Unraveling Reality Notes

Unraveling Reality   Research References   (Table of Contents)

Common knowledge for Unraveling Reality obtained from various encyclopedias and dictionaries, including Encyclopedia Britannica, Everipedia, New World Encyclopedia, Wikipedia, World Book Encyclopedia, Scholarpedia, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary, Dictionary.com, and the Internet (humanity’s communal commode of infotainment).

The Universe
Ron Cowen, “Billions, billions and more billions,” Science News 179(1): 10 (1 January 2011).
J.R. Gott III et al, “A map of the universe,” Astrophysical Journal 624 (2): 463–484 (2005).
Charles H. Lineweaver and Tamara M. Davis, “Misconceptions about the Big Bang,” Scientific American 292(3): 36–45 (March 2005).
Lisa Grossman, “Medieval multiverse heralded modern cosmic conundrums,” New Scientist (13 March 2014).
Oliver Muller et al, “A whirling plane of satellite galaxies around Centaurus A challenges cold dark matter cosmology,” Science 359(6375): 534-537 (2 February 2018).
Cormac O Raifeartaigh et al, “A steady-state model of the universe by Albert Einstein,” arXiv:1402.0132 (26 February 2014).
Davide Castelvecchi, “Einstein’s lost theory uncovered,” Nature (24 February 2014).
Georges Lemaître, “The beginning of the world from the point of view of quantum theory,” Nature 127: 706 (9 May 1931).
Mark Peplow, “Planck snaps infant universe,” Nature 495: 417–418 (28 March 2013).
Andrew Grant, “Universe is a teeny bit older than thought,” Science News (21 March 2013).
Tom Siegfried, “Cosmic questions, answers pending,” Science News 179(9): 20–21 (23 April 2011).
Ron Cowen, “New study gives dark energy a boost,” Science News (16 March 2011).
Glenn G. Kacprzak, “The pristine universe,” Science 334 (6060): 1216–1217 (2 December 2011).
“Revamping the size of the universe,” Science News (15 May 2014).
Ivan Agullo et al, “Quantum gravity extension of the inflationary scenario,” Physical Review Letters 109(25): 1301–1306 (17 December 2012).
Michael S. Turner, “Cosmology: a story of cosmic proportions,” Nature 526: 40–41 (01 October 2015).
David N. Spergel, “The dark side of cosmology: dark matter and dark energy,” Science 347(6226): 1100-1102 (6 March 2015).
“The dark side of the universe,” The Economist (18 February 2012).
P. Hamilton et al, “Atom-interferometry constraints on dark energy,” Science 349(6250): 849–851 (21 August 2015).
Alessandro Bettini, Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics, 383, Cambridge University Press (2008).
Elizabeth Gibney, “Dark-matter hunt fails to find the elusive particles,” Nature (9 November 2017).
André A. Costa et al, “Testing the interaction between dark energy and dark matter with Planck data,” arXiv:1311.7380 (28 November 2013).
Hannah Devlin, “Astronomers find half of the missing matter in the universe,” The Guardian (12 October 2017).
“The dark side of the universe,” The Economist (18 February 2012).
P. Hamilton et al, “Atom-interferometry constraints on dark energy,” Science 349(6250): 849–851 (21 August 2015).
Elizabeth Gibney, “Dark-matter hunt comes up empty,” Nature (9 November 2017).
Amina Khan, “LUX: world’s most sensitive detector finds no dark matter. What’s next?,” Los Angeles Times (22 July 2016).
“Chasing shadows: how long can we keep looking for dark matter?,” New Scientist (18 June 2015).
“LUX confirms it has not found dark matter,” Science 2.0 (20 February 2014).
Clara Moskowitz, “Dark matter search leaves scientists questioning basic theories,” The Huffington Post (23 January 2014).
Dennis Overbye, “Dark matter experiment has detected nothing, researchers say proudly,” The New York Times (30 October 2013).
Alessandro Bettini, Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics, 383, Cambridge University Press (2008).
“NASA finds direct proof of dark matter,” NASA (21 August 2006).
Dennis Overbye, “Findings on mysterious haze at galaxy’s center,” The New York Times (31 October 2009).
Lisa Grossman, “Strange dark stuff is making the universe too bright,” New Scientist (17 July 2014).
Charles W. Danforth et al, “An HST/COS survey of the low-redshift IGM. I. Survey, methodology, & overall results,” arXiv:1402.2655 (11 February 2014).
Adrian Cho, “How hot is dark matter?,” Science 336(6085): 1091–1092 (1 June 2012).
Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, “Where are the missing baryons?,” Science 336(6085): 1093–1094 (1 June 2012).
Ron Cowen, “Ordinary matter: Lost and found,” Science News 163(11): 174 (15 March 2003).
Liz Kruesi, “Have black holes hurled half the universe into the wilderness?,” New Scientist (3 August 2016).
Emily Conover, “Dark matter still missing,” Science News (2 February 2017).
Emily Conover, “Latest dark matter searches leave scientists empty-handed,” Science News (25 October 2016).
“Dark energy survey reveals most accurate measurement of universe’s dark matter,” ScienceDaily (3 August 2017).
Leila Battison, “Dwarf galaxies suggest dark matter theory may be wrong,” BBC News (16 September 2011).
Leo Blitz, “The dark side of the Milky Way,” Scientific American 305(4): 36–45 (October 2011).
Ron Cowen, “Gamma rays may signal detection of dark matter in Milky Way’s core,” Science News 178(11): 11 (20 November 2010).
Stacy McGaugh, Federico Lelli, Jim Schombert, “The radial accelera-tion relation in rotationally supported galaxies,” arXiv:1609.05917 [astro-ph.GA] (19 September 2016).
Jon Butterworth, “Dark matter: did we just hear the most exciting phrase in science?,” The Guardian (2 October 2016).
“Dark matter mystery deepens,” ScienceDaily (17 October 2011).
Amina Khan, “LUX: world’s most sensitive detector finds no dark matter. What’s next?,” Los Angeles Times (22 July 2016).
Nadia Drake, “New maps of the cosmic dark,” Science News 181(3): 8 (11 February 2012).
Govert Schilling, “A guide to the dark side,” Science (9 January 2012).
Brian Stallard, “Evidence of ‘starquakes’ on neutron star,” Nature World News (23 October 2014).
Y. V. Stadnik & V. V. Flambaum, “Searches for topological defect dark matter via non-gravitational signatures,” arXiv.org (3 August 2014).
Hal Hodson, “Dark matter could be seen in GPS time glitches,” New Scientist (17 November 2014).
Xiaodong Huang & Wuliang Huang, “Dark matter, quasars, and superstructures in the universe,” arXiv.org (3 July 2012).
Damien Hutsemékers et al, “Alignment of quasar polarizations with large-scale structures,” arXiv.org (22 September 2014).
“Spooky alignment of quasars across billions of light-years,” Phys.org (19 November 2014).
Sarah Lewin, “Dark matter stays dark,” Scientific American (22 July 2016).
Olena Shmahalo, “Scientists unveil a new inventory of the universe’s dark contents,” Quanta Magazine (24 August 2017).
Elizabeth Howell, “We live in a cosmic void, another study confirms,” Space.com (14 June 2017).
Lisa Grossman, “Milky Way’s loner status is upheld,” Science News (7 June 2017).
J.T. Nielsen et al, “Marginal evidence for cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae,” Scientific Reports (21 October 2016).
Peter A. Milne et al, “The changing fractions of type IA supernova NUV–optical subclasses with redshift,” The Astrophysical Journal (9 April 2015).
“Accelerating universe? Not so fast,” ScienceDaily (11 April 2015).
“The universe is expanding at an accelerating rate, or is it?,” ScienceDaily (21 October 2016).
Gabor Racz et al, “Concordance cosmology without dark energy,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (11 February 2017).
“Explaining the accelerating expansion of the universe without dark energy,” ScienceDaily (30 March 2017).
Dennis Overbye, “Cosmos controversy: the universe is expanding, but how fast?,” The New York Times (20 February 2017).
Anil Ananthaswamy, “Dark energy must die – these rebel physicists can take it down,” New Scientist (21 June 2016).
S. Perlmutter et al, “Measurements of omega and lambda from 42 high-redshift supernovae,” arXiv:astro-ph/9812133 (8 December 1998).
Eric J. Lerner, “UV surface brightness of galaxies from the local universe to z ~ 5,” International Journal of Modern Physics D (2 May 2014).
“Universe is not expanding after all, scientists say,” Sci-News.com (23 May 2014).
Ron Cowen, “Data from galaxy clusters suggest dark energy is constant over time,” Science News 175(1): 9 (3 January 2009).
Paul Rincon, “New method ‘confirms dark energy’,” BBC News (19 May 2011).
Adrian Cho, “A recipe for the cosmos,” Science 330: 1615 (17 December 2010).
Elizabeth Quill, “Einstein passes acceleration test,” Science News 181(9): 17 (5 May 2012).
Ron Cowen, “Dark energy constantly with us,” Science News 175(1): 9, (3 January 2009).
Adrian Cho, “What is dark energy?,” Science 336(6085): 1090–1091 (1 June 2012).
Sean Carroll, From Eternity To Here, Penguin Group (2010).
Jia You et al, “A cosmic controversy,” Science 355(6239) (10 March 2017).
Joshua Sokol, “Hubble trouble,” Science 355(6239): 1010-1014 (10 March 2017).
Tom Siegfried, “Cosmic question mark,” Science News (21 March 2014).
Edwin Hubble, “A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae,” PNAS 15(3): 168–173 (15 March 1929).
Allan Sandage, “Current problems in the extragalactic distance scale,” Astrophysical Journal 127: 513 (May 1958).
Emily Conover, “Debate accelerates on universe’s expansion speed,” Science News (22 July 2016).
Pierre Fleury et al, “Can all cosmological observations be accurately interpreted with a unique geometry?,” Physical Review Letters 111: 091302 (29 August 2013).
Andre Maeder, “Scale invariant cosmology I: the vacuum and the cosmological constant,” arXiv:1605.06315 (19 May 2016).
Andre Maeder, “Scale invariant cosmology II: model equations and properties,” arXiv:1605.06316 (19 May 2016).
Andre Maeder, “Scale invariant cosmology III: dynamical models and comparisons with observations,” arXiv:1605.06314 (19 May 2016).
Andre Maeder, “An alternative to the LCDM model: the case of scale invariance,” arXiv:1701.03964v1 (14 January 2017).
Andre Maeder, “Dynamical effects of the scale invariance of the empty space: the fall of dark matter?,” arXiv:1710.11425 (31 October 2017).
Yu Nakayama, “Scale invariance vs conformal invariance,” arXiv:1302.0884 (28 February 2014).
Adam Mann, “How to picture the size of the universe,” Wired (6 December 2011).
Brent Tully, “How big is the universe?,” Nova (November 2011).
“What is the size of the universe?” DimensionsInfo (26 September 2014).
Nola Taylor Redd, “How big is the universe?,” Space.com (6 June 2017).
Galactic Expanse
“First galaxies born sooner after Big Bang than thought,” Space.com (14 April 2011).
“Seven primitive galaxies at the dawn of time,” ScienceDaily (12 December 2012).
Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, “Warped light reveals infant galaxy on the brink of the ‘cosmic dawn’,” Science 337: 1142 (21 September 2012).
Wei Zheng et al, “A magnified young galaxy from about 500 million years after the Big Bang,” Nature 489: 406–408 (20 September 2012).
Lisa Grossman, “Milky Way galaxy is even lighter than thought,” New Scientist (14 August 2013).
Bomee Lee et al, “CANDELS: The correlation between galaxy morphology and star formation activity at z ~ 2,” The Astrophysical Journal (15 August 2013).
Darach Watson et al, “A dusty, normal galaxy in the epoch of reionization,” European Southern Observatory (4 March 2015).
Caroline M. S. Straatman et al, “A substantial population of massive quiescent galaxies at z ~ 4 from ZFOURGE,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters 783(1) (1 March 2014).
AFP, “Universe has two trillion more galaxies than previously thought,” The Guardian (13 October 2016).
Jörg P. Dietrich et al, “A filament of dark matter between two clusters of galaxies,” Nature 487: 202–204 (12 July 2012).
Mehmet Alpaslan et al, “Galaxy and mass assembly (GAMA): fine filaments of galaxies detected within voids,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (9 March 2014).
Alexandra Witze, “At home in the universe,” Science News 181(12): 22– 25 (16 June 2012).
Jenna Iacurci, “Milky Way is much bigger than previously thought,” Nature World News (11 March 2015).
Yan Xu et al, “Rings and radial waves in the disk of the Milky Way,” The Astrophysical Journal 801(2) (April 2015).
Nadia Drake, “Planets common as stars in galaxy,” Science News 12 (25 February 2012).
Ron Cowen, “Milky Way puts on weight,” Science News 175(3): 8 (31 January 2009).
“Astronomers get closest look yet at Milky Way’s mysterious core,” National Radio Astronomy Observatory (2 November 2005).
Nicholos Wethington, “The Milky Way’s black hole,” Universe Today (5 January 2009).
Ron Cowen, “Beast at galaxy’s core lacks spin,” Science News 179(1): 11 (1 January 2011).
Ron Cowen, “Decade of the monster,” Science 339: 1514–1516 (29 March 2013).
R.P. Eatough et al, “A strong magnetic field around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Galaxy,” Nature 501: 391–394 (19 September 2013).
“A strong magnetic field around the Milky Way’s black hole,” Phys.org (14 August 2013).
Richard B. Larson et al, “The first stars in the universe,” Scientific American (19 January 2009).
Black Holes
Joshua Sokol, “Observations hint at a new recipe for giant black holes,” Science 355(6321): 13 (13 January 2017).
Benny Trakhtenbrot et al, “An over-massive black hole in a typical star-forming galaxy, 2 billion years after the Big Bang,” Science 349(6244): 168–171 (10 July 2015).
“Black hole affecting galactic climate identified,” ScienceDaily (5 January 2016).
N. Cappelluti et al, “Cross-correlating cosmic infrared and X-ray background fluctuations: evidence of significant black hole popula-tions among the cib sources,” The Astrophysical Journal (6 May 2013).
M. Volonteri, “The formation and evolution of massive black holes,” Science 337: 544–547 (3 August 2012).
Marc Sarzi, “How black holes restrain old galaxies,” Nature (26 May 2016).
“Black holes could grow as large as 50 billion suns before their food crumbles into stars according to research,” ScienceDaily (18 December 2015).
Jens Thomas et al, “A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core,” Nature (6 April 2016).
Ákos Bodán & Andy D. Goulding, “Connecting dark matter halos with the galaxy center and the supermassive black hole,” The Astrophysical Journal (18 February 2015).
Charles Q. Choi, “Dark side of black holes,” Scientific American 302(3): 22 (March 2010).
Christopher Crockett, “Black hole born without stellar parent,” Science News (6 August 2016).
Jay Strader et al, “Two stellar-mass black holes in the globular cluster M22,” Nature 490: 71–73 (4 October 2012).
Ananda Hota et al, “Discovery of a spiral-host episodic radio galaxy,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters (9 August 2011).
Chris Willot, “A monster in the early universe,” Nature 474: 583–584 (30 June 2011).
Xue-Bing Wu et al, “An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30,” Nature (25 February 2015).
Remco C. E. van den Bosch et al, “An over-massive black hole in the compact lenticular galaxy NGC 1277,” Nature 491: 729–731 (29 No-vember 2012).
Q.D. Wang et al, “Dissecting X-ray–emitting gas around the center of our galaxy,” Science 341(6149): 981–983 (30 August 2013).
F. Tombesi et al, “Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy,” Nature 519: 436–438 (26 March 2015).
R. Cowen, “Ray tracing,” Science News 172: 291–292 (10 November 2007).
“‘Nearby’ supermassive black hole rotates at close to the speed of light,” The Guardian (27 February 2013).
Christopher Crockett, “Black holes may shut down stellar factories,” Science News (5 March 2014).
Timothy M. Heckman & Guinevere Kauffmann, “The coevolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes: a local perspective,” Science 333: 182–185 (8 July 2011).
James E. Geach, “The lost galaxies,” Scientific American 304(5): 46–53 (May 2011).
M. R. Schreiber, “One good measure,” Science 340(6135): 932–933 (24 May 2013).
Robert Antonucci, “Quasars still defy explanation,” Nature 495: 165–167 (14 March 2013).
P.B. Hall et al, “Broad absorption line quasars with redshifted troughs: high-velocity infall or rotationally dominated outflows?,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (12 July 2013).
Ron Cowen, “Galaxy bulges in its middle,” Science News 175(5): 9 (28 February 2009).
“X-ray pulses create ‘molecular black hole,'” ScienceDaily (31 May 2017).

A Matter of Energy
David Halliday et al, Fundamentals of Physics, 10th Edition, Wiley (2013).
James S. Walker, Physics, Addison-Wesley (2009).
Tom Jackson, Physics, Shelter Harbor Press (2017).
Carlo Rovelli, Seven Brief Lessons on Physics, Riverhead Books (2016).
R. Shankar, Fundamentals of Physics: Mechanics, Relativity, and Thermodynamics, Yale University Press (2014).
Victor J. Stenger, God and the Atom, Prometheus Books (2013).
David Deutsch, The Fabric of Reality: The Science of Parallel Universes and Its Implications, Viking Adult (1997).
Lisa Randall, Warped Passages, Echo (2005).
Victor J. Stenger, Timeless Reality, Prometheus Books (2000).
Alan Lightman, The Discoveries: Great Breakthroughs in 20th-Century Science, Pantheon (2005).
Albert Einstein, “Ether and the theory of relativity,” University of Leiden (5 May 1920).
Jennifer Rampling, “More than 2,000 years of elements: a prehistory of the periodic table,” Nature (29 January 2019).
Dennis Overbye, “U.F.O.s: is this all there is?,” The New York Times (29 December 2017).
Wynne Parry, “How much longer can earth support life?,” Live Science (18 September 2013).
Colin Barras, “How long will life survive on planet Earth?,” BBC Earth (23 March 2015).
Alex Knapp,”Scientists estimate how much longer the Earth can support life,” Forbes (20 September 2013).
Quantum Mechanics
Mitali Banerjee et al, “Observed quantization of anyonic heat flow,” Nature 545: 75-79 (4 May 2017).
“A skeptic of quantum theory explains his misgivings,” Science News 178(11): 36 (20 November 2010).
Martinus Veltman, Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics, World Scientific Publishing (2003).
Meinard Kuhlmann, “What is real?,” Scientific American (August 2013).
Matali Banerjee et al, “Observed quantization of anyonic heat flow,” Nature 545: 75-79 (4 May 2017).
“What drives the accelerating expansion of the universe?,” ScienceDaily 015 May 2017).
The Standard Model
“‘Ghost particles’ could improve understanding the universe,” Phys.org (31 January 2017).
Gordon Kane, “The dawn of physics beyond the Standard Model,” Scientific American 68–75 (June 2003).
Francis J.M. Farley, “The magnetic moment of the muon worries theorists,” Europhysics News 32(5): 165–169 (2001).
The ACME Collaboration, “Order of magnitude smaller limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron,” Science (19 December 2013).
Philip Ball, “Nuclear masses calculated from scratch,” Nature (20 November 2008).
Lattice World
Carlo Beenakker, “Bringing order to the expanding fermion zoo,” Science 353(6299): 539-540 (5 August 2016).
Barry Bradlyn et al, “Beyond Dirac and Weyl fermions: unconventional quasiparticles in conventional crystals,” Science 353(6299): 558 (5 August 2016).
S. Torquato et al, “Uncovering multiscale order in the prime numbers via scattering,” Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment (5 September 2018).
Kevin Mcelwee, “Surprising hidden order unites prime numbers and crystal-like material,” Phys.org (6 September 2018).
Salvatore Torquato & Frank H. Stillinger, “Local density fluctuations, hyperuniformity, and order metrics,” Physical Review E (29 October 2003).
Yang Jiao et al, “Avian photoreceptor patterns represent a disordered hyperuniform solution to a multiscale packing problem,” Physical Review (2014).
É. Marcotte et al, “Nonequilibrium static growing length scales in supercooled liquids on approaching the glass transition,” Journal of Chemical Physics 138: 12A508 (2013).
A. B. Hopkins et al, “Nonequilibrium static diverging length scales on approaching a prototypical model glassy state,” Physical Review E 86: 021505 (2012).
Tarik Yefsah et al, “Heavy solitons in a fermionic superfluid,” Nature 449: 426–430 (25 July 2013).
Christoph Becker, “Dark and heavy,” Nature 449: 413–414 (25 July 2013).
D.Y. Tang et al, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Physical Review Letters 101: 153904 (10 October 2008).
Aleksandr S. Davydov, Solitons in molecular systems. Mathematics and its applications, Kluwer Academic Publishers (1991).
Thomas Heimburg & Andrew D. Jackson, “On soliton propagation in biomembranes and nerves,” PNAS (1 July 2005).
Ludmila V. Yakushevich, Nonlinear Physics of DNA, Wiley (2004).
Zachariah Sinkala, “Soliton/exciton transport in proteins,” Journal of Theoretical Biology 241(4): 919-927 (August 2006).
Lei Feng et al, “Coherent inflationary dynamics for Bose–Einstein condensates crossing a quantum critical point,” Nature Physics (2017).
Louise Lerner, “Physicists observe particles acting coherently as they undergo phase transitions,” Phys.org (15 January 2018).
The Stability of Existence
Anil Ananthaswamy, “The universe is on the brink of catastrophe,” New Scientist (29 October 2016).
Thomas Nagel, Mind & Cosmos, Oxford University Press (2012).
David Z. Albert & Rivka Galchen, “A quantum threat to special relativity,” Scientific American 300(3): 32–39 (March 2009).
“Quanundrum,” Nature 510: 312 (19 June 2014).
Guillaume Aubrun et al, “Entanglement thresholds for random induced states,” Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics (23 May 2013).
“Einstein’s ‘spooky action’ common in large quantum systems,” ScienceDaily (28 May 2013).
“‘Spooky action at distance’: physicists develop first conclusive test to better understand high-energy particles correlations,” ScienceDaily (16 January 2012).
Beatrix C. Hiesmayr et al, “Revealing Bell’s nonlocality for unstable systems in high energy physics,” The European Physical Journal C 72(1) (2012).
Andrew Grant, “New experiment verifies quantum spookiness,” Science News 188(6): 12 (19 September 2015).
A Perfect Balance
Geraint Lewis, “We are lucky to live in a universe made for us,” The Conversation (15 September 2015).
Natalie Wolchover, “The Hoyle state: a primordial nucleus behind the elements of life,” Scientific American (6 December 2012).
Tracey Peake, “Researchers reveal structure of carbon’s ‘Hoyle State’,” NC State News (10 December 2012).
“Reflections on the fine-structure constant,” The Economist (13 July 2017).
Kate McAlpine, “Fundamental constant may depend on where in the universe you are,” Science Now (4 November 2011).
Transitional Inscrutables
Manganese oxide dendrites on a limestone bedding plane photo courtesy of Mark A. Wilson.
Martin Glicksman & Kumar Ankit, “Detection of capillary-mediated energy fields on a grain boundary groove: solid–liquid interface perturbations,” Metals (6 December 2017).
“Scientists discover new field affecting metals solidification,” Phys.org (1 February 2018).
Jonathan G. Richens et al, “Entanglement is necessary for emergent classicality in all physical theories,” Physical Review Letters (24 August 2017).
“Entanglement is an inevitable feature of reality,” Phys.org (1 September 2017).
George Musser, “Could time end?,” Scientific American 303(3): 84–91 (September 2010).
Krzysztof Lorek et al, “Ideal clocks – a convenient fiction,” Classical and Quantum Gravity (4 August 2015).
Tom Siegfried, “It’s likely that times are changing,” Science News 174(6): 26–28 (13 September 2008).
Andreas Albrecht & Alberto Iglesias, “The clock ambiguity: implications and new developments,” arXiv:0805.4452v2 [hep-th] (26 January 2009).
Kensy Cooperrider & Rafeal Nunez, “How we make sense of time,” Scientific American Mind (November/December 2016).
Laura Spinney, “The time illusion: How your brain creates now,” New Scientist (7 January 2015).
A. Kösem et al, “Encoding of event timing in the phase of neural oscillations,” Neuroimage 92:274–284 (15 May 2014).
Scott L. Fairhall et al, “Temporal integration windows for naturalistic visual sequences,” PLoS One (10 July 2014).
Marc Wittman, “Moments in time,” Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience (18 October 2011).
Sebastian Sauer et al, “How long is now for mindfulness meditators?,” Personality and Individual Differences 52(6):750–754 (April 2012).
Philip G. Zimbardo & John N. Boyd, “Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77(6): 1271–1288 (December 1999).
“Why is everyone so busy?,” The Economist (20 December 2014).
Alexander Gonzalez & Philip G. Zimbardo, “Time in perspective,” in The Nonverbal Communication Reader, edited by Laura K. Guerrero & Michael L. Hech, Waveland Press (2008).
James M. Broadway & Brittiney Sandoval, “Why does time seem to speed up with age?,” Scientific American Mind 27(4): 73 (July/August 2016).
Edward T. Hall, The Dance of Life, Anchor Press (1983).
Edward T. Hall & Mildred Reed Hall, “Monochronic and polychronic time,” in The Nonverbal Communication Reader, edited by Laura K. Guerrero & Michael L. Hech, Waveland Press (2008).

Life’s Story
Sam Kean, The Disappearing Spoon, Little, Brown and Company (2010).
Mario Livio, Brilliant Blunders, Simon & Schuster (2014).
Kenneth Douglas, DNA Nanoscience: From Prebiotic Origins to Emerging Nanotechnology, CRC Press (2017).
A.V. Shatilovich et al, “Viable nematodes from Late Pleistocene permafrost of the Kolyma River lowland,” Doklady Biological Sciences 480(10): 100-102 (May 2018).
Naia Carlos, “Prehistoric worms come back to life after 42,000 years of being frozen,” Nature World News (27 July 2018).
Nurit Bird-David, “Animism revisited: personhood, environment, and relational epistemology,” Current Anthropology 40: 67–91 (1991).
Elizabeth A. Williams, “A cultural history of medical vitalism,” in Enlightenment Montpellier, Routledge (2003).
William Bechtel & Robert C. Richardson, “Vitalism,” in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge (1998).
Peter Lipson, “The death and rebirth of vitalism,” Science-Based Medicine (24 June 2009).
Tardigrade electron microscope photograph courtesy of William R. Miller.
Mireia Querol Rovira, “Tardigrades: animals with superpowers,” All You Need Is Biology (10 April 2015).
Stephy Yin, “Searching tardigrades for lifesaving secrets,” The New York Times (15 February 2019).
Thomas C. Boothby et al, “Tardigrades use intrinsically disordered proteins to survive desiccation,” Molecular Cell 65: 975-984 (16 March 2017).
Nicholas St. Fleur, “How a water bear survives, even when it’s dry,” The New York Times (16 March 2017).
“Tardigrades use unique protein to protect themselves from desiccation,” Phys.org (16 March 2017).
William R. Miller, “Tardigrades,” American Scientist (September-October 2011).
“Tough tardigrades,” American Museum of Natural History (1 April 2015).
Jasmin Fox-Skelly, “Tardigrades return from the dead,” BBC (13 March 2015).
Bruce Alberts & Alexander Johnson, Molecular Biology of the Cell Garland Science (2014).
John Wilson & Tim Hunt, Molecular Biology of the Cell – The Problems Book Garland (2002).
Richard A. Watson & Eörs Szathmáry, “How can evolution learn?,” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 31(2): 147-157 (February 2016).
“Is evolution more intelligent than we thought?,” Phys.org (18 December 2015).
“A simple cell holds 42 million protein molecules, scientists reveal,” Phys.org (17 January 2018).
“Optimization for self-production may explain mysterious features of the ribosome,” ScienceDaily (22 July 2017).
Shlomi Reuveni et al, “Ribosomes are optimized for autocatalytic production,” Nature (19 July 2017).
Mitch Leslie, “A division of labor in cells’ protein factories,” Science 356(6344): 1218-1219 (23 June 2017).
“Breakthrough in understanding mitochondria,” ScienceDaily (30 August 2017).
Vicki AM Gold et al, “Visualization of cytosolic ribosomes on the surface of mitochondria by electron cryotomography,” EMBO reports 18(9): 1473-1671 (1 September 2017).
Héctor García-Seisdedos et al, “Proteins evolve on the edge of supramolecular self-assembly,” Nature 2 August 2017).
“How proteins find the right DNA sequences,” ScienceDaily (16 May 2009).
“Scientists identify critical ‘quality control’ for cell growth,” ScienceDaily (5 July 2012).
“Combining on and off switches, one protein can control flowering in plants,” Phys.org (6 August 2018).
Zhenlin Yang et al, “EBS is a bivalent histone reader that regulates floral phase transition in Arabidopsis,” Nature Genetics (6 August 2018).
Ron Milo, “What is the total number of protein molecules per cell volume? A call to rethink some published values,” Bioessays 35(12): 1050–1055 (December 2013).
Justin W. Chartron et al, “Cotranslational signal-independent SRP preloading during membrane targeting,” Nature 536: 224-228 (11 August 2016).
Richard A. Goldstein & David D. Pollock, “Sequence entropy of folding and the absolute rate of amino acid substitutions,” Nature Ecology & Evolution (23 October 2017).
“Scientists develop new theory of molecular evolution,” Phys.org (23 October 2017).
Prison-Keeping Proteins
Julia Pfanzelte et al, “Septins suppress the release of vaccinia virus from infected cells,” Journal of Cell Biology (19 June 2018).
“Cells can trap viruses in protein cage to stop their spread, study reveals,” Rockefeller University Press (19 June 2018).
Hormone Evolution
Michael J. Harms et al, “Biophysical mechanisms for large-effect mutations in the evolution of steroid hormone receptors,” PNAS (24 June 2013).
“Two mutations triggered an evolutionary leap 500 million years ago,” ScienceDaily (24 June 2013).
Competitive Chromosomes
Takashi Akera et al, “Spindle asymmetry drives non-Mendelian chromosome segregation,” Science 358(6363): 668-672 (3 November 2017).
Francis J. McNally, “Competing chromosomes explain junk DNA,” Science 358(6363): 594-595 (3 November 2017).
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Cell Fates
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Chameleon Colors
Chameleon image courtesy of Shantanu Kuveskar.
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Blind Cave Fish
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Frog Tongues
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Pointy Eggs
Murre egg photo courtesy of Didier Descouens.
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Lizard Tails
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Anglerfish image courtesy of August Brauer.
Staying Fit
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Convergent Evolution
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Parachute Plant
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Hired Help
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Plant Deception
Anjel M. Helms et al, “Identification of an insect-produced olfactory cue that primes plant defenses,” Nature Communications (24 August 2017).
“Plant ‘smells’ insect foe, initiates defense,” ScienceDaily (24 August 2017).
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Brains & Neurons
Timothy O’Leary et al, “Cell types, network homeostasis, and pathological compensation from a biologically plausible ion channel expression model,” Neuron 82(4): 809–821 (21 May 2014).
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R. Douglas Fields, “The hidden brain,” Scientific American Mind 22(2): 52-59 (May/June 2011).
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“Brain’s connective cells are much more than glue: Glia cells also regulate learning and memory,” ScienceDaily (29 December 2011).
Melinda Wenner Moyer, “Without glia, the brain would starve,” Scientific American Mind 23(2): 17 (May/June 2013).
“Glia, not neurons, are most affected by brain aging,” ScienceDaily (10 January 2017).
Martin D. Haustein et al, “Conditions and constraints for astrocyte calcium signaling in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway,” Neuron 82(2): 413–429 (16 April 2014).
“Eavesdropping on brain cell chatter,” ScienceDaily (16 April 2014).
Michael Brooks, “Is quantum physics behind your brain’s ability to think?,” New Scientist (2 December 2015).
Ewen Callaway, “Flashes of light show how memories are made,” Nature (2 June 2014).
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Sarah Schwartz, “Scientists still haven’t solved mystery of memory,” Science News (9 March 2016).
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I. Espinosa-Medina et al, ” Parasympathetic ganglia derive from Schwann cell precursors,” Science 345(3192): 82–87 (4 July 2014).
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The earthworm Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively studied as a model organism.
Melinda Wenner Moyer, “Glia spark seizures,” Scientific American Mind (May/June 2013).
Down’s Syndrome
Chen Chen et al, “Role of astroglia in Down’s syndrome revealed by patient-derived human-induced pluripotent stem cells,” Nature Communications (18 July 2014).
“‘Support’ cells in brain play important role in Down syndrome,” ScienceDaily (18 July 2014).
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Dominik Sakry et al, “Oligodendrocyte precursor cells modulate the neuronal network by activity-dependent ectodomain cleavage of glial NG2” PLoS Biology (11 November 2014).
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Sahara Desert Ants
Sahara desert ant photo courtesy of Markus Knaden.
Roman Huber & Markus Knaden, “Homing ants get confused when nest cues are also route cues,” Current Biology (22 November 2017).
“Desert ants cannot be fooled,” ScienceDaily (22 November 2017).
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Seashore Crabs
Chasmagnathus granulatus photo courtesy of Nortondefeis.
Erica Westly, “Clever crustaceans,” Scientific American Mind 22(5): 14 (November-December 2011).
Julieta Sztarker & Daniel Tomsic, “Brain modularity in arthropods: Individual neurons that support “what” but not “where” memories,” The Journal of Neuroscience 31(22): 8175-8180 (1 June 2011).
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Richard J. Bomphrey et al, “Smart wing rotation and trailing-edge vortices enable high frequency mosquito flight,” Nature 544: 92–95 (6 April 2017).
Helen Thompson, “Mosquito flight is unlike that of any other insect,” Science News (29 March 2017).
Laura Sanders, “Love song of the dengue vector mosquito,” Science News (31 January 2009).
Shrewd Shrews
Common European shrew drawing courtesy of Popular Science Monthly magazine.
“Common shrew (Sorex araneus),” Wildscreen Arkive (2013).
Scott LaPoint et al, “Growth overshoot and seasonal size changes in the skulls of two weasel species,” Royal Society Open Science (25 January 2017).
Douglas Quenqua, “As winter sets in, tiny shrews shrink their skulls and brains,” The New York Times (23 October 2017).
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Lara Keicher et al, “Stable carbon isotopes in breath reveal fast metabolic incorporation rates and seasonally variable but rapid fat turnover in the common shrew (Sorex araneus),” Journal of Experimental Biology (2017).
Sofia Pedro, “Dehnel’s phenomenon,” The Skull Box (25 February 2017).
Brain Wave Harmony
Lizzie Buchen, “Synchronized brain waves focus our attention,” Wired (28 May 2009).
Victoria Leong et al, “Speaker gaze increases information coupling between infant and adult brains,” PNAS (28 November 2017).
“Eye contact with your baby helps synchronise your brainwaves,” MedicalXpress (29 November 2017).
Wujie Zhang et al, “Correlated neural activity across the brains of socially interacting bats,” Cell (20 June 2019).
“Bats’ brains sync when they socialize,” Phys.org (20 June 2019).
Heartbeat Synchrony
Ruth Feldman et al, “Mother and infant coordinate heart rhythms through episodes of interaction synchrony,” Infant Behavior and Development 34(4): 569-577 (December 2011).
Meghan Rosen, “Human hearts beat together,” Science (5 December 20111).
Jonathan L. Helm et al, “Assessing cross-partner associations in physiological responses via coupled oscillator models,” Emotion 12(4): 748–762 (August 2012).
“Lovers’ hearts beat in sync,” ScienceDaily (13 February 2013).
Emilio Ferrer & Jonathan L. Helm, “Dynamical systems modeling of physiological coregulation in dyadic interactions,” International Journal of Psychophysiology 88(3): 296–308 (June 2013).
Chad Danyluck & Elizabeth Page-Gould, “Social and physiological context can affect the meaning of physiological synchrony,” Scientific Reports (3 June 2019).
“Study examines type of social interaction required for people to display physiological synchrony,” News Medical (20 June 2019).
Precocious Knowledge
Elisabetta Versace & Giorgio Vallorigara, “Origins of knowledge: insights from precocial species,” Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 9(338) (December 2015).
Alison Gopnik & Elizabeth Seiver, “Reading minds: how infants come to understand others,” Berkeley University (September 2009).
The Unreasonable Power of the Mind
Mark Schaller et al, “Mere visual perception of other people’s’ disease symptoms facilitates a more aggressive immune response. Psychological Science 21: 649-652 (2010).
Emily Anthes, “Natural immunity,” Scientific American Mind 21(4): 8 (September/October 2010).
Nalini Ambady & John J. Skowronski, First Impressions, Guilford Press (2008).
Malcolm Gladwell, Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking, Back Bay Books (2007).
Gerd Gigerenzer, Gut Feelings: The Intelligence of the Unconscious, Penguin Books (2008).
Rosie Ifould, “Acting on impulse: the science behind first impressions,” The Guardian (6 March 2009).
Uwe Hossfeld & Georgy S. Levit, “Phylogeny: ‘Tree of life’ took root 150 years ago,” Nature (30 November 2016).
Simon Makin, “Decode social signals,” New Scientist (1 October 2016).
Lea Winerman, “‘Thin slices’ of life,” Monitor on Psychology 36(3): 54 (March 2005).
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Joshua B. Tenenbaum et al, “How to grow a mind: statistics, structure, and abstraction,” Science 331: 1279–1285 (11 March 2011).
Graham P. Collins, “Impossible inferences,” Scientific American (March 2009).
Lea Winerman, “Thin slice of life,” American Psychological Association 36(3): 54 (March 2005).
Nalini Ambady & Robert Rosenthal, “Half a minute: predicting teacher evaluations from thin slices of nonverbal behavior and physical attractiveness,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64(3): 431-441 (1993).
Nicholas Rule & Nalini Ambady, “First impressions of the face: predicting success,” Social and Personality Psychology Compass 4(8): 506-5016 (2010).
Emperor Penguins
Laura Poppick, “Huddle up: the surprising physics of penguin movements,” Live Science (16 December 2013).
Aaron Waters et al, “Modeling huddling penguins,” PloS One (16 November 2012).
Daniel P. Zitterbart et al, “Coordinated movements prevent jamming in an emperor penguin huddle,” PloS One (1 June 2011).
Natalie Wolchover, “Secret revealed: the physics of how penguins stay warm,” Live Science (2 June 2011).
“Penguins do the wave to keep warm,” National Geographic (17 June 2011).
Sindya N. Bhanoo, “Waves of warmth in a penguin huddle,” The New York Times (3 June 2011).
Dorothy Cowie et al, “Children’s responses to the rubber-hand illusion reveal dissociable pathways in body representation,” Psychological Science (28 March 2013).
Ana Fló et al, “Newborns are sensitive to multiple cues for word segmentation in continuous speech,” Developmental Science (25 January 2019).
“Newborn babies have inbuilt ability to pick out words,” ScienceDaily (29 January 2019).
“Body representation differs in children and adults,” ScienceDaily (4 April 2013).
Immunity Images
Mark Schaller et al, “Mere visual perception of other people’s’ disease symptoms facilitates a more aggressive immune response. Psychological Science 21: 649-652 (2010).
Emily Anthes, “Natural immunity,” Scientific American Mind 21(4): 8 (September/October 2010).
Isla Rippon & Andrew Steptoe, “Feeling old vs being old: associations between self-perceived age and mortality,” JAMA Internal Medicine 175(2): 307-308 (February 2015).

A Mental World
Clare Wilson, “The illnesses caused by a disconnect between brain and mind,” New Scientist (3 April 2019).
Michael Balter, “Schizophrenia’s unyielding mysteries,” Scientific American 316(5): 55-61 (May 2017).
Victoria Costello, “A mind in danger,” Scientific American Mind 23(1): 31-37 (March/April 2012).
Elizabeth Cantor-Graae, “The contribution of social factors to the development of schizophrenia: A review of recent findings,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 52(5): 277-286 (May 2007).
Elizabeth Cantor-Graae, “The contribution of social factors to the development of schizophrenia: a review of recent findings,” The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 52(5): 277-286 (May 2007).
Joachim Klosterkotter, “Predicting the onset of schizophrenia,” in Risk and Protective Factors in Schizophrenia, edited by Heinz Hafner, Springer Verlag (2002).
Saurabh Srinivasan et al, “Genetic markeers of human evolution are enriched in schizophrenia,” Biological Psychiatry 80(4): 284-292 (16 August 2016).
“Schizophrenia emerged after humans diverged from Neanderthals,” ScienceDaily (15 August 2016).
Michael Balter, “Talking back to madness,” Science 343(6176): 1190-1193 (14 March 2014).
Benedict Carey, “Finding purpose after living with delusion,” The New York Times (25 November 2011).
Thomas R. Insel, “Rethinking schizophrenia,” Nature 468: 187-193 (11 November 2010).
Jim van Os et al, “The environment and schizophrenia,” Nature 468: 203-212 (11 November 2010).
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J.D. Hegarty et al, “One hundred years of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of the outcome literature,” American Journal of Psychiatry 151(10): 1409-1416 (October 1994).
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“Noisy brain signals: how schizophrenic brain misinterprets the world,” ScienceDaily (2 April 2014).
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Richard M. Ryan & Edward L. Deci, “On happiness and human potential: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being,” Annual Review of Psychology 52:141-166 (2001).
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Lars Skyttner, General Systems Theory, World Scientific Publishing (2005).
Steven Vogel, Life’s Devices, Princeton University Press (1988).
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S. Stroope et al, “Social context and college completion in the United States: the role of congregational biblical literalism,” Sociological Perspectives (2 January 2015).
“Relationship between religion and educational attainment,” ScienceDaily (23 January 2015).
Laws of Nature
Eugene Wigner, “The unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences,” Communications in Pure and Applied Mathematics 13(1) (February 1960).
John T. Roberts, The Law-Governed Universe, Oxford University Press (2009).
Richard E. Nisbett et al, “Culture and systems of thought: holistic versus analytic cognition,” Psychological Review 108(2): 291-310 (2001).
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Ariel Bleicher, “One of Srinivasa Ramanujan’s neglected manuscripts has helped solve long-standing mathematical mysteries,” Scientific American (1 May 2014).
J.J. O’Connor & E.F. Robertson, “Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan,” MacTutor History of Mathematics (June 1998).
The Limits of Knowledge
David H. Wolpert, “Physical limits of inference,” arXiv:0708.1362v2 (29 March 2008).
Graham P. Collins, “Impossible inferences,” Scientific American (March 2009).
Toby S. Cubitt et al, “The un(solv)able problem,” Scientific American 319(4): 30-37 (October 2018).
Marcelo Gleiser, “How much can we know?,” Scientific American (June 2018).
Stephan Lewandowsky et al, “Misinformation and its correction: continued influence and successful debiasing,” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 13(3): 106-131 (September 2012).
Briony Swire et al, “The role of familiarity in correcting inaccurate information,” Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition (June 2017).
Jonah Berger, “Arousal increases social transmission of information,” Psychological Science, 22(7): 891–893 (2011).
Clay Ramsay et al, “Misinformation and the 2010 election,” World Public Opinion.org (10 December 2010).

Beyond Phenomena
Raman Maharshi et al, Everything is an Illusion, The Freedom Religious Press (2011).
Hilary Putnam, The Faces of Realism, Open Court (1987).
George Makari, Soul Machine: The Invention of the Modern Mind, W.W. Norton & Company (2015).
Christof Koch, “Constructing the modern mind,” Scientific American Mind 27(3): 22-23 (May/June 2016).
Bruce Hood, “Re-creating the real world,” Scientific American Mind 23(4): 42-45 (September/October 2012).
Jan Westerhoff, “Reality: is matter real?,” New Scientist (2 October 2012).
Vlatko Vedral, “Living in a quantum world,” Scientific American 304(6): 38–44 (June 2011).
Jason S. Moser et al, “Mind your errors: evidence for a neural mechanism linking growth mind-set to adaptive posterror adjustments,” Psychological Science 22(12):1484–1489 (December 2011).
Melinda Wenner Moyer, “The oops! response,” Scientific American Mind 23(1): 9 (March/April 2012).
Caring & Control
Richard Schulz, “Effects of control and predictability on the physical and psychological well-being of the institutionalized aged,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 33(5): 563-573 (1976).
R. Schulz & B.H. Hanusa, “Long-term effects of control and predictability-enhancing interventions: findings and ethical issues,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 36(11): 1194-1201 (November 1978).
Meditation Sutras
Robert Lee Hotz, “Behold the appearance of the invisibility cloak,” The Wall Street Journal (12 March 2009).
Tammy Reynolds & Mark Dombeck, “Special autistic abilities,” MentalHelp.net (14 February 2006).
Louis Bergeron, “Autistic kids who best peers at math show different brain organization, study shows” Stanford Medicine (16 August 2013).
Maia Szalavitz, “What genius and autism have in common,” Time Magazine (10 July 2012).
“The extraordinary abilities of an autistic savant,” ABC News (11 June 2005).
Bahar Gholipour, “Asperger’s and autism: brain differences found,” Live Science (2 August 2013).
“MRI reveals striking brain differences in people with genetic autism,” ScienceDaily (8 August 2017).
Julia P. Owen et al, “Brain MR imaging findings and associated outcomes in carriers of the reciprocal copy number variation at 16p11.2,” Radiology (8 August 2017).
“Autistic and non-autistic brain differences isolated for first time,” Warwick (20 March 2015).
Maia Szalavitz, “Autism—it’s different in girls,” Scientific American Mind (1 March 2016).
Rain Man
Berit Brogaard, “Kim Peek, the real Rain Man,” Psychology Today (11 December 2012).
Placebo Effect
“Know it’s a placebo? Study shows the ‘medicine’ could still work,” ScienceDaily (24 July 2015).
Scott M. Schafer et al, “Conditioned placebo analgesia persists when subjects know they are receiving a placebo,” Journal of Pain 16(5): 412–420 (May 2015).
Alzheimer’s Disease
“Despite Alzheimer’s plaques, some senior remain mentally fit,” Science News (10 December 2016).
Agata Blaszczak-Boxe, “People with Alzheimer’s disease can still have sharp memories,” LiveScience (23 November 2016).
John Hewitt, “The vibrational theory of olfaction for the win,” Medixal Xpress (31 October 2017).
Klio Maniati et al, “Vibrational detection of odorant functional groups by Drosophila melanogaster,” eNeuro (26 October 2017).
“Nose smells by radiation,” Science News Letter 339 (29 November 1947).
Luca Turin, “A spectroscopic mechanism for primary olfactory reception,” Chemical Senses (Oxford Journals) 21 (6): 773–791 (1996).
Y. Oka et al, “Olfactory receptor antagonism between odorants,” The Embo Journal 23–1: 120–126 (2004).
Simon Gane et al, “Molecular vibration-sensing component in human olfaction,” PLoS One (25 January 2013).
Eric Block et al, “Implausibility of the vibrational theory of olfaction,” PNAS (21 April 2015).
John Hewitt, “Plausibility of the vibrational theory of smell,” Phys.org (20 April 2015).
Rita Carter et al, The Human Brain Book, DK Books (2009).
Innes C. Cuthill et al, “The biology of color,” Science 357(6350) (4 August 2017).
Thomas L. Adelman et al, “The information content of receptive fields,” Neuron 40(4): 823-833 (13 November 2003).
Chaipat Chunharas & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, “Out of the shadows,” Scientific American Mind 27(4): 56-61 (July/August 2015).
Davide Castelvecchi, “Quantum technology probes ultimate limits of vision,” Nature (15 June 2015).
Victor Leong et al, “Time-resolved scattering of a single photon by a single atom,” Nature Communications (29 November 2016).
“Shape matters when light meets atom,” ScienceDaily (2 December 2016).
Deborah Netburn, “The human eye can detect a single photon, study finds,” Los Angeles Times (19 July 2016).
Roger N. Clark, “Notes on the resolution and other details of the human eye,” ClarkVision.com (31 January 2016).
Percy W. Cobb, “The retinal processes concerned with visual acuity and color vision,” American Journal of Ophthalmology 15(6): 565 (June 1932).
Michael C. Hout & Stephen D. Goldinger, “To see or not to see,” Scientific American Mind 24(3): 61-67 (July/August 2013).
Stephen L. Macknik & Susana Martinez-Conde, “Filling in the _,” Scientific American Mind 25(1): 21 (January/February 2014).
Ariel Bleicher, “Edges of perception,” Scientific American Mind 23(1): 46-53 (March/April 2012).
Simon Thorpe et al, “Speed of processing in the human visual system,” Nature 381: 520–522 (6 June 1996).
Michel Millodot, “Do blue-eyed people have more sensitive corneas than brown-eyed people?,” Nature 255: 151–152 (8 May 1975).
Davide Castelvecchi, “Quantum technology probes ultimate limits of vision,” Nature (15 June 2015).
Tina Hesman Saey, “Color vision strategy defies textbooks,” Science News (15 October 2016).
Ruanak Sinha et al, “Cellular and circuit mechanisms shaping the perceptual properties of the primate fovea,” Cell (168(3): 413-426 (26 January 2017).
“A close look at sharp vision in eye structure seen only in humans and other primates,” ScienceDaily (22 February 2017).
Jean-Rémi King et al, “Brain mechanisms underlying the brief maintenance of seen and unseen sensory information,” Neuron 92(5): 1122–1134 (7 December 2016).
Marte Otten et al, “The uniformity illusion,” Psychological Science (14 November 2016).
“Illusion reveals that the brain fills in peripheral vision,” ScienceDaily (8 December 2016).
“Scientists shed new light on how the brain processes, maintains what we don’t see,” ScienceDaily (7 December 2016).
Denise Chow, “How your brain tracks moving object,” Live Science (8 May 2013).
Gerrit W. Maus et al, “Motion-dependent representation of space in area MT+,” Neuron 78(3): 554–562 (8 May 2013).
Gerrti W. Maus et al, “Target displacements during eye blinks trigger automatic recalibration of gaze direction,” Current Biology (19 January 2017).
“Why the lights don’t dim when we blink,” ScienceDaily (19 January 2017).
Lisa Olson, “How often and why do people’s eyes blink?,” The Boston Globe (14 May 2007).
Mary C. Potter et al, “Detecting meaning in RSVP at 13 ms per picture,” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 76(2): 270–279 (February 2014).
Cellular Effects of Meditation
Michaela Jarvis, “Meditation and yoga associated with changes in brain,” Science 358(6362): 461 (27 October 2017).
Ivana Buric et al, “What is the molecular signature of mind–body interventions? A systematic review of gene expression changes induced by meditation and related practices,” Frontiers in Immunology (16 June 2017).
“Meditation and yoga can ‘reverse’ DNA reactions which cause stress, new study suggests,” ScienceDaily (15 June 2017).
Linda E. Carlson et al, “Mindfulness-based cancer recovery and supportive-expressive therapy maintain telomere length relative to controls in distressed breast cancer survivors,” Cancer (3 November 2014).
“Gene expression changes with meditation,” ScienceDaily (8 December 2013).
Jill Sakai, “Study reveals gene expression changes with meditation,” University of Wisconsin-Madison Press Release (4 December 2013).
Perla Kaliman et al, “Rapid changes in histone deacetylases and inflammatory gene expression in expert meditators,” Psychoneuro-endocrinology 40: 96–107 (February 2014).
Anthony W. Blanchfield et al, “Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance,” Frontiers of Human Neuroscience (December 2014).
“Optimistic people have healthier hearts, study finds,” ScienceDaily (9 January 2015).
Rosalba Hernandez et al, “Optimism and cardiovascular health: multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis,” Health Behavior and Policy Review, 2(1): 62–73 (January 2015).
“Sleepwalkers feel no pain, remain asleep despite suffering injuries,” ScienceDaily (2 November 2015).
Régis Lopez et al, “Pain in sleepwalking: a clinical enigma,” Sleep 38(11): 1693–1698 (2015).
Lynn Margulis & Dorion Sagan, What Is Life?, Simon & Schuster (1995).
Stephen Priest, Theories of the Mind, Penguin Books (1991).
Antti Revonsuo & Matti Kamppinen (editors), Consciousness in Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience, Psychology Press (1994).
Christof Koch, “Is consciousness universal?,” Scientific American Mind (1 January 2014).
Adam Conn et al, “A statistical description of plant shoot architecture,” Current Biology (6 July 2017).
“How plants grow like human brains,” ScienceDaily (6 July 2017).
Cells & Neutron Stars
“Scientists confirm a structural similarity found in both human cells and neutron stars,” Phys.org (1 November 2016).
D.K. Berry et al, “‘Parking-garage’ structures in nuclear astrophysics and cellular biophysics,” Physical Review C (1 November 2016).
Mark Terasaki et al, “Stacked endoplasmic reticulum sheets are connected by helicoidal membrane motifs,” Cell 154(2): p285–296 (18 July 2013).
Hannah Devlin, “New frontier for science as astronomers witness neutron stars colliding,” The Guardian (16 October 2017).
Amazon Mollies
David Bierbach et al, “Behavioural individuality in clonal fish arises despite near-identical rearing conditions,” Nature Communications (17 May 2017).
“Same genes, same environment, different personality: Is individuality unavoidable?,” ScienceDaily (17 May 2017).
Immanuael Kant, Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (1764).
Aenne A. Brielmann & Denis G. Pelli, “Beauty requires thought,” Current Biology (11 May 2017).
“Beauty requires thought — study supports philosophical claim,” Medical Xpress (11 May 2017).
Ricahrd O. Prum, The Evolution of Beauty, Doubleday (2016).
Adrian Barnett, “We may have the evolution of beauty completely wrong,” New Scientist (3 May 2017).