Spokes 7: Notes

Spokes 7: The Pathos of Politics   Research References   (Table of Contents)

Common knowledge for Spokes obtained from various encyclopedias and dictionaries, including Encyclopedia Britannica, Everipedia, New World Encyclopedia, Wikipedia, World Book Encyclopedia, Scholarpedia, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary, Dictionary.com, as well as the information source feared most by governments: the Internet.

The Descent of Polity
Paul Kelly et al, The Politics Book, DK Publishing (2015).
Patricia S. Daniels & Stephen G. Hyslop, Almanac of World History, National Geographic (2003).
Neil Kagan (editor), Concise History of the World, National Geographic (2006).
Klaus Berndl et al, Visual History of the World, National Geographic (2005).
Edward McNall Burns, Western Civilizations, W.W. Norton & Company (1963).
Albert M. Craig et al, The Heritage of World Civilizations, Prentice Hall (2007).
Philip J. Alder, World Civilizations, West Publishing Company (1996).
John M. Roberts, History of the World, Oxford University Press (1993).
William H. McNeill, A World History, Oxford University Press (1967).
Arnold J. Toynbee, A Study of History, Oxford University Press (1962).
Will & Ariel Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster (1950).
David S. Landes, The Wealth & Poverty of Nations, W.W. Norton & Company (1998).
Michael E. Porter, The Competitive Advantage of Nations, The Free Press (1990).
Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, Random House (1987).
Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs & Steel, W.W. Norton & Company (1997).
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Marvin Harris, The Rise of Anthropological Theory: A History of Theories of Culture Thomas Y. Crowell (1968).
Frans de Waal, Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex among Apes, Johns Hopkins University Press (1989).
Lawrence H. Keeley, War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage, Oxford University Press (1997).
Steven A. LeBlanc & Katherine E. Register, Constant Battles: Why We Fight, St. Martin’s Griffin (2004).
Dale Peterson & Richard Wrangham, Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence, Mariner Books (1977).
Morton H. Fried, The Evolution of Political Society, McGraw-Hill (1967).
Adam Kuper, The Chosen Primate: Human Nature and Cultural Diversity, Harvard University Press (1994).
T. Talhelm et al, “Large-scale psychological differences within China explained by rice versus wheat agriculture,” Science 344(6184): 603–608 (9 May 2014).
Joseph Henrich, “Rice, psychology, and innovation,” Science 344(6184): 593–594 (9 May 2014).
Stephen P. Diggle et al, “Cooperation and conflict in quorum-sensing bacterial populations,” Nature 450: 411–414 (15 November 2007).
Ajai A. Dandekar et al, “Bacterial quorum sensing and metabolic incentives to cooperate,” 338(6104): 264–266 Science (12 October 2012).
Knut Drescher et al, “Solutions to the public goods dilemma in bacterial biofilms,” Current Biology 24(1): 50–55 (6 January 2014).
Robert Axelrod, The Evolution of Cooperation, Basic Books (1984).
Massimo Livi-Bacci, A Concise History of World Population, Blackwell (1997).
Ester Boserup, Population and Technological Change, University of Chicago Press (1981).
Indus Civilization
Andrew Robinson, The Indus: Lost Civilizations, Reaktion Books (2015).
Rita P. Wright, The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy, and Society, Cambridge University Press (2009).
Jane McIntosh, The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives, ABC-CLIO (2007).
Charles River Editors, Mohenjo-daro: The History and Legacy of the Ancient Settlement of the Indus Valley Civilization, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (2016).
Mortimer Wheeler, Civilizations of the Indus Valley and Beyond, McGraw-Hill (1966).
Michael Rank, Lost Civilizations: 10 Societies that Vanished Without a Trace, Createspace (2013).
Andrew Robinson, “The real utopia: this ancient civilisation thrived without war,” New Scientist (14 September 2016).
Cameron A. Petrie et al, “Adaptation to variable environments, resilience to climate change: investigating land, water and settlement in Indus northwest India,” Current Anthropology (27 January 2017).
Cameron A. Petrie et al, “Adaptation to variable environments, resilience to climate change,” Current Anthropology 58(1) (February 2017).
“The ancient Indus civilization’s adaptation to climate change,” Phys.org (27 January 2017).
Emma Marris, “Two-hundred-year drought doomed Indus Valley Civilization,” Nature (3 March 2014).
Yama Dixit et al, “Abrupt weakening of the summer monsoon in northwest India ~4100 yr ago,” Geology (February 2014).
“The ancient Indus civilization’s adaptation to climate change,” University of Cambridge (27 January 2017).
Anindya Sarkar et al, “Oxygen isotope in archaeological bioapatites from India: implications to climate change and decline of Bronze Age Harappan civilization,” Scientific Reports 6: 26555 (25 May 2016).
Jean Guilaine (editor), Prehistory: The World of Early Man, Facts on File (1986).
Émile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, Free Press (1965).
Francis Fukuyama, The Origins of Political Order, Farrar, Straus and Giroux (2011).
“‘One Nation Under God’,” The New York Times (27 June 2002).
Will Durant, The Age of Faith, Simon and Schuster (1950).
Fred M. Donner, The Early Islamic Conquests, Princeton University Press (1981).
Joseph Schacht, editor, The Legacy of Islam, Oxford University Press, (1979).
Tim Lister, “ISIS: the first terror group to build an Islamic state?,” CNN (12 June 2014).
Eric Schmitt, “Two decades after 9/11, militants have only multiplied,” The New York Times (20 November 2018).
Robert C. Allen, “Agriculture and the origins of the state in ancient Egypt,” Explorations in Economic History 34(2): 135–154 (April 1997).
“Iran: who holds the power?,” BBC News (2009).
The Commons
Garrett Hardin, “The tragedy of the commons,” Science 162(3859): 1243–1248 (13 December 1968).
“A short history of enclosure in Britain,” The Land (December 2009).
Mahmood Mamdani, Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism, Princeton University Press (1996).

Political Philosophy
Alan Ryan, On Politics, W.W. Norton & Company (2012).
Michael J. White, Political Philosophy, Oxford University Press (2012).
Subrata Ramaswamy, A History of Political Thought: Plato to Marx, Prentice-Hall of India (2011).
Stephen R.L. Clark, The Political Animal, Routledge (1999).
Leo Strauss & Joseph Cropsey, History of Political Philosophy, University Of Chicago Press (1987).
George H. Sabine & Thomas L. Thorson, A History of Political Thought, Holt, Rinehart and Winston (1973).
William Ebenstein & Alan O. Ebenstein, Great Political Thinkers, Harcourt Brace (1951).
Frank W. Elwell, Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change, Au Press (2013).
David Miller, Political Philsophy: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press (2003).
Antony Jay (editor), Oxford Dictionary of Political Quotations, Oxford University Press (2006).
The Hellenistic World
H.C. Baldry, “Zeno’s ideal state,” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 79: 3–15 (1959).
Augustine of Hippo, The City of God (De civitate Dei) (~413–426).
Marsilio of Padua
The Representation of the People Act (1948).
John Locke
John Locke, Two Treatises of Government (1689).
The American Constitution
Akhil Reed Amar, America’s Constitution, Random House (2005).
Daniel A. Farber & Suzanna Sherry, History of the American Constitution, Thomson Learning (1990).
Carol Berkin, A Brilliant Solution: Inventing the American Constitution, Mariner Books (2003).
Michael Kammen (editor), The Origins of the American Constitution: A Documentary History, Penguin Books (1986).
Richard Beeman, Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution, Random House (2009).
Gore Vidal, Inventing a Nation, Yale University Press (2003).
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on the Origins of Inequality (1754).
The French Revolution
Francis Charles Montague,”French Revolution, Encyclopedia Britannica (1911).
Edmund Burke
Edmund Burke, Thoughts and Details on Scarcity (1795).
Edmund Burke, A Vindication of Natural Society (1756).
Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790).
Frederic Hegel
G.W.F. Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right (1821).
Alex de Tocqueville
Thomas Sowell, On Classical Economics, Yale University Press (2006).
Alexis de Tocqueville & Gustave de Beaumont, On the Penitentiary System in the United States and Its Application to France (1833).
Alexis de Tocqueville, Journey to America (1831–1832).
Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America (1835, 1840).
John Stuart Mill
“The father of liberalism: against the tyranny of the majority,” The Economist (2 August 2018).
John Stuart Mill, The Principles of Political Economy: with some of their applications to social philosophy (1848).
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (1859).
John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869).
John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism (1863).
Karl Marx
Karl Marx, Wage Labour and Capital (1847).
Karl Marx, Capital (3 volumes) (1867 – 1894).
Karl Marx, Critique of the Gotha Programme (1875).
Rosalind Miles, The Women’s History of the World, Salem House Publishers (1989).
Boston Women’s Health Book Collective & Judy Norsigian, Our Bodies, Ourselves, Touchstone (2005).
Linda Perlman Gordon, Woman’s Body, Woman’s Right: Birth Control In America, Penguin Books (1990).
Birth Control
Roger Manvell, Trial of Annie Besant and Charles Bradlaugh, Elek (1976).
SCOTUS, Griswold v. Connecticut (381 US 479) (1965).
SCOTUS, Eisenstadt v. Baird (405 US 438) (1972).
“Teacher returns to school after student’s unlawful cucumber condom lesson,” The Guardian (21 November 2015).
SCOTUS, Roe v. Wade (410 US 113) (1973).
Katha Pollitt, “Abortion in American history,” The Atlantic (May 1997).
“History of abortion,” Feminist.com (1998).
“Cutting away at Roe v Wade,” The Economist (16 May 2013).
“History of abortion in the U.S.,” OurBodiesOurselves.org (28 March 2014).
Hannah Arendt
Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism, Schocken (1951).
Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition, University of Chicago Press (1958).
Hannah Arendt, On Violence, Harvest Books (1970).
Jeff Cohen & Norman Solomon, “30-year anniversary: Tonkin Gulf lie launched Vietnam War,” Fair (27 July 1994).
Daniel Ellsberg, “Lying about Vietnam,” The New York Times (29 June 2001).
Federal News Service, “Fighting in Panama: the President; a transcript of Bush’s address on the decision to use force in Panama”. The New York Times (21 December 1989).
Kenneth Freed, “Some blame rogue band of marines for picking fight, spurring Panama invasion,” Los Angeles Times (22 December 1990).
Paul Waldman, “George W. Bush didn’t just lie about the Iraq War. What he did was much worse,” The Week (20 May 2015).
Paul Krugman, “Errors and lies,” The New York Times (18 May 2015).
Empire & International Law
Daniel. R. Headrick, Power Over Peoples, Princeton University Press (2010).
Robert Aldrich (editor), The Age of Empires, Thames & Hudson (2007).
Leo J. Schep et al, “Was the death of Alexander the Great due to poisoning? Was it veratrum album?,” Toxicology History 52(1): 72–77 (January 2014).
Nich Squires, “Alexander the Great poisoned by the River Styx,” The Telegraph (3 August 2010).
David W. Oldach et al, “A mysterious death,” The New England Journal of Medicine 338: 1764–1769 (11 June 1998).
D.K. Fieldhouse, Economics and Empire, Cornell University Press (1973).
Franz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks (1952).
Franz Fanon, A Dying Colonialism (1959).
Franz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (1961).
Rowenna Davis & Paul Lewis, “Complaints of prison racism rise among staff and inmates,” The Guardian (7 February 2010).
“Police forces confess to racism,” BBC News (16 October 1998).
“Dark days ahead,” The Economist (30 May 2015).
Selam Gebrekidan & Norimitsu Onishi, “Corruption gutted South Africa’s tax agency. Now the nation is paying the price,” The New York Times (10 June 2018).
Alan Cowell, “South Africa losing a grip on its promise,” The New York Times (27 December 2012).
“The legacy of World War I,” The Week (2 November 2018).
Christopher Columbus
Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the United States, Harper Perennial Modern Classics (2005).
Joseph Stalin
Palash Ghosh, “How many people did Joseph Stalin kill?,” International Business Times (5 March 2013).
The Demise of the Soviet Union
Richard Cavendish, “Stalin denounced by Nikita Khrushchev,” History Today 56(2) (2 February 2006).
“Chernobyl 30 years on: Soviet apocalypse,” The Economist (30 April 2016).
Philip P. Pan et al, “The land that failed to fail,” The New York Times (18 November 2018).
Jing Huang, “The role of government propaganda in the educational system during the Cultural Revolution in China” (2006).
“Resolution on certain questions in the history of our party since the founding of the People’s Republic of China,” Sixth Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (27 June 1981).
“Confucius says, Xi does,” The Economist (25 July 2014).
Revolution in America
Edward Helmore, “Anti-Trump protests continue across US after Portland protester shot,” The Guardian (12 November 2016).
Thomas B. Edsall, “Why don’t the poor rise up?,” The New York Times (24 June 2015).
“Why aren’t the poor storming the barricades?,” The Economist (21 January 2014).
Henry Louis Gates Jr., “What were the earliest rebellions by African Americans?,” The Root (22 April 2013).
Michael W. Kraus et al, “American dream? Or mirage?,” The New York Times (1 May 2015).
Michael W. Kraus & Jacinth J.X. Tan, “Americans overestimate social class mobility,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 58: 101–111 (May 2015).
Michael I. Norton & Dan Ariely, “Building a better America—one wealth quintile at a time,” Perspectives on Psychological Science 6(1): 9–12 (January 2011).
Larisa J. Hussak & Andrei Cimpian, “An early-emerging explanatory heuristic promotes support for the status quo,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (7 September 2015).
“Easy explanations for life’s inequities lead to support for the status quo,” ScienceDaily (9 September 2015).
Ulrich Beck & Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim, Individualization, SAGE Publications (2002).
extensive coverage of the Occupy movement in The New York Times (2011 – 2014).
extensive coverage of the Occupy movement in The Guardian (2011 – 2014).
Verena Dobnik, “Wall Street protesters: we’re in for the long haul,” The Associated Press (2 October 2011).
Mattathias Schwartz, “Pre-Occupied,” The New Yorker (28 November 2011).
Naomi Wolf, “The shocking truth about the crackdown on Occupy,” The Guardian (25 November 2011).
Karen McVeigh, “Occupy Wall Street activists name officer over pepper spray incident,” The Guardian (26 September 2011).
Matt Wells, “Police crack down on ‘Occupy Wall Street’ protests,” The Guardian (25 September 2011).
“Illinois: ‘Occupy’ Arrests thrown out,” The Associated Press (27 September 2012).
Nate Schweber, “Officer stands by his account of scuffle at Occupy Wall Street protest,” The New York Times (16 April 2014).
James C. McKinley Jr., “Last criminal trial stemming from occupy wall street is underway,” The New York Times (9 April 2014).
Todd Gitlin, “Where are the Occupy protesters now?,” The Guardian (17 June 2014).
Andrew Ross Sorkin, “Occupy Wall Street: a frenzy that fizzled,” The New York Times (17 September 2012).
Herbert Spencer
Herbert Spencer, The Study of Sociology (1873).
Herbert Spencer, The Principles of Sociology (1878).
Herbert Spencer, The Man Versus The State (1852).
Martin Luther King Jr.
Compilation of the Statements of James Earl Ray: Staff Report, House Select Committee on Assassinations (2001).
Carl Gibson, “How the government killed Martin Luther King, Jr.,” Reader Supported News (3 April 2013).
Ira Chernus, “The conspiracy to kill Martin Luther King Jr: not a theory but a fact, according to our own legal system,” Alternet (4 April 2013).
John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919).
John Maynard Keynes, Am I A Liberal? (1925).
John Maynard Keynes, The End of Laissez-Faire (1926).
John Maynard Keynes, The Great Slump of 1930 (1931).
John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936).
Gunnar Myrdal
Gunnar Myrdal, The Political Element in the Development of Economic Theory (1930).
Gunnar Myrdal, Population, a Problem for Democracy, Harvard University Press (1940).
Gunnar Myrdal, Rich Lands and Poor (1957).
Gunnar Myrdal, Beyond the Welfare State, Yale University Press (1960).
Gunnar Myrdal, Challenge to Affluence, Random House (1963).
Friedrich Hayek
Frederick A. Hayek, Monetary Theory and the Trade Cycle (1929).
Frederick A. Hayek, Prices and Production (1931).
Frederick A. Hayek, Profits, Interest and Investment (1939).
Frederick A. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (1944).
Frederick A. Hayek, Individualism and Economic Order (1948).
Frederick A. Hayek, Capitalism and the Historians (1954).
Frederick A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty (1960).
Frederick A. Hayek, Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics (1967).
Frederick A. Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty (1973–1979).
Frederick A. Hayek, The Fatal Conceit (1988).
Frederick A. Hayek, The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek, University of Chicago Press (2014).
John B. Taylor, “Discretion versus policy rules in practice,” Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy 39: 195–214 (1993).
“Rule it out,” The Economist (8 August 2015).
Ayn Rand
Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead (1943).
Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged (1957).
Ayn Rand, For the New Intellectual (1961).
Ayn Rand, The Virtue of Selfishness (1964).
Ayn Rand, Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal (1966).
Ayn Rand, The New Left: The Anti-Industrial Revolution (1971).
John Rawls
John Rawls, A Theory of Justice, Belknap Press (1971).
Moshe Halbertal, “The ideal and the real,” The New Republic (12 December 2009).
Robert Nozick
Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Basic Books (1974).
Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky, “Force and opinion,” Z Magazine (July-August 1991).
Noam Chomsky, Profit Over People, Seven Stories Press (1999).
Noam Chomsky, Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies, House of Anansi Press (1988).
Noam Chomsky, Hopes and Prospects, Haymarket Books (2010).
Edward S. Herman & Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, Pantheon (1988).
Gifford Pinchot, Breaking New Ground, (1947).
Arne Naess
UK environmental laws: Metropolis Water Act (1852, 1871, 1897, 1899, 1902); Alkali Act (1863); Ground Game Act (1880); Wild Birds Protection Act (1902); National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act (1949); Clean Air Act (1956); Weeds Act (1959); Environmental Protection Act (1990); Badgers Act (1991, 1992); Environment Act (1995); Water Act (2003); Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act (2005); Merchant Shipping (Pollution) Act (2006); Climate Change Act (2008).
US environmental laws: Clean Air Act (1970); National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (1970), which established an Environmental Protection Agency and a Council on Environmental Quality; Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (1972); Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (1972); Endangered Species Act (1973); Safe Drinking Water Act (1974); Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976); Clean Water Act (1977), Superfund Act (1980).
Erin Mundahl, “Us still subsidizing renewable energy to the tune of nearly $7 billion,” Inside Sources (12 March 2019).
Dana Nuccitelli, “America spends over $20bn per year on fossil fuel subsidies,” The Guardian (30 July 2018).
Darryl Fears, “Trump rolls back safety rules meant to prevent another Deepwater Horizon spill,” The Washington Post (2 May 2019).
London’s Great SmogThe Economist (11 February 2017).
Los Angeles Smog
Chip Jacobs & William Kelly, Smogtown: The Lung-Burning History of Pollution in Los Angeles, Overlook (2008).
“History of smog,” LA Weekly (22 September 2005).
Sarah Gardner, “LA smog: the battle against air pollution,” Marketplace (14 July 2014).
Sarh S. Elkind, How Local Politics Shape Federal Policy: Business, Power, and the Environment in Twentieth-Century Los Angeles, The University of North Carolina Press (2011).
James N. Pitts, Jr. & Edgar R. Stepens, “Arie Jan Haagen-Smit 1900–1977,” Journal of Air Pollution Control Association 28(5): 516–517 (May 1978).
Michael Shellenberger & Ted Nordhaus, “The death of environmentalism,” (2004).
Philip E. Tetlock & Richard N. Lebow, “Poking counterfactual holes in covering laws: cognitive styles and historical reasoning,” American Political Science Review 95(4): 829–843 (December 2001).
Tryo H. Campbell & Aaron C. Kay, “Solution aversion: on the relation between ideology and motivated disbelief,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 107(5): 809–824 (November 2014).

Leon P. Baradat, Political Ideologies: Their Origins and Impact, Longman (2012).
Andrew Hayward, Political Ideologies, Palgrave Macmillan (2012).
George Lakoff, Moral Politics : How Liberals and Conservatives Think University of Chicago Press (2006).
Thomas B. Edsall, “The contract with authoritarianism,” The New York Times (5 April 2018).
William Davies, “Boris Johnson, Donald Trump and the rise of radical incompetence,” The New York Times (13 July 2018).
Lilliana Mason, “‘I disrespectfully agree’: the differential effects of partisan sorting on social and issue polarization,” American Journal of Political Science 59(1): 128-145 (March 2014).
Lilliana Mason, “Ideologues without issues the polarizing consequences of ideological identities,” Public Opinion Quarterly (21 March 2018).
Derek Robertson, “Why the ‘classical liberal’ is making a comeback,” Politico (16 June 2018).
Leon P. Baradat, Political Ideologies, Longman (2012).
Brian R. Farmer, American Political Ideologies, McFarland & Company (2006).
The Political Spectrum
Daniel Yudkin, “The psychology of political polarization,” The New York Times (17 November 2018).
Stephen Hawkins et al, “Hidden tribes: a study of America’s polarized landscape,” More In Common (2018).
Daniel Thaler & Matt Grossmann, “Mass-elite divides in aversion to social change and support for Donald Trump,” American Politics Research (2018).
“Donald Trump is causing change in the Democratic Party too,” The Economist (12 July 2018).
“Denying problems when we don’t like the political solutions,” Phys.org (6 November 2014).
John Bargh, “At Yale, we conducted an experiment to turn conservatives into liberals. The results say a lot about our political divisions.,” The Washington Post (22 November 2017).
Joshua J. Clarkson et al, “The self-control consequences of political ideology,” PNAS 112(27): 8250–8253 (7 July 2015).
Martin Kettle, “FBI in dock for role in Waco inferno,” The Guardian (27 August 1999).
“Weaver’s battle is now in courtroom,” Sun Journal (2 September 1992).
Jay Nordlinger, “Face the slaughter,” National Review (25 August 2014).
Edmund Fawcett, Liberalism, Princeton University Press (2014).
Daniel B. Klein, “The origin of ‘liberalism’,” The Atlantic (13
“Liberal blues,” The Economist (30 June 2016).
Jim Sidanius & Felicia Pratto, Social Dominance: An Intergroup Theory of Social Hierarchy and Oppression, Cambridge University Press (2001).
“Republicans prefer politicians with deep voices,” ScienceDaily (24 November 2015).
L. Laustsen et al, “Vote choice, ideology, and social dominance orientation influence preferences for lower pitched voices in political candidates,” Evolutionary Psychology (November 2015).
Lasse Laustsen & Michael Bang Petersen, “Winning faces vary by ideology: how nonverbal source cues influence election and communi-cation success in politics,” Political Communication (7 August 2015).
Craig S. Smith, “Rooting out Falun Gong; China makes war on mysticism,” The New York Times (30 April 2000).
Damon Linker, The Theocons, Anchor (2007).
Karen Stenner, The Authoritarian Dynamic, Cambridge University Press (2005).
Marc J. Hetherington & Jonathan D. Weiler, Authoritarianism and Polarization in American Politics, Cambridge University Press (2009).
Amanda Taub, “The rise of American authoritarianism,” Vox (1 March 2016).
Roger Cohen, “1979: Iran’s Islamic Revolution,” Upfront (The New York Times) (2015).
Arron Reza Merat, “Iran’s webs of corruption prevalent, but hidden,” Al Monitor (30 September 2014).
“Iran’s former vice president jailed for corruption,” The Guardian (15 February 2015).
Bill Samii, “Analysis: corruption becomes an issue in Iran’s presidential campaign,” Radio Free Europe (5 April 2005).
Pervez Musharraf, In The Line Of Fire: A Memoir, The Free Press (2006).
C. J. Chivers, “War without end,” The New York Times (8 August 2018).
Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, Bin Laden’s Legacy: Why We’re Still Losing the War on Terror, Wiley (2011).
Matthew J.Morgan, A Democracy Is Born: An Insider’s Account of the Battle Against Terrorism in Afghanistan, Praeger (2007).
Stig Jarle Hansen, The Borders of Islam: Exploring Huntington’s Faultlines, from Al-Andalus to the Virtual Ummah, Columbia University Press (2010).
Haroon Siddique & Alan Yuhas, “Pakistan Taliban school attack kills 141, including 132 children,” The Guardian (16 December 2014).
“How they see us: has the U.S. betrayed Afghanistan?,” The Week (23 October 2014).
Sune Engel Rasmussen, “Taliban capture key Afghan provincial capital Kunduz,” The Guardian (28 September 2015).
Tim McGirk & Shomali Plain, “Lifting the veil on Taliban sex slavery,” Time (10 February 2002).
Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism Verso (1991).
“Global politics: league of nationalists,” The Economist (19 November 2016).
Carolina Moreno, “9 Outrageous Things Donald Trump Has Said About Latinos,” The Huffington Post (9 November 2016).
Ruth Marcus, “Welcome to the post-truth presidency,” The Washington Post (3 December 2016).
Erik Wemple, “The life-sucking tedium of covering official lies,” The New York Times (9 February 2017).
Ed O’Keefe, “Bernie Sanders calls Trump a ‘pathological liar’; Al Franken says ‘a few’ Republicans think Trump is mentally ill,” The Washington Post (12 February 2017).
Glenn Kessler & Michelle Ye Hee Lee, “President Trump’s first 100 days: The fact check tally,” The Washington Post (1 May 2017).
Glenn Kessler et al, “President Trump has made 6,420 false or misleading claims over 649 days,” The Washington Post (2 November 2018).
Philip Rucker, “‘Full Trumpism’: The president’s apocalyptic attacks reach a new level of falsity,” The Washington Post (5 November 2018).

Modern Government
Alan R. Ball & B. Guy Peters, Modern Politics & Government (7th Edition), Palgrave MacMillan (1998).
Political Systems
Kenneth Minogue et al, How Governments Work, DK (2006).
Ian Fisher, “Gaza is outwardly rebuilding, but inwardly fearful,” The New York Times (21 February 2017).
“How monarchies survive modernity<" The Economist (27 April 2019).
“Lesotho country profile,” BBC News (19 March 2015).
“Morocco: the pluses and minuses of monarchy,” The Economist (11 June 2016).
Saudi Arabia
“How Saudi Arabia became an ally,” The Week (16 November 2018).
Kareem Fahim, “Saudi Arabia puts to death 37 people in largest mass execution in past three years,” The Washington Post (23 April 2019).
Ben Hubbard et al, “Saudis said to use coercion and abuse to seize billions,” The New York Times (11 March 2018).
“Eleven things women in Saudi Arabia cannot do,” The Week (19 August 2015).
Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson, “Saudis impatient for king’s promised ‘reforms’,” NPR (23 May 2011).
Vicky Baker, “Rape victim sentenced to 200 lashes and six months in jail,” The Guardian (17 November 2007).
Donna Abu-Nasr, “Rape case roils Saudi legal system,” The Washington Post (21 November 2006).
“World Report 2015: Saudi Arabia,” Human Rights Watch (2015).
Adam Taylor, “The facts – and a few myths – about Saudi Arabia and human rights,” The Washington Post (9 February 2014).
“Analysis: Saudi rough justice,” BBC News (28 March 2000).
Ryan Jacobs, “Saudi Arabia’s war on witchcraft,” The Atlantic (19 August 2013).
“Saudi man executed for ‘witchcraft and sorcery’,” BBC News (19 June 2012).
Cecily Hilleary, “Saudi Arabia morality police declare war on witches,” Middle East Voices (30 March 2012).
“Saudi Arabia execution of ‘sorcery’ woman condemned,” The Telegraph (13 December 2011).
Oliver Pickup, “The moment man was publicly beheaded in a Saudi Arabian car park for being a ‘sorcerer’,” Daily Mail (31 October 2011).
Max Fisher, “How the Iranian-Saudi proxy struggle tore apart the Middle East,” The New York Times (19 November 2016).
“How Saudi Arabia became an ally,” The Week (15 November 2018).
Toby Matthiesen, “The Islamic State exploits entrenched anti-Shia incitement,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (21 July 2015).
Magna Carta
Daniel Barstow Magraw et al, Magna Carta and the Rule of Law, American Bar Association (2014).
David Starkey, Magna Carta, Quercus (2015).
SCOTUS, Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (565 US _) (2012).
Rodney A. Smith, Money, Power & Elections, Louisiana State University Press (2006).
Robert E. Mutch, Buying the Vote, Oxford University Press (2014).
Nicholas Confessore et al, “The families funding the 2016 Presidential election,” The New York Times (10 October 2015).
Drew Desilver, “U.S. income inequality, on rise for decades, is now highest since 1928,” Pew Research Center (5 December 2013).
Jon Bakija & Bradley T. Heim, “Jobs and income growth of top earners and the causes of changing income inequality: evidence from U.S. tax return data,” Office of Tax Analysis, U.S. Department of Treasury (17 March 2009).
“People quick facts USA,” United States Census Bureau (2015).
SCOTUS, Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (558 US 310) (2010).
SCOTUS, McConnell v. FEC (540 US 93) (2003).
Zeynep Tufekci, “The election has already been hacked,” The New York Times (3 November 2018).
Associated Press, “House committee votes to eliminate independent election commission,” The Guardian (7 February 2017).
Editorial Board, “GOP hypocrisy on election aid,” The Washington Post (12 February 2017).
Elizabeth Warren, “Elizabeth Warren: Trump didn’t invent the ‘rigged election’ myth. Republicans did,” The Washington Post (18 October 2016).
E.J. Dionne Jr., “The next GOP assault on voting rights,” The Washington Post (12 February 2017).
“America’s electoral system gives the Republicans advantages over Democrats,” The Economist (12 July 2018).
Chris Baylor, “A key reason the founders wanted the electoral college: To keep out demagogues and bullies,” The Washington Post (12 December 2016).
“Going to bits: Europeans are splitting their votes among ever more parties,” The Economist (12 January 2017).
Democratic Attitude
Sabrina Tavernise, “Planning to vote in the November election? Why most Americans probably won’t,” The New York Times (3 October 2018).
George Kateb, “The moral distinctiveness of representative democracy,” 1979 Annual Meeting of The American Political Science Association (31 August – 3 September 1979).
“Nicaragua: an uprising against Ortega,” The Week (4 May 2018).
“Hungary: A defender of Christian Europe?,” The Week (2 March 2018).
Patrick Kingsley, “Safe in Hungary, Viktor Orban pushes his message across Europe,” The New York Times (4 June 2018).
Suzanne Gambos, “Donald Trump Announces presidential bid by trashing Mexico, Mexicans,” NBC News (16 June 2015).
“After decades of triumph, democracy is losing ground,” The Economist (14 June 2018).
“How democracy dies: lessons from the rise of strongmen in weak states,” The Economist (16 June 2018).
Philip Rucker, “‘Dictator envy’: Trump’s praise of Kim Jong Un widens his embrace of totalitarian leaders,” The Washington Post (15 June 2018).
Michelle Ye Hee Lee, “Donald Trump’s false comments connecting Mexican immigrants and crime,” The Washington Post (8 July 2015).
Carolina Moreno, “9 outrageous things Donald Trump has said about Latinos,” HuffPost (9 November 2016).
Colby Itkowitz, “Republican Rep. Justin Amash says Trump should be impeached,” The Washington Post (18 May 2019).
US Voting Irregularities
Aubrey Menarndt, “Let prisoners vote,” The New York Times (8 May 2019).
Carol Anderson, “The real theft of American democracy,” The New York Times (14 March 2019).
“Many states are purging voters from the rolls,” The Economist (9 August 2018).
Sam Levine, “Texas made an example out of Crystal Mason — for trying to vote,” The Conversation (29 July 2019).
Julian E. Barnes, “Russians tried, but were unable to compromise midterm elections, U.S. says,” The New York Times (21 December 2018).
Editorial Board, “Russia’s support for Trump’s election is no longer disputable,” The Washington Post (17 December 2018).
Amy Gardner & Kirk Ross, “Certification in limbo in N.C. House race as fraud investigation continues,” The Washington Post (29 November 2018).
Mike McIntire et al, “America’s election grid remains a patchwork of vulnerabilities,” The New York Times (17 November 2018).
Danny Hakim et al, “Voting problems surface as Americans go to the polls,” The New York Times (6 November 2018).
Frances Robles & Patricia Mazzei, “Uncounted ballots, overvoted ballots: why is the governor claiming fraud in Florida’s election?,” The New York Times (11 November 2018).
Amy Gardner & Beth Reinhard, “Broken machines, rejected ballots and long lines: voting problems emerge as Americans go to the polls.,” The Washington Post (6 November 2018).
“Democrats raise doubts about Georgia’s election for governor,” The Economist (21 March 2019).
Amy Gardner, “Judge orders Ga. officials to stop tossing absentee ballots over signatures,” The Washington Post (24 October 2018).
Astead W. Herndon, “Georgia voting begins amid accusations of voter suppression,” The New York Times (19 October 2018).
Sam Levine, “Georgia Knew its voter roll practice was discriminatory. It stuck with it anyway.” HuffPost (11 October 2018).
Khushbu Shah, “‘Textbook voter suppression’: Georgia’s bitter election a battle years in the making,” The Guardian (10 November 2018).
Danny Hakim & Michael Wines, “‘They don’t really want us to vote’: how Republicans made it harder,” The New York Times (3 November 2018).
Dana Milbank, “The real fraudster in Florida,” The Washington Post (14 November 2018).
Sarah Jackel & Stuart A. Thompson, “The myth of the lazy nonvoter,” The New York Times (5 October 2018).
Carter Eskew, “The Florida fraud redux,” The Washington Post (12 November 2018).
Sean Sullivan et al, “Florida recount: Palm Beach County says it will probably miss deadline as judge gives voters time to fix ballots with signature issues,” The Washington Post (15 November 2018).
Frances Robles et al, “Florida governor’s race nears end, but senate seat still in play,” The New York Times (15 November 2018).
Eugene Scott, “GOP’s responses to the elections in Florida exacerbate concerns about voter suppression,” The Washington Post (12 November 2018).
Amy Gardner et al, “Lawsuits mount over Florida recount battle as political acrimony deepens,” The Washington Post (12 November 2018).
Kim Zetter, “The crisis of election security,” The New York Times (26 September 2018).
Paul Krugman, “Last exit off the road to autocracy,” The New York Times (5 November 2018).
Philip Bump, “The three illegal acts that may have helped Trump win the presidency,” The Washington Post (24 August 2018).
“Many states are purging voters from the rolls,” The Economist (9 August 2018).
Richard Wolf, “Supreme Court says states can remove voters who skip elections, ignore warnings,” USA Today (11 June 2018).
Felicia Sonmez & Eli Rosenberg, “Hoyer says House will not seat a North Carolina Republican amid questions about integrity of election,” The Washington Post (28 December 2018).
Amy Gardner & Kirk Ross, “North Carolina election-fraud investigation centers on operative with criminal history who worked for GOP congressional candidate,” The Washington Post (3 December 2018).
Richard Fausset et al, “Justice Dept. demand for North Carolina voting records extended to D.M.V.,” The New York Times (7 September 2018).
Michael Wines, “19 noncitizens voted illegally in 2016 in North Carolina, U.S. charges,” The New York Times (24 August 2018).
Vanessa Williams, “Georgia voting rights activists move to block a plan to close two-thirds of polling places in a majority black county,” The Washington Post (19 August 2018).
Jack Healy, “Arrested, jailed and charged with a felony. For voting,” The New York Times (2 August 2018).
Sandra E. Garcia, “Texas woman sentenced to 5 years in prison for voter fraud loses bid for new trial,” The New York Times (13 June 2018).
Editorial Board, “America is still unprepared for a Russian attack on our elections,” The Washington Post (22 April 2018).
Alex Henderson, “Democratic Senator Bill Nelson stands by allegations of Russian hacking in Florida’s elections system,” Alternet (17 August 2018).
“Thousands of mailed ballots in Florida were not counted,” Associated Press (10 December 2018).
Brian Barrett, “America’s electronic voting machines are scarily easy targets,” Wired (2 August 2016).
Eli Rosenberg, “Judge rules against Brian Kemp over Georgia voting restrictions days before gubernatorial election,” The Washington Post (2 November 2018).
Johnny Kauffman, “Election security becomes a political issue in Georgia governor’s race,” NPR (12 August 2018).
Carol Anderson, “Brian Kemp, enemy of democracy,” The New York Times (11 August 2018).
Michael Brice-Saddler, “GOP senator: It’s a ‘great idea’ to make it harder for ‘liberal folks’ to vote,” The Washington Post(16 November 2018).
Shannon Van Sant, “Judge rules against Georgia election law, calling it a ‘severe burden’ for voters,” NPR (3 November 2018).
“The Russians are coming… again,” The Week (11 August 2018).
Christine Condon, “670 ballots in a precinct with 276 voters, and other tales from Georgia’s primary,” Tribune News Service (12 August 2018).
Andrew Gumbel, “Why US elections remain ‘dangerously vulnerable’ to cyber-attacks,” The Guardian (13 August 2018).
Scott Shane & Sheera Frenkel, “Russian 2016 influence operation targeted African-Americans on social media,” The New York Times (17 December 2018).
Nicole Perlroth et al, “Russian election hacking efforts, wider than previously known, draw little scrutiny,” The New York Times (1 September 2017).
Ari Berman, Give Us the Ballot: The Modern Struggle for Voting Rights in America, Picador (2016).
Lorraine C. Minnite, “An analysis of voter fraud in the United States,” Demos (2003).
Ari Berman, “How the 2000 election in Florida led to a new wave of voter disenfranchisement,” The Nation (28 June 2015).
“Election interference: voting machines in America are reassuringly hard to hack,” The Economist (19 July 2018).
SCOTUS, Husted, Ohio Secretary Of State v. A. Philip Randolph Institute (584 US _) (2018).
“A divided Supreme Court strikes a blow for lower election turnouts,” The Economist (14 June 2018).
Adam Liptak, “Supreme Court upholds Ohio’s purge of voting rolls,” The New York Times (11 June 2018).
Paul Waldman, “Supreme Court delivers GOP a victory in the war on voting,” The Washington Post (11 June 2018).
Max Boot, “Without the Russians, Trump wouldn’t have won,” The Washington Post (24 July 2018).
Alex Ward, “Russia hacked voting systems in 39 states before the 2016 presidential election,” Vox (13 June 2017).
K.K. Rebecca Lai & Jamsine C. Lee, “Why 10% of Florida adults can’t vote: how felony convictions affect access to the ballot,” The New York Times (6 October 2016).
Michael Wines, “Some Republicans acknowledge leveraging voter ID laws for political gain,” The New York Times (16 September 2016).
Paul J. Weber, “Judge again finds discrimination in Texas’ voter ID law,” The Washington Post (10 April 2017).
Dana Milbank, “The GOP turns to toilets to suppress more black voters,” The Washington Post (21 August 2018).
Mitch Smith, “To cast their ballots, these voters will have to get out of Dodge,” The New York Times (26 October 2018).
Roxana Hegeman, “ACLU sues Dodge City over voting access for Hispanics,” Associated Press (26 October 2018).
Christopher Ingraham, “New evidence that voter ID laws ‘skew democracy’ in favor of white Republicans,” The Washington Post (4 February 2016).
Zoltan L. Hajnal, Nazita Lajevardi, Lindsay Nielson, “Voter identification laws and the suppression of minority votes,” University of California, San Diego (2016).
Tom Murse, “Where did the GOP acronym for the Republican party originate?,” About News (27 December 2015).
Ari Berman, “A 90-year-old woman who’s voted since 1948 was disenfranchised by Wisconsin’s voter-ID law,” The Nation (5 October 2016).
Jason Sneed & Cole Wintheiser, “3 examples of voter fraud across US,” The Daily Signal (31 March 2016).
“Voter fraud and voter intimidation” US Commission on Civil Rights (2006).
Alex Ward, “Trump: Russia didn’t interfere in the election. GOP-led Senate panel: Yeah, it did.,” Vox (3 July 2018).
Jon Swaine, “Trump-Russia: more election meddling evidence found, says Senate panel,” The Guardian (3 July 2018).
Camila Domonoske, “Reality Winner, accused of leaking classified documents, pleads guilty,” NPR (26 June 2018).
Dana Milbank, “The election really was rigged,” The Washington Post (29 November 2016).
Brendan Nyhan, “Voter fraud is rare, but myth is widespread,” The New York Times (10 June 2014).
Cleta Mitchell, “Voter fraud deniers ignore the facts,” U.S. News & World Report (13 June 2012).
Amy Bingham, “Voter fraud: non-existent problem or election-threatening epidemic?,” ABC News (12 September 2012).
Amand Girard, “Arizona secretary of state confirms election fraud happened in state primary,” U.S. Uncut (30 March 2016).
Eric Shawn, “Double-voting – even triple-voting – found in US elections,” Fox News (12 September 2016).
Eric Mack, “US has ‘sloppiest’ election system; ‘massive fraud’ in NC,” Newsmax (27 November 2016).
Scott Malone, “Three in Florida, Virginia charged with voter fraud,” Reuters (28 October 2016).
Guy Benson, “Oh my: audit finds evidence of widespread voter fraud in North Carolina,” Townhall (3 April 2014).
John Fund, “Voter fraud: we’ve got proof it’s easy,” National Review (12 January 2014).
Dustin Volz, “Russian hackers targeted 21 states during election, official says,” Huffington Post (21 June 2017).
Iain Thomson, “It took DEF CON hackers minutes to pwn these US voting machines,” The Register (29 July 2017).
Andy Campbell, “Hackers crack voting machines within minutes at DEF CON In Vegas,” Huffington Post (29 July 2017).
“New database of US voter fraud finds no evidence that photo ID laws are needed,” NBC News (11 August 2012).
Sami Edge & Sean Holstege, “Study finds no evidence of widespread voter fraud,” NBC News (26 August 2016).
E.J. Dionne Jr., “Arizona’s voting outrage is a warning to the nation,” The Washington Post (27 March 2016).
Jane Mayer, “The voter-fraud myth,” The New Yorker (5 November 2012).
Carl Bialik “Counting voter fraud,” The Wall Street Journal (1 September 2012).
“Does your vote count?,” The Heritage Foundation (2014).
Charlie Savage, “Intelligence contractor is charged in first leak case under Trump,” The New York Times (5 June 2017).
“Election hacking leak,” The Week (16 June 2017).
SCOTUS, Shelby County, Alabama v. Holder (2013).
Kyle Swenson, “After Trump and Scott cry ‘fraud,’ critics pounce on Broward County’s troubled election history,” The Washington Post (9 November 2018).
Lori Rozsa, “‘A joyous day’ ahead as 1.4 million Florida ex-felons have voting rights restored,” The Washington Post (5 January 2019).
The Press
Michael Schudson, Why Democracies Need an Unlovable Press, Polity Press (2008).
Alex S. Jones, Losing the News, Oxford University Press (2009).
Chris Hedges, Empire of Illusion, Nation Books (2009).
Helen Thomas, Watchdogs of Democracy, Scribner (2006).
Julia B. Corbett, Communicating Nature: How We Create and Understand Environmental Messages, Island Press (2006).
Charles Seife, “How the FDA manipulates the media,” Scientific American 315(4): 54–61 (October 2016).
Jeanne Lenzer & Shannon Brownlee, “The FDA is still letting doctors implant untested devices into our bodies,” The Washington Post (4 January 2019).
“Safety fear over new drugs,” The Week (26 May 2017).
Jack Shafer, “The surprising reason the right doesn’t trust the news,” Poltico (26 September 2018).
Thomas Ferenczi, “The media and democracy,” CSD Bulletin 8(1): 1–2 (Winter 2000).
“The bottom line (on press layoffs),” The Week (11 August 2018).
John T. Jost et al, “Political conservatism as motivated social cognition,” Psychological Bulletin 129(3): 339–375 (2003).
Margaret Sullivan, “Instead of Trump’s propaganda, how about a nice ‘truth sandwich’?,” The Washington Post (17 June 2018).
“Corruption – United States,” The Media Awareness Project (2017).
Annie Snider, “White House, EPA headed off chemical pollution study,” Politico (14 May 2018).
“White House blocks chemical pollution study,” The Week (25 May 2018).
William E. Major, “Brainwashing: the ultimate weapon,” (4 October 1956).
Jenny Rohn, “I was deluded. You can’t beat fake news with science communication,” The Guardian (29 August 2018).
Mark Fischetti, “Silencing science,” Scientific American 320(5): 88 (May 2019).
Silencing Science Tracker website.
Kara Swisher, “The real Google censorship scandal,” The New York Times (13 September 2018).
Michael M. Grynbaum, “Trump calls the news media the ‘enemy of the American people’,” The New York Times (17 February 2017).
Alexander George, “Our forger in cheif,” The New York Times (27 February 2017).
Fox News
Jim Rutenberg et al, “At Fox News, kisses, innuendo, propositions and fears of reprisal,” The New York Times (24 July 2016).
Alan Yuhas, “Roger Ailes accused in new harassment claim of proposing ‘sexual alliance’,” The Guardian (9 August 2016).
“Roger Ailes: kingmaker no more,” The Economist (23 July 2016).
Paul Farhi, “Fox News confronts (but just barely) a scandal in its own house,” The Washington Post (14 August 2016).
“Rupert Murdoch’s phone-hacking scandal: a timeline,” The Week (4 April 2012).
Walter Lippmann, Liberty and the News, Princeton University Press (1920).
Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion, Princeton University Press (1922).
Philip Bump, “Fox News wonders whether we should cancel food stamps because 0.09% of spending is fraudulent,” The Washington Post (28 December 2016).
Fake News
Sapna Maheshwari, “How fake news goes viral: a case study,” The New York Times (12 November 2016).
Biran Stetler, “The plague of fake news is getting worse — here’s how to protect yourself,” CNN Money (1 November 2016).
Adam Taylor, “Before ‘fake news,’ there was Soviet ‘disinformation’,” The Washington Post (26 November 2016).
Ryan Struyk, “The real news about fake news,” ABC News (9 December 2016).
Camila Domonoske, “Students have ‘dismaying’ inability to tell fake news from real, study finds,” NPR (23 November 2016).
Andrew O’Hehir, “Fake news, a fake president and a fake country: welcome to America, land of no context,” Salon (3 December 2016).
Sabrina Tavernise, “As fake news spreads lies, more readers shrug at the truth,” The New York Times (6 December 2016).
“The advent of fake news,” The New York Times (8 December 2016).
Kenan Malik, “All the fake news that was fit to print,” The New York Times (4 December 2016).
Richard Norton-Taylor, “Zinoviev letter was dirty trick by MI6,” The Guardian (3 February 1999).
Beverly Gage, “What an uncensored letter to M.L.K. reveals,” The New York Times (11 November 2014).
David Conn, “Hillsborough disaster: deadly mistakes and lies that lasted decades,” The Guardian (26 April 2016).
Dan Bilefsky, “Hillsborough stadium disaster: verdict faults police for fans ‘unlawfully killed’,” The New York Times (26 April 2016).
Michael P. Lynch, “Fake news and the Internet shell game,” The New York Times (28 November 2016).
ichael R. Gordon and Judith Miller, “Threats and responses: the Iraqis; U.S. says Hussein intensifies quest for a-bomb parts,” The New York Times (8 September 2002).
Craig Silverman et al, “Hyperpartisan Facebook pages are publishing false and misleading information at an alarming rate,” BuzzFeedNews (20 October 2016).
Paul Mozur & Mark Scott, “Fake news in U.S. election? Elsewhere, that’s nothing new,” The New York Times (17 November 2016).
John Herrman, “Fixation on fake news overshadows waning trust in real reporting,” The New York Times (18 November 2016).
The Editorial Board, “Facebook and the digital virus called fake news,” The New York Times (19 November 2016).
Amy Chozick, “Hillary Clinton calls many Trump backers ‘deplorables,’ and G.O.P. pounces,” The New York Times (10 September 2016).
Roger Cohen, “Am I imagining this?,” The Washington Post (10 February 2017).
Beina Xu, “Media censorship in China,” Council on Foreign Relations (7 April 2015).
Ruth Margalit, “How Benjamin Netanyahu is crushing Israel’s free press,” The New York Times (30 July 2016).
Brian Padden, “Concern voiced about media repression in Middle East,” Voice of America News (31 January 2014).
Michael Forsythe, “China clamps down on online news reporting,” The New York Times (25 July 2016).
Edward Wong & Vanessa Piao, “China cracks down on news reports spread via social media,” The New York Times (5 July 2016).
“China to ban news websites from using stories gleaned from social media,” The Guardian (4 July 2016).
Arab Spring
Jack A. Goldstone, “Understanding the revolutions of 2011,” The New York Times (14 April 2011).
Catherine O’Donnell, “New study quantifies use of social media in Arab Spring,” UW Today (12 September 2011).
Evgeny Morozov, “How much did social media contribute to revolution in the Middle East?,” BookForum (April 2011).
“Tunisia ousts prime minister Habib Essid,” The New York Times (30 July 2016).
Carlotta Gall, “Tunisian Islamic party re-elects moderate leader,” The New York Times (23 May 2016).
“Egypt’s new government: marching forward, to the past,” The Economist (28 June 2014).
“Egypt’s economy: state of denial,” The Economist (6 August 2016).
“Report: Libyan militias executed dozens, possibly including Gadhafi,” CNN (17 October 2012).
Jo Becker & Scott Shane, “In their own words: the Libya tragedy,” The New York Times (27 February 2016).
Jo Becker & Scott Shane, “A new Libya, with ‘very little time left’,” The New York Times (27 February 2016).
“Arab uprising: country by country – Saudi Arabia,” BBC News (16 December 2013).
United States
Paul Waldman, “Democrats’ new argument for why they should be in charge: ‘Corruption’,” The Washington Post (21 August 2018).
Dambisa Moyo, “4 steps to help revive America’s decaying democracy,” The Washington Post (7 June 2018).
Dambisa Moyo, Edge of Chaos: Why Democracy Is Failing to Deliver Economic Growth and How to Fix It, Basic Books (2018).
“The presidency: America’s system of checks and balances might struggle to contain a despot,” The Economist (4 February 2017).
Christopher Ingraham, “Elizabeth Warren says ‘government has been bought and paid for’ by big business. Political scientists say she’s got a point.,” The Washington Post (2 January 2019).
Alexander Hertel-Fernandez et al, “Legislative staff and representation in congress,” American Political Science Review (2018).
Political Parties
web site of TeaParty.org (2015).
Siobhan Gorman, “Top officials cited in abuse of detainees,” The New York Times (12 December 2008).
Scott Shane, “Inside a 9/11 mastermind’s interrogation,” The New York Times (22 June 2008).
Tom Wright, “U.S. defends itself on inmate abuse,” The New York Times (9 May 2006).
“Tortured truth,” The Economist (15 May 2008).
Scott Shane, “Waterboarding used 266 times on 2 suspects,” The New York Times (20 April 2009).
Ed Pilkington, “Senate under pressure to release mammoth report on CIA interrogation,” The Guardian (13 December 2012).
“Spies under the thumbscrews,” The Economist (30 June 2009).
“The party declines,” The Economist (5 March 2016).
“Critics see efforts by counties and towns to purge minority voters from roll,” The New York Times (31 July 2016).
Doug Sosnik, “Why Congress rolls over for Trump,” Politico (2 August 2018).
Sheryl Gay Stolberg & Nicholas Fandos, “Gridlock deepens under Trump. Is our democracy at risk?,” The New York Times (27 January 2018).
Clyde Haberman, “The cost of campaigns,” The New York Times (19 October 2014).
Adam Liptak, “A case for math, not ‘gobbledygook,’ in judging partisan voting maps,” The New York Times (15 January 2018).
Jon Terbush, “What it costs to win a Congressional election,” The Week (11 March 2013).
Chris Cillizza, “People hate Congress. But most incumbents get re-elected. What gives?,” The Washington Post (9 May 2013).
Robert Longley, “The decade in pork,” About News (2015).
Citizens Against Government Waste (cagw.org) web site.
“The destructive hand of government,” The Economist (9 June 2010).
“The 10 most absurd pork barrel spending items of 2010,” Nasdaq Investing Answers (13 August 2010).
“What you need to know about pork barrel spending,” Freedom-Works.org (1 April 2002).
“The madness resumes,” The Economist (26 September 2015).
Carl Hulse, “Three separate, equal and dysfunctional branches of government,” The New York Times (24 June 2016).
Philip Bump, “The Senate may be developing an electoral college issue,” The Washington Post (10 April 2017).
SCOTUS, Rucho v. Common Cause (588 US _) (2019).
Adam Liptak, “Supreme Court bars challenges to partisan gerrymandering,” The Washington Post (27 June 2019).
Moon Duchin, “Geometry v. gerrymandering,” Scientific American 319(5): 49-53 (November 2018).
Maggie Astor & K.K. Rebecca Lai, “What’s stronger than a blue wave? Gerrymandered districts,” The New York Times (29 November 2018).
“Map scrap: ending gerrymandering,” The Economist (6 October 2018).
Astead W. Herndon & Jonathan Martin, “Behind G.O.P. power play in Midwest: fear of losing a gerrymandered advantage,” The New York Times (10 December 2018).
Robert Barnes, “Federal judges declare Ohio congressional map unconstitutional,” The Washington Post (3 May 2019).
Robert Barnes, “Three-judge panel rules unconstitutional gerrymandering in North Carolina,” The Washington Post (27 August 2018).
“The minority majority: America’s electoral system gives the Republicans advantages over Democrats,” The Economist (12 July 2018).
“Democrats face a systemic disadvantage in winning power,” The Economist (12 July 2018).
“American democracy’s built-in bias towards rural Republicans,” The Economist (12 July 2018).
“Gerrymandering: a GOP advantage?,” The Week (14 July 2017).
Paul Steinhauser & Robert Yoon, “Cost to win congressional election skyrockets,” CNN (11 July 2013).
SCOTUS, Abbott v Perez (581 US _) (2018).
Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court upholds Texas redistricting a lower court said discriminated against black and Hispanic voters,” The Washington Post (25 June 2018).
Adam Liptak, “Supreme Court sidesteps decision on partisan gerrymandering,” The New York Times (18 June 2018).
Robert Barnes, “Wisconsin legislative map ruled illegally partisan; case will go to Supreme Court,” The Washington Post (21 November 2016).
Laurel Wamsley, “Federal court rules three Texas congressional districts illegally drawn,” NPR (11 March 2017).
Associated Press, “Texas Republicans drew congressional districts on racial lines, judges find,” The Guardian (11 March 2017).
Federal Budget
Jeff Stein, “Deficit balloons to $779 billion in Trump’s second year,” The Washington Post (15 October 2018).
Scott Horsley, “Federal deficit jumps 17 percent as tax cuts eat into government revenue,” NPR (15 October 2018).
Thomas Kaplan, “Federal budget deficit projected to soar to over $1 trillion in 2020,” The New York Times (15 October 2018).
Reuters, “U.S. government posts widest deficit since 2012,” The New York Times (15 October 2018).
Carl Hulse, “Trump’s budget is aspirational. Reality in Congress will change it,” The New York Times (28 February 2017).
“Federal net outlays as percent of gross domestic product,” Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Economic Research (2015).
Judicial Politics
David Montgomery, “Conquerors of the courts,” The Washington Post (2 January 2019).
Adam Liptak, “Roberts, leader of Supreme Court’s conservative majority, fights perception that it is partisan,” The New York Times (23 December 2018).
Linda Greenhouse, “A Supreme Court divided. On the right.,” The New York Times (20 December 2018).
Manny Fernandez, “In weaponized courts, judge who halted affordable care act is a conservative favorite,” The New York Times (15 December 2018).
Marc A. Thiessen, “Chief Justice Roberts is wrong. We do have Obama judges and Trump judges,” The Washington Post (23 November 2018).
Barry Friedman, “The coming storm over the Supreme Court,” The New York Times (8 October 2018).
“How America’s Supreme Court became so politicised,” The Economist (15 September 2018).
Kevin Schaul & Kevin Uhrmacher, “How Trump is shifting the most important courts in the country,” The Washington Post (5 September 2018).
James Hohmann, “The Daily 202: Kavanaugh hearing offers an ‘unprecedented’ display of the Senate’s institutional decline,” The Washington Post (5 September 2018).
“The right’s judicial pipeline,” The Week (31 August 2018).
Larry Behrendt, “I filed one of the 83 dismissed misconduct complaints against Brett Kavanaugh. Here’s why.,” The Washington Post (30 December 2018).
“Chad Ludington’s statement on Kavanaugh’s drinking and Senate testimony,” The New York Times (30 September 2018).
Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “Kavanaugh is sworn in after close confirmation vote in Senate,” The New York Times (6 October 2018).
Seung Min Kim & John Wagner, “Kavanaugh sworn in as Supreme Court justice after divided Senate votes for confirmation,” The Washington Post (6 October 2018).
Deanna Paul, “With Kavanaugh confirmed, impeachment could follow. Here’s how.,” The Washington Post (6 October 2018).
Ruth Marcus, “Partisanship is poison. How will the Supreme Court survive?,” The Washington Post (5 October 2015).
2,400+ US Law Professors, “The Senate should not confirm Kavanaugh,” The New York Times (3 October 2018).
Jennifer Rubin, “‘We can’t have that on the court’,” The Washington Post (2 October 2018).
Seung Min Kim et al, “Kavanaugh hearing: Supreme Court nominee insists on his innocence, calls process ‘national disgrace’,” The Washington Post (27 September 2018).
Adam Liptak, “A bitter nominee, questions of neutrality, and a damaged Supreme Court,” The New York Times (28 September 2018).
Paul Blumenthal & Jennifer Bendery, “All the lies brett Kavanaugh told,” HuffPost (1 October 2018).
Laurence H. Tribe, “All the ways a Justice Kavanaugh would have to recuse himself,” The New York Times (1 October 2018).
The Editorial Board, “Why Brett Kavanaugh wasn’t believable,” The New York Times (27 September 2018).
Seung Min Kim et al, “Kavanaugh hearing: Supreme Court nominee insists on his innocence, calls process ‘national disgrace’,” The New York Times (27 September 2018).
Amber Phillips, “Calling Ford an ‘attractive witness’ and the other problematic things politicians have said about the Kavanaugh allegations,” The New York Times (27 September 2018).
Patrick Leahy, “Brett Kavanaugh misled the Senate under oath. I cannot support his nomination.,” The Washington Post (13 September 2018).
Avi Selk, “How the FBI’s flawed investigation of Clarence Thomas became a model for Kavanaugh’s,” The Washington Post (4 October 2018).
Ann E. Marimow et al, “D.C. Circuit sent complaints about Kavanaugh’s testimony to Chief Justice Roberts,” The Washington Post (6 October 2018).
Ann Bausam, Our Country’s Presidents, National Geographic Children’s Books (2013).
“Total government employment since 1962,” US Office of Personnel Management (2014).
Tim Meko et al, “How Trump wont the presidency with razor-thin margins in swing states,” The New York Times (11 November 2016).
“Electoral college: it’s 2000 all over again,” The Week (25 November 2016).
Renae Merle, “Wall Street’s watchdog is pursuing fewer cases since Trump took office,” The Washington Post (23 November 2017).
David Leonhardt & Ian Prasad Philbrick, “Trump’s corruption: The definitive list,” The New York Times (28 October 2018).
Timothy Snyder, “Donald Trump borrows from the old tricks of fascism,” The Guardian (30 October 2018).
Timothy Snyder, “Trump is ushering in a dark new conservatism,” The Guardian (15 July 2017).
US Courts
Edward W. Knappman (editor), Great American Trials, Barnes and Noble Books (1994).
SCOTUS, Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (2018).
Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court rules against public unions collecting fees from nonmembers,” The Washington Post (27 June 2018).
Adam Liptak, “Supreme Court ruling delivers a sharp blow to labor unions,” The New York Times (27 June 2018).
Elizabeth Dias & Sydney Ember, “Abortion and travel ban rulings are victory for G.O.P. tactics on Gorsuch,” The New York Times (26 June 2018).
SCOTUS, Abbott v. Perez (2018).
SCOTUS, National Institute of Family and Life Advocates v. Becerra (2018).
Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court says crisis pregnancy centers do not have to provide women abortion information,” The Washington Post (26 June 2018).
“Donald Trump’s judicial appointments may prove his most enduring legacy,” The Economist (11 January 2018).
Ruth Marcus, “Trump’s dangerous plot to weaponize the Supreme Court,” The Washington Post (30 March 2018).
Paul Butler, “The rightwing takeover of the US court system will transform America,” The Guardian (12 December 2017).
Linda Greenhouse, “A conservative plan to weaponize the federal court,” The New York Times (23 November 2017).
Matt Flegenheimer, “Senate Republicans deploy ‘nuclear option’ to clear path for Gorsuch,” The New York Times (6 April 2017).
Jennifer Steinhauer, “After Senate filibuster’s death, somber lawmakers seek path forward,” The New York Times (6 April 2017).
David W. Dunlap, “The good old days of Supreme Court nominations? They don’t exist,” The New York Times (31 March 2017).
Charlie Savage, “Trump is rapidly reshaping the judiciary. Here’s how.,” The New York Times (11 November 2017).
Ed O’Keefe & Sean Sullivan, “Senate plunges toward historic rules change in Supreme Court standoff,” The Washington Post (4 April 2017).
“Garland shouldn’t be considered after election, McConnell says,” The New York Times (20 March 2016).
Tonja Jacobi & Matthew Sag, “Supreme Court justices are speaking up more because they’re not afraid to be partisan,” The Washington Post (6 April 2018).
United Kingdom
Queen Elizabeth I
Alison Weir, The Life of Elizabeth I, Ballantine Books (2013).
Carolly Erickson, The First Elizabeth, St. Martin’s Griffin (1983).
Wallace MacCaffrey, Elizabeth I, Edward Arnold (1993).
Alison Plowden, Elizabeth I, Sutton Publishing (2004).
“House of Lords: does size matter?,” BBC News (28 August 2015).
Mark Leftly, “House of Lords could face reduction in size amid concerns over ever-increasing number of peers,” Independent (25 July 2015).
“Right answer, spoken out of turn,” The Economist (31 October 2015).
“Crisis? What crisis?,” The Economist (31 October 2015).
Molly Meacher, “The Lords stance on tax credits is indispensable, not unconstitutional,” The Guardian (28 October 2015).
Nicholas Watt, “Tax credits vote: PM accuses Lords of breaking constitutional convention,” The Guardian (28 August 2015).
Patrick Wintour, “Peers in House of Lords move to block £4.4bn cuts to tax credits,” The Guardian (21 August 2015).
Winston Churchill
William Manchester, The Last Lion, Volumes 1 & 2, Little, Brown and Company (1988).
Gretchen Rubin, Forty Ways to Look at Winston Churchill, Random House (2003).
Boris Johnson, The Churchill Factor, Riverhead Books (2014).
Margaret Thatcher
Jonathan Aitken, Margaret Thatcher – Power and Personality, Bloomsbury (2013).
John Campbell, The Iron Lady, Vintage (2009).
“No ordinary politician,” The Economist (13 April 2013).
Paul Wilenius, “Enemies within: Thatcher and the unions,” BBC News (5 March 2004).
Matt Ridley, “Et tu, Heseltine?; unpopularity was a grievous fault, and Thatcher hath answered for it,” The Washington Post (25 Novem-ber 1990).
Jamie Doward, “Industrial collapse of Thatcher years led to crime rise, study finds,” The Guardian (27 April 2019).
W.G. Beasley, The Rise of Modern Japan, St. Martin’s Press (2000).
Jeff Kingston, Contemporary Japan, Wiley-Blackwell (2011).
David T. Johnson, “Bureaucratic corruption in Japan,” Japan Policy Research Institute (2001).
“Japan’s criminal-justice system: extractor, few fans,” The Economist (5 December 2015).
“Criminal justice in Japan: forced to confess,” The Economist (5 December 2015).
John Spacy, “Japan’s crime rate,” Japan Talk (1 July 2012).
Supranational Government
Ruth Henig, The League of Nations, Haws Publishing (2010).
Mark Mazower, Governing The World, The Penguin Press (2012).
The United Nations
United Nations Department of Public Information, Basic Facts about the United Nations, United Nations Publications (2011).
John Allphin Moore, Jr. & Jerry Pubantz, Encyclopedia of The United Nations, Facts on File (2002).
Linda Fasulo, An Insider’s Guide to the UN, Yale University Press (2015).
David L. Bosco, Five To Rule Them All, Oxford University Press (2009).
Paul Kennedy, The Parliament of Man: The Past, Present, and Future of the United Nations, Random House (2006).
“The UN’s role in nation building,” Rand Corporation (2005).
Joseph Loconte, “The U.N. sex scandal,” The Weekly Standard (3 January 2005).
Kathleen Jennings, “The UN’s Shame: sexual exploitation and abuse in UN peacekeeping,” E-International Relations (21 October 2015).
“UN troops implicated in rape of girl and indiscriminate killings must be investigated,” Amnesty International (11 August 2015).
Sandra Laville, “UN aid worker suspended for leaking report on child abuse by French troops,” The Guardian (29 April 2015).
Ian Traynor, “Nato force ‘feeds Kosovo sex trade’, The Guardian (6 May 2004).
Michael J. Jordan, “Sex charges haunt UN forces,” The Christian Science Monitor (26 November 2004).
The European Union
Ali M. El-Agraa, The European Union Illuminated: Its Nature, Importance and Future Palgrave Macmillan (2015).
Sudhir Chella Rajan, “Global politics and institutions,” Tellus Institute (2006).
Luuk van Middelaar, The Passage to Europe, Yale University Press (2013).
“Between the borders,” The Economist (18 June 2016).
“Europe’s summiteers have little to celebrate, besides not being British,” The Economist (13 December 2018).
EU map courtesy of Hayden120 and NuclearVacuum.
Max Fisher, “Why Europe could melt down over a simple question of borders,” The New York Times (6 July 2018).
Amanda Taub, “The E.U. is democratic. it just doesn’t feel that way,” The New York Times (29 June 2016).
Ishaan Tharoor, “The man who declared the ‘end of history’ fears for democracy’s future,” The Washington Post (9 February 2017).
Halvard M. Lange, “European Union: false hopes and realities,” Foreign Affairs (April 1950).
Lisa O’Carroll & Jennifer Rankin, “European elections: UK regulator urged to count late postal votes,” The Guardian (24 May 2019).
The Euro
“The euro enters its third decade in need of reform,” The Economist (5 January 2019).
“France’s plans for euro-zone reform get a lukewarm German response,” The Economist (9 June 2018).
Matthew Lynn, Bust: Greece, The Euro, and the Sovereign Debt Crisis, Wiley & Sons (2011).
Christian Wienberg, “Greece ‘cheated’ to join euro, former ECB economist Issing says,” Bloomberg (undated).
“Greece prepares to shed Europe’s oldest currency for the euro,” Bloomberg News (31 December 2000).
David Marsh, The Euro: The Politics of the New Global Currency, Yale University Press (2009).
John Van Overtveldt, The End of the Euro, B2 Books (2011).
The Editorial Board, “How the euro turned into a trap,” The New York Times (25 July 2015).
Larry Elliott, “The euro – the ‘new’ Coke of currencies?,” The Guardian (19 July 2015).
Josh Barro, “The I.M.F. is telling Europe the euro doesn’t work,” The New York Times (14 July 2015).
Bruce Stokes, “France and Germany: A tale of two countries drifting apart,” BBC News (14 May 2013).
“Fractured France: an unprecedented election, with unprecedented risks,” The Economist (4 March 2017).
Liz Alderman, “Greece’s bailout is ending. The pain is far from over.,” The New York Times (19 August 2018).
“Greece exits its bail-out programme, but its marathon has further to go,” The Economist (2 August 2018).
Rachel Donadio & Liz Alderman, “List of Swiss accounts turns up the heat in Greece,” The New York Times (27 October 2012).
Marcus Walker, “Tragic flaw: graft feeds Greek crisis,” The Wall Street Journal (15 April 2010).
Niki Kitsantonis & Matthew Saltmarsh, “Greece calls for activation of financial rescue,” The Wall Street Journal (23 April 2010).
Liz Alderman, “Greece may face gap of 11 billion euros, I.M.F. says,” The New York Times (1 August 2013).
“Renewed Greek troubles: darkness at midnight,” The Economist (15 June 2013).
Gordon Fairclough, “Once-lively square is center of Greek woe,” The Wall Street Journal (8 January 2013).
Helena Smith, “Euros discarded as impoverished Greeks resort to bartering,” The Guardian (2 January 2013).
Nektaria Stamouli & Stelios Bouras, “Greeks raid forests in search of wood to heat homes,” The Wall Street Journal (11 January 2013).
Philip Pangalos & Nektaria Stamouli, “Scandal deepens over Greece’s ‘Lagarde list’,” The Wall Street Journal (29 December 2012).
Helena Smith, “Hundreds of thousands of Greeks march against austerity,” The Guardian (26 September 2012).
Liz Alderman, “Waves of protest engulfs Greece,” The New York Times (17 June 2013).
Maria Margaronis, “Greece at the boiling point,” The New York Times (10 June 2013).
Suzanne Daley, “Greeks reject bailout terms in rebuff to European leaders,” The New York Times (5 July 2015).
“The dark clouds of peace,” The Economist (18 July 2015).
“Greece and the euro: from rage to resignation,” The Economist (18 July 2015).
The Editorial Board, “Vague promises of debt relief for Greece,” The New York Times (30 May 2016).
Graeme Wearden, “Greece’s debt costs rise sharply as worries grow over IMF role,” The Guardian (7 February 2017).
Liz Alderman, “Greeks turn to the black market as another bailout showdown looms,” The New York Times (18 February 2017).
Helena Smith, “‘From bad to worse’: Greece hurtles towards a final reckoning,” The Guardian (19 February 2017).
Helina Smith, “Creditors agree terms to disburse Greece’s €8.5bn bailout funds,” The Guardian (16 June 207).
Helena Smith, “Greek debt crisis: ‘People can’t see any light at the end of any tunnel’,” The Guardian (30 July 2017).
“A seismic defeat throws Brexit plans into chaos,” The Economist (17 January 2019).
Heather Stewart & Daniel Boffey, “Theresa May suffers historic defeat as Tories turn against her,” The Guardian (15 January 2019).
Stephen Castle & Ellen Barry, “May and Brexit face uncertain future after crushing defeat in parliament,” The New York Times (15 January 2019).
Toby Helm, “Brexit deadlock ‘is blocking vital domestic policy reforms’,” The Guardian (15 December 2018).
Catherine Haddon, “Britain’s Brexit crisis was entirely self-inflicted,” The Washington Post (14 December 2018).
Daniel Boffey et al, “Theresa May’s Brexit strategy left brutally exposed by Brussels failure,” The Guardian (14 December 2018).
Steven Erlanger & Stephen Castle, “Theresa May finds no joy in Brussels. Now what for Brexit?,” The New York Times (14 December 2018).
Michael Birnbaum & William Booth, “E.U. leaders approve Brexit plan, setting up vote in British Parliament, where it faces stiff opposition,” The Washington Post (25 November 2018).
Stephen Castle & Steven Erlanger, “E.U. Leaders and U.K. agree on Brexit divorce terms,” The New York Times (25 November 2018).
Jon Henley, “‘Soft’ Brexit agreement not a done deal, warn EU leaders,” The Guardian (15 November 2018).
Stephen Castle, “Brexit deal in crisis after 2 U.K. cabinet ministers quit,” The New York Times (15 November 2018).
“Brexit uncertainty has already damaged Britain’s exporters,” The Economist (19 July 2018).
Jenni Russell, “Boris Johnson has ruined Britain,” The New York Times (10 July 2018).
“Businesses are preparing for the worst version of Brexit,” The Economist (3 August 2017).
Guy Verhofstadt, “We’re not out to punish Britain, but you need to shed your illusions,” The Guardian (18 January 2017).
Jon Henley, “EU politicians and businesses warn May over ‘difficult’ Brexit,” The Guardian (18 January 2017).
Steven Erlanger, “Britain votes to leave E.U., stunning the world,” The New York Times (23 June 2016).
Andrew Sparrow, “EU referendum result: Britain votes for Brexit,” The Guardian (23 June 2016).
“Teetering on the edge: everything is no ok,” The Economist (1 July 2016).
Edward Helmore, “UK descends into political chaos after Brexit vote,” The Guardian (28 June 2016).
Paul Anderson, “Brexit takes Jeremy Corbyn’s Labour Party to the brink,” The Guardian (28 June 2016).
Edward Helmore, “European leaders push for quick split as Brexit woes deepen,” The Guardian (28 June 2016).
Kate Connolly et al, “Angela Merkel: no special favours for UK over single market,” The Guardian (28 June 2016).
“Mind your step,” The Economist (8 October 2016).
“The future of the EU: now what?,” The Economist (3 September 2016).
Andrew Higgins & James Kanter, “A blunt message after ‘Brexit’: bolting will carry a heavy price,” The Guardian (28 June 2016).
Stephen Castle, “U.K. initiates ‘Brexit’ and wades into a thorny thicket,” The New York Times (29 March 2017).
Stephen Castle, “2 months after ‘Brexit’ vote, Britain’s push to leave E.U. is a muddle,” The Guardian (29 November 2016).
Griff Witte, “As Brexit approaches, signs of a gathering economic storm for Britain,” The Guardian (13 December 2016).
“The not-so-United Kingdom: Britain is sliding towards Scoxit,” The Economist (18 February 2017).
Stephen Castle, “Scotland votes to demand a post-‘Brexit’ independence referendum,”The New York Times (29 March 2017).

Rule of Law
Michael H. Roffer, The Law Book, Sterling (2015).
Bruce G. Trigger, Understanding Early Civilizations, Cambridge University Press (2007).
T’ung-tsu Ch’ü, Law and Society in Traditional China, Hyperion, (1986).
Theodore F.T. Plucknett, A Concise History of the Common Law, Liberty Fund (1929).
Lawrence M. Friedman, A History of American Law, Simon & Schuster (1985).
W. Phillips Shivley, Power & Choice, McGraw Hill (2011).
Charlie Savage, “Trump and his lawyers embrace a vision of vast executive power,” The New York Times (4 June 2018).
Aarti Betigeri, “Are Australians really dumb, drunk and racist?,” The Wall Street Journal (26 June 2012).
Roger Cohen, “Broken men in paradise,” The New York Times (9 December 2016).
“Australia: a prison with a glass ceiling,” The Week (11 July 2014).
“Australian sheep punched, stamped on and thrown: PETA,” Phys.org (11 July 2014).
“Australia apologizes for child abuse,” The Wall Street Journal (15 November 2009).
“Jailing the natives,” The Week (23 June 2011).
David Marr, “The worst I’ve seen – trauma expert lifts lid on ‘atrocity’ of Australia’s detention regime,” The Guardian (20 June 2016).
“Mistaken for illegal: former Qantas hostess held in Aussie detention centre for 10 months,” The Electric News Paper (7 February 2005).
Brenda Goh, “Chinese daily calls Australia ‘uncivilized’ as swim row boils over,” Reuters (8 August 2016).
“Australia forced adoptions,” BBC News Asia (20 March 2013).
Brett Cole, “Christmas revelers leave 16 ons of trash on Australian beach,” The New York Times (28 December 2016).
Caleb Jones, “Scientists send coral reef plea to Australia,” Phys.org (26 June 2016).
Michael Slezak, “Court rules Shenhua may destroy koala habitat for huge coalmine,” The Guardian (18 February 2016).
“Australia criticised over emissions cuts that defy 2 C target,” New Scientist (12 August 2015).
Oliver Milman & Nick Evershed, “Australia has denied environmental approval to just 18 projects since 2000,” The Guardian (11 August 2015).
Lenore Taylor, “Australia’s emissions cut target ‘at or near bottom’ of comparable countries,” The Guardian (14 August 2015).
Michael Slezak, “Plan to save Great Barrier Reef doomed to failure,” New Scientist (28 October).
Oliver Milman, “Coalition ‘taking an axe’ to environment, says Mark Butler,” The Guardian (6 February 2014).
Jeff Goodell, “Climate change and the end of Australia,” Rolling Stone (3 October 2011).
An Armed Citizenry
Lillian Cunningham, “Episode 11 of the Constitutional podcast: ‘War’,” The Washington Post (20 November 2017).
“All firearm deaths,” US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018).
“Guns in the US: the statistics behind the violence,” BBC News (5 January 2016).
“What does America’s Second Amendment really say?,” The Economist (16 November 2017).
Andrew P. Napolitano, Constitutional Chaos: What Happens When the Government Breaks Its Own Laws, Thomas Nelson (2006).
United States
Lawrence M. Friedman, Law in America, Modern Library (2002).
SCOTUS, Chisholm v. Georgia (2 US 419) (1793).
Supreme Court
Editorial Board, “John Roberts said there are no Trump judges or Obama judges. Clarence Thomas didn’t get the memo.,” The Washington Post (29 June 2019).
Eli Rosenberg, “Clarence Thomas tried to link abortion to eugenics. Seven historians told The Post he’s wrong.,” The Washington Post (31 May 2019).
Karen Yourish et al, “Kavanaugh is one of only 114 to join the exclusive club of justices. Here’s how he fits in.,” The New York Times (8 October 2018).
Tom McCarthy, “The supreme court has already reshaped America – here’s how,” The Guardian (2 July 2018).
Sarah Turberville & Anthony Marcum, “Those 5-to-4 decisions on the Supreme Court? 9 to 0 is far more common.,” The Washington Post (28 June 2018).
“How America’s courts can keep the government in check,” The Economist (11 February 2017).
Adam Liptak, “A Supreme Court not so much deadlocked as diminished,” The New York Times (17 May 2016).
“The Supreme Court: slowing down,” The Economist (14 May 2016).
“The crippled Supreme Court,” The New York Times (16 May 2016).
US State Department, Supreme Court Decisions: 20 Landmark Cases Summarized Amazon Kindle Services (2012).
Mark Tushnet, I Dissent, Beacon Press (2008).
Edward W. Knappman (editor), Great American Trials, Barnes & Noble (1994).
SCOTUS, Marbury v. Madison (5 US 137) (1803).
SCOTUS, Ogden v. Saunders (25 US 213) (1827).
Melvin Urofsky, Dissent and the Supreme Court, Pantheon Books (2015).
Mark Tushnet (editor), I Dissent, Beacon Press (2008).
SCOTUS, Fletcher v. Peck (10 US 87) (1810).
SCOTUS, Johnson v. M’Intosh (21 US 543) (1823).
SCOTUS, Chevron USA v. NRDC (467 US 837) (1984).
SCOTUS, Colegrove v. Green (328 US 549) (1946).
SCOTUS, Baker v. Carr (369 US 186) (1962).
SCOTUS, Shelby County v. Holder (570 US 2) (2013).
Jaime Fuller, “How has voting changed since Shelby County v. Holder?,” The Washington Post (7 July 2014).
SCOTUS, Bush v. Gore (531 US 98) (2000).
SCOTUS, Dred Scott v. Sandford (60 US 393) (1856).
SCOTUS, Plessy v. Ferguson (163 US 537) (1896).
SCOTUS, Berea College v. Kentucky (211 US 45) (1908).
SCOTUS, Brown v. Board of Education (347 US 483) (1954).
SCOTUS, United States v. Cruikshank (92 US 542) (1875).
SCOTUS, Chae Chan Ping v. United States (130 US 581) (1889).
Lawrence Goldstone, Inherently Unequal: The Betrayal of Equal Rights by the Supreme Court, 1865-1903, Walker Books (2011).
SCOTUS, Korematsu v. United States (323 US 214) (1944).
SCOTUS, Trump v. Hawaii (585 US _) (2018).
“Confession of error: the Solicitor General’s mistakes during the Japanese-American internment cases,” US Department of Justice (20 May 2011).
SCOTUS, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co. (392 US 409) (1968).
SCOTUS, Runyon v. McCrary (427 US 160) (1976).
SCOTUS, Grutter v. Bollinger (539 US 306) (2003).
SCOTUS, McCleskey v. Kemp (481 US 289) (1987).
Andrea Pitzer, “U.S. eugenics legacy: ruling on Buck sterilization still stands,” USA Today (23 June 2009).
Bernard Schwartz, A History of the Supreme Court, Oxford University Press (1993).
SCOTUS, Skinner v. Oklahoma (316 US 535) (1942).
SCOTUS, Hans v. Louisiana (134 US 1) (1890).
SCOTUS, Nevada v. Hall (440 US 410) (1979).
SCOTUS, Franchise Tax Board Of California v. Gilbert P. Hyatt (2019).
Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court’s conservatives overturn precedent as liberals ask ‘which cases the court will overrule next’,” The Washington Post (13 May 2019).
SCOTUS, Helvering v. Davis (301 US 619) (1937).
SCOTUS, Morrison v. Olson (487 US 654) (1988).
SCOTUS, Bram v. United States (168 US 532) (1897).
SCOTUS, Jennings v. Rodriguez (583 US _) (2018).
Adam Liptak, “No bail hearings for detained immigrants, Supreme Court rules,” The New York Times (27 February 2018).
Micahel Kagan, “Jennings v. Rodriguez might not be about immigration after all,” Notice & Comment (2 March 2018).
SCOTUS, Frazier v. Cupp (394 US 931) (1969).
SCOTUS, Miranda v. Arizona (384 US 436) (1966).
Kali Holloway, “Lying is a fundamental part of American police culture,” Alternet (27 March 2018).
SCOTUS, Berghuis v. Thompkins (560 US 370) (2010).
SCOTUS, Oregon v. Mathiason (429 US 492) (1977).
“Stewart begins serving jail term,” NBC News (8 October 2004).
SCOTUS, Ker v. Illinois (119 US 436) (1886).
SCOTUS, Frisbie v. Collins (342 US 519) (1952).
SCOTUS, United States v. Alvarez-Machain (504 US 655) (1992).
SCOTUS, Olmstead v. United States (304 US 144) (1928).
SCOTUS, Katz v. United States (389 US 347) (1967).
SCOTUS, Smith v. Maryland (442 US 739) (1979).
SCOTUS, Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole v. Scott (524 US 357) (1998).
SCOTUS, Strieff v. Utah (579 US _) (2016).
SCOTUS, Nardone v. United States (442 US 739) (1979).
SCOTUS, Buck v. Bell (274 US 200) (1927).
SCOTUS, Slaughter-House Cases (316 US 535) (1873).
SCOTUS, Home Building & Loan Association v. Blaisdell (290 US 398) (1934).
SCOTUS, US v. Carolene Products (304 US 144) (1938).
SCOTUS, Williamson v. Lee Optical (348 US 483) (1955).
SCOTUS, Wickard v. Filburn (317 US 111) (1942).
SCOTUS, Gonzales v. Raich (541 US 1) (2005).
SCOTUS, National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (567 US 132) (2012).
SCOTUS, Boom Co. v. Patterson (98 US 403) (1878).
SCOTUS, Kelo v. New London (545 US 469) (2005).
SCOTUS, Berman v. Parker (348 US 26) (1954).
SCOTUS, Hawaii Housing Authority v. Midkiff (467 US 229) (1984).
SCOTUS, Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council (505 US 1003) (1992).
SCOTUS, Palazzolo v. Rhode Island (533 US 606) (2001).
SCOTUS, Bennis v. Michigan (517 US 1163) (1996).
Steven L. Kessler, “Injustice for all: Bennis vs. Michigan” Kessler on Forfeiture (25 June 1996).
SCOTUS, Connick v. Thompson (563 US _) (2011).
SCOTUS, Rose Mary Knick v. Township of Soctt, Pennsylvania (588 US _) (2019).
“Justice and prosecutorial misconduct,” The New York Times (28 December 2011).
Nina Morrison, “What happens when prosecutors break the law?,” The New York Times (18 June 2018).
David Keenan et al, “The myth of prosecutorial accountability after Connick v. Thompson: why existing professional responsibility measures cannot protect against prosecutorial misconduct,” The Yale Law Journal (25 October 2011).
Alan Feuer, “The 96-year-old Brooklyn judge standing up to the Supreme Court,” The New York Times (14 June 2018).
Randall D. Eliason, “Robert Menendez’s trial shows the bar to prove corruption just keeps rising,” The Washington Post (2 February 2018).
Indira Lakshmanan, “Is it now too hard to prosecute politicians for corruption?,” On Point (6 February 2018).
Randall Eliason, “Supreme Court narrows federal bribery law in a win for Bob McDonnell,” Sidebars (27 June 2016).
SCOTUS, McDonnell v. United States (579 US _) (2016).
Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court overturns corruption conviction of former Va. governor McDonnell,” The Washington Post (27 June 2016).
David Smith, “Supreme court overturns bribery conviction for former Virginia governor,” The Guardian (27 June 2016).
Corporate Power
Adam Winkler, We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights, Liveright (2018).
“The triumph of America’s companies – friends in high places,” The Economist (3 March 2018).
SCOTUS, Bank of the United States v. Deveaux (9 US 61) (1809).
SCOTUS, Charles River Bridge Company v. Warren Bridge Company (36 US 420) (1837).
SCOTUS, Bank of Augusta v. Earle (38 US 522) (1839).
SCOTUS, Marshall v. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company (57 US 314) (1853).
SCOTUS, Pembina Consolidated Silver Mining Company v. Pennsylvania (125 US 181) (1888).
SCOTUS, Hale v. Henkel (201 US 43) (1906).
SCOTUS, Valentine v. Chrestensen (316 US 52) (1942).
SCOTUS, Virginia Pharmacy Board v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council (425 US 748) (1976).
SCOTUS, First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti (435 US 765) (1978).
SCOTUS, Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce (494 US 652) (1990).
SCOTUS, Citizens United v. FEC (558 US 310) (2010).
SCOTUS, Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. (573 US _) (2014).
SCOTUS, Masterpiece Cakeshop Ltd. v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission (584 US _) (2018).
Robert P. George, “Colorado made the masterpiece case easy for the court,” The New York Times (4 June 2018).
Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court rules in favor of baker who would not make wedding cake for gay couple,” The Washington Post (4 June 2018).
Patent Law
“Patent Assertion and U.S. Innovation,” Executive Office of the President (June 2013).
SCOTUS, KSR v. Teleflex (550 US 398) (2007).
Active Toolbar Tool Groups
Patent Hawk, “Obzilla,” The Patent Prospector (30 April 2007).
CAFC, Power-One v. Artesyn Technologies (2010); Pressure Products Medical Supplies v. Greatbatch (CAFC 2010); Source Search Technologies v. LendingTree (2009); Sanofi-Synthelabo v. Apotex (2008); KSR v. Teleflex (SCOTUS 2007).
CAFC, Spectralytics v. Cordis and Norman Noble (CAFC 2009-1564, 2010-1004).
SCOTUS, Graham v. John Deere Co. (383 US 1) (1966).
Patent Hawk, “Incompetence personified,” The Patent Prospector (16 January 2013).
CAFC, Odom v. Microsoft (2011-1160).
Patent Hawk, “Underdog,” The Patent Prospector (10 May 2011).
Randall R. Rader, “Make patent trolls pay in court,” The New York Times (4 June 2013).
Patent Hawk, “Open season on inventors,” The Patent Prospector (5 June 2013).
CAFC, State Street Bank & Trust v. Signature Financial Group (1996-1327).
Software Patents
CAFC, Prometheus Laboratories v. Mayo Collaborative Services (2008-1403).
CAFC, Classen Immunotherapies v. Biogen (2006-1634, -1649).
CAFC, SiRF v. ITC (2009-1262).
CAFC, CyberSource v. Retail Decisions (2009-1358).
CAFC, Ultramercial v. Hulu (2010-1544).
CAFC, Fort Properties v. American Master Lease (2009-1242).
CAFC, buySAFE v. Google (2013-1575).
CAFC, In re Bilski (545 F.3d 943) (2008).
SCOTUS, Bilski v. Kappos (564 US 593) (2010).
SCOTUS, Alice v. CLS Bank (SCt 13-298) (2014).
CAFC, Planet Bingo v. VKGS (2013-1663, 2014).
CAFC, Digitech Image Technologies v. Electronics for Imaging (2013-1600).
United Kingdom
UK Courts and Tribunals Judiciary website: www.judiciary.gov.uk/about-the-judiciary/the-justice-system/court-structure/ (2015).
“Too often juries comprise 12 confused men (and women),” The Economist (14 April 2018).
Bernard P. Cohen & Zueguang Zhou, “Status processes in enduring work groups,” American Sociological Review 56: 179–188 (April 1991).
Adam Liptak, “Exclusion of black from juries raises renews scrutiny,” The New York Times (16 August 2016).
Michael J. Saks & Mollie Weighner Marti, “A meta-analysis of the effects of jury size,” Law and Human Behavior 21(5): 451-467 (October 1997).
SCOTUS, Williams v. Florida (399 US 78) (1973).
SCOTUS, Colgrove v. Battin (413 US 149) (1973).
SCOTUS, Ballew v. Georgia (435 US 223) (1978).
SCOTUS, Duncan v. Louisiana (391 US 145) (1968).
“Do we need grand juries?,” The New York Times (18 February 1985).
Jury Nullification
“The trial of William Penn and William Mead, at the Old Bailey, for a tumultuous assembly,” Howell’s State Trials, Vol. 6 (1670).
“Case of the imprisonment of Edward Bushel for alleged misconduct as a juryman,” Howell’s State Trials, Vol. 6 (1670).
Simon Stern, “Between local knowledge and national politics: debating rationales for jury nullification after Bushell’s case,” Yale Law Journal 111(6): 1815–1859 (2002).
“Insurance’s Jarndyce v Jarndyce: an epic legal battle with big implications for litigation funding,” The Economist (10 December 2016).
SCOTUS, Georgia v. Brailsford (3 US 1) (1794).
SCOTUS, Sparf and Hansen v. United States (156 US 51) (1895).
Alean Scheflin & Jon Van Dyke, “Jury nullification: the contours of a controversy,” Law & Contemporary Problems 51 (1979–1980).
Karen Bowers, “Beyond contempt,” Westword (23 January 1997).
Benjamin Weiser, “Jury statute not violated by protester, judge rules,” The New York Times (19 April 2012).
Paul Butler, “Jurors need to know that they can say no,” The New York Times (20 December 2011).
Benjamin Weiser, Jury nullification advocate is indicted,” The New York Times (25 February 2011).
Maura Dolan, “Justices say jurors may not vote conscience,” The Los Angeles Times (8 May 2001).
Nancy J. King, “Silencing nullification advocacy inside the jury room and outside the courtroom,” University of Chicago Law Review (1998).
Law Enforcement
John W. Whitehead, “The American nightmare: the tyranny of the criminal justice system,” Huffington Post (22 July 2015).
Deborah Cotton, “Don’t jail crime victims for not testifying,” The New York Times (4 May 2017).
“Justice in Louisiana: the ruin of many a poor boy,” The Economist (12 March 2016).
Matt Apuzzo, “Justice Dept. condemns profit-minded court policies targeting the poor,” The New York Times (14 March 2016).
“Alabama judge orders defendants to give blood to avoid jail,” BBC News (20 October 2015).
“Ex-Arkansas judge who bartered in sexual favors sentenced to prison,” Reuters(21 February 2018).
“In some countries, killer cops are celebrated,” The Economist (8 March 2018).
“Prosecuting sex offences: the hardest cases,” The Economist (19 November 2016).
“Long history of race rioting,” BBC News (28 May 2001).
Tim Stanley, “History shows that the London riots were predictable, because the British just aren’t very nice people,” The Telegraph (13 August 2011).
Sara Gaines, “Remembering the riots,” The Guardian (16 December 2008).
Kieran Connell, “Riots don’t happen without a reason,” The Guardian (10 August 2011).
Leslie Scarman et al, The Scarman Report: the Brixton disorders, 10-12 April 1981, Penguin Books (1983).
“1981: Brixton riots report blames racial tension,” BBC (25 November 2008).
“Q&A: The Scarman Report,” BBC News (27 April 2004).
Matt Wells & Sam Jones, “London riots aftermath – Monday 8 August 2011,” The Guardian (13 July 2012).
Tim Newburn et al, “A new kind of riot? From Brixton 1981 to Tottenham 2011,” The Guardian (9 December 2011).
Matthew Connolly, “Do riots show that tensions of earlier decades still smoulder?,” The Guardian (16 August 2011).
“1981 and 2011: how much has changed?,” The Guardian (9 August 2011).
Maev Kennedy, “Tottenham: echoes of a history not forgotten as rioting returns,” The Guardian (7 August 2011).
Alex Wheatle, “Tottenham 2011 and Brixton 1981 – different ideals, similar lesson,” The Guardian (9 August 2011).
Vietnam War Protests
Abraham Ribicoff, “Speech nominating George McGovern for the U.S. Presidency,” American Rhetoric (28 August 1968).
US Civilian Firearms
Christopher Ingraham, “There are now more guns than people in the United States,” The Washington Post (5 October 2015).
Jon Swaine, “Chicago police face overwhelming gun crime as 45 people shot over weekend,” The Guardian (21 April 2014).
Simon Rogers, “Gun homicides and gun ownership listed by country,” The Guardian (22 July 2012).
A.R. Pah et al, “Economic insecurity and the rise in gun violence at US schools,” Nature Human Behavior (30 January 2017).
“Shootings in US schools are linked to increased unemployment,” ScienceDaily (30 January 2017).
Mae Ryan & Jessica Glenza, “Progressives with guns: yoga, ammo and LGBT rights,” The Guardian (4 October 2015).
Joel Achenbach et al, “How NRA’s true believers converted a marksmanship group into a mighty gun lobby,” The Washington Post (12 January 2013).
Rodrigo Guerrero Velasco, “An antidote to murder,” Scientific American 313(4): 47–50 (October 2015).
United States
Larry K. Gaines & Victor E. Kappeler, Policing in America, Elsevier (2011).
Sheila Fitzgerald (editor), Police Brutality, Greenhaven Press (2007).
John W. Whitehead, A Government of Wolves, Select Books (2013).
Christian Sheckler & Ken Armstrong, “Who will now police the police?,” The New York Times (2 December 2018).
Edward A. Hailes, Jr. et al, “Who is guarding the guardians?,” US Commission on Civil Rights (November 2000).
“We don’t belong here,” The Economist (29 November 2014).
Daniel Bier, “How many police are there in the United States?,” The Skeptical Libertarian (24 July 2016).
Jon Greenberg, “How many police departments are in the United States?,” Punditfact (10 July 2016).
Holly Yan, “States require more training time to become a barber than a police officer,” CNN (28 September 2016).
Mark Berman & Kevin Uhrmacher, “Ambushes and fatal shootings fuel increase in police death toll this year,” The Washington Post (29 December 2016).
Rachel Nuwer, “When cops lose control,” Scientific American Mind 25(6): 45-48 (November/December 2015).
Daniel Lathrop & Anna Flagg, “Killings Of blacks by whites are far more likely to be ruled ‘justifiable’,” The New York Times (14 August 2017).
“USA: Excessive and lethal force? Amnesty International’s concerns about deaths and ill-treatment involving police use of tasers,” Amnesty International (2004).
Radley Balko, “Federal appeals court criticizes SWAT teams who ‘flash-bang first, ask questions later’,” The Washington Post (30 July 2019).
Donald J. Mihalek, “Philly SWAT,” Tactical-Life (1 September 2012).
Tim Hrenchir, “11 Facts About History of SWAT,” NewsMax (17 June 2015).
Clyde Haberman, “The rise of the SWAT team in American policing,” The New York Times (7 September 2014).
Tina Chen, “Baby in coma after police ‘grenade’ dropped in crib during drug raid,” ABC News (30 May 2014).
Eliott C. McLaughlin, “No indictments for Georgia SWAT team that burned baby with stun grenade,” CNN (7 October 2014).
Alison Lynn & Matt Gutman, “Family of toddler injured by SWAT ‘grenade’ faces $1m in medical bills,” ABC News (18 December 2014).
Radley Balko, “Shedding light on the use of SWAT teams,” The Washington Post (17 February 2014).
Kevin Sack, “Door-busting drug raids leave a trail of blood,” The New York Times (18 March 2017).
Radley Balko, “Utah SWAT stats show militarized tactics used less, but still overwhelmingly for drug crimes,” The Washington Post (2 August 2016).
John Wihbey, “U.S. Department of Justice: Police use of force, Tasers and other weapons,” Journalist’s Resource (7 April 2015).
“Police use of force, tasers and other less-lethal weapons,” US Department of Justice (May 2011).
“Taser: an officer’s weapon of choice,” CBS News (13 November 2011).
Philip Matthew Stinson et al, “Police crime and less-than-lethal coercive force: a description of the criminal misuse of TASERs,” International Journal of Police Science & Management 14(1): 1-19 (1 March 2012).
Asset Seizure
SCOTUS, Timbs v. Indiana (586 US _) (2019).
Justin Jouvenal, “She delivered $200 worth of drugs. Police seized her $53,000 Chevrolet Tahoe,” The Washington Post (28 July 2019).
Adam Liptak, “Supreme Court puts limits on police power to seize private property,” The New York Times (20 February 2019).
Robert Barnes, “Supreme Court says constitutional protection against excessive fines applies to state actions,” The Washington Post (20 February 2019).
SCOTUS, Lisa Olivia Leonard v. Texas (580 US _) (2017).
Eugene Volokh, “Justice Thomas sharply criticizes civil forfeiture laws,” The Washington Post (6 March 2017).
Evaluation and Inspections Division, “Review of the department’s oversight of cash seizure and forfeiture activities,” Office of the Inspector General, US Department of Justice (March 2017).
George F. Will, “Grand theft auto — by the US. government,” The Washington Post (4 April 2018).
“Civil forfeiture lawsuit challenges U.S. customs and border protection’s unchecked power to seize and keep property indefinitely,” Institute for Justice (17 September 2017).
Christopher Ingraham, “Since 2007, the DEA has taken $3.2 billion in cash from people not charged with a crime,” The New York Times (29 March 2017).
Laura Sullivan, “Police can seize and sell assets even when the owner broke no law,” NPR (10 November 2014).
Shaila Dewan, “Police use department wish list when deciding which assets to seize,” The New York Times (9 November 2014).
Robert O’Harrow et al, “Asset seizures fuel police spending,” The Washington Post (11 October 2014).
“Policing for profit,” The Week (5 May 2017).
Shalia Dewan, “Law lets I.R.S. seize accounts on suspicion, no crime required,” The New York Times (25 October 2014).
John Yoder & Brad Cates, “Government self-interest corrupted a crime-fighting tool into an evil,” The Washington Post (18 September 2014).
Michael Sallah et al, “Stop and seize,” The Washington Post (6 September 2014).
Editorial Board, “Forfeiture without due process,” The Washington Post (2 January 2012).
Donald E. Wilkes Jr., “Sneek-and-peek search warrants: your government can visit you uninvited and go through your stuff,” Flagpole Magazine (11 September 2002).
Sarah Stillman, “Taken,” The New Yorker (12 & 19 August 2013).
“Are innocent citizens at risk of police seizure of their cash, cars and homes?,” PBS (19 August 2013).
SCOTUS, Graham v. Connor (490 US 386) (2019).
Ashley Southall, “‘Appalling’ video shows the police yanking 1-year-old from his mother’s arms,” The New York Times (9 December 2018).
Richard A. Oppel Jr., “A police officer shot a woman in pajamas. Here’s why it may be hard to convict him.,” The New York Times (9 April 2019).
Wesley Lowery et al, “Where killings go unsolved,” The Washington Post (6 June 2018).
Paul Butler, Chokehold: Policing Black Men, The New Press (2017).
Paul Butler, “The policing of black Americans is racial harassment funded by the state,” The Guardian (6 June 2018).
Ashley Southall, “‘Appalling’ video shows the police yanking 1-year-old from his mother’s arms,” The New York Times (9 December 2018).
John Sullivan et al, “Nationwide, police shot and killed nearly 1,000 people in 2017,” The Washington Post (5 January 2018).
Frank Edwards et al, “Risk of police-involved death by race/ethnicity and place, United States, 2012–2018,” American Journal of Public Health (19 July 2018).
Frank Edwards & Michael H. Esposito, “Police kill about 3 men per day in the US, according to new study,” The Conversation (6 August 2018).
Celisa Calacal, “U.S. police killed over 1,000 civilians in 2017 while the news was watching Trump,” AlterNet (1 January 2018).
Oliver Laughland et al, “US police killings headed for 1,100 this year, with black Americans twice as likely to die,” The Guardian (1 July 2015).
Tom McCarthy, “Police killed more than twice as many people as reported by US government,” The Guardian (4 March 2015).
Matt Zapotosky & Wesley Lowery, “Former S.C. police officer to plead guilty in fatal shooting caught on video,” The Washington Post (2 May 2017).
Jon Swaine & Oliver Laughland, “The county: the story of America’s deadliest police,” The Guardian (1 December 2016).
Jon Swaine et al, “Young black men killed by US police at highest rate in year of 1,134 deaths,” The Guardian (31 December 2015).
“The Philippines’ populist strongman,” The Week (16 September 2016).
“Justice in Louisiana: the ruin of many a poor boy,” The Economist (12 March 2016).
Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “Does a uniform keep officers in line? the Baltimore chief thinks so,” The New York Times (14 April 2017).
Robert Faturechi, “L.A. county sheriff’s department intends to fire seven deputies,” LA Times (6 February 2013).
Jamie Grierson, “Hundreds of police officers accused of sex abuse, inquiry finds,” The Guardian (7 December 2016).
Jeremy Ashkenas & Haeyoun Park, “The race gap in America’s police departments,” The New York Times (8 April 2015).
Ciara McCarthy & Nadja Popovich, California police killings data-base reveals ‘clear racial disparities’,” The Guardian (7 September 2015).
Kristine Guerra, “LAPD’s fatal shooting of black teen is latest to spark angry protest,” The Washington Post (2 October 2016).
James B. Comey, “Georgetown University speech,” F.B.I. web site (12 February 2015).
Michael S. Schmidt, “Surprising speech by F.B.I. chief focuses on police and race,” The New York Times (12 February 2015).
“Once upon a crime: death in custody: a Chinese scandal that will not die,” The Economist (14 January 2017).
Daniel Victor, “Texas rape victim was jailed for fear she would not testify, lawsuit says,” The New York Times (22 July 2016).
Tom Dart, “Rape victim sues after being jailed during trial for ‘mental breakdown’,” The Guardian (22 July 2016).
Alex Horton, “Officers tackled a bystander they said was ‘combative.’ Then videos told a different story.,” The Washington Post (21 June 2019).
Dustin Pigeon
Kyle Schwab, “OKC police officer charged with second-degree murder after DA finds deadly shooting unjustified,” NewsOK (6 December 2017).
Robert Medley, “Dustin Pigeon family learns Tuesday that police officer is charged in shooting death,” NewsOK (5 December 2017).
Jordan Edwards
Eva Ruth Moravec, “Former Texas police officer sentenced to 15 years in prison for fatally shooting teen,” The Washington Post (29 August 2018).
Eva Ruth Moravec, “Former police officer convicted of murder for shooting unarmed black teen,” The Washington Post (28 August 2018).
Manny Fernandez & Matthew Haag, “Police officer who fatally shot 15-year-old Texas boy is charged with murder,” The New York Times (5 May 2017).
Claudia Lauer and Will Weissert, “Texas police officer faces murder charge in teen’s death,” The Washington Post (5 May 2017).
Manny Fernandez et al, “Police officer who fatally shot 15-year-old Texas boy is fired,” The New York Times (2 May 2017).
Liam Stack & Christine Hauser, “Police account changes in killing of Texas 15-year-old,” The New York Times (1 May 2017).
Christine Hauser, “Texas police shoot and kill student, 15,” The New York Times (1 May 2017).
Colin Dwyer, “Teen shot dead by police as his was driving away, chief says,” NPR (1 May 2017).
“Police chief clarifies how Texas teen Jordan Edwards was shot dead by officer,” CBS News (1 May 2017).
Francisco Serna
Ciara McCarthy, “Police say 73-year-old shot by officer had crucifix that was mistaken for gun,” The Guardian (14 December 2016).
Christine Hauser, “Man, 73, shot dead by officer had a crucifix, not a gun, police say,” The New York Times (15 December 2016).
Ciara McCarthy & Oliver Laughland, “Unarmed 73-year-old man killed by police in Bakersfield, California,” The Guardian (13 December 2016).
Matt Hamilton, “73-year-old man with dementia fatally shot by Bakersfield police,” Los Angeles Times (12 December 2016).
Stephon Clark
Amy B. Wang, “Sacramento police officers who fatally shot Stephon Clark will not be charged, prosecutor says,” The Washington Post (2 March 2019).
Jose A. Del Real, “No charges in Sacramento police shooting of Stephon Clark,” The New York Times (2 March 2019).
Jose A. Del Real, “Stephon Clark’s official autopsy conflicts with earlier findings,” The New York Times (7 June 2018).
Christoph Koettl & Ben Laffin, “23 seconds, 5 critical moments: how Stephon Clark was killed by the police,” The New York Times (7 June 2018).
Alex Horton, “After Stephon Clark’s death, new videos show police muted body cameras at least 16 times,” The Washington Post (17 April 2018).
Amita Kelley, “Most of 8 shots hit Stephon Clark’s back, independent family autopsy find,” NPR (31 March 2018).
Frances Robles & Jose A. Del Real, “Stephon Clark was shot 8 times from behind or the side, family-ordered autopsy finds,” The New York Times (30 March 2018).
Frances Robles & Jose A. Del Real, “Stephon Clark was shot 8 times primarily in his back, family-ordered autopsy finds,” The New York Times (30 March 2018).
Alex Horton & Wesley Lowery, “Police shot at a man 20 times in his own yard, thinking he had a gun. It was an iPhone.,” The Washington Post (22 March 2018).
Anita Chabria et al, “Updated: ‘Show me your hands.’ Police video shows death of Stephon Clark in a hail of gunfire,” The Sacramento Bee (21 March 2018).
Justine Damond
“Justine Damond shooting: Mohamed Noor found guilty of Australian’s murder,” The Guardian (30 April 2019).
Reis Thebault, “Minnesota police officer convicted of murder in fatal shooting of Australian woman who called 911,” The Washington Post (30 April 2019).
Mitch Smith, “A 911 call, an unarmed woman and a single shot: the mystery of a police shooting,” The Washington Post (14 April 2019).
Herman Wong & Mark Berman, “Minneapolis police chief forced out after officer’s fatal shooting of Australian woman,” The Washington Post (21 July 2017).
Mark Berman, “Minneapolis mayor says it’s ‘unacceptable’ no police body camera captured an officer fatally shooting Justine Damond,” The Washington Post (20 July 2017).
Australian Associated Press, “Australian Justine Damond shot dead by US police in Minneapolis,” The Guardian (17 July 2017).
Emily Sohn et al, “After Minneapolis police officer fatally shoots Australian woman, her relatives plead for answers,” The Washington Post (17 July 2017).
Mark Berman, “Minneapolis police fatally shot Australian woman after hearing ‘loud sound,’ investigators say,” The Washington Post (18 July 2017).
Julie Bosman, “Officer hear loud noise before partner shot Minneapolis woman, officials say,” The New York Times (18 July 2017).
Guardian staff, “Justine Damond ‘didn’t have to die’, says Minneapolis police chief,” The Guardian (20 July 2017).
Mark Berman, “Minneapolis mayor says it’s ‘unacceptable’ no police body camera captured an officer fatally shooting Justine Damond,” The Washington Post (20 July 2017).
David Chanen & Faiz Mahamud, “What we know about Mohamed Noor, Minneapolis officer who fatally shot Justine Damond,” StarTribune (18 July 2017).
“Who is Mohamed Noor, Minneapolis officer accused in Justine Damond’s death?,” CBS News (18 July 2017).
Chris Kenning, “Warrant in Minnesota police shooting says woman slapped squad car,” Reuters (25 July 2017).
Daniel Shaver
“Philip Brailsford update: Mesa officer facing murder charge fired from force,” ABC15 (21 March 2016).
Garrett Mitchell & Megan Cassidy, “Texas man fatally shot by Mesa officer begged for life,” AZ Central (30 March 2016).
“Daniel Shaver update: officer Philip Brailsford describes moments before he fatally shot unarmed man,” ABC15 (31 March 2016).
“Philip Brailsford verdict: former Arizona officer acquitted of murdering Daniel Shaver,” Associated Press (7 December 2017).
Uriel J. Garcia, “Ex-Mesa Officer Philip Brailsford found not guilty of murder in shooting of unarmed man,” AZ Central (7 December 2017).
Vivian Wang, “Video shows Daniel Shaver pleading for his life before being shot by officer,” The New York Times (7 December 2017).
The Associated Press, “Widow of unarmed man ‘betrayed’ by acquittal of ex-officer,” The New York Times (13 December 2017).
Andrew Finch
Mitch Smith, “Fatal ‘swatting’ episode in Kansas raises quandary: who is to blame?,” The New York Times (31 December 2017).
Nichole Manna, “Man dies after being shot by Wichita officer investigating possible homicide,” The Wichita Eagle (28 December 2017).
Mitch Smith, “Summoned by a prank call, police in wichita kill a man at his front door,” The New York Times (29 December 2017).
Nichole Manna, “Call of Duty gaming community points to ‘swatting’ in deadly Wichita police shooting,” The Wichita Eagle (29 December 2017).
Eli Rosenberg & Herman Wong, “A police officer fatally shot a man while responding to an emergency call now called a ‘swatting’ prank,” The Washington Post (30 December 2017).
New York City
Matt Flegenheimer, “De Blasio calls New York ‘the safest big city’ despite some crime statistics,” The New York Times (2 June 2015).
“NYPD cost taxpayers nearly a half billion in the last 5 years from civil rights violations,” The Free Thought Project (15 October 2014).
Wendy Ruderman, “Rude or polite, city’s officers leave raw feelings in stops,” The New York Times (26 June 2012).
“Too frisky,” The Economist (27 April 2013).
Sena Gardiner, “Judge rules NYPD stop-and-frisk practice violates rights,” The Wall Street Journal (12 August 2013).
Stephanie Clifford, “High expectations for Brooklyn prosecutor in handling of fatal police shooting,” The New York Times (9 December 2014).
Benjamin Weiser, “Record number of claims filed against New York police a year ago, a report says,” The New York Times (27 August 2015).
Liam Stack & Nate Schweberaug, “Bystander shot by undercover police officer dies,” The New York Times (28 August 2015).
Al Baker & Joseph Goldstein, “‘White shirts’ of police dept. take on enforcer role,” The New York Times (2 October 2011).
Michael Keller, “NYPD misconduct claims at record highs,” Aljazeera America (9 December 2014).
Al Baker, “Police force Wall Street protesters off sidewalks,” The New York Times (5 November 2011).
“New York City settles with 6 Occupy Wall Street protesters pepper-sprayed by the police,” The New York Times (6 July 2015).
Noah Remnick, “Activists say police abuse of transgender people persists despite reforms,” The New York Times (6 September 2015).
Jon Swaine, “NYPD officer embroiled in assault trial sued by another Occupy campaigner,” The Guardian (4 April 2014).
Leana Najarro & Stephanie Clifford, “Prosecutors say officer didn’t help man he shot in Brooklyn stairwell,” The New York Times (23 June 2015).
Joseph Goldstein, “From shooting victim to prisoner, not an uncommon passage,” The New York Times (11 April 2014).
Lauren Gambino, “Staten Island man dies after NYPD officers put him in chokehold,” The Guardian (18 July 2014).
Joseph Goldstein & Marc Santora, “Staten Island man died from chokehold during arrest, autopsy finds,” The New York Times (1 Au-gust 2014).
Al Baker et al, “Beyond the chokehold: the path to Eric Garner’s death,” The New York Times (13 June 2015).
Damien Cave & Rochelle Oliver, “The videos that are putting race and policing into sharp relief,” The New York Times (12 August 2015).
J. David Goodman, “Family disputes police account of Bronx man’s stun gun death,” The New York Times (10 June 2015).
Jim Dwyer, “Two fatal police encounters, but just one video,” The New York Times (5 August 2014).
Michael Schwirtz & Joseph Goldstein, “Firing at man in Times Square, police wound two bystanders,” The New York Times (15 Sep-tember 2013).
John Eligon, “Ex-officer is sentenced in East Village rape case,” The New York Times (8 August 2011).
Joseph Goldstein & Al Baker, “Police dept. reviews unsolved rapes for ties to officer,” The New York Times (25 August 2011).
Stephanie Clifford, “Another case tied to Brooklyn officers in gun-planting inquiry is dropped,” The New York Times (15 July 2015).
Ginia Bellafante, “In grim rape statistics, signs of progress,” The New York Times (5 June 2015).
“Crime in New York City,” Wikipedia (2015).
“City-wide crime statistics,” NYPD (2015).
Alec Nathan, “NYPD union releases statement in Blake incident,” MSN News (15 September 2015).
Benjamin Mueller & Nate Schweber, “Officer who arrested James Blake has history of force complaints,” The New York Times (11 Sep-tember 2015).
Ollie Gillman & Snejana Farberov, “Revealed: NYPD cop who slammed tennis star James Blake to the ground after mistaking him for thief has been sued four times for excessive force,” Daily Mail (12 September 2015).
J. David Goodman, “Officer in James Blake arrest used excessive force, panel says,” The New York Times (7 October 2015).
Liz Robbins & Al Baker, “James Blake, retired tennis pro, says police pushed him down; inquiry is opened,” The New York Times (9 Sep-tember 2015).
“New York City police department corruption and misconduct,” Wikipedia (2015).
J. David Goodman, “Judge orders release of misconduct findings against officer in Eric Garner case,” The New York Times (23 July 2015).
William K. Rashbaum et al, “Experts say N.Y. police dept. isn’t policing itself,” The New York Times (2 November 2011).
Colin Moynihan, “Suit says police violated Occupy Wall Street protesters’ constitutional rights,” The New York Times (13 Septem-ber 2015).
John Del Signore, “Guilty cop calls NYPD “most corrupt police department” in world history,” Gothamist (16 October 2012).
William K. Rashbaum & James C. McKinley, “80 from N.Y. police and fire forces are charged in social security fraud,” The New York Times (7 January 2014).
Frances Robles, “As doubts over detective grew, prosecutors also made missteps,” The New York Times (5 September 2013).
Colleen Wright, “Another exoneration in Brooklyn brings total since last year to 14,” The New York Times (4 August 2015).
Frances Robles, “For 22 years, caught in a murder case’s tangled web,” The New York Times (1 December 2013).
Stephanie Clifford, “Estate of man exonerated in 1992 murders sues New York City and police,” The New York Times (5 August 2015).
Lorenzo Johnson, “Conviction by any means necessary: how prosecu-tors stole 19 years of my life,” Huffington Post (14 April 2015).
Adam Gabbatt, “Occupy activist faces up to seven years in jail for ‘assault’ on police officer,” The Guardian (10 February 2014).
Sean Gardiner, “NYPD’s long war over crime stats,” The Wall Street Journal (26 January 2011).
J. David Goodman & Al Baker,”New York Police department is undercounting street stops, report says,” The New York Times (9 July 2015).
Al Baker, “19 Police officers in the Bronx are charged with downgrading crimes,” The New York Times (17 July 2015).
Chicago, Illinois
“Investigation of the Chicago police department,” US Department of Justice Civil Rights Division & US Attorney’s Office Northern District of Illinois (13 January 2017).
Mark Berman & Matt Zapotosky, “Chicago police officers have pattern of using excessive force, scathing Justice Dept. report says,” The Washington Post (13 January 2017).
Julie Bosman & Mitch Smith, “Chicago police routinely trampled on civil rights, Justice Dept. says,” The New York Times (13 January 2017 ).
Spencer Ackerman & Zach Stafford, “Victims of Chicago police savagery hope reparations fund is ‘beacon’ for world,” The Guardian (7 May 2015).
Tracy Siska, “The Chicago police used appalling military interrogation tactics for decades,” The Guardian (19 February 2015).
Zach Stafford et al, “Chicago agrees to pay $5.5m to victims of police torture in1970s and 80s,” The Guardian (6 May 2015).
Cassandra Fairbanks, “Chicago police caught on camera savagely beating man after fender bender,” PINAC News (2 June 2015).
Spencer Ackerman & Zach Stafford, “Chicago police detained thou-sands of black Americans at interrogation facility,” The Guardian (5 August 2015).
Spencer Ackerman & Jenn Stanley, “‘Kidnapped’ victims of Chicago police detail ordeal in federal civil-rights suit,” The Guardian (20 March 2015).
Spencer Ackerman, “‘I sat in that place for three days, man’: Chicago-ans detail abusive confinement inside police ‘black site’,” The Guardian (27 February 2015).
Spencer Ackerman, “Held for hours at secret Chicago ‘black site’: ‘You’re a hostage. It’s kidnapping,” The Guardian (24 February 2015).
Spencer Ackerman, “The disappeared: Chicago police detain Americans at abuse-laden ‘black site,” The Guardian (24 February 2015).
Spencer Ackerman, “Chicago’s Homan Square ‘black site’: surveillance, military-style vehicles and a metal cage,” The Guardian (24 February 2015).
Spencer Ackerman, “Guantánamo torturer led brutal Chicago regime of shackling and confession,” The Guardian (18 February 2015).
Spencer Ackerman, “Chicago police commander resigns in wake of Homan Square revelations,” The Guardian (19 March 2015).
Spencer Ackerman, “Homan Square detainee: I was sexually abused by police at Chicago ‘black site’,” The Guardian (14 May 2015).
Spencer Ackerman, “How Chicago police condemned the innocent: a trail of coerced confessions,” The Guardian (19 February 2015).
Spencer Ackerman, “Evidence from Chicago detective’s cases re-examined for multiple exonerations,” The Guardian (19 February 2015).
Jeremy Gorner & Peter Nickeas, “Chicago police confirm ‘tragic number’ of 500 homicides,” Chicago Tribune (28 December 2012).
Lawrence Crosby
Cleve R. Wootson Jr., “Video shows police tackling and beating a black man suspected of stealing a car. It was his,” The Washington Post (14 January 2017).
Cleveland, Ohio
“Cleveland police shoot dead 12-year-old boy holding fake ‘airsoft’ gun,” The New York Times (23 November 2014).
Emma G. Fitzsimmons, “Video shows Cleveland officer shot boy in 2 seconds,” The Guardian (26 November 2014).
Mitch Smith, “2 outside reviews say Cleveland officer acted reasona-bly in shooting Tamir Rice, 12,” The New York Times (10 October 2015).
Laruen Gambino, “Tamir Rice shooting: Cleveland police handcuffed sister as 12-year-old lay dying,” The Guardian (8 January 2015).
Oliver Laughland & Jon Swaine, “Cleveland officer who fatally shot Tamir Rice will not face criminal charges,” The Guardian (28 Decem-ber 2015).
Mitch Smith, “Cleveland officer will not face charges in Tamir Rice shooting death,” The New York Times (28 December 2015).
Mitch Smith, “Two reviews of Tamir Rice shooting in Cleveland are seen as shielding police,” The New York Times (11 October 2015).
Jon Swaine, “Shot in the chest by Cleveland police – then handcuffed and fined $100,” The Guardian (6 December 2014).
Doug Brown, “A traffic ticket and a bullet through the chest,” Cleve-land Scene (5 March 2014).
“Cleveland car chase ends with two dead, 137 shots fired and six police charged,” The Guardian (31 May 2014).
Erik Eckholm, “Justice Department, examining local police, turns focus to Cleveland,” The New York Times (17 June 2014).
Emily Bazelon, “If we can’t prevent wrongful convictions, can we at least pay for them?,” The New York Times (9 April 2015).
Richard A. Oppel & Matt Apuzzo, “Cleveland police abuse pattern cited by Justice Department,” The New York Times (4 December 2014).
Ferguson, Missouri
Justin Hansford, “5 years after Ferguson, we’re losing the fight against police violence,” The Washington Post (10 August 2019).
Lauren Raab, “Turmoil in Ferguson, Mo.: what you need to know,” Los Angeles Times (18 August 2015).
“Overkill,” The Economist (23 August 2014).
Jon Swaine, “Ferguson: officer relieved of duty after ‘black little perverts’ video surfaces,” The Guardian (23 August 2014).
Frances Robles & Julie Bosman, “Autopsy shows Michael Brown was struck at least 6 times,” The New York Times (17 August 2014).
“Department of Justice report regarding the criminal investigation into the shooting death of Michael Brown by Ferguson, Missouri police officer Darren Wilson,” United States Department of Justice (4 March 2015).
Paula Mejia, “Altercation between Michael Brown and Darren Wilson unfolded in 90 seconds: report,” Newsweek (15 November 2014).
Monica Davey, “Fatal encounter in Ferguson took less than 90 seconds, police communications reveal,” The New York Times (15 November 2014).
Jon Swaine, “Ferguson: video shows Darren Wilson arresting man for recording him,” The Guardian (15 November 2014).
Monica Davey & Frances Robles, “Darren Wilson was low-profile officer with unsettled early days,” The New York Times (24 August 2014).
Thomas Gibbons-Neff, “Military veterans see deeply flawed police response in Ferguson,” The Washington Post (14 August 2014).
John Eligon & Alan Blinder, “After violent night in Ferguson, state acts to protect people and property,” The New York Times (25 November 2014).
Gary Younge, “In Ferguson the violence of the state created the violence of the street,” The Guardian (18 August 2014).
Marisol Bello & Yamiche Alcindor, “Police in Ferguson ignite debate about military tactics,” USA Today (19 August 2014).
Joanna Walter & Jon Swaine, “Missouri governor points finger at Ferguson police chief for new violence,” The Guardian (17 August 2014).
“The lessons of Ferguson,” The Economist (23 August 2014).
Monica Davey et al, “National guard troops in Ferguson fail to quell unrest,” The New York Times (19 August 2014).
Rory Carroll et al, “Ferguson: 31 arrested as huge show of force fails to quell unrest,” The Guardian (19 August 2014).
Jon Swaine, “Ferguson police brace for new protests by spending thousands on riot gear,” The Guardian (28 October 2014).
Jon Swaine, “Ferguson police: a stark illustration of newly militarised US law enforcement,” The Guardian (14 August 2014).
Monica Davey & Julie Bosman, “Protests flare after Ferguson police officer is not indicted,” The New York Times (24 November 2014).
Moni Basu et al, “Fires, chaos erupt in Ferguson after grand jury doesn’t indict in Michael Brown case,” CNN (25 November 2014).
Ed Pilkington, “Ferguson police tactics under scrutiny after woman blinded in one eye,” The Guardian (29 November 2014).
Campbell Robertson, “A city where policing, discrimination and raising revenue went hand in hand,” The New York Times (4 March 2015).
Matt Apuzzo, “Justice department finds pattern of police bias and excessive force in Ferguson,” The New York Times (3 March 2015).
“Some kind of normal,” The Economist (8 August 2015).
Jon Swaine, “Ferguson mired in sweeping racial discrimination, federal report finds,” The Guardian (3 March 2015).
Jon Swaine, “Discrimination in Ferguson: full extent of police bias laid bare in damning report,” The Guardian (4 March 2015).
Matt Apuzzo & John Eligon, “Ferguson police tainted by bias, Justice Department says,” The New York Times (4 March 2016).
Editorial Board, “Justice in St. Louis county,” The New York Times (6 September 2014).
Sarah Kendzior, “Down and out in Beverly Hills, Missouri: the tiny town that runs on police tickets,” The Guardian (22 April 2015).
Student Clockmaker
Peter Baker And Christine Hauser, “Ahmed Mohamed, 14, builds clock, is cuffed for bomb hoax, and ends up invited to White House,” The New York Times (16 September 2015).
Avi Selk, “Ahmed Mohamed swept up, ‘hoax bomb’ charges swept away as Irving teen’s story floods social media,” The Dallas Morning News (16 September 2015).
Nicole Pelletiere, “What Texas teen Ahmed Mohamed said about his clock being mistaken for a bomb,” ABC News (16 September 2015).
Matthew Teague, “Ahmed Mohamed is tired, excited to meet Obama – and wants his clock back,” The Guardian (17 September 2015).
Sarah Kaplan and Abby Phillip, “‘They thought it was a bomb’: 9th-grader arrested after bringing a home-built clock to school,” The Washington Post (16 September 2015).
“Boy withdraws from school that suspended him over clock,” Associated Press (21 September 2015).
Brutal Spray
Jamiles Lartey, “Police use of chemical spray on Alabama schoolchildren violated civil rights,” The Guardian (1 October 2015).
“Noted,” The Week (24 October 2014).
Police Brutality
Jon Swaine et al, “Black Americans killed by police twice as likely to be unarmed as white people,” The Guardian (1 June 2015).
“Stark racial divisions in reactions to Ferguson police shooting,” Pew Research Center (18 August 2014).
Tanzina Vega & Megan Thee-Brenan, “Poll shows broad divisions amid Missouri turmoil,” The New York Times (21 August 2014).
Richard Luscombe, “Daniele Watts: Django Unchained actor alleges racial bias after being held by LA police,” The Guardian (15 Septem-ber 2014).
“Negative publicity reduces police motivation,” American Psychological Association (27 October 2015).
Scott Wolfe & Justin Nix, “The alleged ‘Ferguson effect’ and police willingness to engage in community partnership,” Law and Human Behavior (12 October 2015).
“Negative publicity reduces police motivation but does not result in depolicing,” ScienceDaily (27 October 2015).
“Negative publicity reduces police motivation,” Phys.org (27 October 2015).
Jonah Engel Bromwitch, “Videos show Ohio police officer violently arresting black man,” The New York Times (17 August 2017).
Body Cameras
Kimberly Kindy, “Some U.S. police departments dump body-camera programs amid high costs,” The Washington Post (21 January 2019).
David Yokum et al, “Evaluating the effects of police-worn body cameras: a randomized controlled trial,” The Lab @ DC (October 2017).
Amanda Ripley, “A big test of police body cameras defies expectations,” The New York Times (20 October 2017).
Merritt Kennedy, “Nurse roughly arrested for following hospital protocol, body camera shows,” NPR (1 September 2017).
Laurel Wamsley, “Utah nurse arrested for doing her job reaches $500,000 settlement,” NPR (1 November 2017).
Derek Hawkins, “‘This is crazy,’ sobs Utah hospital nurse as cop roughs her up, arrests her for doing her job,” The Washington Post (1 September 2017).
“Research on body-worn cameras and law enforcement,” National Institute of Justice (3 January 2017).
Brent McDonald & Hillary Bachelder, “The rise of body cameras,” The New York Times (13 January 2017).
Craig Timberg, “A cop fire. A teen dies. Yet six police body cameras somehow miss what happens,” The Washington Post (20 March 2017).
Radley Balko, “South Carolina police shot a man to pieces over $100 worth of pot, then lied about it,” The Washington Post (17 March 2017).
J. David Goodman, “City comptroller blocks contract to buy body cameras for police officers,” The New York Times (3 February 2017).
“Two US police departments drop body cameras over costs,” Aljazeera (11 September 2016).
Timothy Williams et al, “Policy body cameras: what do you see?,” The New York Times (1 April 2016).
Damien Gayle, “Police with body cameras receive 93% fewer complaints – study,” The Guardian (29 September 2016).
Fresno Police Department, “Body-camera footage shows police fatally shooting unarmed California teen,” The Guardian (14 July 2016).
Katie Delong, “One-third of United States police departments using body cameras: they’re expensive, so are they worth it?,” Fox News (2 March 2015).
Michael D. White, “Police officer body-worn cameras: assessing the evidence,” US Department of Justice – Office of Justice Programs (2014).
Max Ehrenfeund, “The Eric Garner case is not an argument against body cameras,” The Washington Post (4 December 2014).
Jessica Glenza, “Body cameras for police officers? Not so fast, say researchers,” The Guardian (4 December 2014).
Sam Bordey, “A Texas grand jury recently cleared 2 white cops who beat a black woman in jail,” Mother Jones (3 December 2014).
Meghan Keneally & Jack Cloherty, “How police across the US have used body cameras,” ABC News (4 December 2014).
Kimberly Kindy, “Ferguson decision reflects juries’ tendency to give police benefit of doubt, experts say,” The Washington Post (24 November 2014).
Rory Carrol, “California police use of body cameras cuts violence and complaints,” The Guardian (4 November 2013).
Sattar Ali
Chris Frank, “Wichita family arrested making bank deposit,” Kake.com (12 September 2017).
“Wichita man says Wichita police unlawfully detained him” KWCH12 (13 September 2017).
“Only in America,” The Week (22 September 2017).
Terril Yue Jones, “Yakuza among first with relief supplies in Japan,” Reuters (25 March 2011).
Homeland Security
Marisa Iati, “Ocasio-Cortez wants to ax Homeland Security. Some conservatives didn’t want it to begin with.,” The Washington Post (12 July 2019).
Matt Ford, “Dismantle the Department of Homeland Security,” The New Republic (21 February 2018).
Ron Nixon, “The enemy within: bribes bore a hole in the U.S. border,” The New York Times (28 December 2016).
“Homeland Security bribe documents,” The New York Times (28 December 2016).
James Traub, “The dark history of defending the ‘homeland’,” The New York Times Magazine (5 April 2016).
Matt A. Mayer, “Why we should eliminate the Department of Homeland Security,” Reason (23 June 2015).
Tom Coburn, “A review of the Department of Homeland Security’s Missions and Performance,” US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (January 2015).
Violet Blue, “New report: DHS is a mess of cybersecurity incompetence,” ZDNet (14 January 2015).
Pual Strand, “Homeland Security: more problem than solution?,” CBN News (7 October 2014).
Mattea Kramer & Chris Hellman, “‘Homeland Security’: the trillion-dollar concept that no one can define,” The Nation (28 February 2013).
Theororic Meyer, “Homeland Security has spent $430 million on radios its employees don’t know how to use,” Pro Publica (21 November 2012).
“Department of Homeland Security: taking further action to better determine causes of morale problems would assist in targeting action plans,” GAO (28 September 2012).
“Container security programs have matured, but uncertainty persists over the future of 100 percent scanning,” GAO (7 February 2012).
David Rittgers, “Abolish the Department of Homeland Security,” Cato Institute (11 September 2011).
Laura H. Kahn, “The problems with the Department of Homeland Security,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (9 June 2009).
Norval Morris & David J. Rothman, The Oxford History of the Prison: The Practice of Punishment in Western Society, Oxford University Press (1998).
Michel Foucault, Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison, Vintage Books (1975).
Judges 16:22, The Bible.
Donna Trembinski, Law and Punishment in the Middle Ages, Crabtree Publishing (2006).
“Crime and punishment: stuffed,” The Economist (2 August 2014).
Danielle Ivory & Caitlin Dickerson, “Safety concerns grow as inmates are guarded by teachers and secretaries,” The New York Times (17 June 2018).
“Prisons: jails break,” The Economist (24 September 2016).
Todd R. Clear & Natasha A. Frost, The Punishment Imperative, New York University Press (2014).
Ernest Drucker, A Plague of Prisons, The New Press (2011).
Marché Arends, “South Africa: imprisoned but never convicted,” The Week (7 October 2016).
World incarceration rates from: “World prison brief,” Institute for Criminal Policy Research (2016).
Michael McLaughlin et al, “The economic burden of incarceration in the U.S.,” Concordance Institute for Advancing Social Justice (July 2016).
United Kingdom
Vikram Dodd, “‘Prison isn’t working’: David Gauke calls for end to short jail terms,” The Guardian (18 February 2019).
United States
Devlin Barrett, “‘Cruel and unusual’: Alabama prisons plagued by severe violence, Justice Dept. investigation finds,” The Washington Post (3 April 2019).
Mary D. Looman & John D. Carl, A Country Called Prison: Mass Incarceration and the Making of a New Nation, Oxford University Press (2015).
Peter G. Herman (editor), The American Prison System, The H.W. Wilson Company (2001).
Todd R. Clear & Natasha A. Frost, The Punishment Imperative: The Rise and Failure of Mass Incarceration in America New York University Press (2013).
Michael Schwirtz & Michael Winerip, “Why violence toward inmates at Rikers grew,” The New York Times (13 August 2014).
Editorial Board, “The New York jail scandal continues,” The New York Times (22 September 2014).
Jonathan Simon, “Prison is punishment enough. But in the US, inmates also face violence and humiliation,” The Guardian (9 April 2015).
Arthur Delaney, “The ‘modern day slavery’ of prison labor really does have a link to slavery,” HuffPost (28 August 2018).
Victoria Law, “Pregnant and behind bars: how the US prison system abuses mothers-to-be,” The Guardian (20 October 2015).
Richard Luscombe, “Florida prison investigating death of female inmate ‘threatened’ by guard,” The Guardian (8 October 2014).
Priscila Mosqueda & Forrest Wilder, “Migrants in Texas’s federal prisons subjected to ‘shocking abuse’,” The Guardian (10 June 2014).
Winnie Hu & Kate Pastor, “3 more officers convicted in 2012 beating of an inmate at Rikers Island,” The New York Times (10 June 2016).
Michael Winerip & Michael Schwirtz, “An inmate dies, and no one is punished,” The New York Times (13 December 2015).
Adam Liptak, “Charged a fee for getting arrested, whether guilty or not,” The New York Times (26 December 2016).
Dave Davies, “Behind bars, mentally ill inmates are often punished for their symptoms,” NPR (10 July 2018).
Jennifer Turner, “A living death: life without parole for nonviolent offenses,” American Civil Liberties Union (2013).
Ed Pilkington, “Over 3,000 US prisoners serving life without parole for non-violent crimes,” The Guardian (13 November 2013).
Vicky Pelaez, “The prison industry in the United States: big business or a new form of slavery?,” Privacy World (8 February 2013).
“Louisiana’s prisons: sheriffs’ delight,” The Economist (16 July 2012).
John Tierney, “Prison population can shrink when police crowd streets,” The New York Times (25 January 2013).
Ethan Bronner, “Probation fees multiply for poor as companies profit,” The New York Times (2 July 2012).
Brad W. Lundahl et al, “Prison privatization: a meta-analysis of cost and quality of confinement indicators,” Research on Social Work Practice (8 April 2009).
Richard A. Oppel Jr., “Private prisons found to offer little in savings,” The New York Times (18 May 2011).
Roas Gledensohn, “They shared drugs. Someone died. Does that make them killers?,” The New York Times (25 May 2018).
Mary Pattillo et al, Imprisoning America, Russell Sage Foundation (2004).
Randy James, “Prison riots,” TIME (20 August 2009).
Victoria Law, “End forced labor in immigrant detention,” The New York Times (29 January 2019).
Jon Swaine et al, “US justice department announces it will end use of private prisons,” The Guardian (18 August 2016).
Matt Zapotosky & Chico Harlan, “Justice Department says it will end use of private prisons,” The New York Times (18 August 2016).
Timothy Williams, “One robber’s 3 life sentences: ’90S legacy fills prisons today,” The New York Times (4 July 2016).
Shira A. Scheindlin, “I sentenced criminals to hundreds more years than I wanted to. I had no choice.,” The Washington Post (17 February 2017).
Ella Baker Center for Human Rights et al, “Who pays? The true cost of incarceration on families,” WhoPaysReport.org (2015).
“Cost of incarceration in the U.S. more than $1 trillion,” ScienceDaily (7 September 2016).
Tom McCarthy, “Draft of first Trump budget would cut legal aid for millions of poor Americans,” The Guardian (21 February 2017).
“Japan’s prisons: silent screams,” The Economist (5 December 2015).
“Japan’s criminal-justice system: extractor, few fans,” The Economist (3 December 2015).
“Japan’s prisons,” The Economist (23 February 2013).
National Research Council, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward , National Academies Press (2009).
Jessica S. Henry, “How corruption in forensic science is harming the criminal justice system,” The Conversation (25 January 2019).
Pamela Colloff, “She was exonerated of the murder of her son. Her life is still shattered.,” The New York Times (20 December 2018).
Alex Kozinski, “Criminal law 2.0,” Georgetown Law Journal Annual Review of Criminal Proceedings (2015).
Mark Hansen, “Crime labs under the microscope after a string of shoddy, suspect and fraudulent results,” American Bar Association Journal (September 2013).
Spencer S. Hsu, “FBI admits flaws in hair analysis over decades,” The Washington Post (18 April 2015).”
Rebecca Cohen, “Forget CSI: real-life crime labs are a total mess,” Mother Jones (20 April 2015).
Wrongful Convictions
Samuel R. Gross et al, “Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death,” PNAS (28 April 2014).
Nina Totenberg, “Supreme Court rules on 2 prisoner rights cases,” NPR (21 January 2015).
Adam Liptak, “Supreme Court’s unsigned rulings show a narrow view of prisoners’ rights,” The New York Times (20 July 2015).
Matthew Speiser, “Judge identifies 12 huge lies about justice in America,” Business Insider (2 July 2015).
Lincoln Caplan, “The destruction of defendants’ rights” The New Yorker (21 June 2015).
Stephen R. Reinhardt, “The demise of habeas corpus and the rise of qualified immunity: The court’s ever increasing limitations on the development and enforcement of constitutional rights and some particularly unfortunate consequences,” Michigan Law Review 113: 1219-1254 (2015).
Katie Vloet, “Michigan Law Review essay challenges supreme court on defendants’ rights cases,” Michigan Law (17 August 2015).
“Wrongful convictions: how courts correct mistakes in the criminal justice system depends on where you live,” The Economist (25 February 2017).
Lorenzo Johnson, “A few bad apples, or the fruits of a poisonous tree?,” The Huffington Post (6 February 2017).
Karen Turner, “Court officials blame software for wrongful arrests, other legal mishaps,” The Washington Post (20 December 2016).
Lorenzo Johnson, “Are innocent prisoners’ paths to justice distorted?,” The Huffington Post (2 December 2016).
Sara Reardon, “Death-penalty analysis reveals extent of wrongful convictions,” Nature (28 April 2014).
Samuel R. Gross, “The staggering number of wrongful convictions in America,” The Washington Post (24 July 2015).
Smauel R. Gross et al, “Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death,” PNAS 111(20): 7230-7235 (20 May 2014).
Marvin Zalman, “Qualitatively estimating the incidence of wrongful convictions,” Criminal Law Bulletin 48(2): 222-279 (2012).
Mark Godsey, “New study predicts wrongful conviction rate in U.S. at 5,000 to 10,000 per year,” The Wrongful Convictions Blog (19 April 2012).
Stephanie Diaz & Ray Garza, “The Troy Davis effect: does information on wrongful convictions affect death penalty opinions?,” Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice (27 January 2015).
“Wrongful conviction compensation statutes,” CNN (undated).
SCOTUS, Brady v. Maryland (373 US 83) (1963).
Criminal System
Milton S. Eisenhower et al, The Rule of Law: an alternative to violence, Aurora Publishers (1970).

Daron Acemoglu & James A. Robinson Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty Crown Publishers (2012).
David Halpern, The Hidden Wealth of Nations, Polity (2009).
“Taxing Wages: tax burden on labour income in 2015 and recent trends,” OECD (2015).
Samantha Jordan & Kyle Pomerleau, “A comparison of the tax burden on labor in the OECD,” Tax Foundation (16 July 2015).
Peter H. Schuck, Why Government Fails So Often And How It Can Do Better, Princeton University Press (2014).
Astead W. Herndon, “Elizabeth Warren, speaking to black graduates, warns ‘the rules are rigged,” The New York Times (14 December 2018).
Failed States
Robert I. Rotberg, “Failed states in a world of terror,” Foreign Affairs (July/August 2002).
“Fragile states index,” Foreign Policy (2016).
“Fragile states index 2015,” The Fund for Peace (2016).
Daron Acemoglu & James A. Robinson, “10 reasons countries fall apart,” Global Policy Forum (July/August 2012).
Dilly Hussain, “ISIS: the “unintended consequences” of the US-led war on Iraq,” Foreign Policy Journal (23 May 2015).
Gwynne Dyer, “Iraq a failed state,” Arab News (5 October 2016).
John Kampfner, “Why Iraq is close to becoming a failed state,” The Telegraph (15 June 2014).
David Morgan, “Is Iraq a failed state?,” CBS News (2 September 2007).
James Fallows, “The right and wrong questions about the Iraq war,” The Atlantic (19 May 2015).
Ahmed Rashid, “Afghanistan’s failed transformation,” The New York Times (25 September 2014).
Arleigh A. Burke, “Afghanistan and “failed state wars”: the need for a realistic transition,” Center for Strategic International Studies (15 October 2015).
Seema Habib, “Is Afghanistan a failed state? A brief overview of indicators in the context of Afghanistan,” Global Public Policy Watch (28 May 2014).
Carlo Ungaro, “Is Afghanistan doomed as a “failed state”?,” Global Policy Forum (1 October 2012).
Abbas Djavadi, “Afghanistan is a failed state, but not beyond saving,” Radio Free Europe (16 February 2009).
Joe Havely, “Afghanistan: rebuilding a ‘failed’ state,” CNN (10 September 2002).
Leonard E. Burman & Joel Slemrod, Taxes in America: What Everyone Needs to Know, Oxford University Press (2013).
Stephanie Saul & Patricia Cohen, “Profitable giants like Amazon pay $0 in corporate taxes. Some voters are sick of it.,” The New York Times (29 April 2019).
Jim Tankersley, “Trump’s tax cut one year later: what happened?,” The New York Times (27 December 2018).
Joe Davidson, “Private tax collection agencies lose money while going after the poor,” The Washington Post (6 July 2018).
“Senate Republicans feel pressure on tax plan,” The Week (1 December 2017).
“Higher taxes can lower inequality without denting economic growth,” The Economist (19 October 2017).
“IMF fiscal monitor: tackling inequality, October 2017,” International Monetary Fund (October 2017).
““Sin” taxes—eg, on tobacco—are less efficient than they look,” The Economist (28 July 2018).
Josh Barro, “Alcohol taxes are strongly regressive,” National Review (25 March 2010).
Katherine S. Newman & Rourke L. O’Brien, Taxing the Poor, University of California Press (2011).
“Noted,” The Week (15 January 2015).
“U.S. workers face a tax burden of 31.5 percent,” Tax Foundation (16 July 2015).
Tanina Rostain & Milton C. Regan, Jr., Confidence Games, The MIT Press (2014).
Noam Scheiber & Patricia Cohen, “For the wealthiest, a private tax system that saves them billions,” The New York Times (29 December 2015).
David Kocieniewski, “A family’s billions, artfully sheltered,” The New York Times (26 November 2011).
“Taxing the rich: a guide to the controversy,” The Week (28 October 2011).
Patricia Cohen, “Profitable companies, no taxes: here’s how they did it,” The New York Times (9 March 2017).
“Tax justice digest: new eight-year data reveals corporations aren’t paying their fair share,” Tax Justice Blog (9 March 2017).
Heather Stewart, “£13tn: hoard hidden from taxman by global elite,” The Guardian (21 July 2012).
Joel Friedman, “The decline of corporate income tax revenues,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (24 October 2003).
Sovereign Debt
“A chronic problem,” The Economist (14 May 2016).
Lorenzo Forni et al, “Sovereign debt restructuring and growth,” International Monetary Fund (2016).
“The world economy: the never-ending story,” The Economist (14 November 2015).
Peter Eavis, “Loads of debt: a global ailment with few cures,” The New York Times (29 June 2015).
Alex J. Pollock, “Sovereign debt and default – a history,” CoBank (March 2012).
USgovernmentspending.com (2017).
Simon Rogers & Julia Kollewe, “Deficit, national debt and government borrowing – how has it changed since 1946?,” The Guardian (22 May 2013).
“Fractured France: an unprecedented election, with unprecedented risk,” The Economist (4 March 2017).
“History of national debt in Japan,” Economics Help (26 January 2009).
Roberta Romano, “The states as a laboratory: legal innovation and state competition for corporate charters,” Yale Law School (2006).
Drew Fitzgerald, “Office Depot weighs Illinois tax in headquarters decision,” The Wall Street Journal (10 November 2013).
Nora Traum & Shu-Chun Susan Yang, “Does government debt crowd out investment? A Bayesian DSGE approach,” Congressional Budget Office (April 2010).
“Now you see them,” The Economist (5 April 2014).
“Where there’s money, there’s risk,” The Economist (19 October 2013).
“Stimulus v austerity: sovereign doubt,” The Economist (28 September 2013).
Syreeta McFadden, “Government policies based on racist myths help dissolve black families,” The Guardian (20 September 2015).
Peter S. Goodman, “In Britain, austerity is changing everything,” The New York Times (28 May 2018).
Joy A. Palmer (editor), Fifty Major Thinkers on Education, Routledge (2001).
“Basic education and gender equality,” UNICEF (9 February 2016).
Donald H. Parkerson & Jo Ann Parkerson, Transitions in American Education, RoutledgeFalmer (2001).
Dana Goldstein, The Teacher Wars, Doubleday (2014).
Alfie Kohn, What Does It Mean To Be Well Educated?, Beacon Press (2004).
Debbie Truong, “‘Borderline criminal’: Many public schools teeter on the edge of decrepitude,” The Washington Post (25 May 2019).
Emily Hanford, “Why are we still teaching reading the wrong way?,” The New York Times (26 October 2018).
“Further reading for hard words,” APM Reports (10 September 2018).
“Illiteracy statistics,” Statistic Brain Research Institute (2 December 2015).
Justin D. Baer et al, “The literacy of America’s college students,” The National Survey of America’s College Students (January 2006).
Steve Hargreaves, “Americans lacking in basic skills,” CNN (29 October 2013).
Katherine Baird, Trapped in Mediocrity, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers (2012).
Amanda Ripley, the smartest kids in the world, Simon & Schuster (2013).
Tony Wagner, The Global Achievement Gap, Basic Books (2010).
Linda Christensen & Stan Karp (editors), Rethinking School Reform, Rethinking Schools (2003).
Michael Fabricant & Michelle Fine, Charter Schools and the Corporate Takeover of Public Education, Teachers College Press (2012).
“One door closes, another opens,” The Economist (2 May 2015).
Susan Dynarski, “Why American schools are even more unequal than we thought,” The New York Times (12 August 2016).
Motoko Rich et al, “Money, race and success: how your school district compares,” The New York Times (29 April 2016).
“Literacy statistics,” Begin to Read (2015).
Public Health
David M. Cutler, “The (paper)work of medicine: understanding international medical costs,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 25(2): 3-25 (Spring 2011).
Duane A. Matcha, Health Care Systems of the Developed World, Praeger (2003).
Dorothy Porter, Health, Civilization and the State: A History of Public Health from Ancient to Modern Times, Routledge (1999).
George Rosen, A History of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Press (1858).
Virginia Berridge et al, Public Health in History, Open University Press (2011).
Denis Campbell, “Hospital bed cutbacks have gone too far, NHS England boss says,” The Guardian (19 June 2019).
Denis Campbell, “NHS in England facing deepening staffing crisis, figures show,” The Guardian (26 July 2018).
Denis Campbell, “‘Hostile environment’ is worsening NHS staff shortages, say doctors,” The Guardian (5 June 2018).
Larry Elliott & Denis Campbell, “NHS needs £2,000 in tax from every household to stay afloat – report,” The Guardian (24 May 2018).
Denis Campbell, “Shock figures from top thinktank reveal extent of NHS crisis,” The Guardian (5 May 2018).
Sarah Marsh, “NHS is facing year-round crisis, says British Medical Association,” The Guardian (2 April 2018).
Peter Walker, “Jeremy Corbyn: Theresa May is in denial about NHS,” The Guardian 24 January 2018).
Denis Campbell et al, “NHS in crisis as cancer operations cancelled due to lack of beds,” The Guardian (14 January 2017).
Rowena Mason & Peter Walker, “NHS England chief hits back at Theresa May on health service funding,” The Guardian (11 January 2017).
Denis Campbell & Sarah Marsh, “NHS crisis: 20 hospitals declare black alert as patient safety no longer assured,” The Guardian (11 January 2017).
Chris Hopson, “The gap between funds and delivery is a chasm in the NHS: something has to give,” The Guardian (10 September 2016).
Denis Campbell, “Theresa May’s claim on health funding not true, say MPs,” The Guardian (31 October 2016).
“Physician, heal thyself,” The Economist (24 October 2015).
Denis Campbell, “NHS chiefs warn that hospitals in England are on the brink of collapse,” The Guardian (11 September 2016).
“The National Health Service: accident and emergency,” The Economist (10 September 2016).
“NHS facing ‘pockets of meltdown’ this winter,” The Guardian (12 September 2016).
Denis Campbell, “NHS records worst ever performance figures,” The Guardian (10 March 2016).
Denis Campbell, “No extra money for NHS, Theresa May tells health chief,” The Guardian (14 October 2016).
United States
Asutin Frakt, “Medical mystery: something happened to US health spending after 1980,” The New York Times (14 May 2018).
Peter A. Muennig & Sherry A. Glied, “What changes in survival rates tell us about US health care,” Health Affairs (November 2010).
Gerard F. Anderson et al, “It’s the prices, stupid: why the United States is so different from other countries,” Health Affairs (May/June 2003).
Lemuel Shattuck et al, Report of the Sanitary Commission of Massachusetts (1850).
Allison Percy, “Quality initiatives undertaken by the Veterans Health Administration,” Congressional Budget Office (13 August 2009).
David U. Himmelstein & Steffie Woolhandler, “The current and projected taxpayer shares of US health costs,” American Public Health Association 106(3): 449–452 (March 2016).
Kimberly Leonard, “Could universal health care save U.S. taxpayers money?,” US News & World Report (22 January 2016).
Dan Munro, “Annual U.S. healthcare spending hits $3.8 trillion,” Forbes (2 February 2014).
Jason Kane, “Health costs: how the U.S. compares with other countries,” PBS (22 October 2012).
“Doctors speak out about unnecessary care as cost put at $800 billion a year,” ScienceDaily (2 October 2012).
Maggie Mahar, Money-Driven Medicine, Collins (2006).
Tara Parker-Pope, “Too much medical care,” The New York Times (25 July 2012).
Matthew J. Eckelman & Jodi Sherman, “Environmental impacts of the U.S. health care system and effects on public health,” PLoS One (9 June 2016).
Karen Davis et al, Mirror, Mirror On The Wall, The Commonwealth Fund (June 2014).
“US health system ranks last among eleven countries on measures of access, equity, quality, efficiency, and healthy lives,” The Commonwealth Fund (16 June 2014).
Tom McCarthy, “Why is healthcare so expensive in the USA?,” The Guardian (15 March 2017).
Gerard F. Anderson et al, “It’s the prices, stupid: why the United States is so different from other countries,” Health Affairs 22(3): 89-105 (2003).
Olga Khazan, “U.S. healthcare: most expensive and worst performing,” The Atlantic (16 June 2014).
Arnold S. Reiman, review of “The Institute of Medicine report on the quality of health care crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st century,” The New England Journal of Medicine (30 August 2001).
Angus Deaton, “The threat of inequality,” Scientific American 315(3):49–53 (September 2016).
Elisabeth Rosenthal, “Patients’ costs skyrocket; specialists’ incomes soar,” The New York Times (18 January 2014).
Veteran Health Care
Joe Davidson, “Four years after scandal, VA gets praise for health care but falls short on access,” The Washington Post (13 November 2018).
Evan Perez, “FBI launches criminal probe of VA,” CNN Politics (11 June 2014).
Richard A. Oppel Jr. & Abby Goodnough, “Why so many V.A. delays? Too few doctors, for starters,” The New York Times (29 May 2014).
“Report” wait lists for vets even longer today than last year,” MSN (21 June 2015).
Claire O’Hanlon et al, “Comparing VA and non-VA quality of care: a systematic review,” Journal of General Internal Medicine (15 July 2016).
Health Care Insurance
Robert Pear, “Trump, shouting ‘death spiral,’ has nudged affordable Care Act downward,” The New York Times (20 May 2017).
Robert Pear, “States’ policies on health care exclude some of the poorest,” The New York Times (24 May 2013).
Joel S. Weissman, “The trouble with uncompensated hospital care,” The New England Journal of Medicine 352: 1171–1173 (24 March 2005).
“Is the Affordable Care Act working?,” The New York Times (26 October 2014).
Philip Klein, “48 Million Americans are uninsured ahead of Obamac-era changes,” Washington Examiner (16 September 2014).
Reed Abelson & Margot Sanger-Katz, “By one measure, health care law is a record success,” The New York Times (15 September 2016).
Paul Krugman, “Obamacare hits a bump,” The New York Times (19 August 2016).
Robert Pear & Reed Abelson, “As insurers balk, U.S. makes new push to boost health care act,” The New York Times (17 August 2016).
“The Affordable Care Act: encumbered exchange,” The Economist (10 September 2016).
“Obamacare attack,” The Week (14 October 2016).
David Brooks, “The incredible shrinking Obamacare,” The New York Times (6 September 2016).
“Why Obamacare is failing,” The Week (14 October 2016).
Sarah Kliff, “Is Obamacare failing?,” Vox (24 August 2016).
Anemona Hartocollis, “With Affordable Care Act, canceled policies for new york professionals,” The New York Times (13 December 2013).
Tyler Cowen, “Obamacare not as egalitarian as it appears,” The New York Times (6 November 2015).
Margot Sanger-Katz, “Obamacare premiums set to rise, even for savvy shoppers,” The New York Times (1 September 2016).
“The bottom line,” The Week (30 September 2016).
Catherine Lucey, “Skepticism surrounds Obamacare as it begins,” The Courier (1 September 2013).
Ed Henry, “Insurance industry raises questions about new ObamaC-are enrollment numbers being ‘inflated’,” Fox News (13 February 2014).
Dan Roberts, “Obama admits to rollout ‘fumble’ and offers health insurance fix,” The Guardian (14 November 2013).
Michael D. Shear, “Apologizing, Obama yields to criticism of health law,” The New York Times (7 November 2013).
Megan Thee-Brenan, “Broad skepticism on health care law,” The New York Times (18 December 2013).
Sarah Dutton et al, “Poll: amid Obamacare skepticism, confidence in Obama wanes,” CBS News (20 November 2013).
Abby Goodnough & Reed Abelson, “Health care law’s beneficiaries reflect its strengths, and its faults,” The New York Times (14 October 2016).
Marc Lipsitch & Tom Inglesby, “The U.S. is funding dangerous experiments it doesn’t want you to know about,” The Washington Post (27 February 2019).
“Department of Health and Human Services framework for guiding funding decisions about proposed research involving enhanced potential pandemic pathogens,” US Department fo Health and Human Services – Science Safety Security (19 December 2017).
“Health care in Japan: not all smiles,” The Economist (10 September 2011).
“Japan: universal health care at 50 years,” The Lancet (full issue dedicated to the Japanese health care system) (30 August 2011).
Blaine Harden, “Japan’s health-care system has many advantages, but may not be sustainable,” The Washington Post (7 September 2009).
Marianne C. Fahs et al, Japan’s Universal and Affordable Health Care: Lessons for the United States?, The Japan Society (1993).
United Kingdom
“UK: welfare cuts mean families go hungry,” Human Rights Watch (20 May 2019).
Robert Booth, “UK’s ‘cruel and harmful policies’ lack regard for child hunger, says NGO,” The Guardian (19 May 2019).
Aamna Mohdin, “Destitute children unlawfully denied support by local councils,” The Guardian (26 May 2019).
“China’s new approach to beating poverty,” The Economist (29 April 2017).
“Rural poverty: ham-fisted handouts,” The Economist (29 October 2015).
Jennifer Golan et al, “Unconditional cash transfers in China: who benefits from the rural minimum living standard guarantee (dibao) program?,” World Development 93: 316-336 (May 2017).
Tyler Prochazka, “China’s unconditional cash program: Implications for basic income,” Basic Income Earth Network (13 September 2017).
Lu Yang, “The urban dibao program in China: targeting and its effect,” Wiego 56(4):597-615 (December 2013).
United States
Walter I. Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State: A History of Social Welfare in America, Free Press (1998).
Deborah Thorne et al, “Graying of U.S. bankruptcy: fallout from life in a risk society,” Indiana Legal Studies Research Paper No. 406 (8 November 2018).
Tara Siegel Bernard, “‘Too little too late’: bankruptcy booms among older Americans,” The New York Times (5 August 2018).
Eduardo Porter, “Come the recession, don’t count on that safety net,” The New York Times (20 February 2018).
Michael B. Katz, The Price of Citizenship, Metropolitan Books (2001).
Michele Landis Dauber, The Sympathetic State, The University of Chicago Press (2013).
“Republicans and welfare: Ryan’s ramble,” The Economist (11 June 2016).
“Poll watch,” The Week (14 April 2017).
“Welfare and work: taxing hard-up Americans at 95%,” The Economist (7 September 2013).
Lane Kenworthy, “Do social-welfare policies reduce poverty? A cross-national assessment,” Social Forces 77(3): 1119-1139 (1999).
Stephanie Moller et al, “Determinants of relative poverty in advanced capitalist democracies,” American Sociological Review 68(1): 22–51 (February 2003).
Zachary A. Goldfarb, “Study: U.S. poverty rate decreased over past half-century thanks to safety-net programs,” The Washington Post (9 December 2013).
Elise Gould & Hilary Wething, “U.S. poverty rates higher, safety net weaker than in peer countries,” Economic Policy Institute (24 July 2012).
“Nearly half of American children living near poverty line,” Phys.org (2 March 2016).
William J. Barber II & Karen Dolan, “Trump’s War on the poor has just begun,” The Washington Post (18 July 2018).
Jeff Stein & Tracy Jan, “White House declares War on Poverty ‘largely over’ amid push to revamp social programs,” The Washington Post (13 July 2018).
The Council of Economic Advisors, “Expanding work requirements in non-cash welfare programs,” Executive Office of the President of the United States (July 2018).
“Report of the Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights on his mission to the United States of America,” United Nations (June 2018).
Jeff Stein, “The U.N. says 18.5 million Americans are in ‘extreme poverty.’ Trump’s team says just 250,000 are.,” The Washington Post (25 June 2018).
Jeff Stein, “An explosive U.N. report shows America’s safety net was failing before Trump’s election,” The Washington Post (6 June 2018).
Jeff Stein, “Nikki Haley: ‘It is patently ridiculous for the United Nations to examine poverty in America’,” The Washington Post (21 June 2018).
“American children, the poorest in the developed world,” Le Figaro (3 November 2009).
Jason Deparle & Robert M. Gebeloff, “Living on nothing but food stamps,” The New York Times (25 February 2007).
Theresa Funiciello, Tyranny of Kindness, The Atlantic Monthly Press (1993).
Samantha Raphelson, “San Francisco squalor: city streets strewn with trash, needles and human feces,” NPR (1 August 2018).
Margot Kushel, “Why there are so many unsheltered homeless people on the West Coast,” The Conversation (14 June 2018).
Joseph W. Mead & Sara Rankin, “Why turning homelessness into a crime is cruel and costly,” The Conversation (20 June 2018).
“The Criminalization of Homelessness: Additional Resources,” Seattle U School of Law (2018).
“Housing not handcuffs | A litigation manual,” National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty (undated).
Jeff Stein, “Seattle council votes to repeal tax to help homeless amid opposition from Amazon, other businesses,” The Washington Post (12 June 2018).
Jonathan O’Connell & Gregory Scruggs, “After Amazon opposition, Seattle passes compromise tax to fund homeless services,” The Washington Post (14 May 2018).
Jonathan O’Connell, “As Amazon pursues a second headquarters, it battles hometown Seattle over tax to stem homelessness,” The Washington Post (10 May 2018).
“Can a new mayor fix San Francisco’s housing and homelessness problems?,” The Economist (31 May 2018).
“2016’S shocking homelessness statistics,” Social Solutions (21 June 2016).
“The state of homelessness in America,” National Alliance to End Homelessness (2017).
“California considers taking custody of some street people,” The Economist (31 May 2018).
David Garrick, “Judge orders San Diego to stop ticketing homeless people living in vehicles,” Los Angeles Times (24 August 2018).
Basic Income
Robert B. Reich, “What if the government gave everyone a paycheck?,” The New York Times (9 July 2018).
“History of basic income,” Basic Income Earth Network (undated).
J.E. King & John Maragos, “Two arguments for basic income: Thomas Paine (1737-1809) and Thomas Spence (1750-1814),” History of Economic Ideas (2006).
James Tobin, “On limiting the domain of inequality,” The Journal of Law & Economics 13(2): 263–277 (October 1970).
Hal Hodson, “What if we pay everyone just to live?,” New Scientist (22 June 2016).
“Rethinking the welfare state: basically flawed,” The Economist (4 June 2016).
“Free exchange: basically unaffordable,” The Economist (23 May 2015).
“Universal basic incomes: sighing for paradise to come,” The Economist (4 June 2016).
Raphael Minder, “Guaranteed income for all? Switzerland’s voters say no thanks,” The New York Times (5 June 2016).
“Switzerland’s voters reject basic income plan,” BBC News (5 June 2016).
The Environment
Fiona Harvey, “UN climate accord ‘inadequate’ and lacks urgency, experts warn,” The Guardian (16 December 2018).
Chris Mooney & Brady Dennis, “Climate scientists are struggling to find the right words for very bad news,” The Washington Post (3 October 2018).
“The world is losing the war against climate change,” The Economist (2 August 2018).
Danny Hakim, “A pesticide contradiction: prohibited in Britain but made there for export,” The New York Times (20 December 2016).
Danny Hakim, “A pesticide banned, or not, underscores trans-Atlantic trade sensitivities,” The New York Times (23 February 2015).
Global air-surface temperature chart sources: WHO, NASA, NOAA, UK Met Office (2016).
“What will happen if America’s president-elect follows through on pledges to tear up environmental laws,” The Economist (26 November 2016).
Gregory Barber, “The Supreme Court just stopped the EPA from making the earth a safer place,” Mother Jones (29 June 2015).
SCOTUS, Michigan v. EPA (576 US _) (2014).
Adam Liptak, “Justices limit liability over toxic spill cases,” The New York Times (4 May 2009).
Paul Reynolds, “Kyoto: why did the US pull out?,” BBC News (30 March 2001).
Alister Doyle & Barbara Lewis, “With landmark climate accord, world marks turn from fossil fuels,” Reuters (12 December 2015).
Robert Brulle, “30 years ago global warming became front-page news – and both Republicans and Democrats took it seriously,” The Conversation (19 June 2018).
Alex Morales, “Paris climate deal seen costing $12.1 trillion over 25 years,” Bloomberg (1 February 2016).
Brad Plumer, “Trump orders a lifeline for struggling coal and nuclear plants,” The New York Times (1 June 2018).
Eric Lipton & Barry Meier, “Under Trump, coal mining gets new life on U.S. lands,” The New York Times (6 August 2017).
Evan Halper & Alexandra Zavis, “Trump quits the Paris climate accord, denouncing it as a violation of U.S. sovereignty,” Los Angeles Times (1 June 2017).
Michael D. Shear, “Trump will withdraw U.S. from Paris climate agreement,” The New York Times (1 June 2017).
Jeffery B. Greenblatt & Max Wei, “Assessment of the climate commitments and additional mitigation policies of the United States,” Nature Climate Change (26 September 2016).
Chris Mooney, “The U.S. is on course to miss its emissions goals, and one reason is methane,” The Washington Post (26 September 2016).
Michael Le Page, “US set to miss its emissions target under the Paris climate deal,” New Scientist (26 September 2016).
“Expect more deadly heat from climate change, study says,” Phys.org (27 March 2017).
Tom K.R. Matthews et al, “Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress,” PNAS (27 March 2017).
Ian Morris, War! What Is It Good For?, Farrar, Straus and Giroux (2014).
John Keegan, A History of Warfare, Alfred A. Knopf (1993).
Anthony Stevens, The Roots of War and Terror, Continuum (2004).
Alessandro Dal Lago & Salvatore Palidda, Conflict, Security and the Reshaping of Society: The Civilization of War, Routledge (2010).
Chalmers Johnson, Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic, Metropolitan Books (2006).
Chalmers Johnson, Dismantling the Empire, Metropolitan Books (2010).
David Livingstone Smith, The Most Dangerous Animal, St. Martin’s Griffin (2007).
David Vine, Base Nation: How U.S. Military Bases Abroad Harm America and the World, Metropolitan Books (2015).
Chalmers Johnson, Blowback, Metropolitan Books (2002).
Chalmers Johnson, The Sorrows of Empire, Metropolitan Books (2004).
Chalmers Johnson, Nemesis, Metropolitan Books (2007).
Chalmers Johnson, Dismantling The Empire, Metropolitan Books (2010).
John Keegan, A History of Warfare, Vintage (2012).
David Livingstone Smith, The Most Dangerous Animal, St. Martin’s Griffin (2007).
Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined, Penguin Books (2011).
Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, Random House (1987).
Annalisa Merelli, “These are all the countries where the US has a military presence,” Quartz (2 April 2015).
Nick Turse, “America’s empire of bases 2.0,” The Nation (10 January 2011).
“China has no overseas military bases: spokesperson,” China Daily (26 May 2015).
“China restates sovereignty claims amid S. China Sea tensions,” The Washington Post (1 August 2016).
“China’s military rise: the dragon’s new teeth,” The Economist (7 April 2012).
“Department of Defense (DoD) releases fiscal year 2017 President’s budget proposal,” U.S. Department of Defense (9 February 2016).
“The United States spends more on defense than the next seven countries combined,” Peter G. Peterson Foundation (18 April 2016).
Craig Whitlock & Bob Woodward, “Pentagon buries evidence of $125 billion in bureaucratic waste,” The Washington Post (5 December 2016).
Fed Kaplan, “No time to talk,” Slate (9 February 2018).
“National security & defense,” US White House (2018).
“Transcript of Donald Trump military policy/objectives speech,” The Last Refuge (7 September 2016).
“Trump unveils plan to boost US military,” Fox News (7 September 2016).
Environmental Impact
Robert F. Durant, The Greening of the U.S. Military: Environmental Policy, National Security, and Organizational Change, Georgetown University Press (2007).
John M.R. Bull, “The deadliness below,” Common Dreams (30 October 2005).
Dina Fine Maron, “Pentagon weighs cleanups as it plans Iraq exit,” The New York Times (13 January 2010).
Office of the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, “Observations on solid waste disposal methods in use at Camp Leatherneck”, Department of Defense (17 July 2013).
Intelligence – United States
G.J.A O’Toole, Honorable Treachery: A History of U. S. Intelligence, Espionage, and Covert Action from the American Revolution to the CIA, Atlantic Monthly Press (1991).
Roberta Wohlstetter, Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision, Stanford University Press (1962).
Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, Doubleday (2007).
Amy B. Zegart, Spying Blind, Princeton University Press (2007).
Ronald Kessler, The CIA at War: Inside the Secret Campaign Against Terror, St. Martin’s Press (2003).
War of Terror
Gerald Posner, Why America Slept, Random House (2003).
John Miller et al, The Cell, Hyperion (2002).
John Farmer, The Ground Truth, Riverhead Books (2009).
Mike M. Ahler, “9/11 panel: hijackers may have had utility knives,” CNN (27 January 2004).
“Pre-9/11 rules barred box cutters,” Associated Press (11 September 2002).
John Farmer, The Ground Truth, Riverhead Books (2009).
James Bamford, A Pretext for War, Doubleday (2004).
Steven Brill, “Are we any safer?,” The Atlantic (September 2016).
“Global origins of the 9/11 attacks,” National Geographic (2011).
“The 9/11 commission report,” National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States (2004).
1993 World Trade Center Bombing
Peg Tyre, “An icon destroyed,” Newsweek (11 September 2003).
Ralph Blumenthal, “Tapes depict proposal to thwart bomb used in Trade Center blast,” The New York Times (28 October 1993).
Robin Shulman, “Ex-EPA chief is ruled not liable for 9/11 safety claims,” The Washington Post (23 April 2008).
“World Trade Center rescue workers believed EPA, ended up sick,” Union of Concerned Scientists (2004).
“Deaths from 9/11-related illness are set to exceed initial toll,” New Scientist (14 September 2016).
Joanna Walter, “Former EPA head admits she was wrong to tell New Yorkers post-9/11 air was safe,” The Guardian (10 September 2016).
David Ray Griffin, The 9/11 Commission Report: Omissions and Distortions, Olive Branch Press (2005).
Thierry Meyssan, 9/11: The Big Lie, Carnot (2002).
Webster G. Tarpley, 9/11 Synthetic Terror Made In USA, Progressive Press (2008).
Richard A. Posner, “The 9/11 report: a dissent,” The New York Times (29 August 2004).
John Farmer, The Ground Truth: The Untold Story of America Under Attack on 9/11, Riverhead Books (2009).
Peter Dale Scott, American War Machine, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers (2011).
Toby Harnden, “Building the case against Iraq,” The Telegraph (26 October 2001).
2001 Anthrax Mailingss
William J. Broad, “Inquiry in anthrax mailings had gaps, report says,” The New York Times (19 December 2014).
Scott Shane, “Former F.B.I. agent sues, claiming retaliation over misgivings in anthrax case,” The New York Times (8 April 2015).
Noah Shachtman, “Anthrax redux: did the feds nab the wrong guy?,” Wired (24 March 2011).
“Science alone does not establish source of anthrax used in 2001 mailings,” The National Academies of Sciences | Engineering | Medicine (15 February 2011).
Scott Shane, “Colleague disputes case against anthrax suspect,” The New York Times (22 April 2010).
Joby Warrick, “FBI investigation of 2001 anthrax attacks concluded; U.S. releases details,” The Washington Post (20 February 2011).
Islamic Terror
“The roots of jihadism: a struggle that shames,” The Economist (17 January 2015).
American Terror
Jane Mayer, The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned Into a War on American Ideals Anchor (2009).
“Bush administration on Iraq 9/11 link,” BBC News (18 September 2003).
John Newhouse, Imperial America, Vintage Books (2004).
C.J. Chivers & Eric Schmitt, “C.I.A. is said to have bought and destroyed Iraqi chemical weapons,” The New York Times (15 Febru-ary 2015).
James Risen, State of War, Free Press (2006).
Steven Strasser (editor), The Abu Ghraib Investigations, Public Affairs (2008).
Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, The Official Senate Report on CIA Torture, Skyhorse Publishing (2015).
Dominic Rushe et al, “Rectal rehydration and waterboarding: the CIA torture report’s grisliest findings,” The Guardian (11 December 2014).
Scott Shane, “China inspired interrogations at Guantánamo,” The New York Times (2 July 2008).
Spencer Ackerman, “No looking back: the CIA torture report’s aftermath,” The Guardian (11 September 2016).
Trevor Timm, “Stop believing the lies: America tortured more than ‘some folks’ – and covered it up,” The Guardian (9 December 2014).
Spencer Ackerman et al, “Senate report on CIA torture claims spy agency lied about ‘ineffective’ program,” The Guardian (11 September 2016).
Dan Roberts, “US drone strikes being used as alternative to Guantá-namo, lawyer says,” The Guardian (23 April 2015).
“Killer drones: out of the shadows,” The Economist (1 June 2013).
Jeremy Scahill, Dirty Wars, Nation Books (2013).
Pir Zubair Shah et al, “American forces attack militants on Pakistani soil,” The New York Times (4 September 2008).
Carlotta Gall, “Afghan president assails U.S.-led airstrike,” The New York Times (24 August 2008).
Ali Gharib, “Obama’s drone war: too many mistakes, too little contrition,” The National (2 May 2015).
Scott Shane, “Drone strikes reveal uncomfortable truth: U.S. is often unsure about who will die,” The New York Times (23 April 2015).
Paul Lewis et al, “Obama regrets drone strike that killed hostages but hails US for transparency,” The Guardian (23 April 2015).
Tara McKelvey, “How do drone strikes go wrong?,” BBC News (24 April 2015).
Owen Bowcott, “Drone strikes by US may violate international law, says UN,” The Guardian (18 October 2013).
“White House admits four US citizens were killed by drone strikes,” The Guardian (22 May 2013).
“US drone strikes: ‘deadly and dirty’ warns new book,” The Guardian (13 April 2015).
Matt Apuzzo et al, “How U.S. torture left legacy of damaged minds,” The New York Times (8 October 2016).
Alan Travis, “Number of terrorist prisoners in UK jails hits record high,” The Guardian (22 September 2016).
Matthew M. Aid, Intel Wars, Bloomsbury Press (2012).
“Obama knew of NSA spying on Merkel and approved it, report says,” Fox News (27 October 2013).
Dana Priest & William M. Arkin, Top Secret America, Little, Brown and Company (2011).
Jeanne Sahadi, “What the NSA costs taxpayers,” CNN Money (7 June 2013).
Airport Diligence
Ron Nixon, “Airport security delays won’t end soon, T.S.A. chief says,” The New York Times (25 May 2016).
Roni Caryn Rabin, “X-ray scans at airports leave lingering worries,” The New York Times (6 August 2012).
Megan Garber, “Finally, an independent study of the health effects of airport scanners,” The Atlantic (18 December 2012).
Bill Lindner, “Public misled on dangers of airport body scanners, watchdog says,” Digital Journal (4 July 2011).
Richard Knox, “Scientists question safety of new airport scanners,” NPR (17 May 2010).
Julie Accardo & M. Ahmad Chaudhry, “Radiation exposure and privacy concerns surrounding full-body scanners in airports,” Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences 7(2): 198–200 (April 2014).
Ariel Kaminer, “Pat-downs: enhanced but hardly thorough,” The New York Times (26 November 2010).
Ron Nixon, “Airport security: what’s behind the backups,” The New York Times (19 May 2016).
Jad Mouawad, “Catching a flight? Budget hours, not minutes, for security,” The New York Times (2 May 2016).
“Queue tips: long security lines await at American airports this summer,” The Economist (1 April 2016).
Rachel Hall, The Transparent Traveler: The Performance and Culture of Airport Security, Duke University Press (2015).
Harvey Molotch, Against Security: How We Go Wrong at Airports, Subways, and Other Sites of Ambiguous Danger, Princeton University Press (2014).
Kathleen Sweet, Aviation and Airport Security: Terrorism and Safety Concerns, CRC Press (2008).
Jeffrey Price, Practical Aviation Security: Predicting and Preventing Future Threats, Butterworth-Heinemann (2013).
Suzanne McGee, “Sick of long airport security lines? Blame the government and airlines, not TSA,” The Guardian (30 May 2016).
Ron Nixon, “With footwear scanners failing in airport tests, the shoes still have to come off,” The New York Times (23 August 2012).
Joe Sharkey, “Mistakes on terrorist watch list affect even children,” The New York Times (8 September 2008).
“Will TSA ever learn?,” The Week (11 October 2012).
Matthew Teague, “Disabled cancer patient slammed to the ground by TSA guards, lawsuit claims,” The Guardian (2 July 2016).
Joe Sharkey, “The terrorist watch list, jumbled in translation,” The New York Times (1 September 2008).
Dan Berry, “At a checkpoint, terror fears and testy travelers,” The New York Times (22 November 2010).
Michael S. Schmidt, “Report says T.S.A. screening is not objective,” The New York Times (4 June 2013).
Terry L. Schell et al, “Designing airports for security,” RAND Corporation (2003).
Jamie Grierson, “Trio forced off easyJet plane over false claims they support Isis,” The Guardian (23 August 2016).
Homa Khaleeli, “The perils of ‘flying while Muslim’,” The Guardian (8 August 2016).
Tariq Ramadan, “The politics of fear: how Britain’s anti-extremism strategy has failed,” The Guardian (5 September 2016).
Maryam Dharas, “I was escorted off a flight due to racist profiling. Britain must banish this bigotry,” The Guardian (5 September 2016).
Kriston Capps, “Airport security: astoundingly expensive and 95 percent ineffective, The Atlantic Citylab (3 June 2015).
Natalie Paris, “Airport security is ‘unnecessary and ineffective’,” The Telegraph (19 August 2014).
Charles C. Mann, “Smoke screening,” Vanity Fair (20 December 2011).
“Aviation security: no more of the same, please,” The Economist (14 November 2015).
Nicola Clark, “Why airline hijackings became relatively rare,” The New York Times (29 March 2016).
Larry Buchanan et al, “Does more security at airports make us safer or just move the targets?,” The New York Times (1 July 2016).
The Editorial Board, “Pandemonium at J.F.K. airport,” The New York Times (24 August).
Richard Pérez-Peña et al, “Shooting scares show a nation quick to fear the worst,” The New York Times (30 August 2016).
Marc Santora, “From false alarm to panic: inside Kennedy airport’s chaotic night,” The New York Times (16 August 2016).
Jonah Engel Bromwich, “False reports of gunfire at LAX airport prompt panic and evacuations,” The New York Times (1 July 2016).
Joby Warrick & Greg Miller, “Fifteen years after 9/11, the jihadist threat looms larger than ever across the globe,” The Washington Post (11 September 2016).
Scott Shane, “Homegrown extremists tied to deadlier toll than Jihadists in U.S. since 9/11,” The New York Times (24 June 2015).
Julia Jones and Eve Bower, “American deaths in terrorism vs. gun violence in one graph,” CNN (30 December 2015).
Chinese Terror
Tom Phillips, “China still uses medieval torture methods against opponents – Amnesty,” The Guardian (11 November 2015).
“UN covenants: suppressed in translation,” The Economist (19 May 2016).
Andrew Jacobs & Chris Buckley, “In China, civic groups’ freedom, and followers, are vanishing,” The New York Times (26 February 2015).
Helen Gao, China sharpens its censorship blade,” The New York Times (2 February 2015).
“China claims victory in scrubbing Internet clean,” Phys.org (1 December 2013).
Keith Bradsher, “China toughens its restrictions on use of the Internet,” The New York Times (28 December 28).
“Ideology: class struggle,” The Economist (28 February 2015).
“Social media: posers for the party,” The Economist (3 September 2016).
Jane Hooker, “Voice seeking answers for parents about a school collapse is silenced,” The New York Times (11 July 2008).
“The rule of law: bizarrely consistent,” The Economist (27 July 2013).
“The world at a glance: Beijing,” The Week (7 October 2016).
“GitHubbub: Office workers in China organise a rare online labour movement,” The Economist (17 April 2019).
The Environment
Damian Carrington, “G20 nations triple coal power subsidies despite climate crisis,” The Guardian (25 June 2019).
Coral Davenport & Mark Landler, “Trump administration hardens its attack on climate science,” The New York Times (27 May 2019).
“Revenge of the polluters: a scourge of the EPA takes over at the EPA,” The Economist (25 February 2017).

“Workshop on biological extinction,” Pontifical Academy of Sciences and Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences (27 February–1 March 2017).
Richard Falk, Power Shift, Zed (2016).
Peter S. Goodman, “2 Views of Angela Merkel’s legacy: stoic leadership, and economic malpractice,” The New York Times (3 November 2018).
Alison Smale, “Angela Merkel’s problems in Germany could challenge Europe, too,” The New York Times (11 September 2016).
Damian Carrington, “David Attenborough: collapse of civilisation is on the horizon,” The Guardian (3 December 2018).
Paavo Järvensivu et al, “Global sustainable development report 2019,” BIOS Research Unit (August 2018).
Laura Paddison, “We cannot fight climate change with capitalism, says report,” HuffPost (31 August 2018).
Peter S. Goodman, “Davos elite fret about inequality over vintage wine and canapés,” The New York Times (18 January 2017).
Vikram Dodd, “Rising crime is symptom of inequality, says senior met chief,” The Guardian (14 June 2018).
David M. Kotz, “The financial and economic crisis of 2008: a systemic crisis of neoliberal capitalism,” Review of Radical Political Economics 41(3): 305-317 (Summer 2009).
“Keeping tabs: China’s “social credit” scheme involves cajolery and sanctions,” The Economist (28 March 2019).
Donald Trump
John Wagner, “Jimmy Carter says Trump wouldn’t be president without help from Russia,” The Washington Post (28 June 2019).
The Editorial Board, “Trump’s war on worker rights,” The New York Times (3 June 2019).
Dana Milbank, “Trump is twice as extreme as his predecessors in the past century. That’s dangerous.,” The Washington Post (25 May 2019).
Adam Liptak, “Clash between Trump and House democrats poses threat to constitutional order,” The New York Times (7 May 2019).
Robert Reich, “In fighting all oversight, Trump has made his most dictatorial move,” The Guardian (27 April 2019).
Steve Vladeck, “Trump isn’t just defying Congress. He’s rejecting the whole idea of oversight,” The Washington Post (26 April 2019).
Max Boot, “A look back on two dismal years of the Trump administration,” The Washington Post (20 January 2019).
David Leonhardt, “The People vs. Donald J. Trump,” The New York Times (6 January 2019).
Glenn Kessler, “A year of unprecedented deception: Trump averaged 15 false claims a day in 2018,” The Washington Post (30 December 2018).
Linda Qiu, “Deciphering the patterns in Trump’s falsehoods,” The New York Times (29 December 2018).
Michelle Goldberg, “Maybe they’re just bad people,” The New York Times (26 November 2018).
Tom McCarthy, “Is Donald Trump an authoritarian? Experts examine telltale signs,” The Guardian (18 November 2018).
Daniel W. Drezner, “Why is Donald Trump so bad at being head of state?,” The Washington Post (19 November 2018).
Philip Rucker & Robert Costa, “Bob Woodward’s new book reveals a ‘nervous breakdown’ of Trump’s presidency,” The Washington Post (4 September 2018).
Glenn Kessler & Meg Kelly, “Once again, ‘fake news’ decried by Trump turns out to be true,” The Washington Post (26 July 2018).
Paul Krugman, “For Trump, failure is the only option,” The New York Times (12 July 2018).
“Donald Trump is undermining the rules-based international order,” The Economist (7 June 2018).
Ronald A. Klain, “The biggest gut punch to our rule of law lately hasn’t come from Trump,” The Washington Post (6 June 2018).
Jennifer Rubin, “Trump’s latest impeachable actions,” The Washington Post (3 November 2017).
Matthew Yglesias, “‘The swamp’ hasn’t been drained,” The Week, (16 June 2017).
Richard Cohen, “Everything is backward with Trump,” The Washington Post (11 May 2017).
Dana Milbank, “So far, Trump has been mercifully incompetent,” The Washington Post (17 March 2017).
Juliet Eilperin & Steven Mufson, “Trump to roll back Obama’s climate, water rules through executive action,” The Washington Post (20 February 2017).
Jeff Spross, “The moral bankruptcy of President Trump’s budget,” The Week (17 March 2017).
Eugene Robinson, “Trumpism is all tantrums, all the time,” The Washington Post (7 February 2017).
“Trump’s path to power,” The Week (3 February 2017).
“The Trump presidency: the Republican Party is organised around one man,” The Economist (21 April 2018).
Karen Tumulty, “Trump’s charge that he was wiretapped takes presidency into new territory,” The Washington Post (5 March 2017).
Fareed Zakaria, “The unbearable stench of Trump’s B.S.,” The Washington Post (4 August 2016).
Quinta Jurecic, “Can a president who disregards the truth uphold his oath of office?,” The Washington Post (28 January 2017).
Richard A. Friedman, “Is it time to call Trump mentally ill?,” The New York Times (17 February 2017).
Richard Greene, “Is Donald Trump mentally ill? 3 professors of psychiatry ask president Obama to conduct ‘a full medical and neuropsychiatric evaluation’,” The Huffington Post (17 December 2016).
David Brooks, “When the world is led by a child,” The New York Times (16 May 2017).
Theresa May
Ellen Barry, “Brexit ‘red lines’ became a trap for Theresa May,” The New York Times (24 May 2019).
Heather Stewart, “Theresa May announces she will resign on 7 June,” The Guardian (24 May 2019).
Peter Walker & Rowena Mason, “May offers MPs vote on second referendum in ‘new’ Brexit deal,” The Guardian (21 May 2019).
Dan Sabbagh, “How May miscalculated the Brexit numbers game,” The Guardian (16 April 2019).
“Missing: the British government,” The Economist (24 January 2019).
Deepak Malhotra, “I’m an expert on negotiations, and i have some advice for Theresa May,” The New York Times (20 December 2018).
Dan Sabbagh & Daniel Boffey, “Desperate Theresa May reveals her Brexit plan B: buy more time,” The Guardian (10 December 2018).
Dan Sabbagh & Jessica Elgot, “Theresa May postpones Brexit deal vote,” The Guardian (10 December 2018).
Ellen Barry, “Theresa May Tried to lead Britain to a Brexit compromise. Was it too late?,” The Guardian (9 December 2018).
“Britain’s equilibrium of incompetence,” The Economist (6 September 2018).
“Britain has fretted about decline before, but never like this,” The Economist (28 July 2018).
Martin Kettle, “We used to think Theresa May was a safe pair of hands. We can no longer say that,” The Guardian (16 March 2017).
Tom Whyman, “Theresa May’s empire of the mind,” The New York Times (15 February 2017).
Rafael Behr, “May’s diplomatic blunders will cost Britain dear in Brexit talks,” The Guardian (14 March 2017).
Carl Bildt, “The intellectual dishonesty of the Brexit Taliban is now in full view,” The New York Times (9 July 2018).
John Nichols, “Mitch McConnell just reached a new low,” The Nation (17 February 2017).
Edgar S. Cahn, “Unleashing our hidden wealth,” Yes! magazine (30 September 2002).
Edgar S. Cahn, No More Throw-Away People: The Co-Production Imperative, Essential Books (2004).
Hilary Mayell, “First humans in Australia dated to 50,000 years ago,” National Geographic News (24 February 2003).
Megan Specia, “How Yemen became a humanitarian nightmare: untangling a complex war,” The New York Times (13 June 2018).
Kelly McFarland, “Yemen: understanding the conflict,” The Conversation (17 June 2018).