Thought, Houghton Mifflin (1994).
E.K. Hunt & Mark Lautzenheiser, History of Economic Thought: A Critical Perspective Routledge (2011).
Todd G. Buchholz, New Ideas from Dead Economists: An Introduction to Modern Economic Thought, Plume (2007).
Lionel Robbins et al, A History of Economic Thought, Princeton University Press (1998).
Robert L. Heilbroner, The Worldly Philosophers: The Lives, Times And Ideas Of The Great Economic Thinkers Touchstone (1999).
Paul Seabright, The Company of Strangers, Princeton University Press (2004).
William J. Barber, A History of Economic Thought, Wesleyan (2009).
Karl Marx, Wage Labour and Capital (1847).
Karl Marx, Theories of Surplus Value (1862).
Karl Marx, Capital (3 volumes) (1867–1894).
Jonathan Sperber, Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life, Liveright (2013).
Francis Wheen, Karl Marx: A Life, W.W. Norton & Company (2000).
Gareth Stedman Jones, Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion, Allen Lane (2016).
“Karl Marx: false consciousness,” The Economist (27 August 2016).
Sidney Weintraub, Modern Economic Thought, University of Pennsylvannia Press (1977).
Friedrich Hayek
Friedrich Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (1944).
Ronald Coase
Ronald Coase photo courtesy of Coase-Sandor Institute for Law and Economics, University of Chicago Law School.
“Coase’s theory of the firm,” The Economist (27 July 2017).
“One of the giants,” The Economist (7 September 2013).
Ronald Coase, “The nature of the firm,” Economica 4(16): 368-405 (November 1937).
The Nature of the Firm
“The cap doesn’t fit,” The Economist (19 June 2013).
“ETS, RIP?,” The Economist (20 April 2013).
John Kenneth Galbraith
John Kenneth Galbraith photo courtesy of Hans van Dijk.
John Kenneth Galbraith & Henry S. Dennison, Modern Competition and Business Policy (1938).
John Kenneth Galbraith, American Capitalism: The Concept of Countervailing Power (1952).
John Kenneth Galbraith, The Great Crash, 1929 (1954).
John Kenneth Galbraith, The Affluent Society (1958).
John Kenneth Galbraith, The New Industrial State (1967).
John Kenneth Galbraith, Economics and the Public Purpose (1973).
John Kenneth Galbraith, Money: Whence It Came, Where It Went (1975).
John Kenneth Galbraith, Socialism In Rich Countries And Poor (1975).
John Kenneth Galbraith, The Nature of Mass Poverty (1979).
John Kenneth Galbraith, Economics in Perspective: A Critical History (1987).
John Kenneth Galbraith, A Short History of Financial Euphoria (1990).
Paul Samuelson
Paul Smauelson photo courtesy of Innovation & Business Architectures, Inc.
Paul Samuelson, Foundations of Economic Analysis, Harvard University Press (1947).
Paul Samuelson, Economics, MacGraw-Hill (1948).
E.F. Schumacher
E.F. Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful; Economics as if People Mattered (1973).
“E.F. Schumacher,” The Economist (26 March 2009).
Alfred E. Kahn
Alfred E. Kahn, The Economics of Regulation, Volumes 1 & 2, Cornell University (1970).
Richard Adams, “Alfred Kahn obituary,” The Guardian (12 January 2011).
“Alfred Kahn,” The Economist (20 January 2011).
Susan S. Lang, “Economist Alfred Kahn, ‘father of airline deregulation’ and former presidential adviser, dies at 93,” Cornell University Chronicle (27 December 2010).
Ben Wattenberg, “Alfred E. Kahn Interview,” PBS (undated).
“A lack of competition explains the laws in American aviation,” The Economist (22 April 2017).
Robert Kuttner, “How the airlines became abusive cartels,” The New York Times (17 April 2017).
Editorial Board, “Fear of flying, for good reason,” The New York Times (11 April 2017).
“United Airlines: the not-so-friendly skies,” The Week (21 April 2017).
SCOTUS, Nader v. Allegheny Airlines (426 US 290) (1976).
Julian L. Simon, “Origins of the airline oversales auction system,” Regulation 2: 48-60 (1994).
Jack Nicas, “A stingy spirit lifts airline’s profit,” The Wall Street Journal (11 May 2012).
“Airlines in America: a cosy club,” The Economist (23 January 2016).
“AA jettisons some excess baggage,” The Economist (29 November 2011).
“Landing with a bump,” The Economist (15 August 2002).
“Was deregulation bad?,” The Economist (20 August 2013).
“Get ready to squeeze,” The Economist (17 June 2013).
David Reifschneider & Peter Tulip, “Gauging the uncertainty of the economic outlook using historical forecasting errors: the Federal Reserve’s approach,” US Federal Reserve (24 February 2017).
Robert J. Sameulson, “Why economists can’t forecast,” The Washington Post (8 March 2017).
Robert Lucas, “In defence of the dismal science,” The Economist (6 August 2009).
Economics In Context
Alfred Marshall, Principles of Economics, Pargrave Macmillan (1890).
David A. Mayer, The Everything Economics Book, Adams Media (2010).
Yves Smith, Econned, Palgrave Macmillan (2011).
Allan Meltzer, Why Capitalism? Basic Books (2012).
Robert Skidelsky & Edward Skidelsky, How Much Is Enough? Money and the Good Life, Other Press (2012).
Michael Sandel, What Money Can’t Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets, Farrar, Straus and Giroux (2012).
James Goldsmith, The Trap, Carroll & Graf (1994).
John Rapley, “How economics became a religion,” The Guardian (11 July 2017).
Daniel Kahneman & Amos Tversky, “Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk,” Econometrica 47 (2): 263–291 (1979).
George Szpiro, “Value judgements,” Nature 500: 521–522 (29 August 2013).
Jennifer Schuessler, “In history departments, it’s up with capitalism,” The Wall Street Journal (6 April 2013).
Steve Keen, Debunking Economics, Zed Books (2011).
“State of the nation’s egotism: on the rise for a century,” Phys.org (6 May 2014).
Economics & Psychology
Alain Samson (editor), The Behavioral Economics Guide 2017, behavioraleconomics.com (2017).
Colin Camerer, “Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics,” PNAS 96: 10575-10577 (September 1999).
Elizabeth A. Minton & Lynn R. Kahle, Belief Systems, Religion, and Behavioral Economics, Business Expert Press (2013).
Alain Samson, “An introduction to behavioral economics,” behavioraleconomics.com (2017).
“The economics of deception: you have been warned,” The Economist (19 September 2015).
George Akerlof & Robert Shiller, Phishing for Phools: The Economics of Manipulation and Deception, Princeton University Press (2015).
Jon Hilsenrath, “How a trust deficit is hurting the economy,” The Wall Street Journal (27 January 2013).
Roger Cohen, “Capitalism eating its children,” The New York Times (29 May 2014).
Philip H. Wicksteed, The Common Sense of Political Economy, Including a Study of the Human Basis of Economic Law, Macmillan and Co. (1910).
Frederic Lee, Post-Keynesian Price Theory, Cambridge University Press (1998).
George A. Akerlof, “The market for “lemons”: quality undercertainty and the market mechanism,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 84(3): 488-500 (August 1970).
“Information asymmetry: secrets and agents,” The Economist (23 July 2016).
Charles Read, “Giffen behaviour in Irish famine markets: an empirical study,” University of Cambridge (15 May 2013).
Interest Rates
Knut Wicksell, Interest & Prices (1898).
“A natural long-term rate,” The Economist (26 October 2013).
“A scramble to replace LIBOR is under way,” The Economist (27 September 2018).
“Tracking the Libor scandal,” The New York Times (23 March 2016).
Chad Bray, “Sixth ex-broker cleared in London Libor trial,” The New York Times (28 January 2016).
James McBride, “Understanding the Libor scandal,” Council on Foreign Relations (12 October 2016).
Randall Smith, “Two former traders found guilty in Libor manipulation case,” The New York Times (5 November 2015).
“The LIBOR scandal: fixed harmony,” The Economist (7 December 2013).
Jean Eaglesham, “Judge dismisses antitrust claims in Libor suits,” The Wall Street Journal (29 March 2013).
“The LIBOR scandal: law of the lend,” The Economist (6 April 2013).
“Timeline: Libor-fixing scandal,” BBC News (6 February 2013).
Elizabeth Warren, “Libor fraud exposes a rotten financial system,” The Washington Post (19 July 2012).
Damian Paletta et al, “Fed, BOE talked of Libor problems in 2008,” The Wall Street Journal (13 July 2012).
“The LIBOR scandal: the rotten heart of finance,” The Economist (7 July 2012).
WSJ Staff, “Who else is under investigation for Libor manipulation?,” The Wall Street Journal (9 July 2012).
Stock Markets
Ahmet Kirca et al, “Stock market fails to predict product performance,” Phys.org (11 January 2017).
Scott Patterson, “Fast traders’ new edge,” The Wall Street Journal (4 June 2010).
Computerized Stock Trading
Sally Adee, “The stock market is run by wild robots we don’t fully control,” New Scientist (11 October 2017).
Jenny Strasburg, “Electronic trading glitches hit market,” The Wall Street Journal (1 August 2012).
Jenny Strasburg & Telis Demos, “Knight held $7 billion of stocks due to glitch,” The Wall Street Journal (8 August 2012).
Nathanile Popper & Peter Eavis, “Errant trades reveal a risk few expected,” The New York Times (2 August 2012).
Graham Bowley, “A single sale worth $4.1 billion led to the ‘flash crash’,” The New York Times (1 October 2010).
Kara Scannell, “Report: algorithm set off ‘flash crash’ amid stressed market,” The Wall Street Journal (1 October 2010).
Rupert Neate, “NYSE shutdown caused by engineers loading wrong software to system,” The Guardian (9 July 2015).
Nathanial Popper, “The stock market bell rings, computers fail, Wall Street cringes,” The New York Times (8 July 2015).
1962 Flash Crash
“The market break of May 1962,” U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (1963).
Jason Zweig, “Back to the future: lessons from the forgotten ‘flash crash’ of 1962,” The Wall Street Journal (29 May 2010).
Ben Cosgrove, “Market woes: remembering the ‘flash crash’ of 1962,” TIME (2 April 2014).
Robert Sobel, Panic on Wall Street: A History of America’s Financial Disasters, Beard Books (1999).
Nocturnal Profits
Jeff Sommer, “The stock market works by day, but it loves the night,” The New York Times (2 February 2018).
Dynamic Pricing
“Flexible figures,” The Economist (30 January 2016).
Thea Singer, “Northeastern researchers find that Amazon might not always be pitching you the best prices,” Northeastern University (2 June 2016).
Alternative Pricing
Lorraine Luk, “In Hong Kong, Apple’s iPhone 6 Plus price premium jumps to over $1,000,” The Wall Street Journal (19 September 2014).
Samantha Nielson, “Apple’s premium pricing strategy and product differentiation,” Market Realist (6 February 2014).
Gyres of Waste
“Chinese property: for whom the bubble blows,” The Economist (12 March 2016).
Jennifer Hiller, “A 21st-century oil boom in the Lone Star State,” San Antonio Express-News (25 February 2013).
Chip Brown, “North Dakota went boom,” The New York Times Magazine (31 January 2013).
Richard Rubin, “In North Dakota, boom, bust and oil,” The New York Times (9 August 2015).
Leonard Brecken, “How shale is becoming the .com bubble of the 21st century,” OilPrice.com (30 April 2015).
“Bonanza or bane,” The Economist (2 May 2013).
“Running on empty,” The Economist (5 December 2015).
Mara Van Ells, “A North Dakota oil boom goes bust,” The Atlantic (27 June 2015).
Price & Externalities
Michael Cipriano, Thomas S. Gruca, “The power of priors: how confirmation bias impacts market prices,” Prediction Markets 8(3) (2014).
“See! I was right: people are reluctant to change their minds, even when facts don’t match what they believe,” ScienceDaily (16 November 2015).
Ulrich Sonnemann et al, “How psychological framing affects economic market prices in the lab and field,” PNAS (1 July 2013).
The Rational Animal
George A. Akerlof & Robert J. Shiller, Animal Spirits, Princeton University Press (2009).
Robert A. Haugen, The New Finance: Overreaction, Complexity and Their Consequences, Prentice Hall (1995).
Y. Shapira et al, “Modelling the short term herding behaviour of stock markets,” New Journal of Physics 16(5):053040 (May 2014).
“Herding in the stock market may inspire human-guided trading algorithms,” Phys.org (6 June 2014).
“Drop of the pops: beware of heavily-traded stocks,” The Economist (17 January 2015).
Ulrich Sonnemann, “How psychological framing affects economic market prices in the lab and field,” PNAS (3 May 2014).
Roger G. Ibbotson & Thomas M. Idzorek, “Dimension of popularity,” Journal of Portfolio Management 40(5): 68–74 (2014).
“Are market bubbles caused by traders’ testosterone levels?,” ScienceDaily (1 March 2017).
Dow Jones Industrial Average chart courtesy of MacroTrends.com (2016).
Anna Golsine, “Do women who live together menstruate together?,” Scientific American (7 December 2007).
Jane Harrison-Hohner, “Do women’s cycles sync up?,” WebMD (4 October 2010).
Anahad O’Connor, “The claim: menstrual cycles can synchronize over time,” The New York Times (5 February 2008).
Edgar E. Peters, Fractal Market Analysis: Applying Chaos Theory to Investment and Economic, Wiley (1994).
Ladislav Kristoufek, “Fractal markets hypothesis and the global financial crisis: wavelet power evidence,” Scientific Reports (4 October 2013).
Michael J. Burry, “I saw the crisis coming. Why didn’t the Fed?,” The New York Times (4 April 2010).
Brian Blackstone, “Greenspan admits some mistakes amid grilling by House lawmakers,” The Wall Street Journal (23 October 2008).
David Wessel, “Greenspan sees bottom in housing, criticizes bailout,” The Wall Street Journal (14 August 2008).
Alan Greenspan, “The challenge of central banking in a democratic society,” Annual Dinner and Francis Boyer Lecture of The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (5 December 1996).
“Unfamiliar ways forward,” The Economist (20 February 2016).
Unrealistic Assumptions
Buttonwood, “Interest rates and investment returns,” The Economist (2 March 2017).
Global pension fund statistics from OECD.
Andrew Smithers, The Road to Recovery: How and Why Economic Policy Must Change, Wiley (2013).
“The profits prophet,” The Economist (3 October 2013).
John Asker et al, “Corporate investment and stock market listing: A puzzle?,” Review of Financial Studies 28(2): 342-390 (February 2015).
John R. Graham et al, “The economic implications of corporate financial reporting,” the National Bureau of Economic Research (June 2004).
“Study shows why innovation takes a nosedive,” Phys.org (18 March 2014).
Henrich R. Greve & Marc-David Seidel, “Being early beats being better,” Harvard Business Review 92(6):30-31 (June 2014).
Henrich R. Greve & Marc-David Seidel, “The thin red line between success and failure: Path dependence in the diffusion of innovative production technologies ,” Strategic Management Journal (15 January 2014).
Marc-David Seidel & Henrich R. Greve, “Emergence: How novelty, growth, and formation shape organizations and their ecosystems,” Research in the Sociology of Organizations 50:1-27 (March 2017).
Michael Laris, “Long before the Max disasters, Boeing had a history of failing to fix safety problems,” The Washington Post (27 June 2019).
David Gelles et al, “Boeing was ‘go, go, go’ to beat Airbus with the 737 Max,” The New York Times (23 March 2019).
Hiroko Tabuchi & David Gelles, “Doomed Boeing jets lacked 2 safety features that company sold only as extras,” The New York Times (21 March 2019).
Hannah Beech & Muktita Suhartono, “Between two Boeing crashes, days of silence and mistrust,” The New York Times (2 April 2019).
James Glanz et al, “After a Lion Air 737 Max crashed in October, questions about the plane arose,” The New York Times (3 February 2019).
Aaron Gregg et al, “At tense meeting with Boeing executives, pilots fumed about being left in dark on plane software,” The Washington Post (13 March 2019).
Aaron Gregg & Ashley Halsey III, “Boeing CEO addresses flight system update after criticism from pilots,” The Washington Post (29 November 2018).
“Regulatory capture may be responsible for Boeing’s recent problems,” The Economist (23 March 2019).
David Gelles & Thomas Kaplan, “F.A.A. approval of Boeing jet involved in two crashes comes under scrutiny,” The New York Times (19 March 2019).
Hadra Ahmed et al, “Ethiopian airlines pilots followed Boeing’s safety procedures before crash, report shows,” The New York Times (4 April 2019).
John Bacon et al, “Boeing CEO accepts blame for two plane crashes, apologizes to families of victims: ‘We own it’,” USA Today (4 April 2019).
Natalie Kitroeff & David Gelles, “Claims of shoddy production draw scrutiny to a second Boeing jet,” The New York Times (20 April 2019).
“Creating companies: American dynamism dimmed,” The Economist (10 May 2014).
“A brief history of the best 20th century business launches,” Geekwire (30 April 2018).
Robert Solow, “The Internet just isn’t that big a deal yet: a hard look at Solow’s paradox,” Wired (undated).
Robert M. Solow, “We’d better watch,” The New York Times (12 July 1987).
“Productivity: technology isn’t working,” The Economist (4 October 2014).
Daron Acemoglu et al, “Return of the Solow paradox? IT, productivity, and employment in U.S. manufacturing,” National Bureau of Economic Research (January 2014).
“A survey of the new economy: solving the paradox,” The Economist (21 September 2000).
Jack E. Triplett, “The Solow productivity paradox: what do computers do to productivity?,” Brookings (1 March 1999).
David H. Autor et al, “Computing inequality: have computers changed the labor market?,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 113(4): 1169-1213 (1998).
Ethan Dreyfuss et al, “The IT productivity paradox,” It Does Matter web site (2002).
Growth & Pollution
Nicholas Z. Muller & Akshaya Jha, “Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas,” PLoS One (9 August 2017).
“Environmental policy, pollution and economic growth,” Phys.org (9 August 2017).
“Sectors damaging the environment are not drivers of the economic growth,” Phys.org (17 September 2013).
Arik Levinson, “Does economic growth reduce pollution?,” World Economic Forum (11 March 2015).
“The effects of economic growth on pollution,” US Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (21 September 2017).
Philip Shabecoff, “Pollution and economic growth: a new report looks at the links,” The New York Times (27 April 1987).
“Who audits the auditors? America’s public company accounting oversight board gets a new boss,” The Economist (14 December 2017).
“The bottom line,” The Week (9 December 2016). (on the American aloe vera sales scam)
Herbal Supplements
Steven G. Newmaster et al, “DNA barcoding detects contamination and substitution in North American herbal products,” BMC Medicine 11(222) (2013).
Anahad O’Connor, “Herbal supplements are often not what they seem,” The New York Times (3 November 2013).
David A. Baker, “Dna barcode identification of black cohosh herbal dietary supplements,” Journal of AOAC International 95(4) (July 2012).
Neal E. Boudette, “Fiat Chrysler is expected to pay nearly $650 million in emissions case,” The New York Times (9 January 2019).
Carlos Tejada, “Nissan workers in Japan falsified emissions tests, review says,” The New York Times (9 July 2018).
Hiroko Tabuchi, “E.P.A. accuses Fiat Chrysler of secretly violating emissions standard,” The New York Times (12 January 2017).
Michael Biesecker, “VW just the latest in long history of cheating car companies,” Phys.org (29 September 2015).
Jack Ewing & Neal E. Boudette, “As VW pleads guilty in U.S. over diesel scandal, trouble looms in Europe,” The New York Times (10 March 2017).
Jack Ewing & Hiroko Tabuchi, “Volkswagen’s tentative $4.3 billion deal with U.S. includes guilty plea on emissions,” The New York Times (10 January 2017).
“The Volkswagen scandal: a mucky business,” The Economist (26 September 2015).
Jad Mouawad, “E.P.A. finds more VW cheating software, including in Porsches,” The New York Times (2 November 2015).
Ronnie Greene & Ryan J. Foley, “In VW inquiry, states scrutinize ads to build case,” Phys.org (4 November 2015).
Jason Keyser, “US regulator missed its best chance to catch VW cheating,” Phys.org (2 October 2015).
“Antitrust: Commission fines truck producers € 2.93 billion for participating in a cartel,” European Commission (19 July 2016).
Arthur Neslen, “BMW, Daimler and VW charged with collusion over emissions,” The Guardian (5 April 2019).
Hamza Shaban, “E.U. regulators accuse BMW, Daimler, Volkswagen of colluding to block emission-fighting technology,” The Washington Post (5 April 2019).
Erin Dooley et al, “Takata to pay $1 Billion, plead guilty in airbag fraud case,” ABC News (13 January 2017).
Hiroko Tabuchi, “3 Takata executives face criminal charges over exploding airbags,” The New York Times (13 January 2017).
David Barboza, “As China battles corruption, Glaxo lands in the cross hairs,” The New York Times (1 November 2016).
Hester Plumridge & Laurie Burkitt, “GlaxoSmithKline found guilty of bribery in China,” The Wall Street Journal (19 September 2014).
Denise Roland, “GSK bribery scandal could cause ‘irreparable damage’, says China,” The Telegraph (16 May 2014).
J.D. Heyes, “GlaxoSmithKline engaged in bribery, corruption planet-wide,” Natural News (20 May 2014).
David Barboza, “GlaxoSmithKline accused of corruption by China,” The New York Times (11 July 2013).
“GlaxoSmithKline to plead guilty and pay $3 billion to resolve fraud allegations and failure to report safety data,” US Department of Justice (2 July 2012).
Communication Dysfunction
Matthew L. Wald, “G.M. report illustrates managers’ disconnect,” The Wall Street Journal (8 June 2014).
Carlos D. Rivera, “What sociology can tell us about the G.M. scandal,” Phys.org (28 May 2014).
“Economies of scale and scope,” The Economist (20 October 2008).
Reem Heakal, “What are economies of scale?,” Investopedia (19 April 2017).
T. Boone Pickens, Boone Houghton Mifflin (1988).
Corporate Management Quality
“Where will the next crisis occur?,” The Economist (3 May 2018).
“The new American capitalism: rise of the distorporation,” The Economist (26 October 2013).
Mergers & Acquisitions
Megan Ruesink, “Top corporate mergers: the good, the bad & the ugly,” Rasmussen College (28 September 2015).
Marvin Dumon, “Biggest merger and acquisition disasters,” Investopedia (12 March 2018).
“The inefficient acquisition: research gives new reason why some companies overpay for merger targets,” ScienceDaily (23 September 2013).
“Love on the rocks,” The Economist (17 May 2014).
“Don’t just sit there, bid for something,” The Economist (23 February 2013).
Robert T. Miller, “Inefficient results in the market for corporate control: highest bidders, highest-value users and socially-optimal owners,” University of Iowa Legal Studies (19 December 2013).
Marc-David L. Seidel & Henrich R. Greve, “Emergence: how novelty, growth, and formation shape organizations and their ecosystems,” (undated).
June Rhee, “Inefficient results in the market for corporate control,” Harvard Law School (4 April 2013).
George Crump, “3PAR and HP Vs. Dell: its on!,” Network Computing (26 August 2010).
“HP to acquire 3PAR,” HP (2 September 2010).
“Daimler, Chrysler and the failed merger,” CaseStudyInc.com (10 March 2008).
Jim Mateja, “How Chrysler marriage failed,” Chicago Tribune (15 March 2007).
Ralph L. Nelson (editor), Merger Movements in American Industry, 1895-1956, Princeton University Press (1959).
Gregor Andrade, et al, “New evidence and perspectives on mergers”, Journal of Economic Perspectives 15(2): 103–120 (Spring 2001).
Jarrad Harford, “What drives merger waves?,” Journal of Financial Economics 77(3): 529–560 (September 2005).
Jarrad Harford, “Corporate cash reserves and acquisitions,” Journal of Finance 54: 1969–1997 (1997).
Market Power
Matt Phillips, “Apple’s $1 trillion milestone reflects rise of powerful megacompanies,” The New York Times (2 August 2018).
Eduardo Porter, “Big profits drove a stock boom. Did the economy pay a price?,” The New York Times (13 February 2018).
Eduardo Porter, “Where are the start-ups? Loss of dynamism is impeding growth,” The New York Times (06 February 2018).
Stefania Vitali et al, “The network of global corporate control,” arXiv:1107.5728v2 (19 September 2011).
Germán Gutiérrez & Thomas Philippon, “Declining competition and investment in the U.S.,” (March 2017).
“America’s uncompetitive markets harm its economy,” The Economist (27 July 2017).
James Saft, “Are high profits here to stay?,” Reuters (3 May 2017).
“The appy trucker,” The Economist (5 March 2016).
“A.P. Moller-Maersk: profits overboard,” The Economist (10 September 2016).
Steven Pearlstein, Can American Capitalism Survive?, St. Martin’s Press (2018).
Joseph E. Stiglitz, “The science of inequality,” Scientific American 319(5): 54-61 (November 2018).
David Leonhardt, “Inequality makes people hate,” The New York Times (2 November 2018).
Heather Long, “‘This doesn’t look like the best economy ever’: 40% of Americans say they still struggle to pay bills,” The Washington Post (4 July 2019).
Robert J. Samuelson, “We’ve become addicted to the income stagnation story. It’s probably not true.,” The Washington Post (9 December 2018).
Heather Long, “Workers are finally seeing higher wages, but it’s a fraction of record corporate profits,” The Washington Post (2 November 2018).
“The wealth of the top 1% may have peaked,” The Economist (25 October 2018).
Raj Chetty et al, “The fading American dream: trends in absolute income mobility since 1940,” NBER (December 2016).
Robert J. Samuelson, “The rise of downward mobility,” The Washington Post (5 August 2018).
William J. Barber II & Karen Dolan, “Trump’s War on the poor has just begun,” The Washington Post (18 July 2018).
Aimee Cunningham, “Suicide rates have shot up in almost every U.S. state,” Science News (7 July 2018).
“Does inequality cause suicide, drug abuse and mental illness?,” The Economist (14 June 2018).
Heather Pringle, “The ancient roots of the 1%,” Science 344(6186): 822-825 (23 May 2014).
Timothy A. Kohler et al, “Greater post-Neolithic wealth disparities in Eurasia than in North America and Mesoamerica,” Nature (15 November 2017).
R. Alexander Bentley et al, “Community differentiation and kinship among Europe’s first farmers,” PNAS 109(24): 9326-9330 (12 June 2012).
“The roots of inequality: Researchers chart rising inequality across millennia,” Phys.org (15 November 2017).
Michelle Elliott, “Inequality has deep roots in Eurasia,” Nature (30 November 2017).
Timothy A. Kohler et al, “Greater post-Neolithic wealth disparities in Eurasia than in North America and Mesoamerica,” Nature (30 November 2017).
Martin Ravallion, “Income inequality in the developing world,” Science 344(6186): 851-855 (23 May 2014).
Thomas Piketty & Emmanuel Saez, “Inequality in the long run,” Science 344(6186): 838-843 (23 May 2014).
Gilbert Chin & Elizabeth Culotta, “The science of inequality,” Science 344(6186): 819-821 (23 May 2014).
“All men are created unequal,” The Economist (4 January 2014).
Gregory Clark, The Son Also Rises: Surnames and the History of Social Mobility, Princeton University Press (2014).
“The history of inequality: breaking the camel’s back,” The Economist (4 October 2014).
“The stark relationship between income inequality and crime,” The Economist (7 June 2018).
“American firms reveal the gulf between bosses’ and workers’ pay,” The Economist (26 May 2016).
“Revisiting Ricardo: why globalisation is not reducing inequality within developing countries,” The Economist (23 August 2014).
Jonathan D. Ostry et al, “Redistribution, inequality, and growth,” IMF Staff Discussion Note (February 2014).
“As you were: after a period on the wane, inequality is waxing again,” The Economist (13 October 2012).
“The United States – the rich and the rest: American inequality is a tale of two countries,” The Economist (13 October 2012).
“Asia – Crony tigers, divided dragons: why Asia, too, is becoming increasingly unequal,” The Economist (13 October 2012).
Mara Hvistendahl, “While emerging economies boom, equality goes bust,” Science 344(6186): 862-867 (23 May 2014).
Lary Elliot, “Inequality gap widens as 42 people hold same wealth as 3.7bn poorest,” The Guardian (22 January 2018).
Facundo Alvaredo et al, World Inequality Report, World Inequality Lab (2017).
Walter Scheidel, The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality, Princeton University Press (2017).
Francois Bourguignon, The Globalization of Inequality, Princeton University Press (2017).
The Global Risks Report 2018, World Economic Forum (January 2018).
“Capital in the 80th century BC: wealth inequality has been widening for millennia,” The Economist (23 November 2017).
Rupert Neate, “World’s witnessing a new Gilded Age as billionaires’ wealth swells to $6tn,” The Guardian (26 October 2017).
Rupert Neate, “World’s richest 0.1% have boosted their wealth by as much as poorest half,” The Guardian (14 December 2017).
Rupert Neate, “World’s witnessing a new Gilded Age as billionaires’ wealth swells to $6tn,” The Guardian (26 October 2017).
Annette Alstadsæter et al, “Tax evasion and inequality,” (28 May 2017).
Jeff Stein & Christopher Ingraham, “Elizabeth Warren to propose new ‘wealth tax’ on very rich Americans, economist says,” The Washington Post (24 January 2019).
Patricia Cohen, “Bump in U.S. incomes doesn’t erase 50 years of pain,” The New York Times (16 September 2017).
David Leonhardt, “Our broken economy, in one simple chart,” The New York Times (8 August 2017).
“Report of the Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights on his mission to the United States of America,” United Nations (June 2018).
Jeff Stein, “An explosive U.N. report shows America’s safety net was failing before Trump’s election,” The Washington Post (6 June 2018).
Paul F. Campos, “White economic privilege is alive and well,” The New York Times (29 July 2017).
Alex Henderson, “Income inequality in the U.S. Is even worse than you’ve been led to believe,” Alternet (6 March 2018).
Jonathan J.B. Mijs, “Inequality is getting worse, but fewer people than ever are aware of it,” The Conversation ().
Angus Deaton, “The threat of inequality,” Scientific American (September 2016).
Tyler Cowen, Average Is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation, Dutton (2013).
“Working for the few: political capture and economic inequality,” Oxfam International (20 January 2014).
Michael Hotchkiss,”Movin’ on up? Views on social mobility shape Americans’ faith in the status quo,” Phys.org (17 January 2017).
Martin V. Day & Susan T. Fiske, “Movin’ on up? How perceptions of social mobility affect our willingness to defend the system,” Social Psychological and Personality Science (22 November 2016).
Annie Lowrey, “Changed life of the poor: better off, but far behind,” The New York Times (30 April 2014).
Fabian T. Pfeffer & Alexandra Killewald, “How rigid is the wealth structure and why?,” Population Studies Center Research Report – University of Michigan (September 2015).
Robert H. Frank, Success and Luck: Good Fortune and the Myth of Meritocracy, Princeton University Press (2016).
Jo Littler, “Meritocracy: the great delusion that ingrains inequality,” The Guardian (20 March 2017).
Premilla Nadasen, “Extreme poverty returns to America,” The Washington Post (21 December 2017).
Marc Silver, “The U.N. looks at extreme poverty in the U.S., from Alabama to California,” NPR (12 December 2017).
François Bourguignon, The Globalization of Inequality, Princeton University Press (2015).
Anthony Atkinson, Inequality: What Can Be Done?, Harvard University Press (2015).
Angus Deaton, The Great Escape: Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality, Princeton University Press (2013).
Libby Nelson, “The new economics Nobel Prize winner’s great explanation for why inequality threatens democracy,” Vox (15 October 2015).
Holger M. Mueller et al, “Wage inequality and growth,” AEA Papers and Proceedings (May 2017).
“The rich v the rest: A rare peep at the finances of Britain’s 0.01%,” The Economist (29 June 2019).
Searn Farrell, “Top pay in UK up by 11% as workers’ wages fail to match inflation,” The Guardian (14 August 2018).
“The bigger, the less fair,” The Economist (14 May 2015).
Ed Pilkington, “Trump turning US into ‘world champion of extreme inequality’, UN envoy warns,” The Guardian (15 December 2017).
“The privileged few: to those that have shall be given,” The Economist (4 October 2015).
Malcolm Maiden, “US in a bind as traditional drivers of economic recovery are broken,” Sydney Morning Herald (14 December 2011).
Thomas Piketty, Capital, Harvard University Press (2014).
Andrew Van Dam, “A record number of folks age 85 and older are working. Here’s what they’re doing.,” The Washington Post (5 July 2018).
Johannes Haushofer & Ernst Fehr, “On the psychology of poverty,” Science 344(6186): 862-867 (23 May 2014).
Abigail A. Sewell, “Live poor, die young,” Nature 545: 286-287 (18 May 2017).
David A. Ansell, The Death Gap, The University of Chicago Press (2017).
“The bottom line,” The Week (16 December 2016).
Bill Chappell Twitter, “U.S. kids far less likely to out-earn their parents, as inequality grows,” NPR (9 December 2016).
“Grammar schools helped to create a more unequal society, research suggests,” Phys.org (29 May 2014).
Adam Nossiter, ” A new generation’s anger resounds from a packed plaza in Paris,” The New York Times (29 April 2016).
“An election in the Philippines: siren song of the strongmen,” The Economist (30 April 2016).
Peter Baker, “Rise of Donald trump tracks growing debate over global fascism,” The New York Times (28 May 2016).
“The bottom line,” The Week (29 July 2016).
Debora MacKenzie, “How inequality is poisoning the world – and how to end it,” New Scientist (13 July 2016).
“National average wage index,” US Social Security Administration (2016).
“Economic mobility is an illusory American dream,” Phys.org (4 February 2015).
“The American dream, RIP?,” The Economist (21 September 2013).
Shai Davidai & Thomas Gilovich, “Building a more mobile America – one economic quintile at a time,” Perspectives on Psychological Science (14 February 2015).
J. Currie & H. Schwandt, “Inequality in mortality decreased among the young while increasing for older adults, 1990–2010,” Science 352(6286): 706-712 (6 May 2016).
“Economic stress played role in increasing U.S. death rate,” ScienceDaily (9 December 2016).
Ron Haskins & Isabel Sawhill, Creating an Opportunity Society, Brookings Institution Press (2009).
Brenda Cronin, “Research confirms you can’t be too rich,” The Wall Street Journal (29 April 2013).
Sabrint Tavernise, “Disparity in life spans of the rich and the poor is growing,” The New York Times (12 February 2016).
Benjamin Austin et al, “Saving the heartland: place-based policies in 21st century America,” Brookings Institute (8 March 2018).
“Keeping up with the Wangs,” The Economist (9 July 2016).
Daniel Gross, “What happened to pay raises?,” The Week (28 July 2017).
“The bottom line,” The Week (24 November 2017).
Annie Lowrey, “Wealth gap among races widened since recession,” The New York Times (28 April 2013).
Michelle Chen, “Inequality is only getting worse,” The Nation (29 December 2016).
Fabian T. Pfeffer & Robert F. Schoeni, “How wealth inequality shapes our future,” The Russell Sage Foundation – Journal of Social Sciences (16 November 2016).
“A world of robber barons,” The Economist (22 February 2014).
“Rich-poor gap and the risk of civil war,” Phys.org (4 June 2014).
Patricia Cohen, “We all have a stake in the stock market, right? Guess again,” The New York Times (8 February 2018).
“Suicide rising across the US,” US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (June 2018).
Amy Ellis Nutt, “Suicide rates rise sharply across the United States, new report shows,” The Washington Post (7 June 2018).
Peter Eavis, “It’s never been easier to be a C.E.O., and the pay keeps rising,” The New York Times (24 May 2019).
Upper Middle Class
Richard Reeves, Dream Hoarders: How the American Upper Middle Class Is Leaving Everyone Else in the Dust, Why That Is a Problem, and What to Do about It, Brookings Institution Press (2017).
Richard V. Reeves, “Stop pretending you’re not rich,” The New York Times (10 June 2017).
“The happy few: why the 20%, and not the 1%, are the real problem,” The Economist (29 June 2017).
Joerg Batan & Christina Mumme, “Does inequality lead to civil wars? A global long-term study using anthropometric indicators (1816–1999),” European Journal of Political Economy 32: 56-79 (December 2013).
“The new age of crony capitalism,” The Economist (15 May 2014).
Anemona Hartocollis, “College admissions: vulnerable, exploitable, and to many Americans, broken,” The New York Times (15 March 2019).
David M. Mayer, “Why rich parents are more likely to be unethical,” The Conversation (6 March 2019).
Middle Class
Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households in 2018, Federal Reserve System (May 2019).
Andrew Van Dam, “Are Americans benefiting from the strong economy — aside from the rich? A Fed report raises questions.,” The Washington Post (23 May 2019).
Danielle Paquette, “Living paycheck to paycheck is disturbingly common: “I see no way out.”,” The Washington Post (28 December 2018).
Roger C. Altman, “Trump was an election surprise. Expect more,” The Washington Post (26 October 2017).
Ed West & Fraser Nelson, “The strange death of the British middle class,” The Spectator (24 August 2013).
Quoctrung Bui, “Where the middle class is shrinking,” The New York Times (12 May 2016).
“British middle class splits in two,” Financial Times (23 February 2014).
Thomas Schulz, “On the way down: the erosion of America’s middle class,” Spiegel (19 August 2010).
Andy Beckett, “Is the British middle class an endangered species?,” The Guardian (24 July 2010).
Lawrence F. Katz & Alan B. Krueger, “Documenting decline in U.S. economic mobility,” Science 356(6336): 382-383 (28 April 2017).
Bernie Sanders, “Democrats need to wake up,” The New York Times (28 June 2016).
Raj Chetty et al, “The fading American dream: trends in absolute income mobility since 1940,” Science 356(6336): 398-406 (28 April 2017).
Glenn Thrush, “Homelessness rises slightly despite strong economy, federal report finds,” The New York Times (17 December 2018).
Sarah Anderson et al, “The souls of poor folk,” Institute For Policy Studies (April 2018).
John Iceland & Erik Hernandez, “Understanding trends in concentrated poverty: 1980–2014,” Social Science Research 62: 75-95 (February 2017).
Laurence Chandy & Cory Smith, “How poor are America’s poorest? U.S. $2 a day poverty in a global context,” Brookings (August 2014).
“Growing isolation of poor helps explain changes in concentrated poverty,” ScienceDaily (14 March 2017).
Anandi Mani et al, “Poverty impedes cognitive function,” Science 341: 976-980 (30 August 2013).
“Researcher finds that poverty’s ‘cognitive cost’ translates to as many as ten IQ points,” Phys.org (23 August 2013).
Anuj K. Shah et al, “Some consquences of having too little,” Science 338: 682-683 (2 November 2012).
“IQ of children in better-educated households is higher,” ScienceDaily (24 March 2015).
“Nearly half of American children living near poverty line,” Phys.org (2 March 2016).
“American children, the poorest in the developed world,” Le Figaro (3 November 2009).
Jason Deparle & Robert M. Gebeloff, “Living on nothing but food stamps,” The New York Times (25 February 2007).
“Child hunger facts,” Feeding America (2015).
Rebecca Klein, “You’ll be shocked by how many kids are too hungry to learn in class,” The Huffington Post (27 August 2013).
David Smith, “US teens often forced to trade sex work for food, study finds,” The Guardian (12 September 2016).
Susan J. Popkin et al, “Impossible choices: teens and food insecurity in America,” Urban Institute (12 September 2016).
Angus Deaton, “The threat of inequality,” Scientific American 315(3):49-53 (September 2016).
Britni Danielle, “By any means necessary? Unemployed black women pretend to be white, job prospects dramatically improve,” Clutch Magazine (29 April 2014).
Steven Greenhouse, “Low-wage workers finding it’s easier to fall into poverty, and harder to get out,” The New York Times (16 March 2014).
“Researcher finds that poverty’s ‘cognitive cost’ translates to as many as ten IQ points,” Phys.org (29 August 2013).
Christopher Deeming & Bina Gubhaju, “The mis-measurement of extreme global poverty: a case study in the Pacific Islands,” Journal of Sociology (10 April 2014).
“Global poverty could be up to a third higher than reported,” ScienceDaily (10 April 2014).
California Farm Workers
Thomas Fuller, “In a California valley, healthy food everywhere but on the table,” The New York Times (23 November 2016).
Hedge Funds
Alexandra Stevenson, “Hedge funds faced choppy waters in 2015, but chiefs cashed in,” The New York Times (10 May 2016).
Alexandra Stevenson & Matthew Goldstein, “Hedge funds struggle with steep losses and high expectations,” The New York Times (28 December 2015).
Andrew Ross Sorkin, “A wish list for fixing Wall Street,” The New York Times (13 May 2008).
Walter Frick, “Big companies are getting stingier,” The Week (24 February 2017).
Brad Reed, “Watch these privileged white Manhattan parents rail against plan to bring kids of color to schools,” Alternet (25 April 2018).
Kuznets Curves
Simon Kuznets, “Modern economic growth: findings and reflections,” Nobel Prize Lecture (11 December 1971).
John Lake Gallup, “Is there a Kunzets curve?,” Portland State University (25 September 2012).
Daron Acemoglu & James A. Robinson, “The political economy of the Kuznets curve,” Review of Development Economics 6(2): 183-203 (2002).
Stuart Macdonald et al, “Measurement or management?: revisiting the productivity paradox of information technology,” Vierteljahrsheffe zur Wirtschaftsforschung 69: 601-617 (1999).
David I. Stern, “The environmental Kuznets curve,” International Society for Ecological Economics (June 2003).
David I. Stern, “The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve,” World Development 32(8): 1419-1439 (2004).
“Equatorial Guinea: palace in the jungle,” The Economist (12 March 2016).
Peter Okwoche, “Equatorial Guinea: inequality sees ‘poverty thrive’,” BBC News (18 February 2015).
Afua Hirsch, “Transparency in Equatorial Guinea,” The Guardian (13 June 2013).
Samuel James, “In Nigeria, oil divides the rich and poor,” Global Post (18 February 2013).
Stephen Ellis, This Present Darkness: A History of Nigerian Organized Crime, Oxford University Press (2016).
“Falling poverty and rising income inequality in Nigeria,” EIU Digital Solutions (16 March 2016).
“The high cost of red tape in Nigeria,” The Economist (24 August 2017).
“Insecurity in Nigeria: fighting on all fronts,” The Economist (2 April 2016).
Femi Asu, “Nigeria’s economy faces danger as inequality rises,” Business Day (10 December 2013).
“Falling poverty and rising income inequality in Nigeria,” The Economist Intelligence Unit (12 September 2014).
“Lagos population in 2017,” WOrld Population Review (26 October 2016).
Claire Provost, “Nigeria expected to have larger population than US by 2050,” The Guardian )(13 June 2013).
Hadassah Egbedi, “Which are the world’s two most polluted cities – and why?,” The Guardian (13 February 2017).
John Vidal & Saeed Kamali Dehghan, “Which are the world’s two most polluted cities – and why?,” The Guardian (12 May 2016).
Marcel Fratzscher, “Germany is no poster child for economic growth,” The Washington Post (27 November 2017).
“UNICEF: 20 percent of children in developed countries living in poverty,” DW (15 June 2017).
“German poverty rising – despite economic growth,” DW (2 March 2017).
Markus M. Grabka et al, “Income inequality remains high in Germany — young singles and career entrants increasingly at risk of poverty,” DIW Economic Bulletin 25: 325-339 (2015).
“The sick man of the euro,” The Economist (3 June 1999).
“A referendum to expropriate apartments from big landlords in Berlin,” The Economist (11 April 2019).
“A new paper finds China more unequal than France but less so than America,” The Economist (16 February 2017).
Regional Discrepancies
“Regional inequality: internal affairs,” The Economist (10 May 2011).
Jared Bernstein et al, “Why the U.S. economy is worse than it seems,” The Washington Post (4 June 2019).
“Economists think antitrust policy should pay more attention to workers,” The Economist (25 October 2018).
“Slave labour props up unexpected parts of Britain’s economy,” The Economist (2 August 2018).
Andrew Van Dam, “Millions of educated, experienced workers have been tossed aside by a strong economy,” The Washington Post (23 July 2018).
Jack Ewing, “Wages are rising in Europe but economists are puzzled,” The New York Times (25 July 2018).
Jeff Stein & Andrew Van Dam, “For the biggest group of American workers, wages aren’t just flat. They’re falling.,” The Washington Post (15 June 2018).
George R. Tyler, What Went Wrong, Benbella Books (2013).
Simon Head, The New Ruthless Economy, Oxford University Press (2003).
Patrick Bayer & Kerwin Kofi Charles, “Divergent paths: A new perspective on earnings differences between black and white men since 1940,” Becker Friedman Institute (June 2018).
“The wage gap between white and black men is growing wider,” The Economist (7 July 2018).
“6 Reasons that pay has lagged behind U.S. Job growth,” The New York Times (1 February 2018).
Jill Treanor, “Warren Buffett: cutting jobs is standard capitalist formula,” The Guardian (8 May 2017).
Nicole Maestas et al, “Working conditions in the United States,” Rand Corporation (2017).
Patricia Cohen, “U.S. Added 313,000 jobs in February. Here’s what that means,” The New York Times (9 March 2018).
“The bottom line,” The Week (11 November 2016).
“Lawmakers are trying to curb contracts that make it harder to change jobs,” The Economist (17 May 2018).
“Suicide: the saddest trend,” The Economist (30 April 2016).
Barak Obama, “The way ahead,” The Economist (8 October 2016).
“Ageing and income: silver-haired in clover,” The Economist (7 May 2016).
Tinne Vander Elst et al, “On the reciprocal relationship between job insecurity and employee well-being: Mediation by perceived control?,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (10 May 2014).
Source for “US % Changes” chart: US Census Bureau.
Jeffrey J. Selingo, “Why are so many students failing to find good jobs after college?,” The Washington Post (16 December 2016).
“The bottom line,” The Week (30 December 2016).
Ben Austen, “End of the road,” Harper’s Magazine (August 2009).
Timothy M. Smeeding, “Poorer by comparison,” Pathways (Winter 2008).
Floyd Norris, “The number of those working past 65 is at a record high,” The New York Times (18 May 2012).
US manufacturing employment from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Ben Spielberg, “The unemployment rate is low. It should be even lower,” The Washington Post (19 March 2018).
Gabor Steingart, “A superpower in decline: America’s middle class has become globalization’s loser,” Der Spiegel (24 October 2006).
Tyler Cowen, “The sad statistic that trumps the others,” The New York Times (20 August 2011).
“Labour pains,” The Economist (2 November 2013).
Elizabeth O. Ananat et al, “Linking job loss, inequality, mental health, and education,” Science 356(6343): 1127-1128 (16 June 2017).
David Wessel, “Big US firms shift hiring abroad,” The Wall Street Journal (29 April 2011).
Kate Bronfenbrenner & Stephanie Luce, “The changing nature of corporate global restructuring: the impact of production shifts on jobs in the US, China, and around the world,” U.S.– China Economic and Security Review Commission (14 October 2004).
“Skill demands and mismatch in U.S. manufacturing,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review (2016).
Phil Ciciora, “Skills gap for US manufacturing workers mostly a myth, paper says,” Phys.org (15 August 2016).
Nancy Folbre, “Super sad true jobs story,” The New York Times (2 May 2011).
Jon Jeter, Flat Broke in the Free Market: How Globalization Fleeced Working People, W.W. Norton & Company (2009).
A.R. Pah et al, “Economic insecurity and the rise in gun violence at US schools,” Nature Human Behavior (2017).
“Shootings in US schools are linked to increased unemployment,” ScienceDaily (30 January 2017).
“France’s new labour problem—skills shortages,” The Economist (8 March 2018).
Eduardo Porter, “Stubborn skills gap in America’s work force,” The New York Times (8 October 2013).
Jonathan Rothwell, “Education, job openings, and unemployment in metropolitan America,” Brookings (August 2012).
Brian C. Theide et al, “America’s working poor: conceptualization, measurement, and new estimates,” Work and Occupations (9 April 2015).
“Most of America’s poor have jobs, study find,” ScienceDaily (25 June 2015).
Peter Cappelli, “Why companies aren’t getting the employees they need,” The Wall Street Journal (24 October 2011).
Jared Bernstein, “Productivity and wages: what’s the connection?,” The Washington Post (14 August 2018).
Christopher Ingraham, “The race for shareholder profits has left workers in the dust, according to new research,” The Washington Post (25 February 2019).
Employment Figures
Michael Klein, “Forget lower jobs growth, the number of people who’ve stopped looking for work is much more worrisome,” The Conversation (7 June 2019).
Patricia Cohen, “U.S. added 250,000 jobs in October; unemployment at 3.7%,” The New York Times (2 November 2018).
US labor force participation rate from the US Department of Labor – Bureau of Labor Statistics (June 2015).
Andrew Van Dam, “Fewer Americans are working. Don’t blame immigrants or food stamps,” The Washington Post (22 February 2018).
“Employment rate: aged 25-54: all persons for the United States,” Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (2015).
“Overview of BLS statistics on unemployment,” US Bureau of Labor Statistics web site (2016).
Sarah Kendzior, “The illusion of full employment,” The Week (6 May 2016).
“The definition of “maximum employment” needs updating,” The Economist (28 January 2017).
Natalie Kitroeff, “Unemployment rate hits 3.9%, A rare low, as job market becomes more competitive,” The New York Times (4 May 2018).
Danielle Paquette, “Unemployment rate falls to 3.9 percent as U.S. economy adds 164,000 jobs,” The Washington Post (4 May 2018).
“Unemployment: long time gone,” The Economist (4 January 2014).
“The Piketty line: how the decline of unions will change America,” The Economist (19 July 2018).
The Economic Value of Skill
“Wages through the ages: what history says about inequality and technology,” The Economist (17 June 2017).
Andrew Van Dam & Heather Long, “How the U.S. economy turned six good jobs into bad ones,” The Washington Post (4 September 2018).
Matt O’Brien, “Job growth has never lasted this long before. Neither has weak wage growth.,” The Washington Post (3 August 2018).
Carl Benedikt Frey, The Technology Trap: Capital, Labor, and Power in the Age of Automation, Princeton University Press (2019).
“Will a robot really take your job?,” The Economist (27 June 2019).
Miriam Jordan, “As immigrant farmworkers become more scarce, robots replace humans,” The New York Times (20 November 2018).
Noam Scheiber, “High-skilled white-collar work? Machines can do that, too,” The New York Times (7 July 2018).
Erik Brynjolfsson & Tom Mitchell, “What can machine learning do? Workforce implications,” Science 358(6370): 1530-1534 (22 December 2017).
Sally Adee, “Robots don’t take people’s jobs – they make new ones,” New Scientist (10 April 2018).
Daron Acemoglu & Pascual Restreop, “Robots and jobs: evidence from us labor markets,” the National Bureau of Economic Research (March 2017).
Clarire Cain Miller, “Evidence that robots are winning the race for American jobs,” The New York Times (28 March 2017).
Karen Harris et al, “Labor 2030: the collision of demographics, automation and inequality,” Bain & Company (7 February 2018).
Catherine Rampell, “Dude, where’s my pay raise?,” The Washington Post (7 May 2018).
“Japan is both obsessed with and resistant to robots,” The Economist (8 November 2018).
“Automation will drive interest rates higher, a new report concludes,” The Economist (3 March 2018).
Stephen Buranyi, “‘Dehumanising, impenetrable, frustrating’: the grim reality of job hunting in the age of AI,” The Guardian (4 March 2018).
“Big data and hiring: robot recruiters,” The Economist (6 April 2013).
Kevin Maney, “Aye, robot!,” Newsweek (9 December 2016).
Olivia Solon, “Robots will eliminate 6% of all US jobs by 2021, report says,” The Guardian (13 September 2016).
“Non-tech businesses are beginning to use artificial intelligence at scale,” The Economist (31 March 2018).
“How AI is spreading throughout the supply chain,” The Economist (31 March 2018).
Bill LaPlante & Katharyn White, “Five myths about artificial intelligence,” The Washington Post (27 April 2018).
“Customer service could start living up to its name,” The Economist (31 March 2018).
“Managing human resources is about to become easier,” The Economist (31 March 2018).
“AI providers will increasingly compete with management consultancies,” The Economist (31 March 2018).
“10 million self-driving cars will be on the road by 2020,” Business Insider (15 June 2016).
Alex Davies, “The Wired guide to self-driving cars,” Wired (18 February 2018).
“The age of smart machines,” The Economist (25 May 2013).
Clyde Selig, America’s Mini-Mill Industry: A Short History Donning Company Publishers (2014).
Claire Cain Miller, “The long-term jobs killer is not China. It’s automation.,” The New York Times (21 December 2016).
John R. Stubbles, “The minimill story,” The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (2009).
Byron Bultsma & Wade Hansen, “Integrated steel mills in the United States” (2006).
John Holusha, “Steel mini-mills could bring boon or blood bath,” The New York Times (30 February 1995).
Lydia Chavez, “The rise of mini-steel mills,” The New York Times (23 September 1981).
Precarious Employment
Rani Molla, “Half of U.S. Uber drivers make less than $10 an hour after vehicle expenses, according to a new study,” Recode (2 October 2018).
“The insecurity of freelance work,” The Economist (14 June 2018).
Danielle Paquette & Heather Long, “America’s gig economy is smaller now than before Uber existed, official data show,” The Washington Post (7 June 2018).
“Contingent and alternative employment arrangements – May 2017,” US Department of Labor Statistics (7 June 2018).
Alina Tugend, “Uncertainty about jobs has a ripple effect,” The New York Times (16 May 2014).
“Precarious work the ‘new normal’,” Phys.org (24 January 2014).
“The future of work: there’s an app for that,” The Economist (3 January 2015).
“The on-demand economy: workers on tap,” The Economist (3 January 2015).
Associated Press, “Uber lost $4.5 billion in 2017, but its revenue jumped,” Los Angeles Times (14 February 2018).
“American workplace is physically and emotionally taxing, survey finds,” ScienceDaily (14 August 2017).
“The bottom line,” The Week (9 March 2018).
Labor Market Fluidity
“Okun’s razor: the benefits of America’s hot economy have been unevenly spread,” The Economist (14 March 2019).
Steven J. Davis & John Haltiwanger, “Labor market fluidity and economic performance,” NBER Working Paper 20479 (September 2014).
“How to rig an economy: occupational licensing blunts competition and boosts inequality,” The Economist (17 February 2018).
Bryce Covert, “When companies supersize, paychecks shrink,” The New York Times (13 May 2018).
Efraim Benmelech et al, “Strong employers and weak employees: how does employer concentration affect wages?,” the National Bureau of Economic Research 24307 (February 2018).
José Azar et al, “Labor market concentration,” SSRN (15 December 2017).
Rachel Abrams, “7 Fast-food chains to end ‘no poach’ deals that lock down low-wage workers,” The New York Times (12 July 2018).
Employment & Inflation
“All work and no pay: Britain’s unemployment is ultra-low, but its wages are ultra-measly,” The Economist (6 September 2018).
Drew Desilver, “For most U.S. workers, real wages have barely budged in decades,” Pew Research Center (7 August 2018).
Heather Long, “In U.S., wage growth is being wiped out entirely by inflation,” The New York Times (10 August 2018).
Jim Tankersley, “Fed raises interest rates and signals additional increase in 2018,” The New York Times (13 June 2018).
“The price of getting back to work,” The Economist (1 February 2014).
Bill Martin, “Is the British economy supply constrained? A critique of productivity pessimism,” Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge (May 2012).
Mark Bils et al, “How sticky wages in existing jobs can affect hiring,” NBER Working Paper 19821 (January 2014).
Guillermo A. Clavo et al, “Labor market, financial crises and inflation: jobless and wageless recoveries,” NBER Working Paper 18480 (June 2014).
Apple Computer
Jack Nicas, “A tiny screw shows why iPhones won’t be ‘assembled in U.S.A.’,” The New York Times (28 January 2019).
Juliette Garside & Charles Arthur, “Workers’ rights ‘flouted’ at Apple iPhone factory in China,” The Guardian (5 September 2013)(.
Charles Duhigg & Keith Bradsher, “How the U.S. lost out on iPhone work,” The New York Times (21 January 2012).
Julliette Garside, “Apple’s factories in China are breaking employment laws, audit find,” The Guardian (29 March 2012).
Richard Bilton, “Apple ‘failing to protect Chinese factory workers’,” BBC News (18 December 2014).
“Bangladesh’s clothing industry: bursting at the seams,” The Economist (26 October 2013).
Gordon Fairclough, “Factory paychecks trump danger, long days for Bangladesh women,” The Wall Street Journal (22 June 2013).
Rana Plaza Collapse
“Corporate social responsibility: disaster at Rana Plaza,” The Economist (4 May 2013).
“Disaster in Bangladesh: rags in the ruins,” The Economist (4 May 2013).
Jason Burke, “Majority of Bangladesh garment factories ‘vulnerable to collapse’,” The Guardian (3 June 2013).
Jim Yardley, “Justice elusive in a Bangladesh factory disaster,” The New York Times (29 June 2013).
The Value of Economics
“Economists focus too little on what people really care about,” The Economist (3 May 2018).
“Schumpeter: the great divergence,” The Economist (12 November 2016).

The Fruits of Civilization
Ecological Impact
Clive Ponting, A New Green History of the World: The Environment and the Collapse of Great Civilizations, Penguin Books (2007).
Donald Worster, Nature’s Economy (Studies in Environment and History), Cambridge University Press (1994).
Noel Simon (editor), Nature in Danger, Oxford University Press (1995).
Paul Ehrlich & Anne Ehrlich, The Dominant Animal, Island Press (2008).
Edward Goldsmith et al, Imperiled Planet, MIT Press (1990).
Vernon Gill Carter & Tom Dale, Topsoil and Civilization, University of Oklahoma Press (1955).
Alexander Koch et al, “Earth system impacts of the European arrival and Great Dying in the Americas after 1492,” Quaternary Science Reviews 207: 13-36 (1 March 2019).
Lauren Kent, “European colonizers killed so many Native Americans that it changed the global climate, researchers say,” CNN (1 February 2019).
Lisa Cox, “Five countries hold 70% of world’s last wildernesses, map reveals,” The Guardian (31 October 2018).
James E.M. Watson et al, “Protect the last of the wild,” Nature (31 October 2018).
Damian Carrington, “Humanity is ‘cutting down the tree of life’, warn scientists,” The Guardian (15 October 2018).
Matt Davis et al, “Mammal diversity will take millions of years to recover from the current biodiversity crisis,” PNAS (15 October 2018).
S. Kathleen Lyons et al, “Holocene shifts in the assembly of plant and animal communities implicate human impacts,” Nature (16 December 2015).
Samantha Mathewson, “Humans and farming: environment was altered long before Industrial Revolution,” Nature World News (28 December 2015).
Nicole L. Boivin et al, “Ecological consequences of human niche construction: examining long-term anthropogenic shaping of global species distributions,” PNAS 113(23): 6388–6396 (7 June 2016).
“‘Pristine’ landscapes haven’t existed for thousands of years due to human activity,” ScienceDaily (6 June 2016).
“Scientists peg Anthropocene to first farmers,” Phys.org (17 December 2015).
Yinon M. Bar-On et al, “The biomass distribution on Earth,” PNAS (21 May 2018).
Damian Carrington, “Humans just 0.01% of all life but have destroyed 83% of wild mammals – study,” The Guardian (21 May 2018).
Kayla Epstein, “‘The Garden of Eden is no more’: David Attenborough issues climate-change warning at Davos,” The Washington Post (22 January 2019).
Christopher Flavelle, “‘Toxic stew’ stirred up by disasters poses long-term danger, new findings show,” The New York Times (15 July 2019).
Easter Island
Easter Island moai ranko raraku (stone statue) photo courtesy of Aurbina.
Jared Diamond, Collapse, Viking (2005).
Robert J. DiNapoli et al, “Rapa Nui (Easter Island) monument (ahu) locations explained by freshwater sources,” PLoS One (10 January 2019).
Nicola Davis, “Easter Island statues: mystery behind their location revealed,” The Guardian (10 January 2019).
Peter Bellwood, The Polynesians – Prehistory of an Island People, Thames and Hudson (1987).
Nafeez Ahmed, “Scientists vindicate ‘Limits to Growth’ – urge investment in ‘circular economy’,” The Guardian (5 June 2014).
Edward Wong, “China’s plan to curb air pollution sets limits on coal use and vehicles,” The Guardian (12 September 2013).
Jonathan Kaiman, “China’s toxic air pollution resembles nuclear winter, say scientists,” The Guardian (25 February 2014).
“Hong Kong suffers worst air pollution in two years,” The Guardian (2 August 2012).
“Pollution in China: clearing the air,” The Economist (11 February 2012).
“Air pollution in China is killing 4,000 people every day, a new study finds,” The Guardian (14 August 2015).
“Beijing raises pollution alert as smog smothers capital,” Nature World News (22 February 2014).
Edward Wong, “In China, breathing becomes a childhood risk,” The New York Times (22 April 2013).
“Heavy pollution hits Shanghai, delaying flights,” Phys.org (6 Decem-ber 2013).
Yuyu Chen, “Evidence on the impact of sustained exposure to air pollution on life expectancy from China’s Huai River policy,” PNAS (8 July 2013).
Richard A. Lovett, “China’s coal burning cutting lives short by years,” Nature News (8 July 2013).
Edward Wong, “Pollution leads to drop in life span in northern China,” The New York Times (8 July 2013).
Jonathan Kaiman, “Chinese struggle through ‘airpocalypse’ smog,” The Guardian (16 February 2013).
Jintai Lin et al, “China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States,” PNAS (21 January 2014).
“Made in China for us: air pollution as well as exports,” UCI News (20 January 2014).
William Wan, “Study: pollution from Chinese factories is harming air quality on U.S. west coast,” The Washington Post (21 January 2014).
Edward Wong, “China exports pollution to U.S., study finds,” The New York Times (20 January 2014).
“Landmark case on lead poisoning in children begins in China,” The Guardian (12 June 2015).
Keith Bradsher, “China tries to clean up toxic legacy of its rare earth riches,” The New York Times (22 October 2013).
Joseph Kahn & Jim Yardley, “As China roars, pollution reaches deadly extremes,” The New York Times (26 August 2007).
Jonathan Watts, “Further anti-pollution riots break out in China,” The Guardian (2 September 2009).
Jonathan Watts, “Chinese villagers storm factory blamed for lead poisoning of 600 children,” The Guardian (17 August 2009).
Edward Wong, “China: confrontation over coal plant enters 3rd day,” The New York Times (22 December 2011).
Jane Perlez, “Waste project is abandoned following protests in China,” The New York Times (28 July 2012).
Andrew Jacobs, “Village revolts over inequities of Chinese life,” The New York Times (14 December 2011).
“Tobacco in China,” World Health Organization (2016).
“China’s cigarette threat,” BBC News (2003).
“China tells local meteorological bureaus to stop smog alerts,” Phys.org (18 January 2017).
Yanqing Xia, “An empirical research on the interactions of China’s energy consumption, pollution emissions and economic growth,” International Journal of Global Energy Issues 35(5): 411–425 (May 2016).
“Climate change: can China clean up fast enough,” The Economist (10 August 2013).
“Seeing red: Chinese women rage about unsafe sanitary towels,” The Economist (5 November 2016).
Edward Wong, “Chinese poultry factory was considered a model,” The Wall Street Journal (4 June 2013).
Te-Ping Chen, “Threat to rice fuels latest Chinese uproar,” The Wall Street Journal (20 May 2013).
Melissa Breyer, “Food fraud: 10 counterfeit products we commonly consume,” Mother Nature Network (4 April 2013).
Peter Foster, “Top 10 Chinese food scandals,” The Telegraph (27 April 2011).
Stanley Lubman, “Why Americans should worry about China’s food safety problems,” The Wall Street Journal (21 May 2013).
“China and the environment: the East is grey,” The Economist (10 August 2013).
Aaron Back & Josh Chin, “Wen urges clean-air action as China’s skies clog again,” The Wall Street Journal (29 January 2013).
Edward Wong, “As pollution worsens in China, solutions succumb to infighting,” The New York Times (21 March 2013).
Fergus Ryan et al, “China explosions: death toll rises to 50 as troops dispatched to assist cleanup,” The Guardian (13 August 2015).
Brian Spegele & Wayne Ma, “China’s pollution fight faces resistance,” The Wall Street Journal (22 January 2013).
Edward Wong, “China lets media report on air pollution crisis,” The New York Times (14 January 2013).
“China’s environmental ministry acknowledges ‘cancer villages’,” Science 339 (1 March 203).
“Climate change: warmed-up numbers,” The Economist (23 June 2012).
Ian Johnson, “China faces ‘very grave’ environmental situation, officials say,” The New York Times (3 June 2011).
Steven Mufson, “Power-sector emissions of China to top U.S.,” The Washington Post (27 August 2008).
“Forest area (% of land area),” The World Bank (2016).
“China admits pollution brought about ‘cancer villages’,” RT News (25 February 2013).
“China: children poisoned by lead and denied treatment,” Human Rights Watch (15 June 2011).
“My children have been poisoned: a public health crisis in four Chinese provinces,” Human Rights Watch (15 June 2011).
Sharon LaFraniere, “Lead poisoning in China: the hidden scourge,” The New York Times (15 June 2011).
Water Quality
Gerry Shih, “After China’s deadly chemical disaster, a shattered region weighs cost of the rush to ‘get rich’,” The Washington Post (31 March 2019).
“A devastating explosion at a factory in China,” The Economist (28 March 2019).
Water Quality
ChaoQing Yu et al, “Managing nitrogen to restore water quality in China,” Nature 567: 516–520 (28 February 2019).
“China has built the world’s largest water-diversion project,” The Economist (5 April 2018).
Chris Buckley & Vanessa Piao, “Rural water, not city smog, may be China’s pollution nightmare,” The New York Times (12 April 2016).
Paul Mozur, “China scrutinizes 2 Apple suppliers in pollution probe,” The Wall Street Journal (4 August 2013).
“Oil company blamed for toxic tap water in China,” Phys.org (12 April 2014).
Ian Taylor, “China’s environmental footprint in Africa,” China Dialogue (2 February 2007).
Tania Branigan, “China ‘wants to set up factories in Africa’,” The Guardian (4 December 2009).
Sean Williams, “Chinese factory accused of poisoning Somaliland water supplies,” The Guardian (2 July 2013).
Chunmiao Zheng & Jie Liu, “Chain’s ‘Love Canal’ moment?,” Science 340: 810 (17 May 2013).
Xuejun Liu et al, “Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China,” Nature (20 February 2013).
Jane Qiu, “Nitrogen pollution soars in China,” Nature News (20 February 2013).
Jonathan Ansfield & Keith Bradsher, “China report shows more pollution in waterways,” The New York Times (9 February 2010).
Jonathan Watts, “Chinese farms cause more pollution than factories, says official survey,” The Guardian (9 February 2010).
Brett Walton, “Chinese farms generate more water pollution than factories,” Circle of Blue (10 February 2010).
Jianguo Liu & Wu Yang, “Water sustainability for China and beyond,” Science 337: 649–650 (10 August 2012).
Pigs Afloat
Nicola Davison, “Rivers of blood: the dead pigs rotting in China’s water supply,” The Guardian (29 March 2013).
Jennifer Duggan, “Dead pigs floating in Chinese river,” The Guardian (17 April 2014).
“China arrests 110 people suspected of selling contaminated port,” The Guardian (11 January 2015).
“Number of dead pigs found in Chinese rivers rises to 16,000,” The Guardian (22 March 2013).
Jonathan Kaiman, “Thousands of dead pigs found floating in Chinese river,” The Guardian (11 March 2013).
“Hundreds more pigs found in Chinese river,” The Guardian (15 March 2013).
Nancy Huehnergarth, “China’s food safety issues worse than you thought,” Food Safety News (11 July 2014).
Tom Phillips, “300 tonnes of diseased pig carcasses — the latest example of China’s pollution crisis,” The Guardian (12 September 2017).
Algae Blooms
Richard Stone, “On Lake Taihu, china moves to battle massive algae blooms,” Yale Environment 360 (21 July 2011).
Karl Mathiesen, “China’s largest algal bloom turns the Yellow Sea green,” The Guardian (4 July 2013).
Jim Yardley, “To save Olympic races, China fights algae,” The New York Times (1 July 2008).
“Photos: algae blankets China beaches; dead zone brewing?,” National Geographic (31 July 2007).
Andrew Jacobs, “With surf like turf, huge algae bloom befouls China coast,” The New York Times (5 July 2013).
Soil Quality
Ruishan Chen et al, “China’s soil pollution: farms on the frontline,” Science 344: 691 (16 May 2014).
Christina Larson, “China gets serious about its pollutant-laden soil,” Science 343: 146–146 (28 March 2014).
Edward Wong, “Good earth no more: soil pollution plagues Chinese countryside,” The New York Times (20 December 2013).
Edward Wong, “Spill in China underlines environmental concerns,” The New York Times (2 March 2013).
“Rare-earth mining in China comes at a heavy cost for local villages,” The Guardian (7 August 2012).
John Vidal, The UK’s new rubbish dump: China,” The Guardian (20 September 2004).
Peter Ford, “China puts up a green wall to US trash,” The Christian Science Monitor (19 June 2013).
Gwynn Guilford, “US states banned from exporting their trash to China are drowning in plastic,” Quartz (21 August 2013).
“70% of annual global e-waste dumped in China,” China.org.cn (24 May 2012).
Xianbing Liu, “Electrical and electronic waste management in China: progress and the barriers to overcome,” Waste Management & Research 24(1): 92–101 (February 2006).
“Waste disposal: keep the fires burning,” The Economist (25 April 2015).
Jonathan Watts, “The clean-up begins on China’s dirty secret – soil pollution,” The Guardian (12 June 2012).
Gao Shengke & Wang Kai, “The houses build on China’s ‘poisoned’ land,” The Guardian (6 June 2013).
Yijun Yao, “Pollution: spend more on soil clean-up in China,” Nature (25 May 2016).
Hong Yang et al, “China’s soil pollution: urban brownfields,” Science 344: 691–692 (16 May 2014).
Air Pollution
State of Global Air/2019, Health Effects Institute (2019).
Fiona Harvey, “Toxic air will shorten children’s lives by 20 months, study reveals,” The Guardian (3 April 2019).
Kai Schultz et al, “As world’s air gets worse, India struggles to breath,” The New York Times (30 October 2018).
Matthew Taylor, “90% of world’s children are breathing toxic air, WHO study finds,” The Guardian (29 October 2018).
Xin Zhang et al, “The impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance,” PNAS (27 August 2018).
Damian Carrington & Lily Kuo, “Air pollution causes ‘huge’ reduction in intelligence, study reveals,” The Guardian (27 August 2018).
Jonathan Watts, “Air pollution inequality widens between rich and poor nations,” The Guardian (1 May 2018).
Jackson G. Lu et al, “Polluted morality: air pollution predicts criminal activity and unethical behavior,” Psychological Science (7 February 2018).
“Polluted air may pollute our morality,” ScienceDaily (7 February 2018).
“Wrapped in smog: something in the air?,” The Economist (19 January 2013).
United States
Chip Jacobs & William Kelly, Smogtown: The Lung-Burning History of Pollution in Los Angeles, Overlook (2008).
“History of smog,” LA Weekly (22 September 2005).
Sarah Gardner, “LA smog: the battle against air pollution,” Marketplace (14 July 2014).
Roger Revelle & Hans E. Suess, “Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO2 during the past decades,” Tellus 9(1):18–27 (February 1957).
President’s Science Advisory Committee, “Restoring the quality of our environment,” US Government Printing Office (1965).
Dana Nuccitelli, “Scientists warned the President about global warming 50 years ago today,” The Guardian (5 November 2015).
Elmer Robinson & R.C. Robbins, “Sources, abundance, and fate of gaseous atmospheric pollutants,” Stanford Research Institute (1968).
Oliver Milman, “Oil industry knew of ‘serious’ climate concerns more than 45 years ago,” The Guardian (13 April 2016).
Neela Banerjee et al, “CO2’s role in global warming has been on the oil industry’s radar since the 1960s,” Inside Climate News (13 April 2016).
Adam Vaughan, “The racist divide in US air pollution,” New Scientist (16 March 2019).
The Anthropocene
Simon L. Lewis & Mark A. Maslin, The Human Planet: How We Created the Anthropocene, Pelican (2018).
Wolfgang Lucht, “Planting the Anthropocene’s roots in globalization,” Nature (6 June 2018).
Giacomo Certini & Riccardo Scalenghe, “Holocene as Anthropocene,” Science 349(6245): 246 (17 July 2015).
Colin N. Waters et al, “The Anthropocene is functionally and strati-graphically distinct from the Holocene,” Science 351(6269): 137 (8 January 2016).
Victoria Jaggard, “Have humans really created a new geologic age?,” Smithsonian (30 September 2014).
“The Anthropocene: a man-made world,” The Economist (26 May 2011).
Gaia Vince, “A sign of our times,” Science 334: 37 (7 October 2011).
Gaia Vince, “A global perspective on the Anthropocene,” Science 334: 34–37 (7 October 2011).
James E. Hansen, “The greenhouse effect: impacts on current global temperature and regional heat waves,” Statement presented to the United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (23 June 1988).
Philip Shabecoff, “Global warming has begun, expert tells Senate,” The New York Times (23 June 1988).
David Corn, “Gore warms up,” The Nation (25 May 2006).
Simon L. Lewis & Mark A. Maslin, “Geological evidence for the Anthropocene,” Science 349(6245): 246 (17 July 2015).
William F. Ruddiman, “Response,” Science 349(6245): 247 (17 July 2015).
Simon L. Lewis & Mark A. Maslin, “Defining the Anthropocene,” Nature (11 March 2015).
“Scientists pinpoint exact date when humans began to dominate Earth,” Nature World News (12 March 2015).
Michael Balter, “Archeologists say the ‘Anthropocene’ is here – but it began long ago,” Science 340: 261–262 (19 April 2013).
Paul Voosen, “Anthropocene pinned to postwar period,” Science 353(6302): 852–853 (26 August 2016).
“Epoch-defining study pinpoints when humans came to dominate planet Earth,” UCL News (11 March 2015).
Jan Zalasiewiz et al, “When did the Anthropocene begin? A mid-twentieth century boundary level is stratigraphically optimal,” Quaternary International (12 January 2015).
William F. Ruddiman et al, “Defining the epoch we live in,” Science 348(6230): 38–39 (3 April 2015).
Richard Monastersky, “Anthropocene: the human age,” Nature (11 March 2015).
Rowan Hooper, “All hail the Anthropocene, the end of Holocene thinking,” New Scientist (13 March 2015).
Capitalist Incentive
“Whistle-stop tour,” The Economist (23 July 2009).
Russell Grantham, “GE chief acknowledges changeover at annual meeting,” Atlanta Journal and Constitution (26 April 2001).
“Clean Up GE” http://cleanupge.org/gemisdeeds.html.
“The history of PCBs,” America Unites for Kids (undated).
“John Flannery could not repair GE’s past mistakes quickly enough,” The Economist (4 October 2018).
Thomas Heath & Jena McGregor, “Larry Culp’s long to-do list to fix GE,” The Washington Post (5 October 2018).
Climate Change
Robin McKie, “We must transform food production to save the world, says leaked report,” The Guardian (4 August 2019).
Jonathan Watts, “‘No doubt left’ about scientific consensus on global warming, say experts,” The Guardian (24 July 2019).
Graham Lawton, “Ancient Earth reveals terrifying consequences of future global warming,” New Scientist (3 July 2019).
Daniel H. Rothman, “Characteristic disruptions of an excitable carbon cycle,” PNAS (8 July 2019).
Jennifer Chu, “Breaching a ‘carbon threshold’ could lead to mass extinction,” Phys.org (8 July 2019).
Fiona Harvey, “One climate crisis disaster happening every week, UN warns,” The Guardian (7 July 2019).
Damian Carrington,”Climate crisis seriously damaging human health, report finds,” The Guardian (3 June 2019).
Jason Samenow, “It was 84 degrees near the Arctic Ocean this weekend as carbon dioxide hit its highest level in human history,” The Washington Post (14 May 2019).
Dmitry Yumashev et al, “Climate policy implications of nonlinear decline of Arctic land permafrost and other cryosphere elements,” Nature Communications (23 April 2019).
Katharine J. Mach et al, “Climate as a risk factor for armed conflict,” Nature 571: 193–197 (11 July 2019).
Lowell D. Stott, “Deep sea carbon reservoirs once superheated the Earth – could it happen again?,” The Conversation (9 May 2019).
Sarah Kaplan, “One of Alaska’s warmest springs on record is causing a dangerous thaw,” The Washington Post (23 April 2019).
Juan C. Rocha et al, “Cascading regime shifts within and across scales,” Science 362(6421): 1379-1383 (21 December 2018).
Jonathan Watts, “Risks of ‘domino effect’ of tipping points greater than thought, study say,” The Guardian (20 December 2018).
Sarah Kaplan & Angela Fritz, “Climate change was behind 15 weather disasters in 2017,” The Washington Post (10 December 2018).
Damian Carrington, “‘Brutal news’: global carbon emissions jump to all-time high in 2018,” The Guardian (5 December 2018).
Brady Dennis & Chris Mooney, “‘We are in trouble.’ Global carbon emissions reached a new record high in 2018.,” The Washington Post (5 December 2018).
Alexandra Witze, “Why extreme rains are gaining strength as the climate warms,” Nature (20 November 2018).
Coral Davenport & Kendra Pierre-Louis, “U.S. climate report warns of damaged environment and shrinking economy,” The New York Times (23 November 2018).
Brady Dennis & Chris Mooney, “Major Trump administration climate report says damages are ‘intensifying across the country’,” The Washington Post (23 November 2018).
Stephen J. Vavrus et al, “Glacial inception in marine isotope stage 19: An orbital analog for a natural holocene climate,” Scientific Reports (5 July 2018).
Kelly April Tyrrell, “Ancient farmers spared us from glaciers but profoundly changed Earth’s climate,” Phys.org (6 September 2018).
Dim Coumou et al, “The influence of Arctic amplification on mid-latitude summer circulation,” Nature Communications (20 August 2018).
Dim Coumou et al, “The weakening summer circulation in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes,” Science 348(6232): 324-327 (17 April 2015).
Jonathan Watts, “Summer weather is getting ‘stuck’ due to Arctic warming,” The Guardian (20 August 2018).
Carolyn Gramling, “More extreme weather tied to humans,” Science News (19 January 2019).
“Climate models fail to simulate recent air-pressure changes over Greenland,” Phys.org (16 October 2018).
Alister Doyle, “Heatwaves, rains may become more severe as weather stalls-study,” Reuters (20 August 2018).
Jeff Tollefson, “Can the world kick its fossil-fuel addiction fast enough?,” Nature (26 April 2018).
Jeff Tollefson, “Carbon’s future in black and white,” Nature 556: 422-425 (26 April 2018).
Justin Gillis, “How high could the tide go?,” The New York Times (21 January 2013).
Carl Sagan & George Mullen, “Earth and Mars: evolution of atmospheres and surface temperatures,” Science 177(4043): 52–56 (7 July 1972).
Minik T. Rosing et al, “No climate paradox under the faint early Sun,” Nature 464: 744–747 (9 February 2010).
Noah J. Planavsky et al, “Evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis half a billion years before the Great Oxidation Event,” Nature Geoscience (23 March 2014).
Tanai Cardona et al, “Origin and evolution of water oxidation before the last common ancestor of the cyanobacteria,” Molecular Biology and Evolution (4 February 2015).
Jena E. Johnson et al, “Manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis before the rise of cyanobacteria,” PNAS 110(28): 11238–11243 (9 July 2013)
Ariel D. Anbar et al, “A whiff of oxygen before the Great Oxidation Event?,” Science 317(5846): 1903–1906 (28 September 2007).
Armen Y. Mulkidjanian et al, “The cyanobacterial genome core and the origin of photosynthesis,” PNAS (21 August 2006).
Rowan Hooper, “Revealing the dawn of photosynthesis,” ,” New Scientist (16 August 2006).
Akiko Tomitani et al, “The evolutionary diversification of cyanobacteria: molecular–phylogenetic and paleontological perspectives,” PNAS (28 March 2006).
Katharine Davis, “Photosynthesis got a really early start,” New Scientist (2 October 2004).
Daniel B. Mills et al, “Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals,” PNAS (18 March 2014).
Michael Marshall, “The history of ice on Earth,” New Scientist (24 May 2010).
William F. Ruddiman, “Late Holocene climate: natural or anthropogenic?,” Reviews of Geophysics (29 December 2015).
“Early agriculture staved off global cooling, mounting evidence suggests,” ScienceDaily (19 January 2016).
Michael E. Mann et al, “Influence of anthropogenic climate change on planetary wave resonance and extreme weather events,” Scientific Reports (27 March 2017).
Chris Mooney, “One of the most troubling ideas about climate change just found new evidence in its favor,” The Washington Post (27 March 2017).
“A warning of future years both hot and dry,” Nature (29 November 2018).
Patrick T. Brown & Ken Caldeira, “Greater future global warming inferred from Earth’s recent energy budget,” Nature (6 December 2017).
Michael Le Page, “Earth’s climate will warm 15% more than we thought,” New Scientist (6 December 2017).
“Expect more deadly heat from climate change, study says,” Phys.org (27 March 2017).
Tom K.R. Matthews et al, “Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress,” PNAS (27 March 2017).
“Draft environmental impact statement,” US Department of Transportation (July 2018).
Juliet Eilperin et al, “Trump administration sees a 7-degree rise in global temperatures by 2100,” The Washington Post (28 September 2018).
Alanna Mitchell, “‘Earthworm dilemma’ has climate scientists racing to keep up,” The New York Times (20 May 2019).
Erin K. Cameron et al, “Modelling interacting effects of invasive earthworms and wildfire on forest floor carbon storage in the boreal forest,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry 88: 189-196 (September 2015).
Ingrid M. Lubbers, “Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms,” Nature Climate Change 3: 187-194 (3 February 2013).
The Mekong River Delta
Mekong River watershed map courtesy of Pfly.
“A damming trend,” ScienceDaily (15 December 2018).
“How the mighty Mekong River dug deep,” Nature (25 October 2018).
“Vietnam’s drying delta: salt of the earth,” The Economist (30 April 2016).
Joacim Rocklöv, “Climate science: misconceptions of global catastrophe,” Nature 532: 317–318 (21 April 2016).
Patrick J. Egan & Megan Mullin, “Recent improvement and projected worsening of weather in the United States,” Nature 532: 357–360 (21 April 2016).
Patrick J. Egan & Megan Mullin, “Global warming feels quite pleasant,” The New York Times (21 April 2016).
bomb illustration courtesy of Nevit Dilmen.
Global Warming
“Greenhouse-gas emissions are increasing the frequency of heatwaves,” The Economist (25 July 2019).
Scott St. George, “The aberrant global synchrony of present-day warming,” Science (24 July 2019).
“Warming climate intensifes summer drought in parts of US,” ScienceDaily (15 July 2019).
Michael G. Jacox, “Marine heatwaves in a changing climate,” Nature (22 July 2019).
Linyin Cheng, “Physical understanding of human-induced changes in u.S. Hot droughts using equilibrium climate simulations,” Journal of Climate (24 June 2019).
Kristina Dahl et al, “Increased frequency of and population exposure to extreme heat index days in the United States during the 21st century,” Environmental Research Communications (16 July 2019).
Andrew Freedman & Jason Samenow, “Widespread, dangerous heat wave to expand across much of the U.S.,” The Washington Post (17 July 2019).
Jonathan Watts, “July on course to be hottest month ever, say climate scientists,” The Guardian (16 July 2019).
Will Steffen et al, “Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene,” PNAS (6 August 2018).
Jason Samenow, “Planet is entering ‘new climate regime’ with ‘extraordinary’ heat waves intensified by global warming, study says,” The Washington Post (11 June 2019).
Jillian Ambrose, “Carbon emissions from energy industry rise at fastest rate since 2011,” The Guardian (11 June 2019).
Jonathan Watts, “Domino-effect of climate events could move Earth into a ‘hothouse’ state,” The Guardian (7 August 2018).
Paul Voosen, “New climate models forecast a warming surge,” Science 364(6437): 222-223 (19 April 2019).
Tapio Schneider et al, “Possible climate transitions from breakup of stratocumulus decks under greenhouse warming,” Nature Geoscience 12: 163-167 (March 2019).
Michael LePage,”Earth could warm by 14°C as growing emissions destroy crucial clouds,” New Scientist (25 February 2019).
Damian Carrington, “‘Worrying’ rise in global CO2 forecast for 2019,” The Guardian (25 January 2019).
Chris Mooney & Brady Dennis, “U.S. greenhouse gas emissions spiked in 2018 — and it couldn’t happen at a worse time,” The Washington Post (8 January 2019).
Brad Plumer, “U.S. carbon emissions surged in 2018 even as coal plants closed,” The New York Times (8 January 2019).
Yangyang Xu et al, “Global warming will happen faster than we think,” Nature (5 December 2018).
Jonathan Watts, “Policies of China, Russia and Canada threaten 5C climate change, study finds,” The Guardian (16 November 2018).
Yann Robiou du Pont & Malte Meinshausen, “Warming assessment of the bottom-up Paris Agreement emissions pledges,” Nature Communications (16 November 2018).
Kerry Sheridan, “Earth risks tipping into ‘hothouse’ state: study,” The Guardian (6 August 2018).
Michael Le Page, “Global warming may become unstoppable even if we stick to Paris target,” New Scientist (6 August 2018).
Will Steffan et al, “Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene,” PNAS (6 August 2018).
“Heat is causing problems across the world,” The Economist (28 July 2018).
Joel Achenbach & Angela Fritz, “Climate change is supercharging a hot and dangerous summer,” The Washington Post (26 July 2018).
Hubertus Fischer et al, “Palaeoclimate constraints on the impact of 2 °C anthropogenic warming and beyond,” Nature Geoscience 11: 474–485 (25 June 2018).
“Global warming may be twice what climate models predict,” ScienceDaily (5 July 2018).
Agence France-Presse, “Climate sensitivity study suggests narrower range of potential outcomes,” The Guardian (17 January 2018).
Carl-Friedrich Schleussner et al, “In the observational record half a degree matters,” Nature Climate Change 7: 460-462 (July 2017).
“Half-a-degree warming boosted extreme weather,” Phys.org (30 June 2017).
Jeeremiah Marsicek et al, “Reconciling divergent trends and millennial variations in Holocene temperatures,” Nature 554: 92-96 (1 February 2018).
“Most of last 11,000 years cooler than past decade in North America, Europe,” ScienceDaily (31 January 2018).
Ethan D. Coffel et al, “Temperature and humidity based projections of a rapid rise in global heat stress exposure during the 21st century,” Environmental Research Letters 13: 014001 (22 December 2017).
Nerilie J. Abram et al, “Early onset of industrial-era warming across the oceans and continents,” Nature 536:411-418 (25 August 2016).
“Humidity may prove breaking point for some areas as temperatures rise, says study,” ScienceDaily (22 December 2017).
C.-F. Schleussner et al, “Differential climate impacts for policy-relevant limits to global warming: the case of 1.5 C and 2 C,” Earth System Dynamics (2015).
Christina Reed, “Climate catastrophe? A half a degree warming could make the difference,” Science (21 April 2016).
Jane Palmer, “Half a degree extra warming would lead to catastrophic impacts,” New Scientist (21 April 2016).
“Slim hopes for Paris climate target,” The Week (18 August 2017).
S. E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick & P. B. Gibson, “Changes in regional heatwave characteristics as a function of increasing global temperature,” Scientific Reports 7:12256 (25 September 2017).
“Summer could be one long heatwave if planet hits 2 degrees Celsius,” ScienceDaily (28 September 2017).
“Two degrees of warming already baked in,” ScienceDaily (31 July 2017).
Anette Saliken, Cocktail Party Guide to Global Warming, Heritage (2009).
Thomas R. Karl & Kevin E. Trenberth, “Modern global climate change,” Science 302(5651): 1719–1723 (5 December 2003).
“Fifth Assessment Report,” Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014).
Gabrielle Walker & David King, The Hot Topic, Harcourt (2008).
“Wasted energy,” Nature 555: 5-6 (1 March 2018).
Damian Carrington, “Sea-level rise ‘could last twice as long as human history’,” The Guardian (8 February 2016).
Marianne Lavelle, “Scientists: global warming likely to surpass 2°c target,” National Geographic (28 February 2014).
“Carbon emissions to impact climate beyond the day after tomorrow,” ScienceDaily (5 August 2013).
Richard E. Zeebe, “Time-dependent climate sensitivity and the legacy of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions,” PNAS (5 August 2013).
Nate McDowell et al, “Drivers and mechanisms of tree mortality in moist tropical forests,” New Phytologist (February 2018).
“Increasing tree mortality in a warming world,” ScienceDaily (09 March 2018).
Carbon Dioxide
Juliet Eilperin & Brady Dennis, “Trump EPA finalizes rollback of key Obama climate rule that targeted coal plants,” The Washington Post (19 June 2019).
“Global carbon dioxide emissions set to rise after three stable years,” Future Earth (November 2018).
“Carbon dioxide levels race past troubling milestone,” ScienceDaily (5 October 2016).
Damian Carrington, “Global carbon dioxide in atmosphere passes milestone level,” The Guardian (10 May 2013).
Plants to the Rescue
Vincent Humphrey et al, “Sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 growth rate to observed changes in terrestrial water storage,” Nature 560: 628–631 (29 August 2018).
“Drought increases CO2 concentration in the air,” Phys.org (30 August 2018).
A. Baccini et al, “Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on aboveground measurements of gain and loss,” Science 358(6360): 230-234 (13 October 2017).
Carolyn Gramling, “Tropical forests have flipped from sponges to sources of carbon dioxide,” Science News(28 September 2017).
“Global warming: Earth’s plants are countering some of the effects of climate change,” The Economist (12 November 2016).
Nicola Davis, “Why Roman concrete still stands strong while modern version decays,” The Guardian (4 July 2017).
Madeleine Rubenstein, “Emissions from the cement industry,” Columbia University Earth Institute (9 May 2012).
“Cement manufacturers: cracks in the surface,” The Economist (27 August 2016).
“Cement technology roadmap 2009,” International Energy Agency (2009).
Michael J. Gibbs et al, “CO2 emissions from cement production,” IPCC (2001).
Lisa J. Hanle et al, “CO2 emissions profile of the US cement industry,” US EPA (2004).
Xiaochi Zhou et al, “Estimation of methane emissions from the U.S. ammonia fertilizer industry using a mobile sensing approach,” Elementa (28 May 2019).
“Fertilizer plants emit 100 times more methane than reported,” ScienceDaily (6 June 2019).
Guillaume Lamarche-Gagnon et al, “Greenland melt drives continuous export of methane from the ice-sheet bed,” Nature 565: 73–77 (2 January 2019).
Ramón A. Alvarez et al, “Assessment of methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain,” Science (21 June 2018).
John Schwartz & Brad Plumer, “The natural gas industry has a leak problem,” The New York Times (21 June 2018).
Steven Mufson, “Methane leaks offset much of the climate change benefits of natural gas, study says,” The Washington Post (21 June 2018).
“Scientists struggle to explain a worrying rise in atmospheric methane,” The Economist (28 April 2018).
Thomas Sumner, “Plot twist in methane mystery blames chemistry, not emissions, for recent rise,” Science News (20 April 2017).
Euan G. Nisbet et al, “Methane on the rise – again,” Science 343: 493–495 (31 January 2014).
Lisa Vielstädte et al, “Shallow gas migration along hydrocarbon wells – an unconsidered, anthropogenic source of biogenic methane in the North Sea,” Environmental Science & Technology 51(17: 10262-10268 (2017).
Stefan Schwietzke et al, “Upward revision of global fossil fuel methane emissions based on isotope database,” Nature (5 October 2016).
“Methane emissions,” US EPA (2014).
“Oil and gas wells as a strong source of greenhouse gases,” ScienceDaily (28 August 2017).
Gilian Schout et al, “Impact of an historic underground gas well blowout on the current methane chemistry in a shallow groundwater system,” PNAS 115(2): 296-301 (26 December 2017).
“Methane emissions higher than thought across much of the US,” ScienceDaily (15 May 2013).
“Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from natural sources,” US EPA (April 2010).
Kirsten Zickfeld et al, “Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases,” PNAS (9 January 2017).
Jennifer Chu, “Short-lived greenhouse gases cause centuries of sea-level rise,” Phys.org (9 January 2017).
Eric A. Kort et al, “Four corners: the largest US methane anomaly viewed from space,” Geophysical Review Letters (9 October 2014).
Stig B. Dalsøren et al, “Discrepancy between simulated and observed ethane and propane levels explained by underestimated fossil emissions,” Nature Geoscience (26 February 2018).
“Oil and gas emissions could far exceed current estimates,” Nature (27 February 2018).
Detlev Helmig et al, “Reversal of global atmospheric ethane and propane trends largely due to US oil and natural gas production,” Nature Geoscience (13 June 2016).
“Global ethane concentrations rising again, says study,” ScienceDaily (14 June 2016).
Richard Harris, “Methane causes vicious cycle in global warming,” NPR (26 January 2016).
“Global meat production and consumption continue to rise,” World-watch Institute (11 October 2011).
“Rising meat consumption takes big bite out of grain harvest,” Earth Policy Institute (22 November 2011).
Felicity Brown, “Meat consumption per capita,” The Guardian (2 September 2009).
“Stopping the big burp,” The Economist (16 January 2016).
The Ozonosphere
Ruth A. Reck, “Stratospheric ozone effects on temperature,” Science 182(4239): 557–559 (7 May 1976).
Darryn W. Waugh et al, “Recent changes in the ventilation of the Southern Oceans,” Science 339(6119): 568–570 (1 February 2013).
“Ozone thinning has changed ocean circulation,” ScienceDaily (31 January 2013).
“Blowing it: illegal production and use of banned CFC-11 in China’s foam blowing industry,” Environmental Investigation Agency (2018).
M. Rigby et al, “Increase in CFC-11 emissions from eastern China based on atmospheric observations,” Nature (22 May 2019).
Joel Achenbach & Brady Dennis, “Mysterious spike of ozone-destroying chemical is traced to east China,” The Washington Post (22 May 2019).
Ralph J. Cicerone et al, “Stratospheric ozone destruction by man-made chlorofluoromethanes,” Science 185(4157): 1165 –1167 (27 September 1974).
Bruce E. Johansen, The Global Warming Desk Reference, Greenwood (2001).
Thomas Midgley Jr.
Fred Pearce, “Inventor hero was a one-man environmental disaster,” New Scientist (7 June 2017).
Alan Bellows, “The ethyl-poisoned Earth,” Damn Interesting (8 December 2007).
Ocean Warming
Damian Carrington, “Heatwaves sweeping oceans ‘like wildfires’, scientists reveal,” The Guardian (4 March 2019).
Kendra Pierre-Louis, “Ocean warming is accelerating faster than thought, new research finds,” The New York Times (10 January 2019).
Lijing Cheng et al, “How fast are the oceans warming?,” Science 363(6423): 128-129 (11 January 2019).
L. Resplandy et al, “Quantification of ocean heat uptake from changes in atmospheric O2 and CO2 composition,” Nature 563: 105–108 (31 October 2018).
Chris Mooney & Brady Dennis, “Startling new research finds large buildup of heat in the oceans, suggesting a faster rate of global warming,” The Washington Post (31 October 2018).
Di Qi et al, “Increase in acidifying water in the western Arctic Ocean,” Nature Climate Change (27 February 2017).
“International team reports ocean acidification spreading rapidly in Arctic Ocean,” Phys.org (27 February 2017).
Tim Wallace, “Oceans are absorbing almost all of the globe’s excess heat,” The New York Times (12 September 2016).
Paul J. Durack et al, “Quantifying underestimates of long-term upper-ocean warming,” Nature Climate Change (5 October 2014).
Gregory C. Johnson & John M. Lyman, “Oceanography: Where’s the heat?,” Nature Climate Change (5 October 2014).
Eli Kintisch, “Past measurements may have missed massive ocean warming,” Science (5 October 2014).
“Seawater off San Diego hits an ‘extraordinary’ record breaking 81.3 degrees Fahrenheit as scientists warn sealife is ‘in peril’,” Daily Mail (15 August 2018).
Thomas Sumner, “Ocean heating doubles,” Science News (20 February 2016).
Peter J. Gleckler et al, “Industrial-era global ocean heat uptake doubles in recent decades,” Nature Climate Change (18 January 2016).
Suzanne Goldenberg, “Warming of oceans due to climate change is unstoppable, say US scientists,” The Guardian (16 July 2015).
Anthony J. Richardson & David S. Schoeman, “Sea animals are more vulnerable to warming than are land ones,” Nature (25 April 2019).
Malin L. Pinsky et al, “Greater vulnerability to warming of marine versus terrestrial ectotherms,” Nature 569: 108-111 (24 April 2019).
Karen Weintraub, “Scientists sample the ocean and find tiny additions to the tree of life,” The New York Times (21 May 2015).
Mridul K. Thomas et al, “A global pattern of thermal adaptation in marine phytoplankton,” Science 338: 1085–1088 (23 November 2012).
Lionel Guidi et al, “Plankton networks driving carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean,” Nature (10 February 2016).
P. Bork et al, “Tara Oceans studies plankton at planetary scale,” Science 348(6237): 873 (22 May 2015).
Shinichi Sunagawa et al, “Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome,” Science 348(6237) (22 May 2015).
Colomban de Vargas et al, “Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean,” Science 348(6237) (22 May 2015).
Gipsi Lima-Mendez et al, “Determinants of community structure in the global plankton interactome,” Science 348(6237) (22 May 2015).
Chris Samoray, “Ocean flora flunk photosynthesis test,” Science News (20 February 2016).
Sara Rivero-Calle et al, “Multidecadal increase in North Atlantic coccolithophores and the potential role of rising CO2,” Science 350(6267): 1533–1537 (18 December 2015).
J.R. Farmer et al, “Deep Atlantic Ocean carbon storage and the rise of 100,000-year glacial cycles,” Nature Geoscience 12: 355-360 (8 April 2019).
“Carbon lurking in deep ocean threw ancient climate switch, say researchers,” Phys.org (8 April 2019).s
“Increased carbon dioxide enhances plankton growth,” ScienceDaily (16 February 2016).
“Arctic found to play unexpectedly large role in removing nitrogen,” Phys.org (26 October 2016).
N.D. McTigue et al, “Biotic and abiotic controls on co-occurring nitrogen cycling processes in shallow Arctic shelf sediments,” Nature Communications (26 October 2016).
Hanzhi Lin et al, “The fate of photons absorbed by phytoplankton in the global ocean,” Science 351(6270): 264–267 (15 January 2016).
Sigrún Huld Jónasdóttir et al, “Seasonal copepod lipid pump promotes carbon sequestration in the deep North Atlantic,” PNAS 112(39): 12122–12126 (29 September 2015).
Gautam Naik, “Rising temperatures harm ocean plant life, research finds,” The Wall Street Journal (28 July 2010).
“Warming oceans imperil iconic marine species,” Phys.org (12 September 2016).
Denis Gilbert, “Environmental science: oceans lose oxygen,” Nature 542: 303–304 (16 February 2017).
Sunke Schmidtko et al, “Decline in global oceanic oxygen content during the past five decades,” Nature 542: 335–339 (16 February 2017).
Oceanic Anoxia
Andrew H. Altieri et al, “Tropical dead zones and mass mortalities on coral reefs,” PNAS (21 March 2017).
“Dead zones may threaten coral reefs worldwide,” ScienceDaily (21 March 2017).
Bastien Y. Queste et al, “Physical controls on oxygen distribution and denitrification potential in the North West Arabian Sea,” Geophysical Research Letters (27 April 2018).
“Growing ‘dead zone’ confirmed by underwater robots in the Gulf of Oman,” Phys.org (27 April 2018).
Patricia Edmonds, “Crustacean assignation,” National Geographic (July 2017).
Deglaciation & Rising Sea Level
D. A. Sutherland et al, “Direct observations of submarine melt and subsurface geometry at a tidewater glacier,” Science 365(6451): 369-374 (26 July 2019).
“Underwater glacial melting is occurring at higher rates than modeling predicts,” Phys.org (25 July 2019).
Adam Morton, “Glacial melting in Antarctica may become irreversible,” The Guardian (9 July 2019).
Regine Hock et al, “GlacierMIP – A model intercomparison of global-scale glacier mass-balance models and projections,” Journal of Glaciology (16 May 2019).
“Melting small glaciers could add 10 inches to sea levels,” ScienceDaily (23 May 2019).
Damian Carrington, “Himalayan glacier melting doubled since 2000, spy satellites show,” The Guardian (19 June 2019).
Nicholas R. Golledge et al, “Global environmental consequences of twenty-first-century ice-sheet melt,” Nature 566: 65–72 (6 February 2019).
Oliver Milman, “Greenland’s ice melting faster than scientists previously thought – study,” The Guardian (21 January 2019).
Claire L. Parkinson, “A 40-y record reveals gradual Antarctic sea ice increases followed by decreases at rates far exceeding the rates seen in the Arctic,” PNAS (1 July 2019).
Damian Carrington, “‘Precipitous’ fall in Antarctic sea ice since 2014 revealed,” The Guardian (1 July 2019).
Damian Carrington, “‘Extraordinary thinning’ of ice sheets revealed deep inside Antarctica,” The Guardian (16 May 2019).
Tamsin L. Edwards et al, “Revisiting Antarctic ice loss due to marine ice-cliff instability,” Nature 566: 58–64 (6 February 2019).
Ben Bronselaer et al, “Change in future climate due to Antarctic meltwater,” Nature 564: 53-58 (19 November 2018).
Luke D. Trusel et al, “Nonlinear rise in Greenland runoff in response to post-industrial Arctic warming,” Nature 564: 104–108 (5 December 2018).
David Parkes & Ben Marzeion, “Twentieth-century contribution to sea-level rise from uncharted glaciers,” Nature 563: 551–554 (21 November 2018).
David J. Wilson et al, “Ice loss from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet during late Pleistocene interglacials,” Nature 561: 383–386 (19 September 2018).
Chris Mooney, “At this rate, Earth risks sea level rise of 20 to 30 feet, historical analysis shows,” The Washington Post (20 September 2018).
The IMBIE Team, “Mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2017,” Nature 558: 219–222 (13 June 2018).
Edward J. Brook & Christo Buizert, “Antarctic and global climate history viewed from ice cores,” Nature 558: 200–208 (13 June 2018).
Kendra Pierre-Louis, “Antarctica is melting more than twice as fast as in 2012, The New York Times (13 June 2018).
Chris Mooney, “Antarctic ice loss has tripled in a decade. If that continues we are in serious trouble.,” The Washington Post (13 June 2018).
Jonathan Watts,”Underwater melting of Antarctic ice far greater than thought, study finds,” The Guardian (2 April 2018).
Hannes Konrad et al, “Net retreat of Antarctic glacier grounding lines,” Nature Geoscience (2 April 2018).
Dewi Le Bars et al, “A high-end sea level rise probabilistic projection including rapid Antarctic ice sheet mass loss,” Environmental Research Letters (2017).
“Sea levels could rise by more than three metres, shows new study,” Phys.org (26 April 2017).
Chelsea Harvey, “One of the last Obama-era climate reports had a troubling update about the rising seas,” The Washington Post (23 January 2017).
Michael Oppenheimer & Richard B. Alley, “How high will the seas rise?,” Science 354(6318): 1375-1377 (16 December 2016).
“GLboal and regional sea level rise scenarios for the United States,” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (January 2017).
Thomas Sumner, “Sea levels could rise twice as fast as previously predicted,” Science News (6 April 2016).
Robert E. Kopp et al, “Temperature-driven global sea-level variability in the Common Era,” PNAS (22 February 2016).
Stefan Lovgren, “Greenland melt may swamp LA, other cities, study says,” National Geographic News (8 April 2004).
Kevin Fleming et al, “Refining the eustatic sea-level curve since the Last Glacial Maximum using far- and intermediate-field sites,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 163(1–4): 327–342 (November 1998).
J.W.B. Rae et al, “CO2 storage and release in the deep Southern Ocean on millennial to centennial timescales,” Nature 562: 569–573 (25 October 2018).
“Sea level,” NASA (October 2015).
“Window to reduce carbon emissions is small, scientists say,” ScienceDaily (11 February 2016).
Peter U. Clark et al, “Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change,” Nature Climate Change (8 February 2016).
Peter U. Clark et al, “The Last Glacial Maximum,” Science 325(5941): 710–714 (7 August 2009).
Carling C. Hay et al, “Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise,” Nature (14 January 2015).
Justin Gillis, “New research may solve puzzle in sea level’s rise,” The New York Times (14 January 2015).
James Hansen et al, “Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2 ºC global warming could be dangerous,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16: 3761–3812 (March 2016).
“Decade of rising seas slowed by land soaking up extra water,” ScienceDaily (11 February 2016).
J.T. Reager et al, “A decade of sea level rise slowed by climate-driven hydrology,” Science 351(6274): 699–703 (12 February 2016).
Robert E. Kopp et al, “Temperature-driven global sea-level variability in the Common Era,” PNAS (22 February 2016).
Robert M. DeConto & David Pollard, “Contribution of Antarctica to past and future sea-level rise,” Nature 531: 591–597 (31 March 2016).
Andy Isaacson, “Into thin ice,” National Geographic 229(1): 98–117 (January 2016).
Justin Gillis, “Seas are rising at fastest rate in last 28 centuries,” The New York Times (22 February 2016).
Warren Cornwell, “Sea ice shrinks in step with carbon emissions,” Science 354(6312): 533–534 (4 November 2016).
American Toxic Sites
Hiroko Tabuchi et al, “Floods are getting worse, and 2,500 chemical sites lie in the water’s path,” The New York Times (6 February 2018).
Polar Warming
Jonathan Watts, “The end of the Arctic as we know it,” The New York Times (7 June 2019).Douglas Fox, “The melting of Antarctica,” National Geographic (July 2017).
“Arctic permafrost thawing faster than ever, US climate study finds,” The Guardian (12 December 2017).
Jonathan Watts, “Arctic warming: scientists alarmed by ‘crazy’ temperature rises,” The Guardian (27 February 2018).
Jennifer Francis, “Is warming in the Arctic behind this year’s crazy winter weather?,” CBS News (11 January 2018).
Q. Coopman et al, “High sensitivity of Arctic liquid clouds to long-range anthropogenic aerosol transport,” Geophysical Research Letters (3 January 2018).
“Arctic clouds highly sensitive to air pollution,” ScienceDaily (3 January 2018).
Chris Mooney, “Warming of the Arctic is ‘unprecedented over the last 1,500 years,’ scientists say,” The Washington Post (12 December 2017).
Jason Samenow, “Arctic temperatures soar 45 degrees above normal, flooded by extremely mild air on all sides,” The Washington Post (22 February 2018).
Chris Mooney, “The Arctic is showing stunning winter warmth, and these scientists think they know why,” The Washington Post (24 December 2016).
Edward Hanna et al, “Can Arctic warming influence UK extreme weather?,” Weather (8 November 2017).
Jennifer A. Francis & Stephen J. Vavrus, “Evidence linking Arctic amplification to extreme weather in mid-latitudes,” Geophysical Research Letters (2012).
James E. Overland et al, “Warm Arctic—cold continents: climate impacts of the newly open Arctic Sea,” Polar Research (29 December 2011).
Thomas Sumner, “Human CO2 emissions put Arctic on track to be ice-free by 2050,” Science News (3 November 2016).
Eric V. Regehr, “Conservation status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to projected sea-ice declines,” Biology Letters (7 December 2016).
Gretel Kauffman, “What’s the future of polar bears? Studies say they may soon be extinct,” The Christian Science Monitor (2 July 2015).
Jane Palmer, “Will polar bears become extinct?,” BBC News (5 November 2014).
Matthew Taylor, “Antarctica’s king penguins ‘could disappear’ by the end of the century,” The Guardian (26 February 2018).
“Deep, old water explains why Antarctic Ocean hasn’t warmed,” Phys.org (30 May 2016).
Kyle C. Armour et al, “Southern Ocean warming delayed by circumpolar upwelling and equatorward transport,” Nature Geoscience 9: 549-554 (30 May 2016).
Eric J. Steig, “Cooling in the Antarctic,” Nature 535: 358-359 (21 July 2016).
Robin McKie, “Scientists discover 91 volcanoes below Antarctic ice sheet,” The Guardian (12 August 2017).
The World in Motion
Alexandra Witze, “Earth’s magnetic field is acting up and geologists don’t know why,” Nature (9 January 2019).
Beth Gardiner, Choked: Life and Breath in the Age of Air Pollution, University of Chicago Press (2019).
Damian Carrington, “Toxic air pollution particles found in human brains,” The Guardian (5 September 2016).
Jane Wakefield, “Tomorrow’s cities: what can be done to improve air quality?,” BBC News (25 January 2017).
Nicholas Rees, “Clear the air for children,” UNICEF (October 2016).
Janet Raloff, “Traffic hydrocarbons linked to lower IQs for kids,” Science News (23 July 2009).
“Exposure to traffic air pollution in infancy impairs lung function,” ScienceDaily (12 October 2012).
“Pollution: 300 million children breathing toxic air – UNICEF report,” UNICEF (31 October 2016).
“Pollution ‘major factor in deaths of 600,000 children every year’: UNICEF,” NDTV (31 October 2016).
Geeta Anand, “300 million children breathe highly toxic air, Unicef report,” The New York Times (30 October 2016).
Germán Plascencia-Villa et al, “High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer’s disease,” Scientific Reports (28 April 2016).
“Obscure truths,” The Economist (16 January 2016).
Lauren Hitching, “Traffic funes cost rich countries $0.8 trillion a year,” New Scientist (28 May 2014).
Kimiko de Freytas-Tamura, “A push for diesel leaves London gasping amid record pollution,” The New York Times (17 February 2017).
Michael Safi, “Delhi’s air pollution is now so bad it is literally off the chart,” The Guardian (15 June 2018).
Geeta Anand, “Farmers’ unchecked crop burning fuels India’s air pollution,” The New York Times (2 November 2016).
Adam Vaughan, “China burns half of coal consumption worldwide, figures show,” The Guardian (30 January 2013).
Ian Urbina, “Piles of dirty secrets behind a model ‘clean coal’ project,” The New York Times (5 July 2016).
Ian Austen, “Technology to make clean energy from coal is stumbling in practice,” The New York Times (29 March 2016).
Yuan Wang et al, “Asian pollution climatically modulates mid-latitude cyclones following hierarchical modelling and observational analysis,” Nature Communications (21 January 2014).
“Ambient air pollution: a global assessment of exposure and burden of disease,” World Health Organization (2016).
“92% of the world’s population exposed to unsafe levels of air pollution,” ScienceDaily (27 September 2016).
Alan Yuhas, “Scientists: air pollution led to more than 5.5 million premature deaths in 2013,” The Guardian (12 February 2016).
Dan Levin, “Study links polluted air in China to 1.6 million deaths a year,” The New York Times (13 August 2015).
“Air pollution levels rising in many of the world’s poorest cities,” World Health Organization (12 May 2016).
“State of the air 2016,” American Lung Association (2016).
Oliver Milman, “More than half US population lives amid dangerous air pollution, report warns,” The Guardian (20 April 2016).
Charlie Cooper, “Air pollution linked to one in 12 deaths in London – and it takes six months off the average Briton’s life expectancy,” The Independent (10 April 2014).
Jon Stone, “Air pollution to blame for 60,000 early deaths per year, Government to be warned,” The Independent (30 November 2014).
John Vidal, “Air pollution in Britain: state-sanctioned mass poison-ing,” The Guardian (14 November 2011).
“The world’s most sacred river—the Ganges—is also one of its dirtiest,” The Economist (28 March 2019).
“Why India is one of the most polluted countries on Earth,” The Economist (6 December 2018).
“Pollution in India: worse than Beijing,” The Economist (12 November 2016).
Jennifer Burney & V. Ramanathan, “Recent climate and air pollution impacts on Indian agriculture,” PNAS (3 November 2014).
Azeen Ghorayshi, “India air pollution ‘cutting crop yields by almost half’,” The Guardian (3 November 2014).
Ross Chainey, “Which is the world’s most polluted city?,” World Economic Forum (25 June 2015).
Shibaji Roychoudhury, “Thirteen of the 20 most polluted cities in the world are Indian,” Quartz (7 December 2014).
Gardiner Harris, “Cities in India among the most polluted, W.H.O. says,” The New York Times (8 May 2014).
Gardiner Harris, “Beijing’s bad air would be step up for smoggy Delhi,” The New York Times (8 May 2014).
Diksha Madhok, “Here is why India has no clue how bad its air pollution problem is,” Quartz (16 October 2014).
Jeffrey Bartholet, “Swept from Africa to the Amazon,” Scientific American 306(2): 44–49 (February 2012).
Janet Raloff, “Ill winds: dust storms ferry toxic agents between countries and even continents,” 160(14): 218–220 Science News (6 October 2001).
Stefan Mulitza et al, “Increase in African dust flux at the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region,” Nature 466: 226–228 (8 July 2010).
Sid Perkins, “Africa’s bumper crop of dust,” Science News 178(3): 14 (31 July 2010).
I. Nagelkerken et al, “Widespread disease in Caribbean sea fans,” Marine Ecology Progress Series 160: 255–263 (1997).
David I. Kline & Steven V. Vollmer, “White Band Disease (type I) of endangered Caribbean acroporid corals is caused by pathogenic bacteria,” Scientific Reports (14 June 2011).
Jaons R. Westrich et al, “Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters,” PNAS (9 May 2016).
“Saharan dust affects marine bacteria, potential pathogen Vibrio: Vibrio can cause serious illness in humans, other marine organisms,” ScienceDaily (9 May 2016).
Gerry Mullany, “Dust storms blanket Beijing and northern China,” The New York Times (5 May 2017).
Josh Haner et al, “Living in China’s expanding deserts,” The New York Times (2017).
Natasha Geiling, “Huge toxic algal bloom shuts down west coast fisheries,” Climate Progress (18 June 2015).
Amanda Schupak, “Toxic algae bloom in Pacific Ocean could be largest ever,” CBS News (17 June 2015).
Dusted Oceans
Sid Perkins, “Dust, the thermostat,” Science News (25 September 2001).
T. Ito et al, “Acceleration of oxygen decline in the tropical Pacific over the past decades by aerosol pollutants,” Nature (16 May 2016).
“Polluted dust can impact ocean life thousands of miles away,” ScienceDaily (16 May 2016).
Aral Sea
Mark Synnott, “Sins of the Aral Sea,” National Geographic (June 2015).
Owens Lake
Kirk Siegler, “Owens Valley salty As Los Angeles water battle flows into court,” NPR (11 March 2013).
Birds & Buildings
Susan Milius, “Stop blaming cats: As many as 988 million birds die annually in window collisions,” The Washington Post (3 February 2014).
Ian Austen, “Casualties of Toronto’s urban skies” The New York Times (27 October 2012).
Christopher Joyce, “A clear and present danger: how glass kills birds,” NPR (8 August 2012).
“Not so eagle eyed: New study reveals why birds collide with man-made objects,” Phys.org (17 March 2011).
Alice Vincent, “Study explains why birds crash into buildings,” Wired (18 March 2011).
Ruth Albert Spencer, “The unbearable noise of the city,” The New York Times (27 July 2012).
Cara Buckley, “Working or playing indoors, New Yorkers face an unabated roar,” The New York Times (19 July 2012).
Susan Milius, “Noise made by humans can be bad news for animals,” Science News (9 February 2015).
Graeme Shannon, “How noise pollution is changing animal behaviour,” Phys.org (18 December 2015).
“Lost in translation: Traffic noise disrupts communication between species,” Phys.org (31 January 2017).
Heidi E. Ware et al, “A phantom road experiment reveals traffic noise is an invisible source of habitat degradation,” PNAS 112(39): 12105–12109 (29 September 2015).
“Parks Service surveys the environment’s accoustical health,” NPR (22 February 2015).
Susan Milius, “Chicks do worse in noisy nests,” Science News (28 February 2012).
Alizée Meillère et al, “Traffic noise exposure affects telomere length in nestling house sparrows,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (16 September 2015).
Ian Sample, “Noise pollution is making us oblivious to the sound of nature, says researcher,” The Guardian (16 February 2015).
Agence France-Presse, “Noisy roads linked to higher stroke risk,” The Guardian (23 June 2015).
Sarah Boseley, “Aircraft noise may increase risk of heart disease, say researchers,” The Guardian (8 October 2013).
Guillaume Huet des Aunaya et al, “Urban noise undermines female sexual preferences for low-frequency songs in domestic canaries,” Animal Behavior 87(1): 67–75 (January 2014).
Caitlin R. Kight & John P. Swaddle, “Eastern bluebirds alter their song in response to anthropogenic changes in the acoustic environment,” Integrative and Comparative Biology (20 August 2015).
“Persist and shout: male bluebirds alter songs to be heard over increased acoustic noise,” Phys.org (21 August 2015).
David A. Luther & Elizabeth P. Derryberry, “Birdsongs keep pace with city life: changes in song over time in an urban songbird affects communication,” Animal Behavior 83(4): 1059–1066 (April 2012).
Marcel Eens et al, “Are low-frequency songs sexually selected, and do they lose their potency in male–female interactions under noisy conditions?,” PNAS (31 January 2012).
Wouter Halfwerk et al, “Low-frequency songs lose their potency in noisy urban conditions,” PNAS (30 August 2011).
Alejandro Ariel Ríos-Chelén, “Bird song: the interplay between urban noise and sexual selection,” Oecologia Australis (January 2009).
Graeme Shannon, “What prairie dogs tell us about the effects of noise pollution,” Phys.org (15 April 2016).
Undersea Noise
“Boat noise stops fish from finding home,” ScienceDaily (28 June 2013).
Sophie Holles et al, “Boat noise disrupts orientation behaviour in a coral reef fish,” Marine Ecology Progress Series 485:295–300 (27 June 2013).
“Motorboat noise gives predators a deadly advantage: the rate that fish are captured by predators can double when boats are motoring nearby,” ScienceDaily (5 February 2016).
Emma Brown, “Marine life needs protection from noise pollution,” Nature News (11 September 2015).
Scott Veirs et al, “Ship noise extends to frequencies used for echolocation by endangered killer whales,” PeerJ (2 February 2016).
Oliver Milman, “Ships’ noise is serious problem for killer whales and dolphins, report finds,” The Guardian (2 February 2016).
William J. Broad, “A rising tide of noise is now easy to see,” The New York Times (10 December 2012).
“Boat noise impacts development, survival of sea hares,” ScienceDaily (31 July 2014).
Christopher Joyce, “Seismic surveys planned off U.S. Coast pose risk to marine life,” NPR (19 February 2018).
Navy Sonar
Janice Malcolm, “Navy ordered to limit sonar use in order to protect marine life,” Inquisitr (11 October 2015).
Julie Watson & Alicia Chang, “Navy to expand sonar testing despite marine-life concerns,” The Seattle Times (16 December 2013).
Jeremy A. Goldbogen et al, “Blue whales respond to simulate mid-frequency military sonar,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (3 July 2013).
Lauren Sommer, “Navy sonar criticized for harming marine mammals,” NPR (26 April 2013).
Kieran Mulvaney, “Navy admits whales and dolphins in harm’s way,” Discovery News (6 July 2012).
“Does military sonar kill marine wildlife?,” Scientific American (10 June 2009).
“Navy sonar and marine mammals,” Navy Office of Information (23 January 2007).
SCOTUS, Winter v. Natural Resources Defense Council (555 U.S. 7) (2008).
Adam Liptak, “Supreme Court rules for Navy in sonar case,” The New York Times (12 November 2008).
Pete Yost, “U.S. Navy wins dispute over sonar, whales,” National Geographic (13 November 2008).
Earth at night photo courtesy of NASA/NOAA.
Christopher C.M. Kyba et al, “Artificially lit surface of Earth at night increasing in radiance and extent,” Science Advances (22 November 2017).
“Light pollution is set to double between now and 2050,” New Scientist (22 November 2017).
Manisha Ganguly, “Loss of the night: light pollution rising rapidly on a global scale,” CNN(24 November 2017).
Benjamin M. Van Doren et al, “High-intensity urban light installation dramatically alters nocturnal bird migration,” PNAS 114(42): 11175-11180 (17 October 2017).
Yun Jeong Kim et al, “High prevalence of breast cancer in light polluted areas in urban and rural regions of South Korea: an ecologic study on the treatment prevalence of female cancers based on National Health Insurance data,” Chronobiology International 32(5): 657-667 (2 September 2014).
Gabor Horvath et al, “Polarized light pollution: a new kind of ecological photopollution,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment (7 January 2009).
Catherine Brahic, “Wildlife confused by polarised light pollution,” New Scientist (8 January 2009).
David Sedlak, Water 4.0, Yale University Press (2015).
Charles Fishman, The Big Thirst: The Secret Life and Turbulent Future of Water, Free Press (2012).
Fred Pearce, When the Rivers Run Dry: Water – The Defining Crisis of the Twenty-first Century, Beacon Press (2007).
Damian Carrington, “Almost all world’s oceans damaged by human impact, study finds,” The Guardian (26 July 2018).
Fiona Harvey, “Heavy metals and harmful chemicals ‘poison Europe’s seas’,” The Guardian (15 May 2019).
“Contamination of European seas continues despite some positive progress,” European Environmetnal Agency (15 May 2019).
Kendall R. Jones et al, “The location and protection status of earth’s diminishing marine wilderness,” Current Biology (26 July 2018).
Anne F.C. Leonard et al, “Is it safe to go back into the water? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk of acquiring infections from recreational exposure to seawater,” International Journal of Epidemiology (26 February 2018).
“Sea swimming increases ailments,” University of Exeter (26 February 2018).
Rich Haridy, “Large meta-study suggests swimming in the sea makes you sick,” New Atlas (27 February 2018).
“Toxic pollutants found in fish across the world’s oceans,” ScienceDaily (28 January 2016).
Raphael A. Lavoie et al, “Mercury transport and human exposure from global marine fisheries,” Scientific Reports (30 April 2018).
Lindsay T. Bonito et al, “Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish,” PeerJ (28 January 2016).
N. De Castro-Catala et al, “Evidence of low dose effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine and the fungicide prochloraz on the behavior of the keystone freshwater invertebrate Gammarus pulex,” Environmental Pollution 231(1): 406-414 (December 2017).
“Cocktail tests on toxic waste called for,” ScienceDaily (16 October 2017).
Ivan Nagelkerken & Sean D. Connell, “Global alteration of ocean ecosystem functioning due to increasing human CO2 emissions,” PNAS (14 October 2015).
“Decreased oxygen levels could present hidden threat to marine species,” Phys.org (14 March 2018).
Manuela Truebano et al, “Short-term acclimation in adults does not predict offspring acclimation potential to hypoxia,” Scientific Reports (16 February 2018).
Denise Breitburg et al, “Declining oxygen in the global ocean and coastal waters,” Science 359(6371) (5 January 2018).
“Ocean acidification means major changes for California mussel,” ScienceDaily (5 January 2018).
“Global marine analysis suggests food chain collapse,” University of Adelaide (12 October 2015).
Brady Dennis, “‘Not a problem you can run away from’: Communities confront the threat of unregulated chemicals in their drinking water,” The Washington Post (2 January 2019).
James J. Winebrake, & James J. Corbett, “The urgency of curbing pollution from ships, explained,” The Conversation (12 April 2018).
Mia Mahmudur Rahim et al, “Regulating global shipping corporations’ accountability for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the seas,” Marine Policy 69:159-170 (July 2016).
Fred Pearce, “How 16 ships create as much pollution as all the cars in the world,” Daily Mail (21 November 2009).
Joel A. Throton et al, “Lightning enhancement over major oceanic shipping lanes,” Geophysical Research Letters (7 September 2017).
“Ship exhaust makes oceanic thunderstorms more intense,” ScienceDaily (7 September 2017).
Julia Rosen, “Ships at sea stoke lightning strike,” Scientific American (17 October 2017).
Marilyn Adams, “Cruise ship pollution fine draws criticism,” USA Today (7 November 2002).
Ian Sample, “Plastics reach remote pristine environments, scientists say,” The Guardian (17 February 2019).
John Meeker, “We are guinea pigs in a worldwide experiment on microplastics,” The Conversation (14 August 2018).
Steve Allen et al, “Atmospheric transport and deposition of microplastics in a remote mountain catchment,” Nature Geoscience (15 April 2019).
Liam Stack, “Ocean-clogging microplastics also pollute the air, study finds,” The New York Times (18 April 2019).
“The known unknowns of plastic pollution,” The Economist (3 March 2018).
“The new plastics economy,” World Economic Forum (January 2016).
Laura Parker, “Plastic,” National Geographic (June 2018).
“It’s not just fish, plastic pollution harms the bacteria that help us breathe,” Phys.org (14 May 2019).
Sasha G. Tetu et al, “Plastic leachates impair growth and oxygen production in Prochlorococcus, the ocean’s most abundant photosynthetic bacteria,” Communications Biology (14 May 2019).
“Microplastics everywhere,” The Week (1 May 2019).
Daniel Victor, “Dead whale found with 88 pounds of plastic inside body in the Philippines,” The New York Times (18 March 2019).
Iliana Magra, “Whale is found dead in Italy with 48 pounds of plastic in its stomach,” The New York Times (2 April 2019).
Eva Alessi et al, Out of the Plastic Trap, World Wide Fund for Nature (2017).
Rachel Hurley, “Microplastic contamination of river beds significantly reduced by catchment-wide flooding,” Nature Geoscience (12 March 2018).
Damian Carrington, “Microplastic pollution in oceans is far worse than feared, say scientists,” The Guardian (12 March 2018).
Jenna R. Jambeck et al, “Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean,” Science 347(6223): 768–771 (13 February 2015).
Beth Mole, “Millions of tons of plastic end up in oceans each year,” Science News (12 February 2015).
Oliver Milman, “Full scale of plastic in the world’s oceans revealed for first time,” The Guardian (10 December 2014).
“Charting the plastic waters,” The Economist (13 December 2014).
Ivana Kottasova, “More plastic than fish in oceans by 2050,” CNN (19 January 2016).
Livia Albeck-Ripka, “The ‘Great Pacific Garbage Patch’ is ballooning, 87,000 tons of plastic and counting,” The New York Times (22 March 2018).
“How plastic wends its way to ocean garbage patches,” Nature (14 March 2019).
L. Lebreton et al, “Evidence that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is rapidly accumulating plastic,” Scientific Reports (22 March 2018).
Oliver Milman, “‘Great Pacific garbage patch’ sprawling with far more debris than thought,” The Guardian (22 March 2018).
Chris Mooney, “Plastic within the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is ‘increasing exponentially,’ scientists find,” The Washington Post (22 March 2018).
Boris Worm, “Silent spring in the ocean,” PNAS 112(38): 11752–11753 (22 September 2015).
Damian Carrington, “Billions of pieces of plastic on coral reefs send disease soaring, research reveal,” The Guardian (25 January 2018).
Joleah B. Lamb et al, “Plastic waste associated with disease on coral reefs,” Science 359(6374): 460-462 (26 January 2018).
Thomas Moore, “Health fears over microplastics in our seafood,” Sky News (25 January 2017).
“An underestimated threat: land-based pollution with microplastics,” ScienceDaily (5 February 2018).
Lauren Tousignant, “If you eat seafood, you are eating thousands of pieces of plastic,” New York Post (25 January 2017).
“Seabirds duped by plastic waste,” Nature (10 September 2015).
Matthew S. Savoca et al, “Marine plastic debris emits a keystone infochemical for olfactory foraging seabirds,” Science Advances (9 November 2016).
Qamar A. Schuyler et al, “Risk analysis reveals global hotspots for marine debris ingestion by sea turtles,” Global Change Biology (14 September 2015).
Sarah Baulch & Clare Perry, “Evaluating the impacts of marine debris on cetaceans,” Marine Pollution Bulletin 80(1–2): 210–221 (15 March 2014).
Peter Davison & Rebecca G. Asch, “Plastic ingestion by mesopelagic fishes in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre,” Marine Ecology (27 June 2011).
Bettina Wassener, “Fish ingsting plastic waste, study finds,” The New York Times (8 July 2011).
Marina Codina-Garcia et al, “Plastic debris in Mediterranean sea-birds,” Marine Pollution Bulletin 77(1–2): 220–226 (25 October 2013).
Chris Wilcox et al, “Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing,” PNAS (31 August 2015).
Fiona Harvey, “Fish mistaking plastic debris in ocean for food, study finds,” The Guardian (16 August 2017).
David Shukman, “Giant plastic ‘berg blocks Indonesian river,” BBC News (19 April 2018).
Rossana Sussarellu et al, “Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics,” PNAS (1 February 2016).
Imogen E. Napper et al, “Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics,” Marine Pollution Bulletin (2015).
Marcus Eriksen et al, “Plastic pollution in the world’s oceans: more than 5 trillion plastic pieces weighing over 250,000 tons afloat at sea,” PLoS One (10 December 2014).
Erik van Sebille et al, “A global inventory of small floating plastic debris,” Environmental Research Letters (8 December 2015).
Chelsea M. Rochman et al, “Anthropogenic debris in seafood: plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption,” Scientific Reports (24 September 2015).
Karl Gruber, “Plastic in the food chain: artificial debris found in fish,” New Scientist (25 September 2015).
Emily J. North & Rolf U. Halden, “Plastics and environmental health: the road ahead,” Reviews on Environmental Health (22 January 2013).
Damian Carrington, “Plastic fibres found in tap water around the world, study reveals,” The Guardian (6 September 2017).
Jessica Glanza, “Sea salt around the world is contaminated by plastic, studies show,” The Guardian (8 September 2017).
“Degrading plastics revealed as source of greenhouse gases,” Phys.org (1 August 2018).
Sarah-Jeanne Royer et al, “Production of methane and ethylene from plastic in the environment,” PLoS One (1 August 2018).
Andrés Cózar et al, “Plastic debris in the open ocean,” PNAS 111(28): 10239–10244 (15 July 2014).
Ashely Yeager, “Plastic trash travels up to Arctic waters,” Student Science (8 November 2015).
Melanie Bergmann et al, “Observations of floating anthropogenic litter in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait, Arctic,” Polar Biology (21 October 2015).
Eric Hand, “Trillions of plastic pieces may be trapped in Arctic ice,” Science (22 May 2014).
Amy L. Lusher et al, “Microplastics in Arctic polar waters: the first reported values of particles in surface and sub-surface samples,” Scientific Reports (8 October 2015).
Marcus Eriksen et al, “Plastic pollution in the world’s oceans: more than 5 trillion plastic pieces weighing over 250,000 tons afloat at sea,” PLoS One (10 December 2014).
Jan-Gunnar Winther, “Environmental challenges in the Polar Regions,” Adjacent Government (16 October 2014).
Matthew J. Hoffman & Eric Hittinger, “Inventory and transport of plastic debris in the Laurentian Great Lakes,” Marine Pollution Bulletin (15 December 2016).
Imogen E. Napper et al, “Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics,” Marine Pollution Bulletin 99(1-2): 178-185 (15 October 2015).
Abel Machado et al, “Microplastics as an emerging threat to terrestrial ecosystems,” Global Change Biology 24(4) (December 2017)(.
“Millions of plastic particles exist in cosmetic products,” ScienceDaily (26 August 2015).
“Ban on microbeads offers best chance to protect oceans, aquatic species,” Oregon State University (16 September 2015).
Brian Stallard, “Ocean pollution: 8 trillion microbeads a day from US,” Nature World News (25 September 2015).
Damian Carrington, “Plastic fibres found in tap water around the world, study reveals,” The Guardian (6 September 2017).
Henderson Island
Jennifer L. Lavers & Alexander L. Bond, “Exceptional and rapid accumulation of anthropogenic debris on one of the world’s most remote and pristine islands,” PNAS (15 May 2017).
Amy B. Wang, “No one lives on this remote Pacific island — but it’s covered in 38 million pieces of our trash,” The Washington Post (16 May 2017).
Austin Ramzy, “A remote pacific island awash in tons of trash,” The New York Times (16 May 2017).
David A. Kroodsman et al, “Tracking the global footprint of fisheries,” Science 359(6378): 904-908 (23 February 2018).
“Improving the ocean: getting serious about overfishing,” The Economist (27 May 2017).
Alkaly Doumbouya et al, “Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring control and surveillance of illegal fishing: the case of West Africa,” Frontiers in Marine Science (7 March 2017).
“Fishing: unbalancing the scales,” The Economist (16 July 2016).
Dirk Zeller et al, “Global marine fisheries discards: A synthesis of reconstructed data,” Fish and Fisheries (26 June 2017).
“Ten million tons of fish wasted every year despite declining fish stocks,” ScienceDaily (26 June 2017).
Malin L. Pinsky et al, “Unexpected patterns of fisheries collapse in the world’s oceans,” PNAS (17 March 2011).
Gwyneth DIckey Zakaib, “Overfishing hits all creatures great and small,” Nature (3 May 2011).
The Editorial Board, “China wants fish, so Africa goes hungry,” The New York Times (3 May 2017).
“One-quarter of grouper species being fished to extinction,” ScienceDaily (9 May 2012).
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“Fisheries factsheet,” The Humane Society of the United States (25 September 2009).
John Hocevar, “12 (not so) fun facts about overfishing,” Greenpeace (19 August 2013).
Carmel Finley, All the Boats on the Ocean: How Government Subsidies Led to Global Overfishing, University of Chicago Press (2017).
Margaret Goud Collins, “Fisheries science: sea change,” Science 355(6329): 1030 (10 March 2017).
Christopher Costello et al, “Status and solutions for the world’s unassessed fisheries,” Science 338(616): 517–520 (26 October 2012).
Francisco Ramirez et al, “Climate impacts on global hot spots of marine biodiversity,” Science Advances 3(2) (1 February 2017).
“Still waters: the global fish crisis,” National Geographic (April 2007).
Michael Parfit, “Diminishing returns,” National Geographic (November 1995).
Arnold H. Taylor, The Dance of Air and Sea, Oxford University Press (2011).
“Patagonian Toothfish,” Greenpeace (26 August 2003).
Juliet Eilperin, “Down on the farm, more and more fish,” The Washington Post (20 September 2009).
Jennifer Levitz, “Duel erupts on the high seas,” The Wall Street Journal (24 October 2013).
“Trawling for trouble,” The Economist (16 April 2016).
“How China’s trawlers are emptying Guinea’s oceans,” BBC News (8 July 2016).
“Dolphin killings rise in Peru due to Asia shark fin sales,” Phys.org (19 October 2013).
Jesse R. Zaneveld et al, “Overfishing and nutrient pollution interact with temperature to disrupt coral reefs down to microbial scales,” Nature Communications (7 June 2016).
“A thousand cuts,” The Economist (13 February 2016).
Douglas J. McCauley et al, “Marine defaunation: animal loss in the global ocean,” Science 347(6219) (16 January 2015).
Carl Zimmer, “Ocean life faces mass extinction, broad study says,” The New York Times (15 January 2015).
Antarctic krill photo courtesy of Uwe Kils.
Matthew Taylor, “Decline in krill threatens Antarctic wildlife, from whales to penguins,” The Guardian (14 February 2018).
Emily S. Klein et al, “Impacts of rising sea temperature on krill increase risks for predators in the Scotia Sea,” PLoS One (31 January 2018).
Andrea Thompson, “Krill are disappearing from Antarctic waters,” Scientific American (29 August 2016).
David Jeans, “‘Krill is the power lunch of the Antarctic’: but now the decline in numbers of the tiny crustaceans caused by climate change is killing penguins,” Daily Mail (21 April 2016).
S. Kawaguchi et al, “Risk maps for Antarctic krill under projected Southern Ocean acidification,” Nature Climate Change (7 July 2013).
Andrea Pinones & Alexey V. Fedorov, “Projected changes of Antarctic krill habitat by the end of the 21st century,” Geophysical Research Letters (16 August 2016).
Rolf Schuttenhelm, “Rapid krill decline: 80% over 35 years,” Bits of Science (13 April 2011).
Coral Reefs
Adam Vaughan, “The Great Barrier Reef is losing its ability to recover from bleaching,” New Scientist (3 April 2019).
“Coral crisis,” National Geographic 234(2) (August 2018).
Brian E. Lapointe et al, “Nitrogen enrichment, altered stoichiometry, and coral reef decline at Looe Key, Florida Keys, USA: a 3-decade study,” Marine Biology (15 July 2019).
“Thirty years of unique data reveal what’s really killing coral reefs,” ScienceDaily (15 July 2019).
M.V.W. Cuttler et al, “Response of a fringing reef coastline to the direct impact of a tropical cyclone,” Limnology and Oceanography (19 February 2018).
“Coral reefs protect coasts from severe storms,” ScienceDaily (3 April 2018).
Ben Smee, “Great Barrier Reef: 30% of coral died in ‘catastrophic’ 2016 heatwave,” The Guardian (18 April 2018).
Terry P. Hughes et al, “Global warming transforms coral reef assemblages,” Nature (18 April 2018).
Terry P. Hughes et al, “Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene,” Science 359(6371): 80-83 (5 January 2018).
Brad Plumer & Kendra Pierre-Louis, “Global warming’s toll on coral reefs: as if they’re ‘ravaged by war’,” The New York Times (5 January 2018).
“The window for saving the world’s coral reefs is rapidly closing,” ScienceDaily (4 January 2018).
Brigitte Sommer et al, “Local and regional controls of phylogenetic structure at the high-latitude range limits of corals,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (23 August 2017).
M.V.W Cuttler et al, “Response of a fringing reef coastline to the direct impact of a tropical cyclone,” Limnology and Oceanography (19 February 2018).
“Coral reefs protect coasts from severe storms,” ScienceDaily (3 April 2018).
Rebecca Albright et al, “Carbon dioxide addition to coral reef waters suppresses net community calcification,” Nature 555: 516-519 (22 March 2018).
Jeffrey B. McQuaid et al, “Carbonate-sensitive phytotransferrin controls high-affinity iron uptake in diatoms,” Nature 555: 534-537 (22 March 2018).
“Sub-tropical corals vulnerable, new study shows,” Phys.org (23 August 2017).
“Corals in hot water,” New Scientist (25 February 2017).
“Shallow reefs teeter on the brink,” New Scientist (1 April 2017).
John M. Pandolfi et al, “Projecting coral reef futures under global warming and ocean acidification,” Science 333: 418–422 (22 July 2011).
Christopher Knaus & Nick Evershed, “Great Barrier Reef at ‘terminal stage’: scientists despair at latest coral bleaching data,” The Guardian (9 April 2017).
Glenn De’ath et al, “The 27–year decline of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its causes,” PNAS 109(44): 17995–17999 (30 October 2012).
Don R. Levitan et al, “Long-term reduced spawning in Orbicella coral species due to temperature stress,” Marine Ecology Progress Series 515: 1–10 (November 2014).
Rebecca Albright et al, “Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification,” Nature (24 February 2016).
“Ocean acidification slowing coral reef growth, study confirms,” The Guardian (24 February 2016).
C. Mark Eakin et al, “Caribbean corals in crisis: record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005,” PLoS One (15 November 2010).
Melissa Gaskill, “Coral bleaching goes from bad to worse,” Nature (19 November 2010).
Dennis Normile, “El Niño’s warmth devastating reefs worldwide,” Science 352(6281): 15–16 (1 April 2016).
“El Niño prolongs longest global coral bleaching event,” ScienceDaily (23 February 2016).
John P. Rafferty, “Severe bleaching strikes Great Barrier Reef,” Encyclopedia Britannica (21 March 2016).
Damien Cave & Justin Gillis, “Large sections of Australia’s great reef are now dead, scientists find,” The New York Times (15 March 2017).
Terry P. Hughes et al, “Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals,” Nature (15 March 2017).”
Livia Albeck-Ripka, “The Great Barrier Reef Was seen as ‘too big to fail.’ A study suggests it isn’t.,” The New York Times (4 April 2019).
Terry P. Hughes et al, “Global warming impairs stock–recruitment dynamics of corals,” Nature (3 April 2019).
“Worst bleaching on record for Great Barrier Reef,” Phys.org (29 March 2016).
Mila Zinkova, “Corals moving north,” Science News (21 January 2011).
Hiroya Yamano et al, “Rapid poleward range expansion of tropical reef corals in response to rising sea surface temperatures,” Geophysical Research Letters (17 February 2011).
Paul R. Muir et al, “Limited scope for latitudinal extension of reef corals,” Science 348(6239): 1135–1337 (5 June 2015).
“Coral reefs threatened by a deadly combination of changing ocean conditions,” ScienceDaily (7 January 2015).
Thomas M. DeCarlo et al, “Coral macrobioerosion is accelerated by ocean acidification and nutrients,” Geology (14 November 2014).
J. Silverman et al, “Community calcification in Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef: a 33 year perspective,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 144: 72–81 (1 November 2014).
Mohsen Kayal et al, “Predator crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) outbreak, mass mortality of corals, and cascading effects on reef fish and benthic communities,” PLoS One (8 October 2012).
“Coral-killing starfish decimate entire coral reefs, reason for spread unclear,” ScienceDaily (1 February 2013).
Molly A. Timmers et al, “There’s no place like home: crown-of-thorns outbreaks in the central Pacific are regionally derived and independent events,” PLoS One (17 February 2012).
M. Carreiro-Silva et al, “Effects of inorganic nutrients and organic matter on microbial euendolithic community composition and micro-bioerosion rates,” Marine Ecology Progress Series 392: 1–15 (2009).
Miriam Weber et al, “Mechanisms of damage to corals exposed to sedimentation,” PNAS (21 May 2012).
Kathyrn Patterson Sutherland et al, “Human pathogen shown to cause disease in the threatened eklhorn coral Acropora palmate,” PLoS One (17 August 2011).
Gisela Telis, “Human excrement to blame for coral decline,” Science (17 August 2011).
Lester Kwiatkowski et al, “Caribbean coral growth influenced by anthropogenic aerosol emissions,” Nature Geoscience (7 April 2013).
R.D. Norris et al, “Marine ecosystem responses to Cenozoic global change,” Science (2 August 2013).
The Chinese in the South China Sea
“How a Chinese fishing fleet creates facts on the water,” The Economist (23 March 2017).
“Rejuvenating reefs,” The Economist (13 February 2016).
The Americans in South Florida
“US only barrier reef severely damaged by million dollar Miami Port dredging project,” Nature World News (3 May 2016).
Lizette Alvarez, “Dredging of Miami port badly damaged coral reef, study finds,” The New York Times (1 May 2016).
Richard Schiffman, “Plankton can save the ocean. But who will save the plankton?,” New Scientist (8 March 2017).
Oliver N. Ross & Jonathan Sharples, “Swimming for survival: a role of phytoplankton motility in a stratified turbulent environment,” Journal of Marine System 70(3-4): 248-262 (April 2008).
Laruen Morello, “Phytoplankton population drops 40 percent since 1950,” Scientific American (29 July 2010).
Weniger Suerstoff, “Global ocean de-oxygenation quantified,” Geomar (15 February 2017).
Anupam Sengupta et al, “Phytoplankton can actively diversify their migration strategy in response to turbulent cues,” Nature (15 March 2017).
Stephanie Dutkiewicz et al, “Impact of ocean acidification on the structure of future phytoplankton communities,” Nature Climate Change (20 July 2015).
Daniel Padfield, et al, “Rapid evolution of metabolic traits explains thermal adaptation in phytoplankton,” Ecology Letters (26 November 2015).
Michael J. Behrenfeld, “Climate-mediated dance of the plankton,” Nature Climate Change (25 September 2014).
Sindya N. Bhanoo, “Phytoplankton on decline in Southern Ocean,” The New York Times (30 March 2015).
“Plankton decline across oceans as waters warm,” BBC News (28 July 2010).
David Gutierrez, “Phytoplankton in decline across world’s oceans,” Natural News (2 April 2011).
“Phytoplankton decline,” California Academy of Sciences (28 July 2010).
Meike Vogt, “Adrift in an ocean of change,” Science 350:6267: 1466-1467 (18 December 2015).
Kelton W. McMahon et al, “Millennial-scale plankton regime shifts in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean,” Science 350:6267: 1530-1533 (18 December 2015).
Sara Rivero-Calle et al, “Multidecadal increase in North Atlantic coccolithophores and the potential role of rising CO2,” Science 350:6267: 1533-1537 (18 December 2015).
Daniel G. Boyce et al, “Global phytoplankton decline over the past century,” Nature (9 June 2010).
Catherine Brahic, “Warming oceans produce less phytoplankton,” New Scientist (6 December 2006).
The Deep Ocean
Alan J. Jamieson et al, “Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in the deepest ocean fauna,” Nature Ecology & Evolution (13 February 2017).
“Banned chemicals from the ’70s found in the deepest reaches of the ocean,” Newcastle University (13 February 2017).
Damian Carrington, “‘Extraordinary’ levels of pollutants found in 10km deep Mariana trench,” The Guardian (13 February 2017).
Andrew K. Sweetman et al, “Major impacts of climate change on deep-sea benthic ecosystems,” Elementa (23 February 2017).
Nicola Davis, “Deep sea life faces dark future due to warming and food shortage,” The Guardian (23 February 2017).
Steven Solomon, Water, Harper Perennial (2010).
Hamish D. Pritchard, “Asia’s shrinking glaciers protect large populations from drought stress,” Nature (3 June 2019).
“European waters: assessment of status and pressures 2018,” European Environment Agency (July 2018).
Arthur Nelsen, “Most of Europe’s rivers and lakes fail water quality tests – report,” The Guardian (3 July 2018).
Natasha Gilbert, “World’s rivers ‘awash with dangerous levels of antibiotics’,” The Guardian (27 May 2019).
Fiona Harvey, “Water shortages to be key environmental challenge of the century, Nasa warns,” The Guardian (16 May 2018).
“Water scarcity: liquidity crisis,” The Economist (5 November 2016).
Patrick W. Keys et al, “Megacity precipitationsheds reveal tele-connected water security challenges,” PLoS One (13 March 2018).
“World’s largest cities depend on evaporated water from surrounding lands,” Phys.org (13 March 2018).
Cornelia Dean, “Plenty of water, but little to drink,” The New York Times (7 October 2013).
David Soll, Empire of Water: An Environmental and Political History of the New York City Water Supply, Cornell University Press (2013).
Yue Qin et al, “Flexibility and intensity of global water use,” Nature Sustainability (3 June 2019).
“Combination of water scarcity and inflexible demand puts world’s river basins at risk,” Phys.org (3 June 2019).
Peter H. Gleick (editor), Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World’s Fresh Water Resources, Oxford University Press (1993).
“Aquifers: deep waters, slowly drying up,” The Economist (7 October 2010).
“Vital water graphics,” United Nations Environment Programme (2008).
“Water use in the United States,” The USGS Water Science School (2 May 2016).
“Water use by sectors,” European Environment Agency (18 February 2008).
“Un-habitat: number of slum dwellers grows to 863 million,” Cordaid (10 February 2014).
Michael E. Webber, “Will drought cause the next blackout?,” The New York Times (23 July 2012).
Sara Reardon, “Thirsty clean energy may add to water stressed world,” New Scientist (19 July 2013).
Nichole Abrashinsky, “Domestic use of water,” Water is Life web site (Spring 2004).
Mesfin M. Mekonnen & Arjen Y. Hoekstra, “Four billion people facing severe water scarcity,” Science Advances 2:e1500323 (12 February 2016).
Jan Eliasson, “The rising pressure of global water shortages,” Nature 517: 6 (1 January 2015).
John Vidal, “Global threat to food supply as water wells dry up, warns top environment expert,” The Guardian (6 July 2013).
Tom Gleeson et al, “Water balance of global aquifers revealed by groundwater footprint,” Nature 488: 197–200 (9 August 2012).
“Global freshwater consumption crossing its planetary boundary,” ScienceDaily (16 June 2015).
Richard Taylor, “When wells run dry,” Nature 516: 179-180 (11 December 2014).
“Earth’s biggest groundwater basins are in trouble,” Nature World News (17 June 2015).
Fernando Jaramillo & Georgia Destouni, “Developing water change spectra and distinguishing change drivers worldwide,” Geophysical Research Letters (5 December 2014).
Fernando Jaramillo & Georgia Destouni, “Comment on ‘Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet,'” Science 348(6240): 1217-1218 (12 June 2015).
Fiona Harvey, “Global majority faces water shortages ‘within two generations’,” The Guardian (24 May 2013).
Richard Damania et al, “High and dry: climate change, water, and the economy,” World Bank (2016).
Suzanne Goldenberg, “Global water shortages to deliver ‘severe hit’ to economies, World Bank warns,” The Guardian (3 May 2016).
John Vidal, “Global threat to food supply as water wells dry up, warns top environment expert,” The Observer (6 July 2013).
Quirin Schiermeier, “Water risk as world warms,” Nature 505: 10–11 (2 January 2014).
J.S. Famiglietti, “The global groundwater crisis,” Nature Climate Change (29 October 2014).
The Great Lakes
Dan Egan, The Death and Life of the Great Lakes W.W. Norton & Company (2017).
Anna M. Michalak, “Troubled waters on the Great Lakes,” Nature 543: 488-489 (23 March 2017).
John Tierney, “Fresh and direct from the garden an ocean away,” The New York Times (29 August 2011).
Mine Tailings Storage
“A Brazilian tragedy is a Deepwater Horizon moment. Sort of,” The Economist (31 January 2019).
Julian D. Olden et al, “Dam collapse at Brazilian mine exposes grave safety problems,” The Conversation (29 January 2019).
Dom Phillips, “Brazil dam collapse: 10 bodies found and hundreds missing,” The Guardian (26 January 2019).
Charles Roche et al, “Mine tailings storage: safety is no accident,” United Nations Environment Programme (2017).
Jose Olivares, “U.N. body alarmed over mining waste disasters,” NPR (2 December 2017).
Tap Water in America
Maura Allaire et al, “National trends in drinking water quality violations,” PNAS (12 February 2018).
Brad Plumer & Nadja Popovich, “Here are the places that struggle to meet the rules on safe drinking water,” The New York Times (12 February 2018)>
Nancy M. Trautmann & Keith S. Porter, “Pesticides: health effects in drinking water,” Cornell University (2012).
Mitch Smith, “Flint water prosecutors drop criminal charges, with plans to keep investigating,” The New York Times (13 June 2019).
Mark Peplow, “The Flint water crisis: how citizen scientists exposed poisonous politics,” Nature (6 July 2018).
Anna Clark, The Poisoned City: Flint’s Water and the American Urban Tragedy, Metropolitan (2018).
Brady Davis, “Flint residents must start pa in for water they still can’t drink without a filter,” The Washington Post (28 February 2017).
Cedric Taylor, “Michigan says Flint water is safe to drink, but residents’ trust in government has corroded,” The Conversation (4 May 2018).
Irwin Redlener, “We still haven’t made things right in Flint,” The Washington Post (8 March 2018).
“A timeline of the water crisis in Flint, Michigan,” StarTribune (20 April 2016).
Monica Davey & Mitch Smith “2 Flint ex-emergency managers charged over tainted water,” The New York Times (20 December 2016).
Ed White, “Ex-Michigan official gets probation in Flint water probe,” Associated Press (13 March 2017).
Joanna Walters, “Flint mayor declares ‘manmade disaster’ over lead-tainted water supply,” The New York Times (15 December 2015).
Monica Davey, “Flint officials are no longer saying that water is fine,” The New York Times (7 October 2015).
Charles M. Blow, “The poisoning of Flint’s water,” ,” The New York Times (21 January 2016).
Mark Brush, “Expert says Michigan officials changed a Flint lead report to avoid federal action,” Michigan Radio (5 November 2015).
Lindsey Smith, “After ignoring and trying to discredit people in Flint, the state was forced to face the problem,” Michigan Radio (16 December 2015).
Editorial Board, “Depraved indifference toward Flint,” The New York Times (22 January 2016).
Matt Latimer, “Republicans ignore a poisoned city,” The New York Times (21 January 2016).
Oliver Milman & Ryan Felton, “Flint water crisis: Michigan officials ignored EPA warnings about toxicity,” The Guardian (3 February 2016).
Editorial Board, “Michigan’s failure to protect Flint,” The New York Times (20 January 2016).
Ryan Felton, “Flint water crisis was ‘environmental injustice’, governor’s taskforce finds,” The Guardian (23 March 2016).
Julie Bosman et al, “As water problems grew, officials belittled complaints from Flint,” The New York Times (20 January).
Joanna Walter, “Flint water crisis: governor’s brand of corporate politics set stage for disaster,” The Guardian (21 January 2016).
Amanda Emery, “Two state DEQ workers arraigned on criminal charges in Flint water crisis,” M Live (20 April 2016).
Liam Stack, “Lead levels in Flint water drop, but residents still can’t drink it,” The New York Times (24 January 2017).
“Poisoned water: that Flinty taste,” The Economist (23 January 2016).
Jessica Glenza, “Philadelphia’s water-testing procedures are ‘worse than Flint’ – expert,” The Guardian (28 January 2016).
Oliver Milman & Jessica Glenza, “At least 33 US cities used water testing ‘cheats’ over lead concerns,” The Guardian (2 June 2016).
“Flint lead crisis adds up to $395 million in social costs,” ScienceDaily (8 August 2016).
Peter Muennig, “The social costs of lead poisonings,” Health Affairs 35(8): 1545 (August 2016).
Jim Robbins, “Hordes of geese die on a toxic lake in Montana,” The New York Times (12 December 2016).
Bottled Water
“Take back the tap: the big business hustle of bottled water,” Food & Water Watch (March 2018).
Wenonah Hauter, “Bottled water, brought to you by fracking?,” Alternet (14 March 2018).
“What a bottled-water habit means for intake of ‘microplastics’,” Nature (11 June 2019).
California’s Central Valley
“Water supply: difference engine: from torrent to trickle,” The Economist (4 October 2013).
Larissa Watkins et al, “Monitoring change in agricultural land and water usage in California’s central valley using geospatial techniques,” GSA Annual Meeting (28 September 2016).
“California’s almond boom has ramped up water use, consumed wetlands and stressed pollinators,” Phys.org (27 September 2016).
Patricia Leigh Brown, “The problem is clear: the water is filthy,” The New York Times (13 November 2012).
Twilight Greenaway, “Tapped out: water in California’s farm country is dangerously polluted,” Grist.org (13 March 2012).
Eli Moore & Eyal Matalon, “The human costs of nitrate-contaminated drinking water in the San Joaquin valley,” Pacific Institute (March 2011).
Mike Gaworecki, “Confirmed: California aquifers contaminated with billions of gallons of fracking wastewater,” Desmog (7 October 2014).
Felicity Barringer, “Why federal efforts to ensure clean tap water fail to reach faucets nationwide,” The New York Times (10 May 2013).
California Going Dry
“California must ration water to avoid drought disaster,” New Scientist (18 March 2015).
“California has about one year of water stored. Will you ration now?,” The Los Angeles Times (12 March 2015).
Thomas Sumner, California drought worst in at least 1,200 years,” Science News (6 December 2014).
Henry Fountain, “California’s cycles of drought,” The New York Times (13 April 2015).
Ian Lovett, “California braces for unending drought,” ,” The New York Times (9 May 2016).
Laruen Gambino, “California restricts water as snowpack survey finds ‘no snow whatsoever’,” The Guardian (1 April 2015).
Jack Healy & Adam Nagourney, “Californians who conserved wonder if state can overcome those who didn’t,” The New York Times (2 April 2015).
Adam Nagourney & Ian Lovett, “In sharp reversal, California suspends water restrictions,” The New York Times (18 May 2016).
Marc Reisner, Cadillac Desert, Viking (1986).
Thomas Fuller, “California, parched for 5 years, is now battered by water,” The New York Times (18 February 2017).
Erin McCann, “California braces for more rain. how bad can it get?,” The New York Times (20 February 2017).
Julia Rosen, “California rains put spotlight on atmospheric rivers,” Science (24 February 2017).
Ivana Cvijanovic et al, “Future loss of Arctic sea-ice cover could drive a substantial decrease in California’s rainfall,” Nature Communications (5 December 2017).
“Future arctic sea ice loss could dry out California,” ScienceDaily (5 December 2017).
Rasmus A. Pedersen et al, “The Impact of regional Arctic sea ice loss on atmospheric circulation and the NAO,” Journal of Climate (21 January 2016).
Henry Fountain, “In a warming California, a future of more fire,” The New York Times (7 December 2017).
Jennifer Medina & Richard Perez-Pena, “California fires live updates: homes burn in Los Angeles and Ventura County,” The New York Times (6 December 2017).
California Fire web site: http://www.fire.ca.gov/current_incidents (December 2017).
Henry Fountain, “A hot, dry winter in california. Could it be drought again?,” The New York Times (13 February 2018).
Nigel Dudley & Sasha Alexander, et al, “Global land outlook,” United Nations (2017).
Bruce Bower, “Earliest evidence of fire making in Europe found,” Science News (2 June 2016).
Naama Goren-Inbar et al, “Evidence of hominin control of fire at Gesher Benot Ya`aqov, Israel,” Science 304, 725 (2004).
Roger LeB. Hooke, “On the history of humans as geomorphic agents,” Geology 28(9): 843–846 (2000).
Jenna Iacurci, “Leaving our mark: the age of humans,” Nature World News (14 October 2014).
Oscar Venter et al, “Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation,” Nature Communications (23 August 2016).
“New map shows alarming growth of the human footprint,” James Cook University (25 August 2016).
Roger LeB. Hooke & José F. Martín-Duque, “Land transformation by humans: a review,” GSA Today 22(12): 4–10 (December 2012).
Helmut Haberl et al, “Quantifying and mapping the human appropriation of net primary production in earth’s terrestrial ecosystems,” PNAS 104(31): 12942–12947 (31 July 2007).
David K. Wright, “Humans as agents in the termination of the African humid period,” Frontiers in Earth Science (26 January 2017).
“Did humans create the Sahara desert?,” ScienceDaily (14 March 2017).
Hanqin Tian et al, “The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere,” Nature (9 March 2016).
Marlee A. Tucker et al, “Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements,” Science 359(6374): 466-469 (26 January 2018).
Jim Robbins, “Animals are losing their vagility, or ability to roam freely,” The New York Times (19 February 2018).
Erin McCormick et al, “Where does your plastic go? Global investigation reveals America’s dirty secret,” The Guardian (17 June 2019).
“A Chinese ban on rubbish imports is shaking up the global junk trade,” The Economist (29 September 2018).
“Emerging economies are rapidly adding to the global pile of garbage,” The Economist (29 September 2018).
“The poor world and the rich world face different problems with their waste,” The Economist (29 September 2018).
“Serious efforts are being made to clean up the oceans,” The Economist (29 September 2018).
Kevin Sieff, “The world is drowning in ever-growing mounds of garbage,” The Washington Post (21 November 2017).
Ann M. Simmons, “The world’s trash crisis, and why many Americans are oblivious,” Los Angeles Times (22 April 2016).
Paul Muggeridge, “Which countries produce the most waste?,” World Economic Forum (20 August 2015).
Hari Kumar & Kai Schultz, “‘The dump killed my son’: mountains of garbage engulf India’s capital,” The New York Times (10 June 2018).
Eric Zerkel, “Trash cities: the world’s worst garbage problems,” The Weather Channel (30 June 2014).
Space Junk
Alexandra Witze, “The quest to conquer Earth’s space junk problem,” Nature (6 September 2018).
Ian Sample, “Moon buggies and bags of poo: what humans left on the moon,” The Guardian (19 July 2019).
Richard Woldendorp et al, The World of Mining, CRC Press (2011).
Martin Lynch, Mining in World History, Reaktion Books (2004).
Michael Coulson, The History of Mining, Harriman House (2012).
“Mining impacts,” Greenpeace (15 April 2010).
Meg Leta Jones, The Strip Mining Handbook (13 August 2009).
Ian C. Runge, Mining Economics and Strategy, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (2003).
James Whyte, “Mining Explained: Discovery, Extraction, Refining, Marketing, Investing”, The Nothern Miner (2007).
Emily S. Bernhardt et al, “How many mountains can we mine? Assessing the regional degradation of central appalachian rivers by surface coal mining,” Environmental Science & Technology 46 (15): 8115–8122 (2012).
“One in five streams damaged by mine pollution in southern West Virginia,” ScienceDaily (30 July 2012).
Zoë Carpenter, “Big coal is bankrupt. Who will pay to clean up its mess?,” The Nation (21 March 2016).
Alistair Macdonald & Edward Welsch, “Next frontier: mining minerals in the deep sea,” The Wall Street Journal (4 June 2012).
Philip J. Landrigan, “Lead and the heart: an ancient metal’s contribution to modern disease,” The Lancet (12 March 2018).
Geoffrey Lean, “Lead is even deadlier than we feared as the full extent of its toxic effects are revealed,” The Guardian (17 March 2018).
“Paint it black: the menace of lead poisoning,” The Economist (24 February 2018).
“Effects of lead on the environment,” Lead Action News 1(2) (Winter 1993).
“Learn about lead,” US Environmental Protection Agency (undated).
“Lead toxicity: what are the physiologic effects of lead exposure?,” Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (20 August 2012).
Steven Lee Myers, “China experiences a fracking boom, and all the problems that go with it,” The New York Times (8 March 2019).
Pathikrit Bhattacharya & Robert C. Viesca, “Fluid-induced aseismic fault slip outpaces pore-fluid migration,” Science 364(6439): 464-468 (3 May 2019).
“Fracking: Earthquakes are triggered well beyond fluid injection zones,” ScienceDaily (2 May 2019).
Andrew J. Kondash et al, “The intensification of the water footprint of hydraulic fracturing,” Science Advances (15 August 2018).
“Water use for fracking has risen by up to 770 percent since 2011,” Phys.org (15 August 2018).
Thea Hincks et al, “Oklahoma’s induced seismicity strongly linked to wastewater injection depth,” Science 359(6381): 1251-1255 (16 March 2018).
Roger Howard, “Is the U.S. fracking boom a bubble,” Newsweek (14 July 2014).
Russell Gold, The Boom: How Fracking Ignited the American Energy Revolution and Changed the World, Simon & Schuster (2014).
Alex Prud’homme, Hydrofracking: What Everyone Needs to Know, Oxford University Press (2013).
Russell Gold, “Fracking gives U.S. energy boom plenty of room to run,” The Wall Street Journal (14 September 2014).
David E. Newton, Fracking : a reference handbook, ABC-CLIO (2015).
Michelle Bamberger, The Real Cost Of Fracking : How America’s Shale-Gas Boom Is Threatening Our Families, Pets, And Food, Beacon Press (2014).
Richard Heinberg, Snake Oil : How Fracking’s False Promise Of Plenty Imperils Our Future, Post Carbon Institute (2013).
Gary Sernovitz, The Green And The Black : The Complete Story Of The Shale Revolution, The Fight Over Fracking, And The Future Of Energy, St. Martin’s Press (2016).
Sara Souther et al, “Biotic impacts of energy development from shale: research priorities and knowledge gaps,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12: 330–338 (August 2014).
Aimee Cunningham, “Fracking linked to low birth weight in Pennsylvania babies,” Science News (13 December 2017).
“Oil drills and spill,” The New York Times (29 November 2014).
Kevin Begos, “4 states confirm water pollution from drilling,” USA Today (5 January 2014).
Margie Alt, “The scary facts about fracking,” Huffpost Green (31 October 2013).
Carol Davenport, “Reversing course, E.P.A. says fracking can contaminate drinking water,” The New York Times (13 December 2016).
L. Blair Paulik et al, “Impact of natural gas extraction on PAH levels in ambient air,” Environmental Science & Technology (26 March 2015).
“Fracking may affect air quality, human health,” Nature World News (13 May 2015).
Stephen G. Osborn et al, “Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing,” PNAS 108(20): 8172–8176 (17 May 2011).
Ian Urbina, “One tainted water well, and concern there may be more,” The New York Times (3 August 2011).
Jenna Iacurci, “Some fracking fluids toxic to mammals,” Nature World News (14 August 2013).
Andy Coghlan, “Fracking operations triggered 100 quakes a year,” Science News (19 August 2013).
Won-Young Kim, “Induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into a deep well in Youngstown, Ohio,” Journal of Geophysical Research (19 July 2013).
Jeff Tollefson, “Is fracking behind contamination in Wyoming ground-water,” Nature News (4 October 2012).
Ryan Tracy, “Energy companies faulted on fracturing,” The Wall Street Journal (31 January 2011).
Jenna Iacurci, “Fracking flowback may lead to contaminated ground-water,” Nature World News (26 June 2014).
Kimberly M. Parker et al, “Enhanced formation of disinfection byproducts in shale gas wastewater-impacted drinking water supplies,” Environmental Science & Technology (9 September 2014).
Erik Stokstad, “Will fracking put too much fizz in your water?,” Science 344: 1468–1471 (27 June 2014).
Devon Renock et al, “Reductive weathering of black shale and release of barium during hydraulic fracturing,” Applied Geochemistry 65: 73–76 (February 2016).
“Fracking plays active role in generating toxic metal wastewater, study finds,” ScienceDaily (15 December 2015).
Oliver Milman, “Scientists find fracking contaminated Wyoming water after EPA halted study,” The Guardian (7 April 2016).
“Toxins found in fracking fluids and wastewater, study shows,” ScienceDaily (6 January 2016).
Elise G Elliott et al, “A systematic evaluation of chemicals in hydraulic-fracturing fluids and wastewater for reproductive and develop-mental toxicity,” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (6 January 2016).
Coral Davenport, “Fracking has not had big effect on water supply, E.P.A. says while noting risks,” The New York Times (4 June 2015).
Matthew Carroll, “New technique shows shale-drilling additives in drinking water taps near leak,” Penn State (4 May 2015).
Jenna Iacurci, “Treating fracking wastewater is still toxic,” Nature World News (26 September 2014).
“Chemicals from shale drilling discovered in Pennsylvania tap water,” Nature World News (5 May 2015).
Nick Stockton, “Fracking’s problems go deeper than water pollution,” Wired (18 June 2015).
Suzanne Goldberg, “A Texan tragedy: ample oil, no water,” The Guardian (11 August 2013).
“Hydraulic fracturing & water stress,” Ceres (2013).
Erica Barth-Naftilan et al, “Spatial and temporal trends in freshwa-ter appropriation for natural gas development in Pennsylvania’s Marcellus Shale Play,” Geophysical Research Letters (6 August 2015).
Fiona Harvey, “Water shortages may make fracking impractical, industry says,” The Guardian (27 November 2013).
Suzanne Goldberg, “Fracking is depleting water supplies in America’s driest areas, report shows,” The Guardian (5 February 2014).
Suzanne Goldberg, “Fracking produces annual toxic waste water enough to flood Washington DC,” The Guardian (4 October 2013).
Elizabeth Ridlington & John Rumpler, “Fracking by the numbers: key impacts of dirty drilling at the state and national level,” Environment America (October 2013).
Robert B. Jackson et al, “Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction,” PNAS 110(28): 11250–11255 (9 July 2013).
Julia Rosen, “Pumped up to rumble,” Science 348(6241): 1299 (19 June 2015).
Thomas H. W. Goebel & Emily E. Brodsky, “The spatial footprint of injection wells in a global compilation of induced earthquake sequence,” Science 361(6405) 899-904 (31 August 2018).
M. Weingarten et al, “High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity,” Science 348(6241): 1336–1340 (19 June 2015).
K.M. Keranen et al, “Sharp increase in central Oklahoma seismicity since 2008 induced by massive wastewater injection,” Science Xpress (3 July 2014).
“Distant quakes trigger tremors at U.S. waste-injection sites,” The Earth Institute, Columbia University (11 July 2013).
Suzanne Goldenberg, “Oklahoma earthquakes linked to fracking wastewater wells, study says,” The Guardian (3 July 2014).
“US states confront worries about fracking, quakes,” Phys.org (26 June 2014).
Henry Fountain, “Experts eye oil and gas industry as quakes shake Oklahoma,” The New York Times (12 December 2013).
Justin L. Rubinstein et al, “The 2001-present induced earthquake sequence in the Raton basin of Northern New Mexico and Southern Colorado,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 104(5): 2162–2181 October (2014).
Emily Brodsky, “Injecting wastewater underground can cause earthquakes up to 10 kilometers away,” The Conversation (30 August 2018).
“Wastewater injection is culprit for most quakes in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico,” Phys.org (15 September 2014).
Cliff Frohlich, “Two-year survey comparing earthquake activity and injection-well locations in the Barnett Shale, Texas,” PNAS (6 August 2012).
“Correlation between injection wells and small earthquakes discovered,” ScienceDaily (6 August 2012).
Michael Wines, “Earthquakes in Oklahoma raise fears of a big one,” The New York Times (7 January 2016).
Huw Clarke et al, “Felt seismicity associated with shale gas hydraulic fracturing: the first documented example in Europe,” Geophysical Research Letters (11 December 2014).
“Fracking caused rare earthquake felt in Ohio,” Nature World News (6 January 2015).
Ryan Schultz et al, “Hydraulic fracturing and the crooked lake sequences: insights gleaned from regional seismic networks,” Geophysical Research Letters (23 April 2015).
Smauel A. Flewelling et al, “Hydraulic fracture height limits and fault interactions in tight oil and gas formations,” Geophysical Research Letters (26 July 2013).
Richard A. Kerr, “NRC committee finds that humans are trigger quakes,” Science Insider (15 June 2012).
“Fracking quake,” The Week (16 September 2016).
Suzanne Goldberg, “Fracking hell: what it’s really like to live next to a shale gas well,” The Guardian (13 December 2013).
Suzanne Goldberg, “Fracking: environmental groups sue EPA in call for strict rules on waste,” The Guardian (4 May 2016).
Matthew Daly, “EPA: no widespread harm to drinking water from fracking,” Medical Express (4 June 2015).
Deborah Sontag & Robert Gebeloff, “The downside of the boom,” The New York Times (22 November 2014).
“The future of driving: seeing the back of the car,” The Economist (22 September 2012).
“Driving: the road less travelled,” The Economist (22 September 2012).
“Environmental impacts from automobiles,” US EPA (undated).
“The environmental impact of cars and trains,” Carbusters (11 December 2011).
Nick M. Haddad, “Corridors for people, corridors for nature,” Science 350(6265): 166-1167 (4 December 2015).
“Buying guide – car environmental impact,” National Geographic (undated).
Ben Guraino, “Salt from icy roads is contaminating North America’s lakes,” The Washington Post (10 April 2017).
R.T.T. Forman, “Estimate of the area affected ecologically by the road system in the United States,” Conservation Biology 14(1): 31–35 (2000).
“Roadways,” The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency (2016).
Jean-Paul Rodrigue, “The environmental impacts of transportation,” in The Geography of Transport Systems, Routledge (2013).
“Global status report on road safety 2015,” World Health Organization (2015).
Laurel Hamers, “When bogs burn, the environment takes a hit,” Science News (6 March 2018).
XiaoZhi Lim, “Vast peat fires threaten health and boost global warming,” Scientific American (28 June 2016).
Katrina Marsden & Susanna Ebmeier, “Peatlands and climate change,” The Scottish Parliament (20 April 2012).
Andrew C. Revkin, “The fire down below,” The New York Times (20 August 2010).
Michael Williams, Deforesting the Earth, The University of Chicago Press (2006).
John Perlin, A Forest Journey, The Countryman Press (2005).
Jonathan Watts, “Amazon deforestation accelerating towards unrecoverable ‘tipping point’,” The Guardian (25 July 2019).
Steven Lee Myers, “China’s voracious appetite for timber stokes fury in Russia and beyond,” The New York Times (9 April 2019).
Philip G. Curtis et al, “Classifying drivers of global forest loss,” Science 361(6407): 1108-1111 (14 September 2018).
“Neolithic Man: the first lumberjack?,” ScienceDaily (9 August 2012).
Henry Fountain, “Vikings razed the forests. Can Iceland regrow them?,” The New York Times (20 October 2017).
“Global forest resources assessment 2015,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2015).
“Forests may lose ability to protect against extremes of climate change, study finds,” Phys.org (30 June 2018).
Kimberley Davis et al, “Microclimatic buffering in forests of the future: the role of local water balance,” Ecography (21 June 2018).
William McConnell & Christian Kull, “Deforestation in Madagascar: debates over the island’s forest cover and challenges of measuring forest change,” in Conservation and Environmental Management in Madagascar, Ivan R. Scales (editor), Routledge (2014).
Franziska Taubert et al, “Global patterns of tropical forest fragmentation,” Nature 554: 519-522 (22 February 2018).
M. Pfeifer et al, “Creation of forest edges has a global impact on forest vertebrates,” Nature (1 November 2017).
Ryan M. Bright et al, “Local temperature response to land cover and management change driven by non-radiative processes,” Nature Climate Change (27 March 2017).
Catharine Paddock, “Forests fight global warming in ways more important than previously understood: Trees’ role extends beyond carbon consumption, study find,” ScienceDaily (30 March 2017).
C. Schwitzer et al, “Averting lemur extinctions amid Madagascar’s political crisis,” Science 343(6173): 842-843 (21 February 2014).
William J. McConnell & Christian A. Kull, “Protecting lemurs: Madagascar’s forests,” Science 344: 358 (25 April 2014).
“Wood consumption,” Resource Conservation Alliance (2013).
Matthew G. Betts et al, “Global forest loss disproportionately erodes biodiversity in intact landscapes,” Nature 547: 441–444 (27 July 2017).
Michael Slezak, “Mammals in fragmented forests die out within 25 years,” New Scientist (26 September 2013).
Luke Gibson et al, “Near-complete extinction of native small mammal fauna 25 years after forest fragmentation,” Science 341: 1508–1510 (27 September 2013).
Carl Zimmer, “In fragmented forests, rapid mammal extinctions,” The New York Times (26 September 2013).
Barry Bearak, “Shaky rule in Madagascar threatens trees,” The New York Times (24 May 2010).
Stephen J. Burns et al, “Rapid human-induced landscape transformation in Madagascar at the end of the first millennium of the Common Era,” Quaternary Science Reviews 134: 92–99 (15 February 2016).
Patrick Roberts et al, “The deep human prehistory of global tropical forests and its relevance for modern conservation,” Nature Plants (3 August 2017).
“Humans have been altering tropical forests for at least 45,000 years,” Phys.org (3 August 2017).
P.W. Richards, The Tropical Rain Forest, Cambridge University Press (1973).
Kemen G. Austin et al, “Trends in size of tropical deforestation events signal increasing dominance of industrial-scale drivers,” Environmental Research Letters (9 May 2017).
“Larger swaths of tropical forest being lost to commercial agriculture,” ScienceDaily (9 may 2017).
Peter M. Cox et al, “Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model,” Nature 408: 184–187 (9 November 2000).
John Vidal, “Rate of deforestation in Indonesia overtakes Brazil, says study,” The Guardian (29 June 2014).
John Vidal, “Indonesia’s forest fires feed ‘brown cloud’ of pollution choking Asia’s cities,” The Guardian (22 March 2014).
Nick Kirkpatrick, “Singapore disappears into a thick haze caused by Indonesian fires,” The Washington Post (25 September 2015).
“A world on fire,” The Economist (27 February 2016).
Randy Lee Loftis, “Smoke from wildfires is killing hundreds of thousands of people,” National Geographic (29 October 2015).
K.T. Tuff et al, “A framework for integrating thermal biology into fragmentation research,” Ecology Letters (19 February 2016).
“Temperature changes wreak ecological havoc in deforested areas, study finds,” ScienceDaily (23 February 2016).
Amazon Rainforest
Letícia Casado & Ernesto Londoño, “Under Brazil’s far right leader, Amazon protections slashed and forests fall,” The New York Times (28 July 2019).
Anthony Faiola, Marina Lopes, Chris Mooney, “The price of ‘progress’ in the Amazon,” The Washington Post (28 June 2019).
Adriane Esquivel-Muelbert et al, “Compositional response of Amazon forests to climate change,” Global Change Biology (8 November 2018).
“Amazon forests failing to keep up with climate change,” ScienceDaily (8 November 2018).
Thomas E. Lovejoy & Carlos Nobre, “Amazon tipping point,” Science Advances (21 February 2018).
“Amazon deforestation is close to tipping point,” ScienceDaily (19 March 2018).
Henrique O. Sawakuchi et al, “Carbon dioxide emissions along the lower Amazon River,” Frontiers in Marine Science 4(76) (March 2017).
“Researchers find human impact on Amazon Rainforest still evident after 500 years,” Popular Archaelogy (18 January 2018).
Ke Zhang et al, “The fate of Amazonian ecosystems over the coming century arising from changes in climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use,” Global Change Biology (12 May 2015).
Rong Fu et al, “Increased dry-season length over southern Amazonia in recent decades and its implication for future climate projection,” PNAS (21 October 2013).
C. Levis et al, “Persistent effects of pre-Columbian plant domestication on Amazonian forest composition,” Science (3 March 2017).
Charles R. Clement et al, “The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (27 July 2015).
Jenna Iacurci, “Human impact on Amazon rainforest grossly underestimated,” Nature World News (23 May 2014).
Barbara Fraser, “Carving up the Amazon,” Nature 509: 418–419 (22 May 2014).
Eric A. Davidson et al, “The Amazon basin in transition,” Nature 481: 321–328 (19 January 2012).
Hiroko Tabuchi & Claire Rigby, “Amazon deforestation, once tamed, comes roaring back,” The New York Times (24 February 2017).
Boabab Trees
Adrian Patrut et al, “The demise of the largest and oldest African baobabs,” Nature Plants (11 June 2018).
Agence France-Presse, “Giant African baobab trees die suddenly after thousands of years,” The Guardian (11 June 2018).
Tim McDonnell, “Why are some of Africa’s biggest baobab trees dying off?,” NPR (11 June 2018).
Xu Yue & Nadine Unger, “Fire air pollution reduces global terrestrial productivity,” Nature Communications (9: 5413 (21 December 2018).
“Pollutants from wildfires affect crop and vegetation growth hundreds of kilometers from impact zone,” Phys.org (21 December 2018).
Nick Strayer, “As wildfires rage in California, experts say they are getting bigger and costing more,” The New York Times (25 July 2016).
“Fires in the U.S.,” National Fire Protection Association (2016).
Jennifer K. Balch et al, “Human-started wildfires expand the fire niche across the United States,” PNAS (27 February 2017).
“Humans sparked 84 percent of US wildfires, increased fire season over two decades,” Phys.org (27 February 2017).
Bill Gabbert, “Why have fires gotten larger in recent decades?,” Wildfire Today (29 October 2016).
John T. Abatzoglou & A. Park Williams, “Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western US forests,” PNAS (10 October 2016).
“Wildfires may double erosion across a quarter of western US watersheds by 2050,” Phys.org (3 November 2015).
“California wildfires release more greenhouse gases than thought,” Nature World News (17 April 2015).
William Laurance, “Planet of the vines: Climbing plants are taking over,” New Scientist (7 October 2013).
Johannes Lehmann & Markus Kleber, “The contentious nature of soil organic matter,” Nature (23 November 2015).
Michael W.I. Schmidt et al, “Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property,” Nature 478: 49–55 (6 October 2011).
Susan Cosier, “The world needs topsoil to grow 95% of its food – but it’s rapidly disappearing,” The Guardian (30 May 2019).
David Pimentel, “Soil erosion: a food and environmental threat,” Environment, Development, and Sustainability 8: 119-137 (2006).
Daniel R. Hirmas et al, “Climate-induced changes in continental-scale soil macroporosity may intensify water cycle,” Nature 561: 100–103 (5 September 2018).
“The effects of pesticides run deep,” Science 349(6251): 940 (28 August 2015).
Christopher B. Barrett & Leah E. M. Bevis, “The self-reinforcing feedback between low soil fertility and chronic poverty,” Nature Geoscience (23 November 2015).
David Pimentel et al, “Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits,” Science 267(5201): 1117-1123 (24 February 1995).
“Depleted soil locks rural farmers in trap of ultra-poverty,” Phys.org (24 November 2015).
Oliver Milman, “Earth has lost a third of arable land in past 40 years, scientists say,” The Guardian (2 December 2015).
“Soil loss: an unfolding global disaster,” Grantham Centre (2 December 2015).
Franciska T. de Vries et al, “Soil food web properties explain ecosys-tem services across European land use systems,” PNAS 110(35): 14296 – 14301 (27 August 2013).
Jonathan Watts, “Third of Earth’s soil is acutely degraded due to agriculture,” The Guardian (12 September 2017).
E.W. Slessarev et al, “Water balance creates a threshold in soil pH at the global scale,” Nature (21 November 2016).
H. Eswaran et al, “Land degradation: an overview,” Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Land Degradation and Desertification, Khon Kaen, Thailand (2001).
L.R. Oldeman et al, “World map of the status of human-induced soil degradation. an explanatory note,” ISRIC Report (July 1990).
Steve Banwart, “Save our soils,” Nature 474: 151–152 (9 June 2011).
Diana H. Wall et al, “Soil biodiversity and human health,” Nature 528: 69–76 (03 December 2015).
The Everglades
“History of the Everglades,” Florida Department of Environmental Protection (2016).
Lizette Alvarez, “In a corner of the Everglades, a way of life ebbs,” The New York Times (11 June 2016).
Damien Cave, “Possible flaws in state plan to rescue the Everglades,” The New York Times (2 July 2008).
K. Westerfield, “The destruction of the Everglades,” Global Environmental Problems (2010).
Russell McLendon, “What happened to the Everglades,” Mother Nature Network (23 April 2009).
Traci Arden et al, “Prehistoric human impact on tree island lifecycles in the Florida Everglades,” The Holocene (30 November 2015).
“How humans impacted the Everglades,” ScienceDaily (15 February 2016).
“Alligators starve in Florida Everglades, indicating ecosystem in poor health,” Nature World News (22 February 2016).
Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The Sixth Biennial Review – 2016, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, Medicine (2016).
“Everglades,” The Encylopedia of Earth.
Qibing Wang et al, “Soil recovery across a chronosequence of restored wetlands in the Florida Everglades,” Scientific Reports (1 December 2015).
“Restoration of Everglades National Park,” National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior (2016).
“Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan,” National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior (2016).
“Restoration initiatives,” U.S. DOI Office of Everglades Restoration Initiatives (2016).
“Progress of comprehensive everglades restoration plan evaluated,” ScienceDaily (27 June 2014).
“The Everglades still threatened by excess nutrients,” Phys.org (31 August 2012).
Keith Kloor, “Everglades restoration plan hits rough waters,” Science 288(5469): 1166-1167 (19 May 2000).
Mark Alpert, “Replumbing the Everglades,” Scientific American 281: 16-18 (1999).
Tony Reichhardt, “Everglades plan flawed, claim ecologists,” Nature (11 February 1999).
“Bringing back the Everglades,” Science 268(5218): 1688-1690 (23 June 1995).
Day Allen Willey, “Draining the Everglades,” Scientific American 104: 67-69 (1911).
Heidi Ledford, “World’s largest plant survey reveals alarming extinction rate,” Nature (10 June 2019).
Damian Carrington, “‘Frightening’ number of plant extinctions found in global survey,” The Guardian (10 June 2019).
Robert Watson et al, “Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services,” Intergovernmental Science Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (May 2019).
Jeff Tollefson, “Humans are driving one million species to extinction,” Nature (6 May 2019).
Brad Plumer, “Humans are speeding extinction and altering the natural world at an ‘unprecedented’ pace,” The New York Times (6 May 2019).
Jonathan Watts, “Human society under urgent threat from loss of Earth’s natural life,” The Guardian (6 May 2019).
Franciso Sánchez-Bayo et al, “Worldwide decline of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers,” Biological Conservation 232: 8-27 (April 2019).
Damian Carrington, “Plummeting insect numbers ‘threaten collapse of nature’,” The Guardian (10 February 2019).
Ian Harrison et al, “The freshwater biodiversity crisis,” Science 362(6421): 1369 (21 December 2018).
Giovanni Strona & Corey J.A. Bradshaw, “Co-extinctions annihilate planetary life during extreme environmental change,” Scientific Reports (13 November 2018).
“Climate change risks ‘extinction domino effect’,” ScienceDaily (29 November 2018).
René Bobe & Susana Carvalho, “The decline of Africa’s largest mammals,” Science 362(6417): 892-893 (23 November 2018).
Jonathan Watts, “Stop biodiversity loss or we could face our own extinction, warns UN,” The Guardian (3 November 2018).
Alex Horton, “Two generations of humans have killed off more than half the world’s wildlife populations, report finds,” The Guardian (30 October 2018).
Damian Carrington, “‘Terror being waged on wildlife’, leaders warn,” The Guardian (4 October 2018).
“Time is running out in the tropics: Researchers warn of global biodiversity collapse,” ScienceDaily (26 July 2018).
Jos Barlow et al, “The future of hyperdiverse tropical ecosystems,” Nature 559: 517-526 (25 July 2018).
Jonathan Watts, “Destruction of nature as dangerous as climate change, scientists warn,” The Guardian (23 March 2018).
Damian Carrington, “Humans just 0.01% of all life but have destroyed 83% of wild mammals – study,” The Guardian (21 May 2018).
Gerardo Ceballos et al, “Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines,” PNAS (10 July 2017).
Malin L. Pinsky et al, “Greater vulnerability to warming of marine versus terrestrial ectotherms,” Nature 569: 108-111 (24 April 2019).
“Global warming hits sea creatures hardest,” ScienceDaily (24 April 2019).
Damian Carrington, “Earth’s sixth mass extinction event already under way, scientists warn,” The Guardian (10 July 2017).
“Prelude to global extinction: human impact on Earth’s animals,” ScienceDaily (10 July 2017).
Damian Carrington, “Climate change on track to cause major insect wipeout, scientists warn,” The Guardian (17 May 2018).
Guy Midgley, “Narrowing pathways to a sustainable future,” Science (18 May 2018).
“The disappearance of common species,” EurekAlert! (1 February 2018).
Jan Christian Habel & Thomas Schmitt, “Vanishing of the common species: empty habitats and the role of genetic diversity,” Biological Conservation 218: 211-216 (February 2018).
Damian Carrington, “Earth’s sixth mass extinction event under way, scientists warn,” The Guardian (10 July 2017).
Robin McKie, “Biologists say half of all species could be extinct by end of century,” The Guardian (25 February 2017).
James Gorman, “Farmland birds in France are in steep decline,” The New York Times (11 April 2018).
Patrick Barkham, “One in eight bird species is threatened with extinction, global study finds,” The Guardian (23 April 2018).
Haipeng Li et al, “Large numbers of vertebrates began rapid population decline in the late 19th century,” PNAS (21 November 2016).
S.L. Pimm et al, “The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection,” Science 344(6187) (30 May 2014).
Juliet Eilperin, “Trump administration eases rule against killing birds,” The Washington Post (26 December 2017).
Rebecca Morelle, “World wildlife ‘falls by 58% in 40 years’, BBC News (27 October 2016).
Danica Kirka, “Report: wildlife populations halved on average since ’70s,” Phys.org (27 October 2016).
Damian Carrington, “World on track to lose two-thirds of wild animals by 2020, major report warns,” The Guardian (27 October 2016).
“Extinction from global warming: changing interactions between species may be more dangerous than high temperatures alone,” ScienceDaily (17 October 2012).
“Workshop on biological extinction,” Pontifical Academy of Sciences and Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences (27 February – 1 March 2017).
Abigail E. Cahill et al, “How does climate change cause extinction?,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (17 October 2012).
M. Lenzen et al, “International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations,” Nature 486: 109–112 (7 June 2012).
“A Thai dam devastates a rainforest and its birdlife,” Nature (22 November 2018).
“Hydropower dams worldwide cause continued species extinction,” ScienceDaily (30 May 2016).
Anthony D. Barnosky et al, “Approaching a state shift in Earth’s biosphere,” Nature 486: 52–58 (7 June 2012).
“Ecosystem effects of biodiversity loss could rival impacts of climate change, pollution,” ScienceDaily (2 May 2012).
David U. Hooper et al, “A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change,” Nature (2 May 2012).
Jae R. Pasari et al, “Several scales of biodiversity affect ecosystem multifunctionality,” PNAS 110(25): 10219–10222 (18 June 2013).
“Large-scale biodiversity is vital to maintain ecosystem health,” ScienceDaily (7 June 2013).
Lei Dai et al, “Slower recovery in space before collapse of connected populations,” Nature 496: 355–358 (18 April 2013).
“Early warning signs of population collapse,” ScienceDaily (10 April 2013).
Gregory M. Mikkelson et al, “Economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss,” PLoS One (16 May 2007).
“At the hand of man: why extinctions aren’t what they used to be,” The Economist (5 August 2017).
Reis Thebault, “The world’s most-trafficked mammal may also be its most obscure — and agents just found 14 tons,” The Washington Post (10 April 2019).
Chris Thomas, Inheritors of the Earth: How Nature Is Thriving in an Age of Extinction, Allen Lane (2017).
Peter Brannen, The Ends of the World: Volcanic Apocalypses, Lethal Oceans, and Our Quest to Understand Earth’s Past Mass Extinctions, Oneworld (2017).
Karen Weintraub, “An emperor Penguin colony in Antarctica vanishes,” The New York Times (26 April 2019).
Reindeer photo courtesy of Alexandre Buisse.
Bruce C. Forbes, “Sea ice, rain-on-snow and tundra reindeer nomadism in Arctic Russia,” Biology Letters (16 November 2016).
“80,000 reindeer have starved to death as Arctic sea ice retreats,” New Scientist (16 November 2016).
“Elephants haunted by mass killings,” Science 342: 677 (8 November 2013).
Sindya N. Bhanoo, “After poaching deaths, elephants rearrange families,” The New York Times (18 December 2015).
Reuben Perrin, “Are elephant populations stable these days?,” Scientific American (9 April 2009).
Jason Burke, “Indian farmers fight elephant menace with chilli,” The Guardian (17 September 2013).
George Wittemyer et al, “Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants,” PNAS (18 August 2014).
Fiona Maisels et al, “Devastating decline of forest elephants in central Africa,” PLoS One 8(3): e59469 (March 2013).
“Decimation of critically endangered forest elephant detailed,” ScienceDaily (28 March 2013).
Blood Ivory
Bryan Christy, “Ivory worship,” National Geographic 28–61 (October 2012).
“Poaching: black ivory,” The Economist (10 March 2012).
Jeffrey Gettleman, “Elephants dying in the epic frenzy as ivory fuels wars and profits,” The New York Times (3 September 2012).
Priarie Dogs
Priarie dog photo courtesy of Brocken Inaglory.
King Penguins
King penguin photo courtesy of M. Messina 1245.
Henri Weimerskirch et al, “Massive decline of the world’s largest king penguin colony at Ile aux Cochons, Crozet,” Antarctic Science 30(4): 236-242 (August 2018).
“Enormous penguin population crashes by almost 90%,” Nature (8 August 2018).
Karen Weintraub, “Largest king penguin colony in the world drops by 90%,” The New York Times (31 July 2018).
Joe Cochrane, “Borneo lost more than 100,000 orangutans from 1999 to 2015,” The New York Times (15 February 2018).
Dominique Mosbergen, “Orangutans are now one step closer to extinction,” HuffPost (8 July 2016).
Hillary Mayell, “Wild orangutans: extinct by 2023?,” National Geographic News (9 March 2004).
Kendall R. Jones et al, “One-third of global protected land is under intense human pressure,” Science 360(6390): 788-791 (18 May 2018).
Lisa Cox, “A third of world’s nature reserves severely degraded by human activity,” The Guardian (17 May 2018).
Rafael A. Magris &, Robert L. Pressey, “Marine protected areas: just for show?,” Science 360(6390): 723-724 (18 May 2018).
Proposed Solutions
David Leonhardt, “The problem with putting a price on the end of the world,” The New York Times (10 April 2019).
Chris Mooney & Brady Dennis, “In blow to climate, coal plants emitted more than ever in 2018,” The Washington Post (25 March 2019).
“Countries look at ways to tinker with Earth’s thermostat,” The Economist (14 March 2019).
Steven Mufson, “‘A kind of dark realism’: Why the climate change problem is starting to look too big to solve,” The Washington Post (4 December 2018).
William Nordhaus, The Climate Casino, Yale University Press (2013).
Brad Plumer, “Scientists push for a crash program to scrub carbon from the air,” The New York Times (25 October 2018).
Negative Emissions Technologies And Reliable Sequestration, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2018).
Umair Irfan, “Volcanoes show why geoengineering can’t save our food from climate change,” Vox (8 August 2018).
Johnathan Proctor et al, “Estimating global agricultural effects of geoengineering using volcanic eruptions,” Nature (8 August 2018).
Jeff Tollefson, “Sucking carbon dioxide from air is cheaper than scientists thought,” Nature (7 June 2018).
“Extracting carbon dioxide from the air is possible. But at what cost?,” The Economist (7 June 2018).
“Negative-emissions technology: what they don’t tell you about climate change,” The Economist (16 November 2017).
Joeri Rogelj et al, “Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C,” Nature (29 June 2016).
Chris Mooney, “The world has the right climate goals — but the wrong ambition levels to achieve them,” The Washington Post (29 June 2016).
Tony Juniper, “We must put a price on nature if we are going to save it,” The Guardian (10 August 2012).
John C. Moore et al, “Geoengineer polar glaciers to slow sea-level rise,” Nature (15 March 2018).
Robert N. Stavins, “Experience with market-based environmental policy instruments,” Resources for the Future (2001).
James P. Bruce et al, “Climate change 1995,” Cambridge University Press (1996).
Laurie Goering, “Technical solutions alone can’t fix climate change: scientists,” Reuters (8 July 2015).
Michael Specter, “The climate fixers,” The New Yorker (14 May 2012).
“Technological “solutions” to climate change,” Scientific American (3 March 2009).
Damian Carrington, “CO2 turned into stone in Iceland in climate change breakthrough,” The Guardian (9 June 2016).
Wendy Koch, “How technology can halt climate change,” USA Today (30 December 2013).
Philip J. Landrigan et al, “The Lancet Commission on pollution and health,” The Lancet (19 October 2017).
Brady Dennis, “Pollution kills 9 million people each year, new study finds,” The Washington Post (19 October 2017).
Food Production
Julian Cribb, The Coming Famine, University of California Press (2010).
Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs & Steel, W.W. Norton & Company (1997).
M.E. Brown et al, Climate Change, Global Food Security, and the U.S. Food System, USDA, UCAR, NCAR (December 2015).
Passenger pigeon drawing courtesy of Mark Catesy (1731).
Deepak Ray, “Climate change is affecting crop yields and reducing global food supplies,” The Conversation (9 July 2019).
Maria Rodale, “From chicken to tomatoes, here’s why American food is hurting you,” The Guardian (29 May 2019).
Fangjian Xu et al, “Prehistoric heavy metal pollution on the continental shelf off Hainan Island, South China Sea: from natural to anthropogenic impacts around 4.0 kyr BP,” The Holocene (8 September 2017).
Colin Barras, “Early farmers may have polluted the sea 4000 years ago,” New Scientist (4 October 2017).
“Mainstreaming agrobiodiversity in sustainable food systems,” Bioversity International (2017).
Damian Carrington, “Sixth mass extinction of wildlife also threatens global food supplies,” The Guardian (26 September 2017).
Norman Wirzba (editor), The Essential Agrarian Reader, The University Press of Kentucky (2013).
Gordon Conway, One Billion Hungry, Cornell University Press (2012).
Karl Weber (editor), Food, Inc., Public Affairs (2009).
Damian Carrington, “Global food system is broken, say world’s science academies,” The Guardian (28 November 2018).
“Global food systems are failing humanity and speeding up climate change,” Interacademy Partnership (28 November 2018).
“Opportunities for future research and innovation on food and nutrition security and agriculture: The InterAcademy Partnership’s global perspective,” Interacademy Partnership (28 November 2018).
James Owen, “Farming claims almost half Earth’s land, new maps show,” National Geographic News (9 December 2005).
Ben Phalan et al, “How can higher-yield farming help to spare nature?,” Science 351(6272): 450–451 (29 January 2016).
Vaclav Smil, “Improving efficiency and reducing waste in our food system,” Environmental Sciences 1(1): 17–26 (2003/2004).
“How to feed a growing planet,” National Geographic (July 2011).
Delphine Renard & David Tilman, “National food production stabilized by crop diversity,” Nature 571: 257–260 (11 July 2019).
Food Waste
Suzanne Goldenberg, “Half of all US food produce is thrown away, new research suggests,” The Guardian (13 July 2016).
Rebecca Smithers, “Britons throw away 720m eggs a year over best-before date fears,” The Guardian (9 April 2019).
Tristram Stuart, Waste: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal, W.W. Norton & Company (2009).
Prachi Patel, “Waste not, want not,” Scientific American (August 2016).
Fish Discards
Carmel Finley, All the Boats on the Ocean: How Government Subsidies Led to Global Overfishing, University of Chicago Press (2017).
Margaret Goud Collins, “Sea change,” Science 355(6329): 1030 (10 March 2017).
Yannick Rousseau et al, “Evolution of global marine fishing fleets and the response of fished resources,” PNAS (28 May 2019).
“More fishing vessels chasing fewer fish, new study finds,” ScienceDaily (28 May 2019).
“World fish trade to set new records,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (21 February 2014).
J. Matthew Roney, “World fish catch falls to 90 million tons in 2012,” Earth-Policy.org (19 November 2012).
H.A. Anticamara et al, “Global fishing effort (1950–2010): trends, gaps, and implications,” Fisheries Research 107(1-3): 131–136 (January 2011).
Reg A. Watson et al, “Global marine yield halved as fishing intensity redoubles,” Fish and Fisheries 14(4): 493–503 (December 2013).
UNEP, The Environmental Food Crisis, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2009).
“Call to end fishing ‘discards’,” ScienceDaily (3 November 2004).
Clare-Leschin-Hoar, “90 percent of fish we use for fishmeal could be used to feed humans instead,” NPR (13 February 2017).
Tim Cashion et al, “Most fish destined for fishmeal production are food-grade fish,” Fish and Fisheries (13 February 2017).
Farmed Fish
“Farmed fish to exceed wild fish in human consumption by 2018, FAO says,” Reuters (9 July 2012).
Fen Montaigne, “Everybody loves Atlantic salmon; here’s the catch,” National Geographic (July 2003).
Junk Food
David M. Kern et al, “Neighborhood prices of healthier and unhealthier foods and associations with diet quality: evidence from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14(11): 1394 (5 December 2017).
“When vegetables are closer in price to chips, people eat healthier,” ScienceDaily (16 November 2017).
Modern tractor photo courtesy of Dgolnik.
The Green Revolution
Andrew Kimbrell (editor), The Fatal Harvest Reader, Island Press (2002).
Anne Barnard et al, “Starving Syrians in Madaya are denied aid amid political jockeying,” The New York Times (10 January 2016).
“Global hunger worsening, warns UN,” BBC News (14 October 2009).
Norman J. Church, “Why our food is so dependent on oil,” PowerSwitch (1 April 2005).
Dale Allen Pfeiffer, Eating Fossil Fuels, New Society Publishers (2006).
Sheida Z. Sattari et al, “Residual soil phosphorus as the missing piece in the global phosphorus crisis puzzle,” PNAS (17 April 2012).
Dana Cordell and Stuart White, “Life’s bottleneck: sustaining the world’s phosphorus for a food secure future,” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 39: 161–188 (October 2014).
Peter Rosset et al, “Lessons from the Green Revolution: do we need new technology to end hunger?,” Tikkun 15(2): 52–56 (March/April 2000).
K.J. Van Meter et al, “The nitrogen legacy: emerging evidence of nitrogen accumulation in anthropogenic landscapes,” Environmental Research Letters (15 March 2016).
Stephen M. Powers et al, “Long-term accumulation and transport of anthropogenic phosphorus in three river basins,” Nature Geoscience 9: 353-356 (11 April 2016).
Michael Kugelman & Susan L. Levenstein, The Global Farms Race, Island Press (2013).
Mark Dowie, American Foundations: An Investigative History, MIT Press (2001).
Wenonah Hauter, Foodopoly, The New Press (2012).
“Can organic crops compete with industrial agriculture?,” Phys.org (9 December 2014).
David Karp, “Most of America’s Fruit is now imported. Is that a bad thing?,” The New York Times (13 March 2018).
G. Metson et al, “Phosphorus is a key component of the resource demands for meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States,” PNAS 111(46) (2015).
“Maize farming fouls the air to fatal effect,” Nature (2 April 2019).
Michell Mart, Pesticides, A Love Story, University Press of Kansas (2015).
Martin Lechenet et al, “Reducing pesticide use while preserving crop productivity and profitability on arable farms,” Nature Plants (1 March 2017).
“Malaria and the war,” The New York Times (2 October 1944).
Charles Walters, Weeds – Control Without Poisons, Acres U.S.A (1991).
Andrew Jacobs, “Citrus farmers facing deadly bacteria turn to antibiotics, alarming health officials,” The New York Times (17 May 2019).
Roni Caryn Rabin, “Do pesticides get into the flesh of fruits and vegetables?,” The New York Times (10 November 2017).
Keith S. Delaplane, “Pesticide usage in the United States: history, benefits, risks, and trends,” NC State University Cooperative Extension (March 1996).
Md. Wasim Aktar et al, “Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards,” Interdisciplinary Toxicology 2(1): 1–12 (March 2009).
Oliver Milman, “Two widely used pesticides likely to harm 97% of endangered species in US,” The Guardian (7 April 2016).
Peshin R. & A. Dhawan (editors), Integrated Pest Management, Springer Science + Business Media (2009).
“Hawaiian agriculture: paradise sprayed,” The Economist (9 April 2016).
David Pimentel (editor), Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture, Volumes 1-3, CRC Press (1991).
History of Pesticides
James Whorton, Before Silent Spring, Princeton University Press (1974).
Robert Lee Metcalf, The Mode of Action of Organic Insecticides, National Research Council (1948).
Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, Houghton Mifflin (1962).
J. Bird, “Will our grandchildren go hungry?,” Saturday Evening Post (23 October 1954).
Edmund Russell, War and Nature: Fighting Humans and Insects with Chemicals from World War I to Silent Spring, Cambridge University Press (2001).
“Organochlorine pesticides,” Delaware Health and Social Services, (January 2015).
P.M. Hurley, “Mode of carcinogenic action of pesticides inducing thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents,” Environmental Health Perspectives 106(8): 437–445 (August 1998).
Fred Gould et al, “Wicked evolution: Can we address the sociobiological dilemma of pesticide resistance?,” Science 360(6390): 728-732 (18 May 2018).
A.L. Melander, “Can insects become resistant to sprays?,” Journal of Economic Entomology 7: 167-172 (April 1914).
Richard Tren & Donald Roberts, The Excellent Powder: DDT’s Political and Scientific History, Dog Ear Publishing (2010).
“DDT pesticide exposure linked to Alzheimer’s disease, study shows,” ScienceDaily (27 January 2014).
Michael Finkel, “Malaria,” National Geographic (July 2007).
James D. Crall et al, “Neonicotinoid exposure disrupts bumblebee nest behavior, social networks, and thermoregulation,” Science 362(6415): 683-686 (9 November 2018).
John F. Tooker, “Why it’s time to curb widespread use of neonicotinoid pesticides,” The Conversation (26 June 2018).
“Pesticides influence bee learning and memory,” ScienceDaily (11 July 2018).
Harry Siviter et al, “Quantifying the impact of pesticides on learning and memory in bees,” Journal of Applied Ecology (10 July 2018).
Richard J. Gill & Nigel E. Raine, “Chronic impairment of bumblebee natural foraging behaviour induced by sublethal pesticide exposure,” Functional Ecology (2014).
Steeve H. Thany, “Neonicotinoid insecticides: historical evolution and resistance mechanisms,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 683: 75–83 (2010).
N. Simon-Delso et al, “Systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil): trends, uses, mode of action and metabolites,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(1): 5–34 (January 2015).
Maarten Bijleveld van Lexmond et al, “Worldwide integrated assessment on systemic pesticides,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(1): 1–4 January 2015.
J.-M. Bonmatin et al, “Environmental fate and exposure; neonicotinoids and fipronil,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(1): 35–67 (January 2015).
Laurel Hamers, “Seeds coated in a common pesticide might affect birds’ migration,” Science News (22 November 2017).
Maj Rundlöf et al, “Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees,” Nature 521: 77–80 (7 May 2015).
“Benefits of neonicotinoid seed treatments to soybean production,” US Environmental Protection Agency (15 October 2014).
Daniel Cressey, “Bee studies stir up pesticide debate,” Nature 520: 416 (23 April 2015).
Chensheng Lu et al, “Sub-lethal exposure to neonicotinoids impaired honey bees winterization before proceeding to colony collapse disor-der,” Bulletin of Insectology 67(1): 125–130 (2014).
D. Nicodemo et al, “Fipronil and imidacloprid reduce honeybee mitochondrial activity,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (6 August 2014).
Guangming Zend, “Risks of neonicotinoid pesticides,” Science 340: 1403 (21 June 2013).
Kamila Derecka et al, “Transient exposure to low levels of insecticide affects metabolic networks of honeybee larvae,” PLoS One 8(7): e68191 (July 2013).
Michael Wines, “Mystery malady kills more bees, heightening worry on farms,” The New York Times (28 March 2013).
The Editorial Board, “Calamity for our most beneficent insect,” The New York Times (6 April 2013).
Damian Carrington, “Pesticide makes bees forget the scent for food, new study finds,” The Guardian (27 March 2013).
Sally M. Williamson & Geraldine A. Wright, “Exposure to multiple cholinergic pesticides impairs olfactory learning and memory in honeybees,” Journal of Experimental Biology 216: 1799–1807 (2013).
Damian Carrington, “Insecticide ‘unacceptable’ danger to bees, report finds,” The Guardian (16 January 2013).
Juliet L. Osborne, “Bumblebees and pesticides,” Nature 491: 43–44 (1 November 2012).
Richard J. Gill et al, “Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees,” Nature 491: 105–109 (1 November 2012).
Rowan Jacobsen, Fruitless Fall, Bloomsbury USA (2008).
Erik Stokstad, “Pesticides under fire for risks to pollinators,” Science 340: 674–675 (10 May 2013).
Daniel Cressey, “Reports spark row over bee-bothering insecticides,” Nature (6 January 2013).
Damian Carrington, “Honeybees abandoning hives and dying due to insecticide use, research finds,” The Guardian (9 May 2014).
Dara Stanley & Nigel Raine, “Chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide alters the interactions between bumblebees and wild plants,” Functional Ecology (March 2016).
Suzanne Goldenberg, “US rejects EU claim of insecticide as prime reason for bee colony collapse,” The Guardian (2 May 2013).
“Beekeepers and public interest groups sue EPA over bee-toxic pesticides,” PAN North America (21 March 2013).
“Report on the national stakeholders conference on honey bee health,” US Department of Agriculture (15 October 2012).
Beth Mole, “Decline in birds linked to common insecticide,” Science News (11 July 2014).
David Jolly, “Presticides linked to honeybee deaths pose more risks, European group says,” The New York Times (8 April 2015).
Caspar A. Hallmann et al, “Declines in insectivorous birds are associated with high neonicotinoid concentrations,” Nature (9 July 2014).
Matt McGrath, “Banned pesticides may be having wider environmental impacts,” BBC News (13 June 2013).
Pierre Mineau & Cynthia Palmer, “The impact of the nation’s most widely used insecticides on birds,” American Bird Conservancy (March 2013).
Anna-Maija Nyman et al, “The insecticide imidacloprid causes mortality of the freshwater amphipod gammarus pulex by interfering with feeding behavior,” PLoS One 8(5): e62472 (May 2013).
Junko Kimura-Kuroda et al, “Nicotine-like effects of the neonicotinoid insecticides acetamiprid and imidacloprid on cerebellar neurons from neonatal rats,” PLoS One 7(2): e32432 (February 2012).
American Academy of Pediatrics, “Aerial spraying to combat mosquitoes linked to increased risk of autism in children,” ScienceDaily (30 April 2016).
Jessica Wright, “The real reasons autism rates are up in the U.S.,” Scientific American (3 March 2017).
“Autism rate rises 43 percent in New Jersey, study finds,” ScienceDaily (11 April 2019).
Deborah L. Christensen et al, “Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 4 years — early autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, seven sites, United States, 2010, 2012, and 2014,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (12 April 2019).
Scott Fallon, “Air pollution in New Jersey is so bad it could be dangerous to your health to breathe,” NorthJersey.com (18 April 2018).
Damian Carrington, “Insecticides put world food supplies at risk, say scientists,” The Guardian (23 June 2014).
Elizabeth Y. Long & Christian H. Krupke, “Non-cultivated plants present a season-long route of pesticide exposure for honey bees,” Nature Communications (31 May 2016).
Guangming Zeng et al, “Risks of neonicotinoid pesticides,” Science 340: 1403 (21 June 2013).
Deadly Adjuvants
Julia D. Fine et al, “An inert pesticide adjuvant synergizes viral pathogenicity and mortality in honey bee larvae,” Scientific Reports (16 January 2017).
“Common crop chemical leaves bees susceptible to deadly viruses,” ScienceDaily (16 January 2017).
Pollinator Downfall
E. Readicker-Henderson, A Short History of the Honey Bee, Timber Press (2009).
Laura Reiley, “This past winter saw the highest honeybee colony losses on record,” The Washington Post (5 July 2019).
Larua A. Burkle et al, “Plant-pollinator interactions over 120 years: loss of species, co-occurrence, and function,” Science 339(6127): 1611-1615 (29 March 2013).
“U.S. beekeepers lost over 40 percent of colonies last year, highest winter losses ever recorded,” ScienceDaily (19 June 2019).
Heather Grab et al, “Agriculturally dominated landscapes reduce bee phylogenetic diversity and pollination services,” Science 363(6424): 282-284 (18 January 2019).
Damian Carrington, “Warning of ‘ecological Armageddon’ after dramatic plunge in insect numbers,” The Guardian (18 October 2017).
Caspar A. Hallmann et al, “More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas,” PLoS One (18 October 2017).
John Schwartz, “Decline of pollinators poses threat to world food supply, report says,” The New York Times (26 February 2016).
“Pollination – deliverable 3(a): thematic assessment of pollinators, pollination and food production,” The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (February 2016).
Nigel E. Raine, “Pesticide affects social behavior of bees,” Science 362(6415): 643-644 (9 November 2018).
E.A.D. Mitchell et al, “A worldwide survey of neonicotinoids in honey,” Science 258: 109-111 (6 October 2017).
Christopher N. Connolly, “Nerve agents in honey,” Science 258: 38-39 (6 October 2017).
Damian Carrington, “Honey tests reveal global contamination by bee-harming pesticides,” The Guardian (5 October 2017).
Jennifer S. Holland, “The plight of the honeybee,” National Geographic News (10 May 2013).
Kiheung Ahn et al, “Effects of long distance transportation on honey bee physiology,” Psyche: A Journal of Entomology (2012).
“Bee decline threatens US crop production,” ScienceDaily (19 February 2017).
“Bees ‘betray’ their flowers when pollinator species decline,” Phys.org (22 July 2013).
Berry J. Brosi & Heather M. Briggs, “Single pollinator species losses reduce floral fidelity and plant reproductive function,” PNAS 110(32): 13044-13048 (August 2013).
Nutritional Quality
Marta Zaraska, “Bitter truth: how we’re making fruit and veg less healthy,” New Scientist (29 July 2015).
Roddy Scheer & Doug Moss, “Dirt poor: have fruits and vegetables become less nutritious?,” Scientific American (27 April 2011).
Genetically Modified Organisms
Hannah Devlin, “Nobel laureates dismiss fears about genetically modified foods,” The Guardian (7 December 2018).
Mark Lynas, Seeds of Science: Why We Got It So Wrong On GMOs, Bloomsbury Sigma (2018).
Michael Gerson, “Are you anti-GMO? Then you’re anti-science, too,” The Washington Post (3 May 2018).
“DNA repair after CRISPR cutting not at all what people thought,” ScienceDaily (30 July 2018).
Chris D. Richardson et al, “CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing in human cells occurs via the Fanconi anemia pathway,” Nature Genetics (27 July 2018).
Michael Le Page, “The second great battle for the future of our food is underway,” New Scientist (4 July 2018).
David H. Freedman, “The truth about genetically modified food,” Scientific American (1 September 2013).
B.M. Chassy, “The history and future of GMOs in food and agriculture,” Cereal Foods World 52(4): 169–172 (July-August 2007).
Rachel Ehrenerg, “GMOs under scrutiny,” Science News 189(3): 22–27 (6 February 2016).
Pu Han & Michael W. Deem, “Non-classical phase diagram for virus bacterial coevolution mediated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats,” Interface (15 February 2017).
“Microbe, virus co-evolution: model of CRISPR, phage co-evolution explains confusing experimental results,” ScienceDaily (21 February 2017).
Lecia Bushak, “A brief history of genetically modified organisms: from prehistoric breeding to modern biotechnology, Medical Daily (22 July 2015).
“History of genetically modified foods,” University of Michigan: Global Change (2004).
Tina Kyndt et al, “The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: an example of a naturally transgenic food crop,” PNAS 112(18): 5844–5849 (5 May 2015).
G. Bruening & J.M. Lyons, “The case of the FLAVR SAVR tomato,” California Agriculture 54(4):6–7. (July–August 2000).
Carey Gillam,”US says unapproved genetically modified wheat found in Montana,” Reuters (26 September 2014).
Gary Felsenfeld, “A brief history of epigenetics,” Perspectives in Biology (January 2014).
Daniel Cressey, “A new breed,” Nature 497: 27–28 (2 May 2013).
Nathanael Johnson, “Roundup-ready, aim, spray: how GM crops lead to herbicide addiction,” Grist (14 October 2013).
Damian Carrington, “Monsanto’s global weedkiller harms honeybees, research finds,” The Guardian (24 September 2018).
Erick V. S. Motta et al, “Glyphosate perturbs the gut microbiota of honey bees,” PNAS (24 September 2018).
Charles M. Benbrook, “Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the US – the first sixteen years,” Environmental Sciences Europe (2012).
Committee on the Impact of Biotechnology on Farm-Level Economics and Sustainability, Impact of Genetically Engineered Crops on Farm Sustainability in the United States, National Academies Press (2010).
Yanhui Lu et al, “Widespread adoption of Bt cotton and insecticide decrease promotes biocontrol services,” Nature 487: 362–365 (19 July 2012).
Nathanael Johnson, “Playing the field: corn likes to sleep around – and that makes it hard to control GMOs,” Grist (19 November 2013).
Ricarda A. Steinbrecher & Jonathan R. Latham, “Horizontal gene transfer from GM crops to unrelated organisms,” GM Science Review Meeting of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (27 January 2003).
Jim M. Dunwell, “Transgenic cereals: Current status and future prospects,” Journal of Cereal Science 59(3): 419–434 (May 2014).
Suzanne Goldenberg, “Renegade GM wheat confined to a single Oregon field says agriculture secretary,” The Guardian (5 June 2013).
Tim Harvey-Samuel et al, “Pest control and resistance management through release of insects carrying a male-selecting transgene,” BMC Biology (16 July 2015).
Bruce E Tabashnik et al, “Insect resistance to Bt crops: lessons from the first billion acres,” Nature Biotechnology (10 June 2013).
Natasha Gilbert, “A hard look at GM crops,” Nature 497: 24–25 (2 May 2013).
Blair D. Siegfried & Richard L. Hellmich, “Understanding successful resistance management,” GM Crops & Food: Biotechnol
ogy in Agriculture and the Food Chain
3(2): 184–193 (2012).
Richard T. Roush, “Bt-transgenic crops: just another pretty insecticide or a chance for a new start in resistance management?,” Pest Management Science (26 March 1999).
Alessandro Nicolia, Alberto Manzob, Fabio Veronesia & Daniele Rosellinia, “An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research,” Critical Reviews in Biotechnology (16 September 2013).
Thomas Guillemaud et al, “Conflicts of interest in GM Bt crop efficacy and durability studies,” PLoS One (15 December 2016).
Amy L. Dean, “The American Academy Of Environmental Medicine on AMA’s policy on GMO Foods,” American Academy Of Environmental Medicine (12 July 2012).
Jeffrey M. Smith, Genetic Roulette, Yes! Books (2007).
Alberto Finamore et al, “Intestinal and peripheral immune response to MON810 maize ingestion in weaning and old mice,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56(23): 11533–11539 (2008).
Irina Ermakova, “Experimental evidence of GMO hazards,” Presentation at Scientists for a GM Free Europe, EU Parliament, Brussels, (12 June 2007).
Andhra Pradesh, “Mortality in sheep flocks after grazing on Bt cotton fields Warangal district,” GM Watch (April 2006).
Mae-Wan Ho, “GM ban long overdue, dozens ill & five deaths in the Philippines,” ISIS Press Release (2 June, 2006).
Hye-Yung Yum et al, “Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison,” Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 26(3): 210–216 (April 2005).
Trudy Netherwood et al, “Assessing the survival of transgenic plant DNA in the human gastrointestinal tract,” Nature Biotechnology (18 January 2004).
M. Palka-Santini et al, “The gastrointestinal tract as the portal of entry for foreign macromolecules: fate of DNA and proteins,” Molecular Genetics and Genomics 270(3): 201–215 (November 2003).
Jeffrey M. Smith, Seeds of Deception, Yes! Books (2003).
Arpad Pusztai, “Can science give us the tools for recognizing possible health risks of GM food?,” Nutrition and Health 16: 73–84 (April 2002).
“Evaluation of allergenicity of genetically modified foods,” FAO-WHO (22 January 2001).
R. Einspainier et al, “The fate of forage plant DNA in farm animals: a collaborative case-study investigating cattle and chicken fed recombinant plant material,” European Food Research and Technology 212(2): 129–134 (January 2001).
Stanley WB Ewen & Arpad Pusztai, “Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine,” The Lancet 354(9187): 1353–1354 (16 October 1999).
R.I. Vázquez et al, “Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protoxin is a potent systemic and mucosal adjuvant,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 49: 578–584 (June 1999).
Rainer Schubbert et al, “Foreign (M13) DNA ingested by mice reaches peripheral leukocytes, spleen, and liver via the intestinal wall mucosa and can be covalently linked to mouse DNA,” PNAS 94(3): 961–966 (4 February 1997).
M. Green et al, “Public health implications of the microbial pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis: an epidemiological study, Oregon,” American Journal of Public Health 80(7): 848–852 (1990).
Joe Cummins, “Bt toxins in genetically modified crops: regulation by deceit,” ISIS Report (23 March 2004).
Committee on Genetically Engineered Crops, Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects, The National Academies Press (2016).
Andrew Pollack, “Genetically engineered crops are safe, analysis finds,” The New York Times (17 May 2016).
Nicholas S. Downing et al, “Postmarket safety events among novel therapeutics approved by the US Food and Drug Administration between 2001 and 2010,” JAMA (9 May 2017).
“Insects resist genetic methods to control disease spread, study finds,” ScienceDaily (19 May 2017).
Douglas W. Drury et al, “CRISPR/Cas9 gene drives in genetically variable and nonrandomly mating wild populations,” Science Advances 3(5): e1601910 (19 May 2017).
Jianhua Luo, “Here’s what we know about CRISPR safety – and reports of ‘genome vandalism’,” The Washington Post (3 September 2018).
Robert J. Ihry et al, “p53 inhibits CRISPR–Cas9 engineering in human pluripotent stem cells,” Nature Medicine 24: 939-946 (11 June 2018).
Michael Kosicki et al, “Repair of double-strand breaks induced by CRISPR–Cas9 leads to large deletions and complex rearrangements,” Nature Biotechnology 36: 765–771 (16 July 2018).
“Secretary Perdue issues USDA statement on plant breeding innovation,” U.S. Department of Agriculture (28 March 2018).
Yi Li, “These CRISPR-modified crops don’t count as GMO,” The Conversation (22 May 2018).
Sam Levin, “Monsanto ‘bullied scientists’ and hid weedkiller cancer risk, lawyer tells court,” The Guardian (9 July 2018).
David Warmflash, “Glyphosate used with GMO crops under attack for disrupting microbiome: science or a gut feeling?,” Genetic Literacy Project (5 December 2014).
Anthony Samsel & Stephanie Seneff, “Glyphosate’s suppression of cytochrome P450 enzymes and amino acid biosynthesis by the gut microbiome: pathways to modern diseases,” Entropy 15(4): 1416–1463 (2013).
Paul J. Mills et al, “Excretion of the herbicide glyphosate in older adults between 1993 and 2016,” Journal of the American Medical Association (24 October 2017).
“US study finds rise in human glyphosate levels,” MedicalXpress (25 October 2017).
Stephen O. Duke & Stephen B. Powles, “Glyphosate: a once-in-a-century herbicide,” Pest Management Science 64: 319–325 (2008).
“Monsanto’s glyphosate now most heavily used weed-killer in history,” ScienceDaily (2 February 2016).
“Fog of uncertainty,” The Economist (5 March 2016).
Rick A. Relyea, “New effects of Roundup on amphibians: predators reduce herbicide mortality; herbicides induce antipredator morphology,” Ecological Applications 22(2): 634–647 (March 2012).
Charles M Benbrook, “Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the US – the first sixteen years,” Environmental Sciences Europe (28 September 2012).
“Herbicide can induce morphological changes in vertebrate animals: tadpoles change shape,” ScienceDaily (2 April 2012).
Todd Funke et al, “Molecular basis for the herbicide resistance of Roundup Ready crops,” PNAS 103(35): 13010–13015 (29 August 2006).
G.R. Heck et al, “Development and characterization of a CP4 EPSPS-based, glyphosate-tolerant corn event,” Crop Science (1): 329–339 (January 2005).
Danny Hakim, “Unsealed documents raise questions on Monsanto weed killer,” The New York Times (14 March 2017).
The Aughts, “Monsanto’s harvest of fear,” VF News (2 April 2008).
Alex Planes, “Why Is Monsanto the most hated company in the world?,” The Motley Fool (8 June 2013).
Drake Bennett, “Inside Monsanto, America’s third-most-hated company,” Bloomberg Business (3 July 2014).
“Bad romance,” The Economist (6 February 2016).
Erick V. S. Motta et al, “Glyphosate perturbs the gut microbiota of honey bees,” PNAS (24 September 2018).
“Common weed killer linked to bee deaths,” ScienceDaily (24 September 2018).
Caitlin Dewey, “This miracle weed killer was supposed to save farms. Instead, it’s devastating them.,” The Washington Post (29 August 2017).
Dan Nosowitz, “EPA-approved dicamba is an airborne menace and some states are banning it,” Modern Farmer (11 July 2017).
Bryce Gray, “Dicamba damage is back — and possibly worse than before,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch (25 June 2017).
Brian Barth, “Dicamba, Monsanto, and the dangers of pesticide drift: a Modern Farmer explainer,” Modern Farmer (9 August 2016).
“What you need to know about dicamba damage,” ClassAction.com (18 January 2018).
Tapioca Debacle
Devang Mehta et al, “Linking CRISPR-Cas9 interference in cassava to the evolution of editing-resistant geminiviruses,” Genome Biology (25 April 2019).
Kate Willis, “Gene-editing technology to create virus-resistant cassava plant has opposite effect, researchers find,” Phys.org (26 April 2019).
Food Irradiation
“Food irradiation,” Center for Consumer Research – U.C. Davis (29 June 2006).
József Farkasa & Csilla Mohácsi-Farkas, “History and future of food irradiation,” Trends in Food Science & Technology 22(2–3): 121–126 (March 2011).
Jonathan Elliott Prejean, “Food irradiation: why aren’t we using it?,” dissertation, Harvard Law School (1 May 2001).
“Food irradiation: what you need to know,” US FDA (November 2014).
Ron Eustice, “Food irradiation: questions and answers,” FoodIrradiation.org (February 2014).
“What’s wrong with food irradiation,” Organic Consumers Association (November 2001).
Daniel Imhoff (editor), CAFO (Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation), Earth Aware (2010).
Philip Lymbery, Farmageddon: The True Cost of Cheap Meat, Bloomsbury Publishing (2014).
David Kirby, Animal Factory, St. Martin’s Press (2010).
“Global meat-eating is on the rise, bringing surprising benefits,” The Economist (2 May 2019).
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The Future of Food
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